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the value of a statistical life?

Per-Olov Johansson∗

Stockholm School of Economics, Box 6501, SE-113 83 Stockholm, Sweden

Received 6 January 2000; received in revised form 5 June 2000; accepted 6 September 2000

Abstract

A definition of the value of a statistical life is derived. This definition has a meaningful in-

terpretation in terms of the monetary value of expected present value utility if consumption is

age-independent. In all other cases, empirical estimates of the value of a statistical life are biased

estimators of the monetary counterpart to expected present value utility. © 2001 Elsevier Science

B.V. All rights reserved.

JEL classification: I10

1. Introduction

A central concept in health economics is the value of a statistical life. A common inter-

pretation is as follows. Let us assume that the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for a programme

saving two out of 10,000 lives is equal to $a. Then the value of a statistical life is equal to

$a × 10,000/2. This interpretation holds in a static or one-period setting. That is, it holds

in a world, where people are either alive or dead during the entire time interval considered.

In a truly intertemporal world, it is less obvious, how to define the value of a statistical life.

However, if the reduction in the hazard rate lasts for 1 year, it might seem as if the above defi-

nition still goes through. If the WTP for a 1-year-drop in the hazard rate equal to 2/10,000

is $a, it might seem reasonable to estimate the value of a statistical life to $a × 10,000/2. If

the duration of the drop in the hazard rate exceeds or falls short of 1 year, it seems as if one

instead must base the definition on the change in life expectancy. To illustrate, let us assume

that a programme extends the expected remaining length of life from 50 to 52 years. If the

∗ Tel.: +46-8-736-92-82; fax: +46-8-30-21-15.

0167-6296/01/$ – see front matter © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 1 6 7 - 6 2 9 6 ( 0 0 ) 0 0 0 7 3 - 4

132 P.-O. Johansson / Journal of Health Economics 20 (2001) 131–139

associated WTP is $b, then a possible definition of the value of a statistical life seems to be

$b × 50/2.

This note derives a definition of the value of a statistical life for an intertemporal world. It

is demonstrated that the above intuitive definitions are wrong. The correct definition must be

based on the discounted values of remaining life expectancy and change in life expectancy,

respectively. If consumption is constant over time, such a defined value of a statistical life

is equal to the monetary counterpart to expected remaining present value utility. However,

if consumption follows a non-constant path over the life cycle, the value of a statistical life

overestimates or underestimates the monetary counterpart to expected remaining present

value utility. Thus, unless consumption is age-independent, there seems to be no way to

obtain an exact estimate of the monetary value of expected remaining present value utility.

2. The model

Let us consider an τ -year-old individual who consumes a single good. 1 His instantaneous

utility function at age t is denoted u[c(t)], where c(t) is consumption at age t, with t ≥ τ . The

individual’s survivor function, which yields the probability of becoming at least t-year-old,

is denoted µ(t). 2 Conditional on having survived until age τ , the considered individual’s

expected remaining present value utility is defined as follows.

Z ∞

E(uτ ) = u[c(t)]e−θ(t−τ ) µ(t; τ )dt (1)

τ

Z ∞

u[c(t)]e−θ(t−τ ) µ(t)dt

τ

on having survived until age τ , and θ the marginal rate of time preference for simplicity

assumed to be age-independent. The right-hand side expression in Eq. (1) yields the present

value at age τ of instantaneous utility at age t multiplied by the probability of surviving for

at least t periods/years, beyond age τ summed (integrated) over the entire time horizon.

The individual maximises his expected remaining present value utility, conditional on

having survived until age τ , subject to the dynamic budget constraint:

where t ≥ τ , k(t) denotes assets at age t, r the interest rate for simplicity assumed to be

constant across time, w(t) a fixed income/pension at age t, CV(t) denotes a payment for a

change in the survival probability, as is further explained below, CV(t) is set equal to 0 for

all t here, and kτ a constant representing initial assets.

1 The model is adapted from Johannesson et al. (1997) and most technical considerations, such as properties of

Rt

2 The survivor function of the individual is defined as µ(t) = e− 0 δ(s)ds, where δ(s) is the hazard function,

which yields the probability of dying in a short interval, ds, of time after age s, conditional on having survived

until age s.

P.-O. Johansson / Journal of Health Economics 20 (2001) 131–139 133

The expected present value Hamiltonian at time t, conditional on having survived to age

τ , for this problem is written as

where λ(t) is a present value costate variable, yielding present values at age τ .

Assume that the individual studied has solved the maximisation problem stated in Eqs. (1)

and (2); see Johannesson et al. (1997) for details. His maximal expected remaining present

value utility at age τ , conditional on having survived to age τ , is defined as follows.

Z ∞

Vτ (τ ) = u[c∗ (t)]e−θ(t−τ ) µ(t; τ ) dt (4)

τ

where Vτ (τ ) denotes the value function, i.e. the solution of the maximisation problem in

Eqs. (1) and (2), conditional on having survived until age τ , and an asterisk denotes a

value along the optimal path. Thus, the value function yields expected remaining present

value utility for a utility-maximising individual aged τ years (and can be interpreted as the

intertemporal counterpart to the atemporal indirect utility function). The reader is referred

to Section 3 for further illustration of the meaning of a value function.

Let us now consider a decrease in the hazard rate. This decrease might last for a short

period of time or for the rest of the individual’s life. It occurs/begins at age τ + T , where

T ≥ 0. The associated change in expected remaining present value utility is equal to

Z ∞

dVτ (τ ) = u[c∗ (t)]e−θ(t−τ ) dµ(t; τ ) (5)

τ +T

where dµ(t; τ ) refers to the time t change in the conditional survivor function caused by the

considered change in the hazard rate. The dynamic envelope theorem ensures that the effect

of induced changes in the optimal consumption path vanishes from the expression. 3 This

explains the fact that Eq. (5), only contains the direct impact of the change in the hazard rate.

The change in the hazard rate has a direct impact on the survivor function, as is reflected

by dµ in Eq. (5).

Let us now consider the WTP for the change in expected remaining present value utility in

Eq. (5). For simplicity, let us assume that the individual makes a once-and-for-all payment

“today”, i.e. at age τ , in exchange for the decrease in the hazard rate occurring at age τ + T

and lasting over a certain time interval. This payment is such that his expected present value

utility remains unchanged, i.e.

Z ∞

u[c∗ (t)]e−θ(t−τ ) dµ(t; τ ) − λ∗ (τ )dCV(τ ) = 0 (6)

τ +T

where dCV(τ ) denotes the individual’s WTP “today”, i.e. at age τ , for the considered change

in the hazard rate. The costate variable λ∗ (τ ) can be interpreted as the expected present value

of the marginal utility of income at age τ (evaluated along the optimal path as the asterisk

indicates). Eq. (6) can be derived by differentiating the Hamiltonian function in Eq. (5) with

respect to a change in the hazard rate, integrating from τ and onwards, and employing the

3 The reader is referred to Johannesson et al. (1997) for details.

134 P.-O. Johansson / Journal of Health Economics 20 (2001) 131–139

dynamic envelope theorem. The reader is referred to Johannesson et al. (1997) for a detailed

derivation.

In order to be able to compare the WTP for different programmes affecting the hazard

rate in different ways, the value of a statistical life is often used. The question arises, how to

define the value of a statistical life in an intertemporal world. A reasonable demand is that

the concept should reflect expected remaining present value utility as defined by the value

function in Eq. (4). Therefore, let us examine whether Eq. (6) can be rewritten in such a

way that we obtain a definition of the value of a statistical life such that it reflects expected

remaining present value utility.

In order to arrive at a definition of the value of a statistical life, let us assume that

c∗ (t) = c∗ for all t in Eq. (6), i.e. consumption is constant over time. 4 Then, we can factor

out the constant u(c∗ ) from the integral in Eq. (6) and the expression can be rewritten in the

following way.

u(c∗ ) dCV(τ )

= R ∞ −θ(t−τ ) (7)

λ∗ (τ ) τ +T e dµ(t; τ )

Note that the denominator in the right-hand side expression in Eq. (7) yields the expected

number of discounted life years gained through the considered programme. Next, let us

multiply through Eq. (7) by the expected number of remaining discounted life years, i.e.

Z ∞

e−θ(t−τ ) µ(t; τ ) dt (8)

τ

Then, Eq. (7) can be written as follows.

Z ∞

1 1 ∗

V τ (τ ) = u(c ) e−θ(t−τ ) µ(t; τ ) dt

λ∗ (τ ) λ∗ (τ ) τ

R ∞ −θ(t−τ )

e µ(t; τ ) dt

= dCV(τ ) R τ∞ −θ(t−τ ) (9)

τ +T e dµ(t; τ )

The left-hand side and middle expressions in Eq. (9) yield the considered individual’s

expected remaining present value utility converted from units of utility to monetary units

by division by λ∗ (τ ), i.e. the “marginal utility of income”. The right-hand side expression

provides a measure of Vτ (τ )/λ∗ (τ ) that can be estimated. This measure is, here, called

the value of a statistical life, because it yields a monetary measure of expected remaining

present value utility.

The right-hand side expression in Eq. (9) yields the WTP per discounted life year gained

times the number of discounted life years the individual is expected to have left. Thus,

the WTP for a reduction in the hazard rate should be multiplied by the integrated product

of the discount function and the survivor function and divided by the integrated product

of the discount function and the change in the survivor function caused by the considered

programme. 5 Then, we arrive at a measure of what can be considered as the (age-specific)

4 It can be shown that c(t) = c∗ iff r(t) = θ(t) + δ(t), where δ(t) is the hazard rate at age t, for all t; see Section

3 for an illustration.

R R R

5 Note that ∞ e−θ (t−τ ) µ(t; τ )dt 6= ∞ e−θ (t−τ ) dt ∞ µ(t; τ )dt in Eq. (9). The same holds true for the denom-

τ τ τ

inator of the equation.

P.-O. Johansson / Journal of Health Economics 20 (2001) 131–139 135

value of a statistical life. Eq. (9) holds independently of whether the drop in the hazard rate

lasts for a “moment” or for the rest of the person’s life.

It is important to note that a correct definition of the value of a statistical life is based

on discounted life years, not on life years. To illustrate, let us return to the example given

in Section 1, where an individual was willing to pay $b in exchange for a programme that

extends his expected remaining length of life from 50 to 52 years. It would be wrong to

calculate the value of a statistical life as $b × 50/2, since each (existing as well as gained)

life year should be discounted. This can be explained as follows. Let us consider two

programmes that both are expected to extend life by 2 years (from 50 to 52 years). The first

programme reduces the hazard rate immediately, while the second programme reduces the

hazard rate 10 years from now. Obviously, the WTP for the first programme is higher than

the WTP for the second programme. Using the formula $b × 50/2, one would, hence, end

up with two different estimates of the value of a statistical life. The discounting procedure

in Eq. (9) aims at correcting for the fact that a decrease in the hazard rate occurring in a

distant future is less valued today than a drop occurring closer to the present.

Let us next assume that optimal consumption follows a non-constant path. In this case,

it is impossible to factor out the instantaneous utility function and proceed in the way used

in arriving at Eq. (9). Instead, we arrive at the following messy expression

R ∞ ∗ −θ(t−τ ) R

Vτ (τ ) τ +T u c (t) e dµ(t; τ ) τ∞ e−θ (t−τ ) µ(t; τ ) dt

6= R∞

λ∗ (τ ) λ∗ (τ ) τ +T e

−θ (t−τ ) dµ(t; τ )

R ∞ −θ(t−τ )

e µ(t; τ ) dt

= dCV(τ ) R τ∞ −θ(t−τ ) (10)

τ +T e dµ(t; τ )

It should be noted that the left-hand side expression, i.e. the monetary value of expected

remaining present value utility, differ from the middle and right-hand side expressions. Thus,

the right-hand side expression, which we can estimate empirically, no longer provides an

exact measure of the monetary value of the individual’s expected remaining present value

utility, i.e. of Vτ (τ )/λ∗ (τ ). The problem is the fact that consumption varies over time, i.e.

we cannot factor out the instantaneous utility function u[c∗ (t)] from the first integral in the

middle expression. 6 Since utility varies over time, the instantaneous utility level obtained

at a particular point in time must be “discounted” by the product of the utility discount

factor and the survivor probability at that time. In other words, the individual’s expected

remaining present value utility is dependent on the consumption pattern over the life cycle.

For example, if consumption is increasing in age, then an extra unit of consumption will

yield lower utility at an advanced age than at young age. The empirical estimate of the value

of a statistical life, i.e. the right-hand side expression in Eq. (10), fails to recognise this fact.

Thus, it seems impossible to provide an exact empirical estimate of Vτ (τ )/λ∗ (τ ), unless

we can reasonably assume that consumption is constant over time, i.e. is independent of

the individual’s age. In other words, empirical estimates of the value of a statistical life

are biased measures of the monetary value of expected remaining present value utility, in

general. However, one would expect that the shorter period of time the drop in the hazard rate

6 As far as I can see, this problem remains also if actualy fair life-assured annuities are available; see, for example,

Eq. (22) in Rosen (1988) and Eq. (16) in Aronsson et al. (1994).

136 P.-O. Johansson / Journal of Health Economics 20 (2001) 131–139

lasts, the more reasonable is the “approximation” provided by the right-hand side expression

in Eq. (10); see Section 3 for an illustration of this claim.

Finally, let us consider the question whether the WTP for quality-adjusted life years

(QALYs) can be used to estimate the value of a statistical life. Bleichrodt and Quiggin

(1999) show that under certain assumptions one can derive a tractable expression for the

WTP for QALYs; under these assumptions cost-effectiveness analysis is consistent with

cost–benefit analysis. In order to illustrate, let us assume that the instantaneous utility

function is equal to u[c(t)]q[h(t)], where q[h(t)] is the quality weight or utility of health

h(t) at time t. Moreover, let us assume that optimal consumption and optimal health are

both constant over time, i.e. c(t) = c and h(t) = h for all t; this assumption is used by

Bleichrodt and Quiggin (1999) to establish the equivalence of cost-effectiveness analysis

and cost–benefit analysis. Finally, let us consider a permanent marginal change in health

(occurring at age τ ). Then the counterpart to Eq. (6) would read

Z ∞

qh (h)dh u(c)e−θ(t−τ ) µ(t; τ )dt − λ(τ )dCV(τ ) = 0 (60 )

τ

where a subscript h refers to a partial derivative with respect to h. Multiplying through out

by q(h)/λ(τ )qh (h)dh yields

R∞

Vτ (τ ) u(c)q(h)α(t; τ )µ(t; τ )dt q(h)

= τ = dCV(τ ) (90 )

λ(τ ) λ(τ ) qh (h)dh

where Vτ (τ ) is the value function conditional on surviving until age τ . The left-hand side

and middle expressions in Eq. (90 ) yield a monetary measure of expected remaining present

value utility of a person aged τ years. The right-hand side expression yields the WTP for a

marginal change in quality of life times actual quality of life. 7 Thus, the assumptions needed

in establishing the equivalence of cost-effectiveness analysis and cost–benefit analysis,

and derived by Bleichrodt and Quiggin (1999), are also needed in providing an exact and

meaningful definition of the value of a statistical life.

3. A numerical illustration

In order to illustrate some of the theoretical results derived in Section 2, a simple numerical

model is presented. The individual is assumed to solve the maximisation problem

Z ∞

Max E(u0 ) = ln[c(t)]e−θt e−δt β(t)dt (11)

c(t) 0

subject to Eq. (2), where δ is the initial and constant hazard rate, β(t) = eκt with κ = 0 for

all t in the base case. For the sake of simplicity, a newly born individual is considered, i.e.

7 If the change in health lasts over the interval (τ , T), the right-hand side expression in Eq. (90 ) would read

R∞ RT

dCV(τ )(q(h) t e−θ (t−τ ) µ(t; τ )dt)/(qh (h)dh τ e−θ (t−τ ) µ(t; τ )dt). Then dCV refers to the WTP for an ex-

pected present value change in quality of life. The integral in the numerator can be interpreted as the expected

present value of the number of QALYs gained over a life cycle. As T goes to infinity, the above expression

approaches the right-hand side expression in Eq. (90 ).

P.-O. Johansson / Journal of Health Economics 20 (2001) 131–139 137

Table 1

Numerical estimations of the value of a statistical life (VOSL)a

r = 0.02, θ = δ = 0.01 r = 0.02, θ = 0.01, δ = 0.005 r = 0.02, θ = 0.01, δ = 0.015

V0 (0)/λ∗ (0) 69.3 (69.3) 73.9 (73.9) 71.6 (71.6)

dV0 (0)/dκ 1732.8 (34.3) 4756.3 (49.1) 826.1 (28.2)

dCV(0))/dκ 3465.6 (68.6) 7134.4 (73.6) 2065.2 (70.5)

λ∗ (0)(dCV(0))/dκ) 1732.9 (34.3) 4756.3 (49.1) 826.1 (28.2)

VOSL 69.3 (69.3) 107.1 (74.1) 51.6 (71.4)

a Values reported within parentheses refer to the case, where ε = 1.

τ = 0 in Eq. (11). Optimal consumption at time t is equal to c∗ (t) = (θ + δ)k0 e(r -θ -δ)t ,

where k0 denotes initial assets and any wage income is ignored; the reader is referred to

Léonard and van Long (1992, pp. 290–292) for a detailed discussion of this model. Thus,

consumption is increasing or decreasing over time if r 6= θ + δ. The value function, see

Eq. (4), is obtained by substitution of c∗ (t) = (θ + δ)k0 e(r−θ−δ)t into the right-hand side

expression in Eq. (11). Solving the resulting expression one obtains V0 (0) = (θ +δ)−1 [((r −

θ − δ)/(θ + δ)) + ln(k0 (θ + δ))], as is shown in detail in Léonard and van Long (1992). 8 In

the simulations, a change in the hazard rate is modelled as follows. 9 We set dβ(t) = teκt dκ

for t ∈ [0, ε], and dβ(t) = εeκε dκ for t ∈ (ε, ∞]. This approach is used because, it allows

us to consider a change in the hazard rate lasting for an arbitrary number of periods. Two

different cases, ε = 1 and 500, will be considered, and it is assumed that κ = 0. Initial

assets, i.e. k0 , are set equal to 100.

The results are reported in Table 1 (and Mathematica 4 was used for the numerical

calculations). The infinitesimally small drop in the hazard rate κ lasts either “forever”

(ε = 500) or for 1 year (ε = 1). The results relating to the 1-year decrease in the hazard

rate are reported within parentheses in the table. Initial expected present value utility is

denoted V0 (0) and its monetary counterpart is denoted V0 (0)/λ∗ (0), where λ∗ (0) is the

costate variable (i.e. the marginal utility of income) at time zero. 10 The change in expected

present value utility caused by an infinitesimally small decrease in the hazard rate is denoted

dV0 (0)/dκ in the table, 11 while the WTP for the considered decrease in the hazard rate is

denoted dCV(0)/dκ (and in the column 2 case, where δ = 0.01, this amount should be

multiplied by a factor 0.001 in order to reflect a 10% drop in the hazard rate). Multiplying

the WTP by the costate variable λ∗ (0) yields an estimate of dV0 (0)/dκ. The label VOSL in

the table refers to the right-hand side expression in Eq. (9) (or Eq. (10)), i.e. to the value of

a statistical life.

8 However, the reader should replace the terminal condition (9.9c) in Léonard and van Long (1992, p. 290), i.e.

limt→∞ k(t) = 0, by the No-Ponzi game condition limt→∞ k(t)e−rt = 0, since we here consider an individual’s

maximisation problem (and, therefore, must respect his dynamic budget constraint). The No-Ponzi game condition

prevents the individual from borrowing unlimited amounts. The utility discount rate used by Léonard and van Long

is interpreted as equal to the sum of θ and δ in Eq. (11).

9 The reader is referred to Johannesson et al. (1997) for details.

10 It holds that λ∗ (t) = e−rt /((θ + δ)k ) for the model under consideration. Moreover, it is easily verified that

0

dV0 (0)/dk0 = 1/((θ + δ)k0 ), i.e. is equal to λ∗ (0).

11 Since the drop in the hazard rate is evaluated at κ = 0, the change in expected present value utility is simply

Rε R∞

equal to dV0 (0)/dκ = 0 ln[c∗ (t)]e−θ t e−δt t dt + ε ln[c∗ (t)]e−θ t e−δt dt, where c∗ (t) = (θ + δ)k0 e(r−θ −δ)t .

138 P.-O. Johansson / Journal of Health Economics 20 (2001) 131–139

Let us first consider the case where optimal consumption is constant over time. This case

is reported in the second column of Table 1. Then the VOSL is equal to the monetary value

of the individual’s expected present value utility, i.e. V0 (0)/λ∗ (0). This holds regardless of

the length of the decrease in the hazard rate. However, if consumption is increasing over

time, our approach would overestimate V0 (0)/λ∗ (0). This is shown in the third column of

the table. The estimate of the VOSL does not capture the fact that the marginal utility of

consumption is decreasing in age since consumption is increasing in age. As a consequence,

the overestimation would be even more pronounced if the treatment/programme was un-

dertaken at a future point in time. On the other hand, if consumption is decreasing in age,

so that the marginal utility of consumption is increasing in age, the empirical VOSL esti-

mate would underestimate V0 (0)/λ∗ (0). This is shown in the final column of the table. If

consumption is non-constant over time, i.e. if r 6= θ + δ, VOSL provides a more accurate

estimate of V0 (0)/λ∗ (0) if the reduction in the hazard rate lasts over a short time interval

than if it lasts over a longer time interval. This can be seen by comparing the VOSL for

ε = 1 and 500, respectively.

4. A concluding remark

This paper has provided a definition of the value of a statistical life that can be estimated

empirically. However, such a measure is not necessarily a good indicator of the monetary

value of expected present value utility. It works, if consumption is constant over the life

cycle. If consumption is decreasing or increasing over time, the value of a statistical life

(VOSL) becomes a poor indicator of the monetary value of expected present value utility.

In particular, this is true if the change in the hazard rate used in calculating the VOSL lasts

for a long period of time. One would expect that it is even more difficult to give empirical

VOSL-measures a meaningful interpretation in a world where individuals value other things

than consumption of private goods, say, their health, unless all involved values are constant

over the entire life cycle. 12

Acknowledgements

attention to the paper by Bleichrodt and Quiggin. I am also grateful for comments provided

by two referees.

References

Aronsson, T., Johansson, P.-O., Löfgren, K.-G., 1994. Welfare measurement and the health environment. Annals

of Operations Research 54, 203–215.

12 One would expect to face similar problems if individuals, in contrast to what is assumed here, do not maximise

P.-O. Johansson / Journal of Health Economics 20 (2001) 131–139 139

Bleichrodt, H., Quiggin, J., 1999. Life-cycle preferences over consumption and health: when is cost-effectiveness

analysis equivalent to cost–benefit analysis? Journal of Health Economics 18, 681–708.

Johannesson, M., Johansson, P.-O., Löfgren, K.-G., 1997. On the value of changes in life expectancy: blips versus

parametric changes. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 15, 221–239.

Léonard, D., van Long, N., 1992. Optimal Control Theory and Static Optimization in Economics. Cambridge

University Press, New York.

Rosen, S., 1988. The value of changes in life expectancy. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 1, 285–304.

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