Usul Fiqh Hermaneutics and Human Cloning | Quran | Sharia

U ~ u l al-Fiqh Hermeneutics as Reflected on the

Debate on Human Cloning:
A Critical Analysis ofContemporary Islamic Legal Discourse
©Ahmad Z. Obiedat
Institute of Islamic Studies
McGill University/ Montreal
©December 5, 2003
A thesis submitted to McGill University in partialfulfillment of the
requirements for the Masters degree in Islamic Studies
Supervising Professor of Islamic Law:
Wael Hallaq
1
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
* English Abstract 4
* French Abstract 5
* Acknowledgment 6
* Introduction 7
1. Opinions and Legal Doctrines of Human Cloning 13
1.1. Defining Human Cloning as a biotechnological subject for contemporary
Islamic legal discourse 14
1.2. The difficulty of classifying of Human Cloning in the light of shari'ah and
creed ( 'aqldah) 18
1.3. The implicit influences on the concepts God's primordial creation
(fi!rah) and God's system in the world (sunnah) 20
1.4. Evaluating the doctrines on human cloning 21
1.4.1. The doctrine based on the Qur'anic prohibition of Human Cloning 22
1.4.1.1. Examining the legal interpretation of the verse 4:116-121
in relation to this fatWB 24
1.4.1.2. Critiquing the fatWB based on the Qur'anic Interpretation 26
1.4.2. The doctrine of prohibition based on utilitarian legal hermeneutics 30
1.4.2.1. The first objection of the second doctrinal position to human
cloning 32
1.4.2. La. The evidence for the element (a) in the first objection to
doctrine of prohibition based on utilitarian legal
hermeneutics 33
1.4.2. La. 1. Critiquing the evidence (a) 35
1.4.2. Lb. The evidence for the element (b) in the first objection to
doctrine of prohibition based on utilitarian legal
hermeneutics 37
1.4.2. Lb. 1. Critiquing the evidence (b) 37
1.4.2.2. The second objection of second doctrinal position to human
cloning 37
1.4.2.2.1. Critiquing this objection 39
1.5. Concluding remarks 40
2. The Foundations of Hermeneutics in a/-Fiqh: a/-Ta'wJI 42
2.1. Qur'anic hermeneutics in al-Fiqh: a historical background 45
2.1.1. The example of 'Iddah 45
2.1.2. The example ofSawad al-'Iraq 48
2.2.The structure of Qur'anic hermeneutics in al-Fiqh 51
2.2.1. Textual consistency of the legal dis course 54
2.2.1.1. Specification, al- 55
2.2.1.2. Restriction, al-Taqyld 56
2.2.1.3. Metaphor, al-Majiz 57
2.2.2. Legislative consistency of the legal discourse 60
2.2.2. 1. Textual reconciliation, al-Tawfiq 60
2.2.2. 2.Textual preponderance, al-Tarjl1! 62
2.3. Concluding remarks 63
2
3. The Hermeneutics of Revelation in Shiitibl's Theory of Maqii!jld al- Shari'ah 66
3.1. Introduction 68
3.2. Epistemological presumptions and a restating of Shiitibl's hermeneutics of
revelation 67
3.3. Restructuring the theory al-Shari'ah 78
3.4. Conc1uding remarks 91
4. Final Conclusion 94
* Bibliography 97
3
ABSTRACT
This thesis discusses the prohibition of human cloning in contemporary Islamic
legal discourse, which relies on two distinct doctrines: the first seeks support in the
Qur'anic text, while the second depends on method of utilitarian legal hermeneutics (al-
These doctrines are examined by comparing them to the method that
contemporary Islamic legal discourse adopts, namely, al-fiqh. When this is done, a
discrepancy emerges in the first doctrine that traces this prohibition back to the text of
revelation, which in tum requires further clarification of the foundations of hermeneutics
in al-fiqh - identified here as textual and legislative consistency. For this, Shiitibl's
theory of al-sharl'ah offers one of the most reliable bases for the hermeneutics to
evaluate the second doctrine. The methodological venture in this thesis aims at criticizing
the CUITent methodology while at the same time offering a justified approach to
hermeneutics in contemporary Islamic legal discourse and in the case ofhuman cloning.
4
ABSTRACT
Cette thèse porte sur l'interdiction du clonage humain énoncée par la pensée
légale musulmane contemporaine, qui peut prendre deux formes différentes selon le
principe à partir duquel elle s'articule: soit celui qui impose de prendre appui sur le texte
coranique, soit celui que l'on nomme: «herméneutique légale utilitariste»
Ces deux aspects seront évalués à l'aune des sources et des méthodes plus générales que
la pensée légale musulmane adopte uniformément, à savoir l' al-fiqh. Cet examen
fera apparaître combien les deux formes que prend la pensée légale musulmane
contemporaine sont contraires à un fondement essentiel de l' al-fiqh, soit la
consistance textuelle et juridique. Pour bien faire ressortir cette inconsistance
méthodologique, la théorie de Shatibl, al-sharJ<ah, sera la plus utile. D'un point
de vue plus général, l'effort déployé en cette thèse cherche à la fois à critiquer les
méthodes employées par la pensée légale musulmane contemporaine et à introduire une
meilleure articulation dans l'entreprise herméneutique impliquée dans le droit islamique
contemporain en général et dans le cas du clonage humain en particulier.
5
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
1 am extremely indebted for the assistance 1 received from three scholars - Mr.
Jason Hersch, an M.A. student at Mc Gill University's Institute of Islamic Studies, Mr.
Steve Millier, a professional editor, and Ms. Lena Salayme, a student at Harvard
University's School of Law. Their help was instructive for my thesis editing. Their
reading of my ideas informed me of many corrections. 1 salute the bright methodological
guidance, the sharp notes, and the creative scholarship of my supervisor, Prof essor Wael
Hallaq, which were essential to the completion of this thesis. 1 also want to thank the
Institute of Islamic Studies at McGill University for offering me their generous
fellowship. To Ms. Salwa Ferahian, 1 am eternally indebted for her outstanding assistance
in aiding me to acquire numerous sources, without which, this the sis would not have been
possible. The enlightening discussions 1 had with Mr. Simon Stazewski, Fahad al-
I:Iumudi, and Carl Sharif EI-Tobgui were vital to my daily contemplation of these issues.
Finally, 1 direct my deep thanks to my family and fiancée for their infinite support and
love.
6
INTRODUCTION
Since the middle of the twentieth century, particularly in the West, medical and
technological innovations have come to challenge the relationship between the human
body and the traditional ethical worldview; these challenges include test-tube babies,
organ transplantation, euthanasia, and many other new procedures. Consequently, a field
of human sciences has emerged known as "bioethics," dedicated to engaging the ethical
aspects of these technological interventions in human nature. Human cloning, as a sub-
entity, is one ofthe most recent controversial issues in this field.
In the Arab world, where human cloning (a1-istinsiikh a1-basharl) is being
extensively sensationalized by the media, Muslims are beginning to question the
legitimacy and the benefits of such an invention.
l
In the Muslim world, the field of
knowledge dedicated to studying both the legal and ethical dimensions of any
phenomenon is Islamic law (fiqh). The bioethical position of human cloning must be
conceived in Muslim consciousness in shaii'ah terms; hence the issue has motivated
Muslim jurist-authors and jurist-consults (muftis) to hold conferences and media
interviews in order to generate legal arguments on this new, problematic bioethical issue.
Although there is vast material in the Sunnl Arabic media discussing the issue of human
cloning from a religious perspective, very little of it can be classified as part of fiqh
discourse. Nevertheless, sorne of the most important contemporary legal figures have
developed a fiqh argumentation on this question. For example, sorne currently available
l Ahmad 'Ulwanl, a1-Istinsiikh: Jada1 a1- 'I1m wa1-Dln wa1-Akh1iiq (Damascus: Dar al-
Fikr, 1997), 117.
7
works include publications of the Fiqh Academy of the Muslim World League (Majma'
al-Fiqh al-Islam1, al-Tabi' al-'Alam al-IslatIÙ), and the European Council
for If ta' (al-Majlis al-Urub1 lil-Ifta'), as weIl as writings by al-But1, al-Qaraqaw1, al-
Z1Ù}.ayn, Ibn 'UthaytIÙn, Tahir Khaznah Katbih, Mu4ammad Mahdi Shams al-Din, Dr.
Farld 'Abd al-Ghanl 'Abd al-Khaliq, and many others. These contemporary
jurist-authors, legal thinkers, and muftis constitute a fair representation of the core ideas
pertaining to the issue ofhuman cloning in the Sunnl Arab world.
This burgeoning Islamic legal discourse is perceived by many Islamic
traditionalists2 and reformers
3
(on the one hand) and secularists4 (on the other) as a crisis.
It is se en as an unnatural, post-colonial development of Arab governments and societies,
which is itself characterized by: 1) a general dismantling of the sharI'ah, therefore
depriving Muslim societies of governance; and 2) a dismantling of the indigenous
educational system that once produced educated, qualified and trained jurists, muftIs, and
jurist-authors.
Bearing aIl this in mind, the thesis will deal with the fiqhIopinions and fatwis in
contemporary Islamic legal discourse relating to human cloning in relation to two
essential and primary questions. The first of these is: what is the broader context in which
the aforementioned discourse of human cloning exists? The answer to this question is the
hermeneutical methodology represented in Islamic legal theory al-fiqh), firstly, by
2 For further information_see 'Abd al-l;IatIÙd Abu Sulayman, Azmat aJ-'AqJ aJ-Muslim
(Virginia: al-Ma'had al-'AlatIÙ lil-Fikr al-IslatIÙ, 1994).
3 For further information see Iiamid Abu Zayd, wal-Sultah wal-lfaqIqah:
lridat al-Ma'rifah wa-Iridat al-Haymanah (Beirut: al-Markaz al-Thaqafi al-'Arabl,
2000), and M1Ù}.amad Shal).rur, NaiJwa JadJdah lil-Fiqh al-Islaml· Fiqh al-Mar'ah
(Damascus: al-Ahan lil-Tiba'ah wal-Nashr wal-Tawzl', 2000), 23.
4 For further information see Jalal al-'A?m, Mi Ba 'da Dhihniyyat al-TalJrIm
(Damascus: Dar al-Mada, 1997),227.
8
the concept of dali1 (lit. proof, evidence, guidance) and, secondly, by the theory of the
objectives of shan'ah a1-shan'ah). This will be the theme, or the broader
framework that shall play a key role in the establishment of the theme of the thesis. The
second question is: To what exent are the contemporary hermeneutics of dalilresponsible
for the present approach to the problematic fiqhI case of human cloning? In answering
these two questions, our underlying thesis will emerge.
The reason for taking legal discussion of human cloning as a case-study for
critical analysis stems from the challenges that this new technological invention poses for
the fiqhI mind on a practical level - challenges that have philosophical dimensions
derived from the Western worldview. For instance, human cloning is said to have no
precedent (nazi1ah musta1Jdathah), which therefore necessitates a creative mental effort
(ijtihiid) to assess it legally. AIso, human cloning is a legal case that is seen, particularly
by sorne thinkers, as a theological issue,
5
which complicates and extends the
methodological criteria necessary to deal with it. For this reason especially, human
cloning is an intriguing yardstick against which to examine the methodological capacity
of contemporary Islamic legal discourse, which is certainly theologically grounded.
Since contemporary Islamic discourse claims that the science of Islamic
jurisprudence, a1-fiqh, constitutes its epistemological foundation and binds it to the
tradition of the shan'ah, we will test this claim by applying it to the case in hand. By
logically criticizing the methodology of dalil, and then restructuring it through the
problematic fiqhI case of human cloning, the methodological approach to legal theory,
5 The muflI of Egypt, Farld is of the opinion that the one who clones is an
infidel (kiifir). See I:Iusam al-Dln Shi4adah, a1-Istinsiikh bayn a1- 'Ilm wa1-Fa1safah wa1-
DIn (Damascus: Markaz al-'Ilm wal-SaIam lil-Dirasat wal-Nashr, 1998), 125.
9
will be advanced and new henneneutical solutions proposed. Additionally, this critical
analysis may suggest a new path for the revivalist writers of today, such as Mu4ammad
Sha4rur, by proposing a more elaborate and systematic diagnosis of modem legal
problems than those currently offered.
6
Contennpoary Islamic legal discourse lies at the heart of many of the problems
discussed in the present thesis. The main reason for this appears to be the discontinuity
that exists between it and traditional methodology, which offers a solid interpretive
foundation for understanding both the legal text and the world. The contemporary
discourse shows fundamental weaknesses, as demonstrated in its attempt to seek
improbable and very generalized methods to face the challenges of modemity. It is the
intention of this thesis, therefore, to offer a solution for this legal and eminently
methodological crisis, which has been often characterized as emanating from a "mentality
of prohibition" (dhihniyyat al-taJp1m).
7
Although human cloning serves as the case study, it is not the major concem of
this work. Much of the discussion will in fact be devoted to a more important concem -
the methodological foundations that groud the case study. The thesis will initially explore
the foundations that support the legal methodology enterprise and then seek to enhance
the foundations ofthis methodology. The prohibition or the pennission ofhuman cloning,
furthennore, does not motivate this thesis: its sole aim, as previously noted, is to criticize
the contemporary henneneutics of dalil and reconstructing a new theory of dalil through
the problematic fiqhl case ofhuman cloning.
6 For an example, see Shaqrur, NalJwa U ~ i ï l Jadldah lil-Fiqh al-Islam], 23.
7 For further infonnation, see al-'A?m, Mi ba'da Dhihniyyat al-Ta1;rlm, 227.
10
In order to achieve the aforementioned goals, the first chapter will endeavor to
explore the Islamic legal discourse on human doning and to describe its doctrines. This
exploration and analysis of the fatwis and legal discourse will draw a map for the present
case study, making it possible to demonstrate the existence of two basic doctrines: one
that extracts its judgments directly from the Qur'an and/or Sunnah and another that
formulates its judgments not directly from the Qur'an, but on the legislative principles of
the shari'ah. These two doctrines are extensions of historical traditions in fiqh - one
following the traditions of the Ahl al-Athar school and the other that of the Ahl al-Ra y.
Within this exploration and analysis, a critical comparison will be made between the
methodology of al-fiqh and the previously mapped legal doctrines of human doning.
This first chapter makes the following argument: It is not true that contemporary Islamic
legal discourse on human cloning is based on a legal methodology of the religious texts
since the fatwas and fiqhl opinions offered in this regard are based neither on a valid
legal interpretation of the religious texts nor on a comprehensive and necessary
application of utilitarian legal hermeneutics.
The second chapter will explore the foundations of al-fiqh hermeneutics,
which will provide a reply to the first basic doctrine and its misuse of legal interpretation
of religious texts. The work of the distinguished contemporary writer Fat41 al-
Duraynl will be used as a model when defining terms such as specification
restriction (taqid), and metaphor (majiiz). By this elucidation of the foundations
of legal hermeneutics in u$iïl al-fiqh, the major daim of second chapter will be
demonstrated: Textual and legislative consistency is the objective of al-fiqh
hermeneutics.
11
The third chapter asks and answers the question: "Why does a discrepancy exist
between both the traditional and the contemporary methodological practices?" To do so,
the theoretical discoveries of chapter two regarding the foundations of herrneneutics in
u ~ i ï l al-fiqh will be applied to an interesting development in u ~ i ï l al-fiqh history, found in
the text al-Muwiifàqiit fi U ~ i ï l al-Shar J'ah written by the Andalusian scholar Abü Is4aq
ibrahIm al-Shiitibl (d. 790/1388). This elaboration will serve as a reply to the second
basic doctrine applied to the issue of human cloning, from which a comprehensive
employment of legal herrneneutics is lacking. This criticism will further develop the
theme of the second chapter, that of textual and legislative consistency, by investigating
the worldview of 'time' in the Qur'iin as the major criterion in the process of legislation.
Due to the original ingenuity and the reforrnative aspect of Shiitibl's theory, this step is
necessary to prove the essential claims of the third chapter: If there is a methodological
discrepancy in contemporary Islamic legal discourse, the path towards reform lies in
continuing the traditional endeavor of u ~ i ï l al-fiqh through the divine concept of
revelation (al-walil) as the knowledge of the sign.
12
CHAPTERONE
OPINIONS AND LEGAL DOCTRINES OF HUMAN CLONING
This chapter will explore the Islamic legal discourse on human cloning (a1-
istinsakh or a1-istinsiil a1-bashrJ) and analyze its conclusions. The analysis and
exploration of fàtwas and other legal texts will generate a map essential to further
exploration of our case study. In describing the description of the fiqhl doctrines on
human cloning, l will concentrate on comparing methodology of the contemporary
Islamic legal discourse and the traditional methodology of a1-fiqh. Particular
attention will be paid to critiquing the contemporary methodology wherever there arises a
deviation from the principles of a1-fiqh.
The majority of contemporary Muslim writers consider human cloning to be
prohibited.
8
One a1-fiqh prof essor has categorically and emphatically declared that
human cloning lies in the realm of the forbidden, prohibited, and banned.
9
In the first part
of this chapter, therefore, sorne of the issues raise in their writings and future will be
categorized and elaborated on under the following headings: 1.) Defining human cloning
as a bio-technological subject matter; 2.) the difficulty of classifying human cloning, due
8 This includes works by: The Fiqh Academy of The Muslim World League and major
legal figures and muftis such as al-But1, al-Qaraq.awl, al-Zu4ayIi, Ibn 'Uthaymln, Tahir
Khaznah Katibah, the ShI'! Scholar Mu4ammad Mahdi Shams al-Dln, Dr. Fadd
'Abd al-Ghanl 'Abd al-Khaliq, and many others.
9 Nlir al-Dln Mukhtar al-Khadinii, aJ-Istinsakh fi J)aw' wa1-Qawa'id wa1-
a1-Shar'iyyah: BalJth MulJakkam min Qiba1 Markiz a1-BulJiïth wa1-Diriisat a1-
Is1iimiyyah bi1-Riyaçf, a1-Tiibi' li- Wizarat a1-Shu'iïn a1-Is1amiyyah (Riyadh: Dar al-
Zii4im lil-Nashr wal-Tawzl', 2001), 66.
13
to legal (shari'ah) and theological ('aqJdah) implications, of the the claim that cloning
constitutes a fonu of creation (khalq); and 3.) the obscuring of cloning as a practice
contradictory to God's primordial creation (fi!rah) and His system in the world (Sunnah),
in an attempt to cite an authoritative concept. 10
1.1. Defining Human Cloning as a Biotechnological Subject for Contemporary
Islamic Legal Discourse
The ability to clone living creature is a recent biomedical and genetic engineering
breakthrough. The first known, documented and scientifically accepted implementation
of this technology took place in Britain, where, in 1996, a sheep named Dolly was
engineered as an exact copy of an existenting sheep. Il Yet, while the cloning of animaIs
has been achieved, there has not yet been an authenticated instance of a successful human
clone. The definition of this phenomenon should be based on its place of origin, the
scientific field of biotechnology. Cloning, as it stands in the bioengineering and medical
fields, is not clearly understood (in sorne cases) within the discourse of Muslim legal
scholars.
l will not address those texts that do not recognize the technological nature of
cloning. This omission is intentional, because to do otherwise would legitimate erroneous
adjudication, since lawmaking without proper understanding produces a verdict outside
10 The only truly qualified Muslim scholar encountered in the course of this research that
did not issue a fatwii prohibiting Human Cloning is the ShI'! Lebanese scholar al-Sayyid
Mul}.ammad I:Iusayn Fa4l Allah; see Shihiidah, al-Istinsiikh Bayna al- 'Ilm wal-Falsafah
wal-DJn, BI.
11 al-Tayyib Salamah and 'Abd al-Majld Bin I:Iamiidh, al-Istinsiikh: AblJiith Nadwat al-
Majlis al-IsliimJ al-A 'Iii (Tunis: Sharikat Funlin al-Rasm wal-Nashr 1998),
86.
14
of the proper realm of the case (mana!). For example, sorne fatwas do not take into
account the technological nature of cloning and, consequently, these scholars have
miscategorized cloning as creation (al-takhliq) and, therefore, necessarily prohibited
(lJaram). This latter fact stems from Islamic theological principles declaring that creation
is God's exclusive work.
12
In other fatwas, the sins of adultery, fornication, and other
non-permissible sexual peculiarities are erroneously made analogous to human cloning;
thus, through legal analogy (qiyas), prohibition is understood to be the only plausible and
possible outcome. Similarly, the mufti of Jordan, rahir Khaznah Klitibah - from the
General Department of al-1ft li' - has classified human cloning as a form of adultery "qarb
min quriib al-zinâ', suggesting it bears a resemblance to a type of pre-Islamic marriage
known as "nikiiJ;. al-istibqa,.,,13 The ratio legis (' illah) for his qiyas is the desire to obtain
better genetic features in a child through illegitimate means.
14
ln a further display of incorrect classification and understanding, sorne scholars
have placed human cloning within the same category of genetic engineering that seeks to
fashion new creatures and organisms. The Kuwaiti scholar 'Abd al-Ghanl 'Abd al-Khliliq
advocates this stance, arguing that human cloning is part of a larger framework of
12 Shi\1lidah, al-Istinsakh Bayna al- 'Ilm wal-Falsafah wal-Din, 72.
13 NikiiJ;. al-istibqa' is a pre-Islamic and ancient Arab custom whereby a poor or an
unintelligent man could send his wife to an intelligent, powerful, or rich man in order to
procreate a child with more valuable characteristics. The Kuwaiti scholar, 'Abd al-Ghanl
'Abd al-Khliliq, similarly analogizes to this marriage form, calling it "NikËÎlJ. al-istibqii'
of the modem age of ignorance". See 'Abd al-Ghanl 'Abd al-Khliliq, Istiniikh al-Insiin
wal-lfayawiin pajjah Mufta 'alah wa-Ukdhiibah Kabirah
wa-Fasad ' ~ i m . (accessed, December 13, 2003):
http://www.salafi.netlarticles/article 18.html
14 See "al-Shaykh rahir Khaznah Klitibah: al-Islam YulJarrim al-Istinskh Talpiman
Qa!,iyyan," published in Jaiidat al-Sharq al-Awsa!, 8 December 2001, (accessed,
December 13,2003): http://www.asharqalawsat.com
15
designing new organisms and humansY 'Abd al-Khaliq derives and substantiates his
position in favor of prohibition from a lJadith that deals with a similar issue. He adduces
the Prophetie saying, "The Prophet prohibited letting donkeys mate with horses,,16 and
the lJadith, "'Ali presented Prophet MuJ}.ammad, peace be upon him, a mule and asked
him why do we not we let donkeys mate with horses? The Prophet, peace be upon him,
responded, only ignorant people do this.,,17 However, the historical context of the lJadiths
does not support' Abd al-Khaliq's contention, and his citation of this material is unique
among flqh jurists who write in opposition to cloning. The context and commentaries on
the lJadiths suggest that the cause of the prohibition (ta 'Dl al-ta1p1m) expressed in them
was a fear of decreasing the numbers ofhorses needed for military purposes.1
8
Many scholars recognize that sorne of the fàtwiis about cloning do not fulfill the
legal condition of identifying the true nature of the legal case. That is to say, sorne
scholars, when rendering fàtwiis, do not take the trouble to understand the scientific
aspects of the question at hand, and are as a consequence too ill-informed to deduce valid
legal opinions. The President of the National Counsel of the Sudan and an acknowledged
expert on u ~ i i l al-flqh, I:Iasan al-Turab1, has even identified these types of inaccurate and
naive fàtwiis as a "crisis." He has further classified them as fàtwiis that have been issued
15 'Abd al-Khaliq, Istiniikh al-Insiin wal-lfayawiin IJajjah Mufta'alah. (accessed,
December 13, 2003): http://www.salafi.netlarticles/article 18.html
16 MuJ}.ammad Isma'il al-Bukhari, al-TarIkh al-KabIr. fJadith Number: 7/247 (Beirut: Dar
al-Kutub al-'Ilmiyyah, 2001), voU, 259.
17 Abu Dawud, Sunan AbI Dawiid, kitiib al-jihiid. 15/ biib 59 in Jam'jawiimi' al-AlJiidith
wal-AsiinId wa-Maknaz al-$ilJiilJ wal-Sunan wal-MasiinId (Cairo: Jam'iyyat al-Maknaz
al-lslam1, 2000) vol. 2,439.
18 Fahad al-ijumudi, lfimiiyat al-bl'ah wal-Mawiirid al-TbI'iyyah fi al-Sunnah al-
Nabawiyyah (Saudi Arabia, Riyadh: Masters' thesis in Imam University, 2000)
16
without the perception of the natural and physical sciences: "al-fatiïwa lJawaJ al-
istinshiïkh ... ~ a d a r a t bi-ghayr idriïk" 19
By contrast, certain recognized contemporary scholars of Islamic law, such as al-
Qaraqaw1
20
and al-Zu4ayIi,21 as weIl as the members of the Higher Islamic Council of
Tunisia (al-Majlis al-Islam1 al-A'la ),22 have demonstrated a very accurate understanding
of the scientific and technological aspects of cloning. Moreover, at its tenth meeting (held
in Jeddah, June 28 - July 3, 1997), the Islamic Fiqh Academy of the Muslim World
League (Majma' al-Fiqh al-Islam1 al-Tabi' li-MunaHamat al-'Alam al-Islaml),23 offered
this definition of cloning: "generation of one or more living creatures or more either by
transferring a nucleus from a body cell to an egg without a nucleus, or by duplicating a
fertilized egg.,,24 This pronouncement and in fact the majority of texts by Muslim
scholars present human cloning in a detailed and precise framework that is faithful to its
biotechnological and medical origins. A comparison of the above quoted Jeddah
statement with accepted scientific definitions of cloning will show how much importance
they assign to having an informed position?5
19 Mu'ln Qaddum1, al-Istinsiïkh bayna al-MasllJiyyah wal-Isliïm: Maqiïliït wa AblJiïth li-
Kibiïr Rijiïl al-Dln wal-Mufakldrln wal-BiilJithln min Mukhtalaf al-Adyiïn wal-Madhiïhib
(Beirut: Dar al-Fikr al-Lubnanl, 1999),307.
20 Yusuf al-Qaraqawl: al-Istinsiïkh wa-Ra y ai-Qaraejawi Rh. Mawqi' al-Qaraqawl
(accessed, December 13, 2003):
http://www.qaradawi.netlsite/topics/article.asp ?cu _ no=2&item _ no=2883 &version= 1 &te
mplate_ id=130&parent_id=17
21 'Ulwiinl, al-Istinsiïkh: Jadal al- 'ilm waJ-Dln wal-Akhliïq, 122.
22 al-Tayyib Salamah, al-Istinsiïkh, 85.
23 Mu'ln Qadduml, al-Istinsiïkh bayna al-MasllJiyyah wal-Isliïm, 315.
24 Ibid., 315.
25 For further information, see cloning entry in Stedman 's Medical Dictionary (Maryland:
Lippircott and Williams, 2000), 364, "1. Growing a colony of genetically identical cells
or organisms in vitro. 2. Transplantation of a nucleus from a somatic cell to an ovum,
which then develops into an embryo; many identical embryos can thus be generated by
17
1.2. The Difficulty of Classifying Human Cloning in the Light of Shaii'ah and
Creed ( 'Aqldah)
With the advent of technology that makes it possible to understake human
cloning, there arose a new dilemma that challenged not only Islamic legal discourse, but
also, Islamic theological tenets. The technology of human cloning is understood by sorne
scholars as posing a threat to the Islamic creed ('aqldah), and particularly its stance on
creation.
26
Creation in the Islamic 'aqldah is conclusively, and solely, assigned to Allah.
The theological problem originates in how to define the process of human cloning, i.e.
whether it resembles a natural means of reproduction. It can be argued that scientists in
the field of human cloning comprehend their work as resulting in the creation of humans.
This scenario is a serious concem in contemporary Islamic legal discourse and is the
topic addressed in most of the fatwiïs. This theological concem plays a discrete role in
fatwiïs and opinions in contemporary Islamic legal discourse because it is vindicated by a
legal method that intends to prove the prohibition.
However, in u ~ i ï l al-fiqh, there are certain methods to interpreting a Qur'anic
verse, beginning with the fact that such interpretation is restricted to legal verses of the
Qur'an (iïyiït al-alJkiïm). Developing legal rulings from 'aqldah principles is irrelevant.
This assumed confrontation with Islamic 'aqldah has contributed to overall legal stance
asexual reproduction. 3. With blastocysts, dividing a cluster of cells through
microsurgery and transferring one-half of the cells to a zona pellucida that has been
emptied of its contents. The resulting embryos, genetically identical, may be implanted in
an animal for gestation. 4. A recombinant DNA technique used to produce millions of
copies of a DNA fragment. The fragment is spliced into a cloning vehicle (i.e., plasmid,
bacteriophage, or animal virus). The cloning vehicle penetrates a bacterial cell or yeast
(the host), which is then grown in vitro or in an animal host. In sorne cases, as in the =
production of genetically engineered drugs, the inserted DNA becomes activated and
alters the chemical functioning of the host cell."
26 'Ulwanl, AI-Istinsiïkh, 122.
18
favoring prohibition. But, this stance is not clearly explained: if the Islamic prohibition is
the way to prevent human cloning or to prevent creating humans, then the Islamic
'aqldah, in and of itself, would not be permanently true, because only prohibition would
be a means way to maintain its veracity. The silent role played by 'aqldah is discemible
in the legal proofs that are insufficient to establish the prohibition, as will be shown in
sections 1.4.1. and 1.4.2.
This 'aqldah concem is peculiar since most of the legal texts encountered in the
course of this research operate under the assumption that human cloning cannot be
equated with creation. Two methods were used to prove the aforementioned claim: The
first is based on a pure belief-reaction that adduces the Qur'anic verses to the effect that
creation is exclusively in the hands of Allah. The second is based on a technological
definition of cloning, namely, that it is based on utilizing the nucleus of a living ce II ,
which is itself Allah's creation. In other words, the second method acknowledges that
human cloning is merely the modification of an already created life. Therefore, human
cloning does not rely an ordinary methods of reproduction, but rather on Allah's creation.
In addition, in the second method it is claimed that cloning has simplified the Islamic
creed of resurrection (al-ha 'th),27 relying for proof on the same Qur'anic verses that are
used to establish the 'aqldah aspect of the legal discourse on human cloning. These
Qur'anic verses are:
And Allah has created you and what you make.
28
27 Yusuf al-Qaraqawl: al-Istinsiïkh wa-Ra y al-Qaraejawl Rh. Mawqi' al-Qaraqawl
(accessed, December 13,2003):
http://www.qaradawi.netlsite/topics/article.asp?cu _ no=2&item _ no=2883&version= 1 &te
mplate_id=130&parent_id=17
28 Qur'an 37:96
19
So let man consider of what he is created: He is created of water pouring forth,
Coming from between the back and the ribs. Most surely He is able to return
him (to life). 29
This is AlIah's creation, but show Me what those besides Him have created.
Nay, the unjust are in manifest error 30
1.3. The Implicit Influences on the Concepts of God's Primordial Creation (D!rab.)
and Al18.h's System in the World (sunnab.)
Writings on human cloning incessantly and repeatedly refer to the Qur'anic verses
describing the creation and growth of the embryo, seeing these as the theological
background of human cloning. They also focus on the traditional paradigm of marri age
and procreation as Allah's primordial creation (D/rab.) and Allah's system in the world
(sunnah). The relevant verses are:
Surely We have created man from a smalliife-germ uniting (itself): We mean
to try him, so We have made him hearing, seeing.
31
o people! be careful of (your dut y to) your Lord, Who created you from a
single being and created its mate of the same (kind) and spread from these two,
many men and women; and be careful of (your dut y to) Allah, by Whom you
demand one of another (your rights), and (to) the ties of relationship; surely
Allah ever watches over yoU.
32
He it is Who shapes you in the wombs as He likes; there is no god but He, the
Mighty, the Wise. 33
He has created you from a single being, then made its mate of the same (kind),
and He has made for you eight of the cattle in pairs. He creates you in the
wombs of your mothers -a creation after a creation- in triple darkness; that is
29 Qur'an 86:5-8
30 Qur'an 31: Il
31 Qur'an 76:2
32 Qur'an 4:1; opponents also appeal to Qur'an 86:5-8, quoted in the preceding section.
33 Qur'an 3:6
20
Allah your Lord, His is the kingdom; there is no god but He; whence are you
then turned away? 34
Thus, it is argued that there is no need to apply the techniques of human cloning and
thus tamper with the natural world's reproductive process.
1.4. Evaluating the Doctrines on Human Cloning:
In most attempts at proving the invalidity of human cloning, two traditional fiqhl
methods are employed. The first seeks to find Qur'anic or Sunnaic textual evidence to
this effect, while the second aims to affirm the prohibition by way of an established
proof, i.e., by means of qiyis, sorne legal principle (qi'idah fiqhiyyah), or legislative
principles (mabda' tashrl'i). These two methods are sometimes combined in an attempt
to establish the prohibition from an perspective. An example of just such an effort
may be found in the very detailed work of Nur al-D1n Mukhtar al-Khadim1, although it
contain little of interest besides, being vased on opinion from supporters of the
aforementioned two legal doctrines and therefore far from original. 35
The evaluation offered below therefore proposes the following: It is not true that
contemporary Islamic legal discourse on human cloning is based on a legal methodology
of the religious texts since the fatwas and fiqh1 opinions offered in this regard are based
neither on a valid legal interpretation of the religious texts nor on a comprehensive and
necessary application of utilitarian legal hermeneutics. That this is the case will
demonstgrated through an analysis of the two doctrines and their application.
34 Qur'an 39:6
35 Nur al-D1n Mukhtar al-Khadim1, Al-Istinsikh fi IJaw' waI-Qawi'id wal-
al-Shar'iyyah: BalJth MulJakkam min Qibal Markiz al-BulJiïth wal-Dirisit al-
Islimiyyah bil-Riyiq, al-Tibi' li- Wiazirat al-Shu'iïn al-Islimiyyah (Riyadh: Dar al-
Za4im lil-Nashr wal-Tawz1', 2001).
21
The first doctrine is based on a Qur'anic prohibition against changing Allah's
creation, while the second doctrine corre1ates to the prohibition vis-à-vis the
implementation of utilitarian legal hermeneutics. In a preliminary assessment of the two,
l note the first doctrine' s appropriation as a complete failure of legal interpretation and
deem that the second, while operating from sound premises and procedures, has resulted
in unneceSSarY and incomprehensible inferences.
1.4.1. The Doctrine Based on the Qur'8nic Prohibition of Human Cloning
A consensus has evolved among sorne Muslim scholars in this doctrine that the
Qur'an prohibits human cloning, for which they cite the foHowing verse as evidence:
Surely Allah does not forgive that anything should be associated with Him,
and He forgives what is besides this to whom He pleases; and whoever
associates anything with Allah, he indeed strays off into a remote error. They do
not calI besides Him on anything but idols, and they do not calI on anything but
a rebellious Satan. Allah has cursed him; and he said: Most certainly l will take
of They servants an appointed portion: And most certainly l will lead them
astray and excite in them vain desires, and l will command them so that they
shall slit the ears of the cattle, and most certainly l will command them so that
they shaH change Allah's creation; and whoever takes the Satan for a guardian
rather than Allah he indeed shaH suffer a manifest loss. He gives them promises
and excites vain desires in them; and the Satan does not promise them but to
deceive. These are they whose abode is hell, and they shall not find any refuge
from it.
36
The majority of those who support prohibition of cloning consider this Qur' aiiic passage
to be the clearest evidence. The Syrian jurist-author Mu4ammad Wahbah aI-Zu4ayIi,37
the leader of the Lebanese Muslim Brothers Fat41 Yakan,38 the leader of the Supreme
36 Qur'an 4: 116-121,
37 'DIwan1, AI-Istinsiïkh, 122.
38 Qaddum1, al-Istinsiïkh bayna al-MasliJiyyah wal-Isliim,209.
22
ShI'! Islamic Council in Lebanon, Mu4ammad Mahdi Shams al-Din,39 and a Tunisian
member of the Higher Islamic Council, al-Shaykh Kamal al-Tiizl,40 aIl adopt
this interpretation, and thus understand it as a prohibition of human cloning.
However, none of the fatwis or legal opinions issued by the above applying
anything resembling al-tiqh methodology. In other words, these decisions are issued
without showing how the verse leads to the prohibition. The fact, however, is that certain
implicit foundations underlie their arguments: the task at hand is to demonstrate
how these fatwas were plausibly generated.
It can be understood from their treatment of this verse that these scholars interpret
Satan's order to alter the nature created by Allah as an inherent source of sin and one that
should be avoided. Sorne scholars further comprehend the alteration of AIlah's creation
not only as conforming to Satan's order, but adduce it to be equivalent to and on the level
of polytheism.
41
Since al-istinsikh, or cloning, cornes under the heading, in their view, of
changing God's creation, they see it as prohibited. Still, one must consider the question:
Is the notion of al-istinsikh included or connoted in the Qur'anic expression changing
AIlah's creation? By examining the aforementioned Qur'anic expression of changing
AIlah's creation, an answer may be found.
39 Shi4iidah, al-Istinsikh bayna al- 'Ilm wal-Falsafah wal-DIn, 129.
40 Saliimah, al-Istinsikh, 85.
41 This analysis led to a strange attitude on the part of the muftI of Egypt, Farld
who is of the opinion that the one who clones is an infidel (kitir). See Shi4iidah,
al-Istinsikh bayna al- 'Ilm wal-Falsafah wal-DIn, 125. This analysis has more radical
implications, since one of the most important figures in the Counsel of Chief Scholars in
Saudi Arabia (Hay'at Kibiir al-'Ulamii'), Ibn 'UthayllÙn stated that: "those in charge of
the technique of human cloning must be treated under the Islamic legal judgment
accorded to renegades (al-ftiribah), i.e. that they should be subjected to the harshest of
punishments, and they should get their hands and legs cut from opposite sides, or that
they should be killed for their sowing corruption in the earth (ifsid)." See 'Abd al-Wii4id
Shu'ayr, al-Istinsikh al-Bashazi: Wahm am Wiqi'?(Casablanca: s.n., 1997), 85.
23
1.4.1.1. Examining tbe Legal Interpretation of Verses 4:116-121 in Relation to tbis
FatwB
The modem juristic understanding of Quranic verses 4:116-121, specifically the
statement, "So that they shall change Alliïh '8 creation," while relied on as a basis for the
judgment against cloning, is nevertheless incorrect. A quick overview of the most
formative works on the interpretation of the Qur'an, such as those of al-1.'abad, al-
Zamakhsharl, al-Razi, al-Altisl, and Qutb, show that this semantically adduced evidence
is mistaken.
According to one of the earliest surviving Qur'anic exegetical work, Jimi' a1-
Bayiin fi Tafslr a1-Qur'in by al-1.'abarl,42 "So that they shall change A11iïh '8 creation,"
was explained in three narrations by prominent successors of the Prophet's companions
(tibi'iïn). The first of these narration concems the castration of cattle, the second
involves the tattooing of humans, while the third touches on modification of God's
religion. AI-1.'abarl chooses the third narration because he thinks that the Qur'an should
be understood through the best rhetorical hermeneutics, which conf ers this meaning not
only upon physical changes, but also upon the religion of God, in terms of sin and virtue.
AI-Tabad justifies his choice by asserting that Arabie rhetoric does not consider it good
to specify a word and then to generalize it again. Thus, God's religion is what is referred
42 Ibn Jarlr al-1.'abar1. Jami' a1-Bayiin fi TafsJr a1-Qur'in (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-
'Ilmiyyah, 1997), vol. 5, 56.
24
to in the phrase "So that they shall change Alliih 's creation." This interpretation is
concise and· instructive conceming the most traditional Islamic understanding of this
Qur'anic verse.
According to the Mu'taziIi interpreter, al-Zamakhshar!, "So that they shall
change Alliih 's creation" refers to an old Arab custom, related to the camel, that entails
the following activities: 1) cutting its ear; 2) forbidding it food once it has birthed five
offspring, under the conidition that the fifth is a male, 3) poking out the eye of the best
camel in its group, once that group reaches a specified number, in addition to castrating
it. Additionally, he understands the verse to correlate other issues, such as attempts to
alter God's religion, traditions oftattooing, and further examples of effeminate behavior
on the part of the human male. 43
According to al-Raz!, "this verse can be interpreted according to two doctrines of
interpretation.,,44 The first interpretation is that the act of changing nature created by
Allah is "changing God's religion." The second is that it consists in "changing any of the
apparent state of anything through tattooing, castration, poking out an eye of a male
camel, effeminate behavior, and sacrificing certain cattle to idols." Al-Raz! himself
agrees on aIl of these interpretations, adding a further element that can be understood
from this verse - namely, "if we go back to the words of Satan in the context of this
Qur'anic verse, he says: l will arouse in them false desires. Therefore, if a man accepts
the word of Satan, it would lead him to change the nature created by Allah." AI-Alus! for
his part says that "So that they shall change Alliih 's creation" includes changing the
43 Abu al-Qasim Mal].mud Zamakhshad, A1-Kashshiïf 'an 'Uyiïn a1-Aqiïwll fi Wujiïh a1-
Ta'wll(Beirut: Dar al-Kit ab al-'Arab1 [?]), voU, 566.
44 al-Fakhr al-Raz!, a1-TafsIr al-Kabir (Beirut: Dar IlIya' al-Turath al-'Arab!, [?]) Vo1.9,
36.
25
appearance or shape of any of God's primordial creation, while for Sayyid Qu.tb, this
verse is directed toward attemptso to alter the shape of the body or to mutilate it in sorne
From the above survey it is clear that the foremost interpreters of the Qur'an saw
the context of the verse in question as pertaining to the changing of God's religion in
general and/or to other acts such as castration, tattooing, and the maiming of the eye of
the camel, etc. Still, to strengthen this point of possible contention, more proofs will be
offered to further corroborate this interpretation in the next section.
1.4.1.2. Critiquing the Fatwii Based on the Qur'amc Interpretation
An objection may be raised not against the validity of the above Qur'anic
interpretive claims, but against the final meaning and authority of these interpretations.
Do the above hermeneutical conclusions represent the final word on the verses in
question, or is contemporary Islamic legal discourse juistified in extending their
application? The answer is that, while it can be interpreted differently, it cannot be
understood to mean that "any change in the world is prohibited;" for, if this were the
case, the one making this claim would be required to demonstrate that the text is not
limited to the case of camels and! or cattle. Even if it is supposed that one could extend
the aforementioned meaning of the verse, it cannot be generalized to include human
beings or even aU creatures because there would be three serious problems.
The first fundamental dilemma is: How can the meaning of "changing" in the
context of this verse be transferred from livestock to human beings? Legally speaking, it
45 Sayyid Q u ~ b , Fi ?iliil al-QUI'in (Beirut: Dar al-'Arablyah lil-Tiba'a wal-Nashr,[?])
Vol.4, 210.
26
is necessary to formulate a valid legal analogy, qiyiis. This qiyiis would include the
following procedure: a classification and successive elimination (al-sabr wal-taqsJm) of
elements in which the ratio legis ('illah) is generally determined.
46
Then, this 'illah
should be examined for consistency Ut!iriid) against all cases that would be included
under its application.
47
A thorough survey of the contemporary Islamic legal discourse on
cloning, however, yields no such methodical attempt, but only a casual association of
disparate facts. Hence, the conclusion reached by opponents of cloning on the verse in
question may be valid in the context of moral preaching or exhortation, but it certainly
does not constitute a legitimate and articulated legal argument on human cloning.
What assures the previous determination is that the methodology of al-fiqh
treats a legal text of the Qur'an under a triad of laws concerning consistency: 1)
generalized/specified; 2) restricted/unrestricted; and 3) literal/metaphorical relations
between the vocabularies.
48
These laws would, firstly, require that the sentence "Alliih 's
creation" treated as an unrestricted clause (mutlaqah), i.e. connoting random items of its
connotation substitutively.49 Secondly, the word creation in "Alliih's creation" is in a
subjunctive grammatical state and the whole sentence is in a conjunction
postion (ma implying that this unrestricted clause should be restricted by the
previous context - which is, "and 1 will command them so that they shall slit the ears of
the cattle, and most certainly 1 will command them so that they shall change Alliih s
46 Wael Hallaq, A History of Islamic Legal Theories: An Introduction to SunnJ AI-
fiqh (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 92.
47 Ibid., 90.
48 1 will give a full analysis for this methodology in the second chapter.
49 Ibn Qudiimah al-Maqdisl, Rawejat al-Niiz.ir wa-Junnat al-Munii?ir (Beirut: Dar al-
Kitiib al-'Arabl 1992),vo1.2, 232, and Fat41 al-Duraynl, al-Maniihij al- fi al-
{jtihiid bil-Ra'y fi al-TashrJ' al-IslamJ(Damascus: al-Sharikah al-Mutta4idah lil-Tawzl'
1985),668.
27
creation." Since the principle, in this case, declares that if any unrestricted clause
positioned in the context of a non-negated (ghayr manfiyyah) restricted sentence with the
similarity of reason and judgment. 50 Then that unrestricted clause should be restricted in
connotations to the restricted phrase, "they shaU slit the ears of the cattle."
The second serious problem is the claim that "any change in the world is
prohibited." Practically speaking, this is impossible, or in other words, it is meaningless.
The third problem is that there is a clear contradiction with the position of two
other Qur'rulic texts. The tirst is the verse: "And [He has created] horses, mules and
donkeys, for you to ride and as an adornment. And He creates [other] things ofwhich
you have no knowledge. ,,51 This verse highlights, in a tone of admiration, the proliferation
of new creatures such as mules, itself a hybrid of horses and donkeys. The second
contradiction emerges from, "So direct your face [MulJammad] toward the religion,
inclining to the truth. [Adhere toi the fi.trah of A11iih upon which he has created [aU]
people. No change would exist in A11iih 's creation, but most of the people do not know. ,,52
The fact that these two verses cannot be reconciled with the position of contemporary
legal discourse on verses invalidates the latter interpretation, and thus on the basis of the
traditional principle of preserving the divine speech from contradiction (Nf? ka1iim
a1-shiîri' min a1-içf.firiib).
From the foregoing analysis of the scholars of this doctrine we observe that their
theory is based on a particular method of Qur'anic interpretation: First, interpret sorne
50 Rafiq al-'Ajam, Mawsiï'at a1-Fiqh 'inda a1-Muslimln (Beirut:
Maktabat Lubnan, 1998), 1456, and Ibn al-Subk1, lfiishiyat a1- 'A.t.tiir 'a1ii Jam' a1-Jawami'
(Bierut : Dar al-Kit ab al- 'Ilm1 ), vol.2, 84.
51 Qur'an: 8:16
52 Qur'an: 30:30
28
Qur'anic verses against human cloning in a way incompatible with the methods of the
traditional methodology of u ~ i ï l al-fiqh related to this field (the methodology of u ~ i ï l al-
fiqh insists on consistency in defining terms, particularly in applying the laws of
restrictedlunrestricted vocabularies in our case) and second, do so without acknowledging
that an entirely new method of understanding Qur'anic semantics would be needed to
substantiate their conclusion. The end result can only be described as a comprehensive
fai/ure of legal interpretation.
The analysis provided by the Islamic Fiqh Academy of the Muslim World League
and by Muslim scholars such as al-Zl$ayIi,53 thus represents a massive self-contradiction
of fiqhl doctrine. And to this the fact the verse specifically refers to animaIs, from which
these scholars interpret a prohibition against humans; yet, significantly, they declare the
cloning of animaIs and plants to be permissible, insisting that the practice is acceptable
when it is for the betierment of humankind. Clearly, this egregious contradiction in
interpretation is allowed to standfor ideological purposes. The opponents of human
cloning extend the analogy to include entities (humans) not mentioned in the verse and
yet, conveniently ignore the objects of ruling in the first place. It can therefore be
reiterated: It is not true that contemporary Islamic legal discourse on human cloning is
based on a legal methodology of the religious texts since the fatwas and fiqh1 opinions
offered in this regard are not based on a valid legal interpretation of the religious texts.
1.4.2. The Doctrine of Prohibition Based on Utilitarian Hermeneutics
53 'Ulwan1, Al-Istinsikh, 122.
29
It has been shown that in their fàtwiïs and legal opinions, contemporary Muslim
scholars who advocate against human cloning are not performing a true fiqhJ
interpretation of the Qur'an, and that the most that can said is that they refer to the
Qur'an in a manner more attuned to pierty. Here, it may instead be assumed that they are
basing their proofs on another fundamentally legitimate basis, the utilitarian legal
hermeneutics. In other words, they can then argue that they are following one of the most
important legislative principles (al-mabiïdi' al-tashii'iyyah),54 known in al-fiqh,
which is the hermeneutical principle of seeking benefits and preventing evil (al-ta 'wH bi-
jalb wa-dar' al-mafsadah). That this is not the case, however, will be shown
in the following for as we also state at the outset of the chapter: It is not true that
contemporary Islamic legal discourse on human cloning is based on a legal methodology
of the religious texts since the fatwas and fiqhl opinions offered in this regard are not
based on a comprehensive and necessary application ofutilitarian legal hermeneutics.
Indeed, irrespective of whether the reasons for the fiqhJ prohibition proposed by
this doctrine is right or wrong, the methodology used to support it is incomplete and
faulty. Thus, the reasons offered for the negative fiqhJ response to the question: "Why
cannot a married man and woman, who are sterile, have a child through human cloning
technology?" Here, the deterministic attitude for the prohibition, which is remarkable in
that it does not limit itself to a restricted or conditional prohibition, is most probably an
indication of failure in devising fàtw3s.
54 For further information see Fat41 al-Duraynl, al-Maniihij 14.
30
The doctrine of utilitarian legal hermeneutics has among its followers three of the
most highly regarded scholars in both the fields of fiqh and al-fiqh: Yusuf al-
Qaraqawl,55 Muq.ammad Sa'1d Ramaqiin al-Bu!1,56 and al-Tayyib Salamah.
57
Common to
each of these scholars is the fact that none of them rely on the aforementioned
methodology, i.e., citing a supposed Qur'iinic prohibition ofhuman cloning. For instance,
none of the scholars advocating the second doctrine interpret the verse "changing Alliih's
creation" to mean what has been inferred by other opponents of the technology. In
methodology, moreover, the doctrine of the prohibition oflegal hermeneutics claims that
the case of human cloning is unstated in the Qur'an ( ghayr 'alayh). Similarly,
Yusuf al-Qaraqawl goes so far as to deny the existence of a previous case on which to
practice qiyis, saying: "li yuqis 'alayh." 58
The second doctrine for advocating prohibition depends on the epistemological
application of two methodological principles of al-fiqh: 1) the prevention of the
wrong means (sadd al-dharl'ah) and 2) the final results of rulings (ma 'ilit al-ari!). The
contents of this doctrine and its two major objections against human cloning will be
discussed in the light of two issues: the first is the expected nefarious results that human
55 Yusuf al-Qaraqawl, Al-Istinsikh al-Bashaii wa-Tadi'iyituh, (accessed, December 13,
2003):
http://www.islam-online.net/fatwaapplicationl arabic/ display. asp?hF atwaID= 13 986
56 Shiq.adah, Al-Istinsikh bayna al- 'ilm wa l-Falsafàh wal-Dln,121.
57 Ibid.
58 al-Qaraqawl, Istinsikh al-Bashar wa-Ra'y al-Qaracfiwl Rh, (accessed, December 13,
2003):
http://www.qaradawi.net/site/topics/article.asp?cu_no=2&item_n0=2883&version=1&te
mplate_id=130&parent_id=17
31
cloning portends for the family and relationship structures,59 while the second is the
generally anticipated and wider problems this entails.
60
These two objections will be
further analyzed in terms of the particular legal and ethical arguments they offer for the
prohibition of human cloning, in sections 1.4.2.1. and 1.4.2.2, respectively. Lastly,
ojection will be criticized in an effort pinpoint their weaknesses.
1.4.2.1. The First Objection of the Second Doctrinal Position to Human Cloning:
The expected disastrous results of human cloning and its potential effect on the
human family and its relationship structures is the first objection raised by scholars who
would prohibit the practice on the basis of utilitarian legal hermeneutics. Traditional
family structures would be destroyed since the cloned (al-mustansakh) and the source (al-
mustansakh minhu) do not fit into normal models of human relations. This issue will be
referred to as the element (a) in the following presentation of the first objection to human
cloning in section I.4.2.1.a. This, critic say, would in turn, result in the destruction of the
family as the exclusive entity through which a child receives her/his normal human
upbringing: This issue will be called element (b) and will be discusses in section
I.4.2.1.b. Following the description ofthese two elements, the evidence for their validity
will be examined and a critique offered for each in sections I.4.2.I.a.1 and 1.4.2.I.b.1,
respectively.
1.4.2.1.a. The Evidence for Element (a) in the First Objection of the Doctrine
59 Husayn Balhasanl, Al-Istinsiikh al-Basharl: Muqiirabah Fiqhiyyah wa-Qiiniïniyyah
al-Dar al-Bayqii' al-A4madiyyah lil-Nashr, 2000), 26.
Ibid., 101.
32
of the Prohibition of Utilitarian Legal Hermeneutics
The most fundamental argument (iJujjah) and the one to which Muslim scholars
continually refer is the evidence of element (a) in the first objection to the doctrine of the
prohibition of utilitarian legal hermeneutics. This element is the destruction posed to the
traditional family by the fact that the cloned (al-mustansakh) and the source (al-
mustansakh minhu) do not fit in traditional models of human relationships. AI-Qaraqawl
applies his understanding of utilitarian legal hermeneutics to the issue of human cloning
by beginning his argument with reference to these nefarious results of human cloning (al-
mafiisid al-mutarattibah 'alii al-istinsiikh). In another example, the Muslim scholar
Abdulaziz Sachedina sees the following basic principles of shaii'ah as pertaining to new
technical inventions: "(1) refraining from causing harm and loss to oneself and others (lii
qarar wa-lii çfiriir), and (2) averting causes of corruption has precedence over bringing
about benefit (dar' al-mafiisid muqaddam 'aliijalb al-ma$iiliiJ).,,61
AI-Qaraqawl works within the aforementioned framework described by
Sachedina, but differs from most Muslim scholars by relying on a very rare interpretation
of the following serves, quoted above in a different context:
Do you not see that Allah sends down water from the cloud, then We bring forth
therewith fruits of various colors; and in the mountains are streaks, white and red,
of various hues and (others) intensely black?62
This verse, according to his interpretation, is couched in modernistic terms, and presents
an Islamic theological axiom, namely, preserving the phenomenon of pluralism (-?ËÏhirat
61 Abdulaziz Sachedina, Islamic Perspectives on Cloning. (accessed, December 13,
2003):
62 Qur'an 35:27
33
a1-tanawwuj. Human cloning, according to al-Qaragawl, goes against this necessary
phenomenon; thus filling the world copies of cloned humans will violate this divine
principle.
63
This suggests to him another divine principle that may be set against the
practice, i.e. Allah's rule ofpairs and pairing (sunnat a1-zawjiyyah):
And of everything We have created pairs that you may be mindful. 64
Within this theological conceptualization, al-Qaragawl asks the following question: How
can we understand the relation between the cloned (a1-mustansakh) and the source, or
"cloned from" (a1-mustansakh minhu)? Is the source a father, a mother, a twin brother,
or a stranger unrelated to the cloned?65 Furthermore, the Qur'anic definition for
classification of a progeny (bunuwwah) is: "their mathers are na athers than thase wha
gave birth ta them." 66 Thus, if the legal relation between the cloned and the source
cannot be determined, "we should deny this process from its origins, because of all these
nefarious results and these sins, sorne of which have just been revealed while the rest are
still hidden in the future." 67
Similarly, if human cloning cannot fit in any classification of the traditional
models of human relationships, how can we build (upon this vague relationship) legal
fiscal relations, especially inheritance? In the absence of any answer to such concems,
then it can only pose a danger to, God's primordial creation, fi.trah. In other words, this
63 al-Qaragawl, Mawqif al-SharI'ah min a1- Ta!awwuriit a1- 'I1miyyah. (accessed,
December 24, 2003):
http://www.aljazeera.netiprograms/shareeaJarticles/2001l4/4-3-1.htm
64 Qur'an 51:49
65 al-Qaragawl, Mawqif al-SharI'ah min a1- Ta!awwuriit a1- 'I1miyyah.
66 Qur'an 58:2
67 al-Qaragawl, Mawqif al-SharI'ah min a1- Ta!awwuriit a1- 'I1miyyah.
34
bio-technological invention will ultimately be destructive of the structure of familial
relations.
1.4.2.1.a.1. Critiquing the Evidence (a)
According to al-fiqh, al-Qaraqawl's Qur'anic conceptualization and
argument can be subjected to serious criticism since it is not possible to infer an
imperative mode (ami) from a declarative clause (jumlah khabariyyah), such as in the
context ofthe Qur'anic wonder at (tasbllJ) and praise for Allahs' creation:
Do you not see that Allah sends down water from the cloud, then We bring
forth therewith fruits of various colors; and in the mountains are streaks, white
and red, ofvarious hues and (others) intensely black? 68
Qaraqawl' s analysis can be seen as exceeding by a wide margin the conclusions arrived
at by earlier For according to al-fiqh, the above Qur'anic text is not classified
as a dis course of religious obligation (khi!ab takllfi) since it is not: 1) in an imperative
mode (al-amr wa al-nahI), or 2) a conditional description of legal cases (khi!ab wacJ'I).69
al-fiqh sees only these two types of texts as valid grounds for deriving legal
implications, due to the fact that the other type of verse is adduced for other reasons, such
as for preaching for reward and punishment (al-wa'ad wal-wa'ld), indicating the signs of
Allah's creation (dhikr ayat Alliih fi khalqih), or relating historical narrations
al-Qur'iinI).
The methods of (sadd al-dhaii'ah) and (ma'iilat al-af'al) are products of
creative legal thinking, ijtihiid, since they are not a direct divine injunction. This makes
68 Qur'an 35:27
69 al-Zarkashl, al-Ba1;.r al-Muhl! fi al-Fiqh (Cairo: Dar 1992), vol.4, 127.
35
them controversial, especiaHy pertaining to very specific cases or cases that the mujtahid
does not anticipate. AI-Qaraq.awl wants to highlight the exceptional aspects of the
phenomenon of human cloning. If his argument were a universal and divine argument,
the phenomenon of identical twin children, since they go against the principle of
pluralism, would be a sinful phenomenon. AI-Qaraq.awl does not offer an 'authentic'
u ~ i ï H analysis explaining how he established the phenomenon of pluralism as a divine
principle. As a result, he fails to illustrate what the 'illah is in order to see the consistency
Ci!priid) that designates where and when we shaH respect the principle of pluralism.
Accepting the premise that a given married couple is sterile, one might ask, if it is
from their cells that the clone is obtained, the cloned human ought not to be attributed to
that couple? Straightforward intuition suggests that the female source is a mother and the
male source is a father. Financial relations can be just as firmly built on this criterion, as
well as the family relations. And these family relations are precisely what al-Qaraq.awl
admits in the case of test-tube babies. These inconsistencies constrain al-Qaraq.awl's
doctrine and show how applying the principles of (sadd al-dharJ'ah) and (ma 'iiliit al-
af'iil) can lead to controversial positions on legal rulings when they are over- generalized
and unlimited. AI-Qaraq.awl's position could have been much more consistent had he
limited the prohibition to cases in which the process of cloning takes place outside the
limits of a legitimate family; such a case might well accord with the nefarious results he
assumes.
1.4.2.1.b. The Evidence For Element (b) in the First Objection of the Doctrine
of the Prohibition of Legal Hermeneutics
36
Destroying the basis of the family - the environment where a child ideally
receives a normal human upbringing - is element (b) in the first objection justifying the
prohibition of human based on legal hermeneutics. According to al-Qaraq.awl, this
element will have a disastrous effect upon the institution of the family and its relationship
structures. Allah's system in the world (Sunnah) is to have the child born and raised with
the support and compassion of its parents, who provide herlhim with a good example in
education, while also supporting herlhim financially and spiritually.
1.4.2.1.b.1. Critiquing the Evidence (b)
Even the foregoing the argument, with which few would disagree, cannot be a
necessary (liizim), but only a sufficient cause (kali). This is because its logic implies that
a pregnant woman whose husband has recently died would be subject to the charge of
undermining the family, since the family in this case does not have both parents. Once
agam, we see al-Qaraq.awl speaking in terms of universals, based on incorrect
assumptions.
1.4.2.2. The Second Objection in the Second Doctrinal Position to Human Cloning
In the second objection to human cloning, the doctrine of utilitarian legal
hermeneutics reinforces the proofs of the prohibition. Most of the efforts by Muslim
scholars, in this respect, can be classified as a collective discourse based on the
internationalliterature concerning the phobia against human cloning. There is an endless
list of anticipated horrors,70 such as: 1) a population explosion due to the expected
70 Shihadah, A1-Istinsakh bayna a1- 'I1m wa1-Fa1safah wa1-Din, 101-103, 112-113.
37
industry of cloning; 2) the ensuing despotism of governments and companies gaining
control over the cloning process; 3) the cloning of evil historical figures and dictators as
timeless rulers in sorne communities; 4) the possible advent of a universal matriarchal
society; 5) the epidemic susceptibility to infection between the same cloned humans and
new diseases; and 6) potential disasters stemming from massive social disorder, in which
a man would not know his wife or a teacher her/his students. These are but a few of the
numerous possible calamities that may arise and that are reasons for such vehement
opposition to human cloning.
This list catalogue of potential horrors also informs the doctrine of the legal
interpretation of the Qur'an, although it is not the kemel of the juristic argument, rather,
the doctrine of utilitarian legal hermeneutics relies on these elements and uses them as the
primary source. The above list, which may be described by sorne as paranoia, is
employed by the scholar MuQ.ammad Sa'1d Ramaqan al-But!, who is weIl known for his
philosophical legal writings,71 to make the required religious argument for prohibition.
AlI of these chaotic phenomena and anticipated horrors of human cloning, according to
al-But!, would be the consequence of such a sinful offence against AlIah's system
(Sunnah) and measurements (taqdir) in the world. Nevertheless, he refers to the
following verses to demonstrate the prohibition of human cloning:
71 For further information see the following works by MuQ.ammad Sa'id Ramaqan al-
Bu!l: al-Isliim Mladh kull al-Mujtama 'at al- Bashariyyah: Limadha wa-kayf ?
(Damascus: Dar al-Fikr 1991); fi al-Shaii'ah al-
Isliimiyyah (Damascus: Mu'assasat al-Risalah lil-J:iba'ah wal-Nashr wal-Tawzl', 2001);
Kubra al-YaqJniyyat al-Kawniyyah (Damascus: Dar al-Fikr 2001); al-Jihad fi
al-Isliim: Kayfà Nafhamuh wa-Kayfà Numarisuh? (Damascus: Dar al-Fikr
1994); lfJwir lfawl Mushldlat lfatfiriyyah (Mu'assasat al-Risalah lil-l)ba'ah wal-Nashr
wal-Tawzl',1991).
38
He has created everything, and has measured it exactly according to its due
measurements.
72
Surely we have created everything according to a measure 73
And do not make mischief in the earth, after its reformation 74
This phenomenology of the sinfulness of human cloning can be found scatlered
throughout most of the fatwiïs on the subject, but not in this form of articulated discourse.
AI-But1 starts his very short legal opinion by pointing out that "cloning is a type of
tampering (ta1iï'ub) with the structure of genetics, and the Qur'iin wams that the
ecological, social, and genetic structures are composed chemically and microbiologically
by God in a careful manner. Therefore, we may not tamper with it.,,75
1.4.2.2.1. Critiquing tbis Objection
AI-Butl, in this sense, does not even agree with the permissibility of animal
cloning. It is not clear what the limits are to his conception of the so-called tampering
(ta1iï'ub) with the structure of genetics or nature at large, if any. AI-But1's argument thus
places him in difficulty in two respects. He is either forced to prove that human cloning is
textually prohibited - which he already knows not to be the case, since he did not follow
the previous doctrine of the Qur'iinic legal interpretation - or, he is forced to ban the
whole process of the advancement of technology in order to prevent further tampering
with the structure of nature, a doctrine to which he might weIl be unwilling to commit
himself. A far more cautious approach is takeb by the ShI'! Lebanese scholar al-Sayyid
Mu4ammad I:Iusayn Faql Allah, the only Muslim scholar, to the writer's knowledge, who
72 Qur'iin 25:2
73 Qur'iin 54:49
74 Qur'iin 7:56
75 Shihiidah, A1-Istinsiïkh bayna a1- 'I1m wa1-Fa1safah wa1-Din, 121.
39
has not issued a fàtwii prohibiting human cloning, preferring to suspend his judgment
until a successful realization of the experiment of human cloning has been
accomplished.
76
1.5. Concluding remarks
The entire enterprise oftechnology, in this instance, rests upon altering the normal
course of nature in order to render it more pliant to the needs of the human being. And
here lies the heart of the problem: 1s it possible to alter nature for the bene fit of
humankind while remaining faithful to religious commitments? This orientation of the
necessity of technology within religious paradigms is agreed upon by al-Bii!1, al-
Qaraq.aw1, the 1slamic Fiqh Academy and the majority of scholars studied in this chapter.
However, the specified hermeneutics of the legal case of human cloning, prohibited on
the casis of two different doctrines of contemporary 1slamic legal discourse, is
excessively ideological and shows insufficient legal judgment. Hence, the only
conclusion is the following: It is not true that contemporary Islamic legal discourse on
human cloning is based on a legal methodology of the religious texts since the fatwas and
fiqh1 opinions offered in this regard are based neither on a valid legal interpretation of
the religious texts nor on a comprehensive and necessary application of utilitarian legal
hermeneutics. This evalution of the hermeneutics of the contemporary 1slamic legal
discourse, by comparing its methodology to the original methodology of u ~ i ï 1 a1-fiqh, will
continue in the coming two chapters. The second chapter will assess the first doctrine of
the interpretation based on the Qur'anic verses pertaining to the prohibition of human
76 Shihadah, Al-Istinsiikh bayna a1- 'I1m wa1-Fa1safah wa1-DJn, 131.
40
cloning, while the third chapter will be directed at appraising the second doctrine of
utilitarian legal hermeneutics.
41
CHAPTERTWO
THE FOUNDATIONS OF HERMENEUT}ÇS IN U ~ U L AL-FIQH: AL-TA'WIL
A L - U ~ U L I
The purpose of this chapter is to discover the foundations of the hermeneutics of
Islamic legal theory, u$iil al-fiqh. This elucidation will serve as a reply to the first
doctrinal argument against human cloning, which is based in Qur'anic interpretation.
This critique will offer methodological insight into the critical claim of the first chapter:
It is not true that contemporary Islamic legal discourse on human cloning is based on a
legal methodology of the religious texts, since the fatwas and fiqh1 opinions offered in
this regard are based neither on a valid legal interpretation of the religious texts nor on a
comprehensive and necessary application of utilitarian legal hermeneutics. This
methodological background will support the critiques already made of the adduced
generalizations and will argue a particular meaning for the verse, "changing Alliih 's
creation." Before presenting the structure of the hermeneutics of u$iil al-fiqh, and for
added clarity regarding relevant terminology, a brief illustration will be offered of the
position of hermeneutics (ta 'wll) within the various fields of u$iil al-fiqh - to the
exclusion of theological and mystical ta 'wll
In the Arab world, there is currently underway a massive effort to reintroduce
traditional Islamic legal therory, u$iil al-fiqh. Books and articles appear on a regular
basis in support of this effort. One example is the work al-Maniihij al-U$iiliyyah fi al-
.ijtihiïd bil-Ra'y fi aJ-Tashrl' al- Islanii (lit. Jurisprudential Methodologies of Creative
Thinking In Islamic Legislation) by Professor Mul}.ammad Fat!}.1 al-Durayn1.
77
77 Mu!}.ammad Fat!}.1 al-Durayn1, al-Maniihij al-U$iiliyyah fi al-.ijtihiïd bil-Ra'y fi al-
Tashrl' al- IslimJ(Beirut: Mu'assasat al-Risalah, 1997), 152.
42
Nevertheless, al-Duraynl's work stands out as an original contribution to the science of
al-fiqh itself. The author demonstrates a masterful understanding of the three major
schools of al-fiqh: al-Mutakallimiïn (lit. theologians), the lfanafiyyah, 78 and the
(lit. literalists). After evaluating each, al-Duraynl chooses the methodology of
the second school, having proved his satisfaction why its approach is the most efficient.
Then, he integrates the general accumulation of the theory of al-sharI'ah, or
objectives of the sharI'ah - especially as structured by Shatibl - to make it the common
theme of his text.
Before delving into the heart of our topic, it may be useful to position al-ta 'wll al-
within the various other types of al-ta 'wIl A widely-held contention exists within
the field of Islamic studies that the methodological and rigorous process of hermeneutics
(al-ta'wIl) is exclusively the territory of Islamic theology ('ilm al-kaliim.) Theological
hermeneutics was developed to solve the contradictory readings of certain Qur'anic
verses illustrating God's attributes, Although Islamic mysticism (al-
is one of the competing doctrines of theological hermeneutics, its approach to
Quranic language is very subjective and symbolic,80 which makes it less rigorous then
theologians' hermeneutics of the Qur'an in terms of logic and structure.
Although Islamic hermeneutics achieved a high level of logical elaboration in
'ilm al-kalam and an intense usage of symbolic and metaphorical reading in tasaTywuf, in
78 See, Ibn Khuldiin, Muqaddimat ibn Khuldiïn: DIwiin al- '!bar wa-Kitab al-Mubtada'
wal-Khabar fi Akhbiir aJ- 'Arab wal- 'Ajam wal-Barbar wa-Man min DhawI al-
al-Akbar, ed. 'An 'Abd al-Wiî4id Wafi (Cairo: Dar Nahqat lil-Tiba'ah wal-
Nashr, 1981) vol. 3, 1066.
79 Ifamid Abiï Zayd, al-Ittijiih al-'AqH fi al-TafSIr(Beirut: Dar al-Tanwlr, 1982),
245.
80 Ifamid Abiï Zayd, Mafhiïm Dirasah fi 'Uliïm al-Qur'an (Cairo: al-
Hay' ah lil-Kitab, 1990), 318.
43
neither does one find a logical-linguisitc approach to the religious text.
81
The previously
mentioned critique may be one of the reasons why hermeneutics was highly condemned
outside the fields of 'ilm al-kaliim and under the 'aqJdah classification of
condemned hermeneutics (al-ta 'wJl al-madhmiïm).82 Indeed, the only type of
hermeneutics that was not methodologically suspect and condemned, existed in the field
of al-fiqh. Unfortunately, however, this area of scholarship did not receive much
attention.
83
For this reason, the following sections will constitute an attempt to answer the
question: "What is the structure of al-fiqh hermeneutics" To do so, a reference will
be made to the system of Mu4ammad Fat41 al-Duraynl?" However, disceming the
process of ta 'wH as an endeavor that seeks consistency within the text itself firstly and
within the body oflegislation, secondly, is the present auther's own contribution.
2.1. Qur'3.nic Hermeneutics in al-fiqh: A Historical Background
The origins of al-fiqh 's hermeneutics can be traced back to a point many
years before the theological hermeneutics associated with the problem of fitnah, a period
of disagreement and disorder in Islamic society that arose in 35/655, and gave rise to
81 Abu Zayd, MaDliïm 275-336.
82 For further information see Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, al-$awii'iq a1-Munazza1ah
'alii al-Tii'ifah al-Jahmiyyah wal-Mu'a.t.tilah (Saudi Arabia: Ma!abi' al-Jami'ah al-
Islamiyyah bil-Madinah al-Munawwarah, 1407 A.H.), vol. 1,317, and the Qur'anic verse
7:3 "as for those in whose hearts is deviation [[rom the truth] follow that of which is
equivocallanguage, seeking discord and seeking hermeneutics."
83 1;'aha 'Abd al-Ra4man, Tajdid al-Manhaj fi TaqwJm al-Turiith (Beirut: al-Markaz al-
Thaqafi al-' ArabI, 1999), 130, and Mu4ammad Fath1 al-Duraynl, al-Maniihij a1-
37.
44
many theological issues -beginning with the problem of Muslim leadership (imiimah).84
Qur'anic hermeneutics, in essence, started after Prophet MlÙ}ammad passed away, at
which point, the Prophet's companions, as were faced with the problem of
understanding the legal portions of the Qur'an. In the next two sections (2.1.1 and 2.1.2),
two detailed examples will be offered in order to shed light on the implementation of

2.1.1. The Example of 'Iddah
According to the Qur'an, a woman who wants to marry a new husband after she
had a divorce case or her previous husband has passed away needs to wait for several
menstruational periods known as 'iddah, 85 in order to be certain that she is not pregnant:
"And (as for) those of you who die and leave wives behind, they should keep themselves
in waiting for four months and ten days; then when they have fully attained their term,
there is no blame on you for what they do for themselves in a lawful manner." 86
However, a question not originally addressed was: What if a woman's husband died
while she was pregnant? This question was a legal case that required the exercise of legal
hermeneutics. The Qur'an may suggest a solution to this question in the following verse:
And (as for) those of your women who have despaired of menstruation, if you
have a doubt, their prescribed time shall be three months, and of those too who
have not had their courses; and (as for) the pregnant women, their prescribed
time is that they lay down their burden; and whoever is careful of (his duty to)
Allah He will make easy for him his affair.
87
84 Abu Zayd, a1-Ittijih a1- 'AqJJ fi a1-Tafslr, 12.
85 al-Duraynl, a1-Manihij 152.
86 Qur'an 2: 234
87 Qur'an 65: 4
45
It is evident from the two Qur'anic verses cited above that there is contradictory
information being offered. In the first verse, the period is four months and ten days. In the
second cited verse, the period is determined by the moment of a woman's giving birth,
which could constitute a wait from the first discovery of the pregnancy until a point of
time of nine months later. In other words, this period may extend, conceivably, form only
one day if the delivery happened exactly after the death (as, by extension, divorce), to
more than the four months and ten days proscribed in the first verse.
This contradictory set of Qur'anic rulings, in a text that daims to be canonical as
weIl as holy, would be logically and practically impossible to implement. The Prophet's
companions found two ways to resolve this discrepancy through Qur'anic
hermeneutics. 'Abd Allah ibn Mas'iïd (d. 23/643) issued his legal opinion (ra y) on this
problem, dedaring the second verse a specifier, of the first one. This
means that the Qur'anic verse "And (as for) those ofyou who die and leave wives behind,
they should keep themselves in waiting for four months and ten days,,88 should be a
general rule for alliegai cases, wherease in the specific case of pregnancy, the verse "(as
for) the pregnant women, their prescribed time is that they lay down their burden,,89
applies. 'Abd Allah ibn Mas 'iïd determined the period to be that which elapses until a
woman gives birth, even if the pregnant woman were to deliver before the limit of four
months and ten days or afterwards. Ibn Mas'iïd's interpretation prevents the Qur'an from
88 Qur'an 2: 234
89 Qur'an 65: 4
46
falling into a contradiction that might confuse Muslim practice, and likewise preserves
the textual consistency (ittisiiq)90 of the Qur'anic legal discourse.
'AIT ibn Ab1 Talib, another important and the fourth KhaITfah of Islam (d.
40/660) issued a different legal opinion.
91
In his interpretation of the two previously
cited verses, he concluded that the further of the two limits should be adhered to: this
means that if the four months and ten days for the pregnant women elapse without giving
birth, the women should continue her 'iddah period until she gives birth. But in contrast
to 'Abd Allah ibn Mas'ud's ra'y, he maintained that a woman cannot marry a new
husband even if she gives birth before the 'iddah is over. The ta 'wll or hermeneutics of
'AIT ibn Ab1 Talib aims at preserving the functional validity of the two Qur'anic
sentences at once and in the same time. His legal decision (fàtwii) rests on a Quranic
interpretation that fuses the meaning of both of the two sentences. The interpretation
seeks to prevent a new legal case from arising that may contradict any Qur'anic verse.
From this point ofview, 'Abd Allah ibn Mas'ud seems to have accepted a new legal case
contradicting the Qur'anic verse, "And (as for) those of you who die and leave wives
behind, they should keep themselves in waiting for four months and ten days,,92 We can
generalize his ta 'wll and say that he accepts new particular legal case to contradict any
general Qur'anic verse unless these verses are not articulated to connote particularly the
same legal case. Then a rational and creative effort (ijtihiid) could practice Qur'anic
90 l am borrowing the concept of ittisiiq as 1.'aha 'Abd al-Ral].man articulates it, i.e. taking
it in the sence of "logical consistency." However, the application of this concept on the
foundations ofhermeneutics in al-fiqh is totally mine.
91 Ibid., 153.
92 Qur'an 2: 234
47
interpretation by specifying a non-contradicted Qur'anic sentence with a contradicted
generalized Qur'anic sentence.
The various perceptions and opinions as presentd by 'Abd Allah ibn Mas'ud and
'Ali ibn Ab1 Talib exhibited a high level of intellectual sophistication, at a very early
stage in the history of Islam, and achieved the aim ofunifying contradictory or equivocal
passages of the Qur'anic and enabled it to cover new legal cases. It is clear in fact that
their prime concem was to preserve the consistency of the Qur'an in the face ofthis legal
case, that this is what motivated the whole discussion between the two muftis. l will calI
this ijtihiid, which seeks to establish consistency between apparently contradictory texts
of the Qur'an, or 'textual consistency,' as will be explained in section 2.2.1. There are
copious other similar examples that have engaged human reason in its approach in the
core of the Qur' anic legal text, and the next is one of them.
2.1.2. The Example of Sawad al-Iraq
It may be argued that 'Umar ibn al-KhaHab, a Companion and Caliph (d. 24/644),
provides in the following case of sawiid al- 'iriiq the best example of u ~ i ï l al-fiqh
hermeneutics.
93
He was regarded as a leader in creative legal reasoning and is in fact
known as Imiim Ahl al-Ra y. The problem of our hermeneutical legal case is based on
this verse:
And know that whatever thing you gain, a fifth of it is for Allah and for the
Messenger and for the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the
wayfarer.
94
93 Ibid., 154.
94 Qur'an 8 :41
48
The verse establishes that if Muslims obtain war booty, one-fifth is to go toward the
aforementioned expenditures. The rest, four-fifths, is for the fighters who won the war.
'Umar ibn al-Khattab, however did not find this legal conjecture applicable to the
conque st of Iraq (fàtq al- 'Iraq). The particular problem faced at that time was the
fighters' desire to possess movable and immovable properties, including a huge amount
of lands from the newly conquered (sawad al- 'Iraq) country. The fighters requested that
they receive their stated portion in the Qur' an; even if this meant dividing up a newly
conquered country for private purposes. 'Umar ibn al-Khattab, as head of state, had to
issue a fàtwa to the army, declaring, "this is my legal opinion (hadha ra Yi)." His
interpretations were based on an argument that answers the following two questions: 1) If
Muslims offer immovable properties to the fighters, what is to be given to the coming
generations of Muslims? 2) If Muslims offers offer four-fifths of the immovable
properties to fighters, what will constitute the financial source to fund future conquests,
which itself is a major religious dut y (wiïjib shar'i)? Additionally, if given the land, how
can it be ensured that the fighters will continue fighting in the cause of Islam, and not
simply settle in Iraq?95
'Umar answered these questions in the process of establishing his own argument
at a government-Iegislative meeting, or shiïrii. His decision was to rest upon an
understanding of the Qur'anic verse on war-booty expenditure. In his fàtwii, the
immovable properties of Iraq would not be given to the fighters, but rather, would be left
in the possession of the prior, non-Muslim Iraqi owners. Additionally, those owners
95 al-Duraynl, al-Maniihij 155.
49
would be expected to paya citizenship and security tax Uizyah)96 to reward the fighters
for their fighting and coyer both the expenses of subsequent Muslims generations and
future Islamic conquests.
Yet, l see that 'Umar ibn al-Khattab's interpretation of the Qur'anic verse
illustrates a different approach in comparison to the previously discussed Qur'anic
hermeneutics of 'Abd Allah ibn Mas'iid and 'AIT ibn Ab1 Talib. The legislative
consistency of the legal discourse, not textual consistency, was what controlled 'Umar
ibn al-Khattab's Qur'anic hermeneutics. The reason behind this hermeneutical approach
of legislative consistency was that contradiction is not to be found between two texts that
discuss the same legal case or between a verse and a new legal case. Instead, it is usually
between a stated verse and a principle, mabda', or a faculty, kulliyah, that is induced
from other stronger legislative principles that occur more often in the primary texts of the
Qur'an and Sunnah. In the case in question, the stated verse asserts that the portion taken
from the total of the war booty for communal purposes was to be one-fifth, while the
four-fifths were to the fighters. Still stronger legislative principles, however, or the spirit
of the law (nafs al-sharl'ah),97 understood from whole passages of the Qur'an, forbade
the nefarious results of stopping the conquests (futiÏl!) and impoverishing the generations
to come. These two undesirable results are mentioned in two other general verses:
Surely Allah enjoins the doing of justice and the doing of good (to others) and
the giving to the kindred, and He forbids indecency and evil and rebellion; He
admonishes you that you may be mindful. 98
96 Abii Yiisuf, Kitiib al-Khariij(Cairo: al-Matba'ah al-Salafiyyah, 1353 A.H.), 14-16.
97 Ibn Rushd, Bidiiyat al-Mujtahid wa-Nihiiyat al-Matba'ah al-
1982), vol.2, 154.
98 Qur'an 16:90
50
Certainly We sent Our messengers with clear arguments, and sent down with
them the Book and the balance that men may conduct themselves with equity;
and We have made the iron, wherein is great violence and advantages to men,
and that Allah may know who helps Him and His messengers in the secret;
surely Allah is Strong, Mighty.99
And strive hard in (the way of) Allah, (such) a striving a is due to Him
lOo
'Umar ibn al-KhaHab's legal hermeneutics pays close attention to the outcomes of
the sharI'ah or the legislative consistency of the legal discourse and its functionality, and
this process aims to prevent the Qur'an from turning into a blind, mechanical,101 and
formalistic text that would contradict its own aims of seeking virtue in the world,
fi a1-arçl. Thus, his hermeneutics reached a level of authority that would restrict the
applicability of a Qur'anic verse, implying that interpretation could generate a ruling to
be comparable to the divine source itself. This point will be elaborated in more detail in
the third chapter, but for now consideration must be given to the legal mind and the
methodology that are implicit in hermeneutics: these are the foundations of the
hermeneutics, as will be shown in the next section.
2.2. The Structure of Hermeneutics in al-Fiqh
Equipped with an extensive hermeneutical experience, legal theoristes or
gathered most of the similar examples to cases of 'iddah and sawiid a1- 'Iriiq and studied
them systematically, in order to establish a the ory of hermeneutics. The
developed in the process a highly elaborate method to determine when a generalized
('iimmah) Qur'anic sentence should be specified and when an unrestricted
99 Qur'an 57: 25
100 Qur'an 22:78
101 al-Duraynl, a1-Maniihij 494.
51
(muflaqah) Qur'anic sentence should be restricted (muqayadah). In the same vein, this
theory of hermeneutic could be used to help distinguish metaphoric (majiïz) from literaI
(lJaqlqah) usage oftexts.
The question that may be posed is: What is the essence of Islamic hermeneutics
(ta 'wli)? Ta 'wll is "the clarification of God' s intentions behind revealing certain
Qur'anic sentences. This is to say, by changing its obvious or literaI meaning to other
possibly stronger meanings.,,102 Ta'wll is a verbal noun from the Arabic verb awwal,
literally meaning to go back to the origin 'or the first' (al-awwai). However, it is
technically used to convey meaning or to have something in its final outcome. For
instance, the mathematical phenomenon ofthe infinite decimal number (1.99999) rounds
up (ya 'iïi) to the number (2). In this example, the infinite decimal number (1.99999) does
not have a definite quantity in itself, but in its final outcome (2). In the case of ta 'wllwith
respect to a certain Qur'anic sentence, it means having well-guided ijtihiid into God's
intention, by "rounding off' certain inapplicable Qur'anic sentence in order to tease out
its most accessible meaning. In the ta 'wll endeavor the mujtahid reaches the level of
knowledge most probable (ghiilib al--?an), as if God would have revealed a sentence
discussing a given legal case in question. This suggests that sorne Qur'anic sentences are
undefined and in their meaning with regards to particular legal cases. This is similar to
the example of the infinite decimal in the number (1.99999). Ta'wllin this approach can
be said to consist of three premises, namely: 1) God had an original intention
al-shiiri'ah) in leaving an undefined connotation within certain verses; 2) a human
rational and creative effort (ijtihiid) is capable of communicating what God originally
102 al-Duraynl, al-Maniihij 167.
52
wanted, to be achieved by looking for an intentional virtuous state of being; and 3) the
mujtahid is capable of reaching the level of determining the connotation of a Qur'anic
sentence by - for example - changing the connotation from generalization to
specification; in other words, the mzljtahidis capable of rewriting the literaI Qur'an again
and again - in effect using it as as an inexhaustable legal source - since he/she is the
successor of God Himself in the world (khaHfah). In recognition of this role of the
mzljtahid as the khaHfah, ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah (d. 772/ 1370), a ijanbafi jurist,
decided to entitle his magnum opus on the hermeneutics of jurisprudence The
Declaration for Those Who Sign on Behalf of the Lord of the Worlds (J'liïm al-
Muwaqqi'in 'an Rabb al- 'Alamin).
This being the case, is there a strict technique to be followed when practicing
hermeneutics? Consider the approach in subjective discourse of explicit
(-?8hir) and implicit (biitin); this discourse resembles the notion of AŒih's
intention al-shiirij, because they declare that, by bii.tin, they can know what is
implied in the text, whereas the obvious Qur'anic language (-?8hir) gives no idea of
God' s real intention. 103 Thus, unlike the approach to Qur' anic hermeneutics, which
is condemned by a great number of Sunnl figures, al-fiqh still has a methodology to
support its ta 'wH approach.
The latter methodology can be summarized in two key notions: the first takes aIl
of the various legal texts as a whole unit of legal faculties (kulliyyyiit al-shari'ah) and
recognizes the consistency that establishes a logical legal reference; the second aims to
apply and utilize the virtuous functionality of this whole unit by achieving
103 Abu Zayd, MaD1iiin 350.
53
legislative consistency. al-fiqh's hermeneutical approach to the text itself shall be
discussed in the next section on the textual consistency of legal discourse, while al-
fiqh' s approach to the relationship between the text and the legal world will be
illuminated in the foIlowing section on the legislative consistency of legal discourse.
2.2.1. The Textual Consistency of Legal Discourse
al-fiqh's hermeneutics approaches the legal sources of the Qur'an and the
Sunnah through a tri-past apparatus: specification restriction (al-taqyld), and
metaphor (majiiz.). These concepts are key to achieving the previously mentioned goal of
taking the sources of legal texts as a single unit, or kulJiyat al-shaii'ah. In linguistic
vocabulary, these three methods are designed to achieve textual consistency (al-ittisaq al-
in legal discourse, in order to rebuild aIl the legal propositions in one single
detailed proposition known as a legal chapter (bab fiqhl).
Taking the legal texts as a whole unit presumes that the verses discussing similar
legal cases in different Qur'anic chapters (suras) or similarly pertinent lJadiths are
continuous and should be read in a way that fuses their combined meaning. It is the role
of ijtihadi hermeneutics to establish coherence of the Qur'an and Sunnah. Thus, the
assert that if there exists a verse discussing a case in general terms on the one
hand, and then in another verse it is specified, the final understanding would be in favor
of the specified one. Similarly, if we have a verse discussing an unrestricted case once
and then in another verse it is restricted, the final interpretation would be in favor of the
restricted one. This mechanism shaIl be illuminated in the coming sections: 2.2.1.1,
2.1.1.2, and 2.2.1.3.
54
2.2.1.1. Specification, al-
In the linguistic technique of specification (takhsls), the jurist is faced with a
number of verses that apply to a given legal case in a generalized mode, such as in the
case of the verse, "It is He who created for you al! of that which is on the earth. ,,104 This
verse has several implications; one of them is freedom of ownership and the capability of
entering into aH possible financial contracts. From a legal point of view, this verse can
justify, for exarnple, giving permission to someone who wants to cut down the trees in a
huge forest. However, there is another verse that deals with the issue of ownership and
entering into financial contracts in a more specific manner; it states:
You who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves unjustly except
it be a trade arnongst you, by mutual consent.
105
The second verse treats ownership and trade as matters that depend on mutual consent,
and can be used, for instance, to prevent of restrict the clear-cutting of trees cited in the
above example. In aJ-fiqh 's hermeneutical approach, the second verse is a
specification of the verse,"createdfor you al! ofthat which is on the earth.,,106 The reason
for this specification is the semantic status of the second verse, in which the legal case is
mentioned or referred to directly and clearly. This semantic specification of the verse
supersedes the previously mentioned verse of general application. Thus, in the
hermeneutics, the more pertinent verse can determine the interpretation in preference to
104 Qur'an 2:29
105 Qur'an 4:29
106 al-Duraynl, aJ-Maniihij 185.
55
the less pertinent one, and this in order to achieve consistent meaning of the holy text. 107
This demonstrates how human interaction with the Qur'anic text can abrogate sorne
meaningful part of one verse by applying another, more specific verse. The mujtahid can
thus approximate (yuqiïrib) Allah's intention by the method of u.JuJJ hermeneutics to
achieve better legislation in the conflict between public and private ownership.
2.2.1.2. Restriction, al-Taqyld
The aforementioned method of specification (al-takh.JI$) deals with verses that
apply to legal cases by virtue of having the same connotation. Al-taqyld, by contrast, is a
linguistic technique that attempts another aspect of textual consistency. In this case the
common element is similar expressions occurring in the Qur'an in different passages,
simultaneously possessing additional descriptions and information surrounding them. In
the following example, the additional description in the second verse restricts the other
expressions, i.e. the legislation conceming the financial relations between orphans and
their family provider:
And give to the orphans their properties
l08
And test the orphans [in their abilities] until they reach the marriageable age.
Then ifyou perce ive in them soundjudgment, release their property to them
l09
In considering these two verses, the problem is manifest: Should the family provider of
the orphan(s) release their own money instantly? Or should the provider wait until the
\07 Another possible interpretation is that if someone owns a piece of land or house that
blocks another neighbors' road, he/she is not free to prevent other neighbors from
accessing that road.
108 Qur'an 4:2
109 Qur'an 4:6
56
orphan reaches the age of maturity? Obviously, the second verse suggests that the family
provider should wait until he/she is certain that the orphan reached the legal age before
entrusting herlhim with the property. Thus, in the case of al-taqyIdwe can recognize the
same theme of textual consistency as in the case of specification, whereby restriction
elicits a certain theme allowing the jurist to approximate (yu'wwIl) God's original
intention. This theme, on one hand, enables the mujtahidto say that God most probably
wants this or that in such a legal case. In this way the mziftahid can attain a divine rational
status that allows him to state what the Qur'an does not say literally.
2.2.1.3. Compound Metaphor, al-Majiz
Al-majiz, as a word, is a type of verbal noun called al-mImI derived
from the Arabic verb jiiz,110 which signifies the idea of crossing or bridging something
from one state to another ('abar). However, majiz, in the terminology of the science of
rhetoric (baliighah), means a compound metaphor, in contrast to other rhetorical concepts
such as tashbIh and isti'iirah. Logical-linguistic analysis allows one to distinguish majiz
as compound metaphor from tashbIh as simple metaphor by virut of the fact that the latter
is a sentence that contains two major elements of assimilation, i.e. the assimilated (al-
mushabbah) and the assimilated-to (al-mushabbah bih), and perhaps also a particle of
similie (adiit aJ-tashbIh) along with a theme of simile (wajh al-shabah). For example, the
following sentences may be considered typical of the tashbIh style in the science of
rhetoric (baliighah) and al-fiq:
110 For further information see Faql Ifasan 'Abbas, al-Baliighah: Funiïnuhii wa-Aihiinuhii
2: 'Ilm al-Bayiin wal-Badi'(Amman: Dar al-Furqan lil-Nashr wal-Tawzl', 1987).
57
Robin Hood is like a lion in bravery.
Robin Hood is a lion in bravery.
Robin Hood is like a lion.
Robin Hood is a lion
We see clearly that Robinhood (al-mushabbah) and the lion (al-mushabbah bih) are in aU
the sentences the tenus require to establish the simile. By the same token, the particle of
simile is optional, as is the theme ofbravery.
By contrast, the isti'iirah is a metaphor that contains neither of the two elements
of the assimilation: the assimilated (al-mushabbah) and the assimilated-to (al-mushabbah
bihl) at once and in the same time nor even the particle of simile (adat al-tashbih) or the
theme of simile (wajh al-shabah). The foUowing sentences about Robin Hood in the
context of bravery and strength may be considered examples of the isti'iirah style
according to the sciences of rhetoric (baliïghah) and u$ul al-fiq:
A lion fought bravely in the battle.
Robin Hood ravaged his enemies in the battle.
We see cleady that neither Robin Hood (al-mushabbah) nor the lion or its attributes (al-
mushabbah bihl) appear in the same sentence, and this is what constitutes the style of the
isti'iirah metaphor. Nor is the simile found in this style of metaphor.
Yet, al-majiiz in the logical analysis is either two steps of isti 'iirah or the context in
which the common usage of naturallanguage is utilized. In the majiiz of the two steps of
isti'iirah, the signified (al-mushabbah) is absent and there is a complexity in the signifier
(al-mushabbah bih). Thus, l consider it to be a compound metaphor. This technical
concept is a remarkable inteUectual enterprise in Arabie rhetoric and, indeed, majiiz finds
58
its origins within the theological doctrine of the Mu'tazilah. Nevertheless, the in
coniparison to theologians (mutaldllimiin), made valuable advances in the amplification
of this rhetorical technique. Al-majiïz is a textual reading process in which the reader
recognizes the usage of naturallanguage as a less than pure reflection of reality. In this
instance, the reader says: it is not possible that the text here means what it says literally.
The reason beneath that results from contradictions in the order of things or in what the
text wants to say. To show how this operates, one may consider the verse:
o you who have believed, when you rise to [perform] prayer, wash your
faces and your hands forearms up to the elbows and wipe over your heads and
wash your feet up to ankles 111
This verse literally says that, ifyou pray, proceed to to make ablution, wucjiï'. This literaI
understanding is very odd, because it is very well known from the practice of the Prophet
and the practices of all the generations after him that wucjiï' is the process of cleaning the
body as a preparation for the praying. So why does the Qur'anic style use this odd order?
The mujtahid's ta'wll asserts the Qur'an is employing the habits of common usage, or
what is called the usage of natural language (al-lughah al-!abl'iyyah),112 in which it
permits itself the usage of sorne expressions instead of others that may be more strictly
logical. Therefore, the mujthaid would favor the sound understanding of the legal text.
The reason behind this permission relies, simply on how the audience of the Qur'an
reacted to such an expression. This process is exactly what is meant by al-majiiz.
Furthermore, the expression "when yau rise ta" in the sentence "when yau rise ta
{perfarm] prayer, wash yaur faces ... " is a possible usage for "if you intend to," which is
111 Qur'an 5:6
112 'Abd al-Ra4man, Al-Lisan wal-Mlzan, 401.
59
a metaphorical usage. The reason for this is that the intention of doing an instant action,
ablution in this case, can be substituted and reworded by name of the action itself, "rise
up." The ta'wllin this case tries to go beyond what is literally and naturally said to what
is intentionally and originally meant. For instance, this hermeneutics is spiritually
motivated to find out what is divine in the Qur'an and how it can be understood in
specific and restricted cases, as well as metaphorical ones, in order to realize the purpose
of the text and prepare it to set things right in the world, or
2.2.2. Legislative Consistency of Legal Discourse
After discussing al-fiqh 's hermeneutical approaches to the legal text itself,
or the textual consistency of the legal discourse, it is now time to illustrate al-fiqh 's
hermeneutical approaches to the relationship between the text and the world. The dual
apparatus of textual reconciliation (al-tawliq) and textual preponderance (al-tarjI4), are
the key methods that may be used to achieve the notion of applying and utilizing the
functionality of this legal text by consistent legislative principles In contrast
to the textual consistency, these two methods are designed to achieve legislative
consistency, in which attention is paid to actuallegal practice rather than the language of
the legal discourse.
l13
2.2.2.1. Textual Reconciliation, al-Tawfiq
Usually, if the method of textual reconciliation is applied to contradicting
Qur'anic passages, the same methods would be used as in 2.2.1, i.e., specification,
113 al-Duraynl, al-Maniihij 149-190.
60
restriction, and "metaphorization. However, textual reconciliation will only demonstrate
its clear functionality if it is used between texts that have the same legal authority or
semantic clarity. Thus, it is be applied, typically, to restore contradictory legal proofs that
have the same legal authority or semantic clarity, i.e., within contradicting Qur'anic
passages or within contradicting texts from the Prophetie narrations, Sunnah. As a result,
a controversial case involving Qur'anic passages and texts from other legal sources, such
as the prophetie Sunnah, would rarely be considered part of the reconciliation method.
A very well known problem in the world of u ~ i ï l al-fiqh is the contradiction
between the Prophet's iJadith, "the son and his money are for his father" while another
lJadith states this "the father and his money are for the son." This is a very extreme
example of legal contradiction. In spite of this, u ~ i ï l al-fiqh's hermeneutics approaches
the issue very creatively. The hermeneutical rule here declares that "reconciling alliegai
texts is better than ignoring any of them" (i'miil al-daRI awlii min ihmiilih). One of the
hermeneutical solutions for this issue is to establish a new, mediated meaning (al-qadr al-
mushtarak) to reconcile the contradiction. In this case, a possible mediation can be:
"giving both the father and the son accessibility to each other' s money on the condition
of replacement in the future." The justification of this analysis is: 1) that the mediation
depends on the possible meaning of the preposition ''for'' in the sentence "the son and his
money are for his father," since the meaning of possession is not implied visibly in the
sentence; and 2) that the mediation saves most of the meaning of both contradicting
sentences.
61
2.2.2.2. Textual Preponderance, aJ-TaIJÔ!
The second conceptual tool in al-fiqh herrneneutics is preponderance (al-
tarjJ1!); how to recognize superiority in the weight, power, importance, or strength of a
legal proof. This tool has different application, depending on whether it is comparing: 1)
Qur'anic verses one with another, or 2) the Qur'an and other legitimate legal sources.
Since preponderance falls under the heading of the legislative consistency of the legal
discourse that deals with relations between the text and the world, it is appropriate to
discuss the latter of these applications, and particularly the question of preponderance in
the enounter between the Qur' an and the Sunnah.
An often weIl discussed issue is the contradiction between an authoritative text
and another, less authoritative text. In this case, the contradiction between the Qur'an and
the Sunnah would be an excellent application for the concept of preponderance. 'Umar
ibn al-KhaHab, again, would appear to have been a key figure in the development of this
method. The legal case of the post-divorce expenses (nafàqat al-mut 'ah) of a fully
divorced woman (al-mu,tllaqah thaliithan) discussed in 'Umar ibn al-KhaHab's time is
instructive.
114
The problem involved a woman, Fatimah ibnat Qays, who claimed
that she was not paid post-divorce expenses by a decision of the Prophet himself. 'Umar
ibn al-KhaHab did not accept the fact that a Prophetie 1;adith narrated by one chain of
narrators (iilJiid) could be used to challenge an authoritative source like the Qur'an, which
is narrated by multiple chains of narrators (mutawiitii), especiallY as the verse in question
seems unequivocal:
114 al-Duraynl, al-Maniihij 431.
62
Lodge them [the divorced women] where you dwell, according to your means,
and do not treat them in such a harmful way that they be obliged to leave.
115
Simply put, Umar ibn al-KhaHab refused to apply the proofbased on Prophetie narrative,
because the Qur'an is stronger both in: 1) authenticity, because it is narrated in the
mutawitir form and 2) the virtuous nature of 'Umar ibn al-KhaHab's hermeneutics
would not abandon a divorced a woman without the financial means to support herself.
2.3. Concluding Remarks
U ~ i ï l al-fiqh hermeneutics IS a Socially constructed endeavor that mms to
implement the teachings of the divine text in worldly affairs. Interference in the
interpretation and implementation of the divine text is a very serious act in the religious
realm, since it amounts to interpolating the speech of God (al-taqawwul 'ali Allah).
Thus, U ~ i i l al-fiqh hermeneutics is based on three justified premises: 1) the significant
role of man as God's sucees sor in the world, khaIifah, 2) the rational responsibility to
preserve the divine phenomenon of the Qur'an from falling into contradiction by the
divinely ordained mission of the ijtihid; and 3) the responsibility to allow the text to be a
means of reform and virtue in the world and not, simply, to fall into the realm of
formalistic legal texts. These objectives produced the hermeneutical procedure of
preponderance and reconciliation.
The responsibility that the role of khaIifah entails in practicing ijtihidtc
hermeneutics to achieve consistency in the realm of text and reality is what motivated
u ~ i i l al-fiqh scholars to generate an elaborate apparatus of conceptual tools to deal with
the phenomena of religious texts. Specification is a tool to be applied to contradictions
115 Qur'an 65:6
63
that may arise because of sorne general verses, while restriction is a conceptual tool
designed to limit the application of certain verses that connote sorne legal cases in an
unrestricted manner. In the same vein, compound metaphors or the usage of natural
language (majiiz) is what helps the scholar rationalize problems of the natural usage of
the Qur'iinic language. If the aforementioned linguistic tools seek consistency in the inner
realm of the text, textual reconciliation (tawiiq) and preponderance (tarjJ1!) operate in a
different realm which is outside the text. Reconciliation is be applied, usually, in the
event of contradicting legal proofs that have the same legal authority or semantic clarity
while preponderance recognizes superiority in the weight, power, importance, or strength
of the legal proof.
After the foregoing, almost archeological activity of discovering the foundations
of the legal hermeneutics of u ~ i ï l al-fiqh, it can be claimed that: textual and legislative
consistency is the objective of u ~ i ï l al-fiqh hermeneutics. This claim supports the first
chapter's claim: It is not true that contemporary Islamic legal discourse on human
cloning is based on a legal methodology of the religious texts since the fatwas and the
fiqhJ opinions studied in this regard are based on a valid legal interpretation of the
religious text. The crux of the argument respectring the first doctrine on prohibiting
human cloning based on the Qur'an lies in its misuse of legal interpretation of the
religious texts by not recognizing the existence of contradiction and the primacy of
performing textual and legislative consistency. The following contradictions have been
left to stand without being addressed by hermeneutics. The first is the verse: "And [He
has createdJ horses, mules and donkeys, for you to ride and as an adornment. And He
64
creates [other] things ofwhich yOU have no knowledge.,,116 This verse highlights, in a
tone of admiration, the proliferation of new creatures such as mules, itself a hybrid of
horses and donkeys. The second contradiction of their thesis emerges from, "So direct
your face [MulJammad] toward the religion, inclining to the truth. [Adhere toi the fi.trah
of Allah upon which he has created [ail] people. No change would exist in Allah 's
creation, but most of the people do not knoW.,,117 These two verses show an extreme
example of conflict with the traditional u$iïli methodology of preserving the divine
speech from contradiction ( l J i ~ kaliim al-shiri' min al-ùf.tiriib).
The next step in this survey is to look at a larger methodological concern that
contemporary Islamic legal discourse evades, specifically, the role of perceiving
revelation in Islamic legal practice.
116 Qur'an: 8:16
117 Qur'an: 30:30
65
CHAPTER THREE
- - -
THE HERMENEUTICS OF REVELATION SHATIBI'S THEORY OF
AL-SHARI'AH
3.1. Introduction
According to the traditional Islamic understanding, revelation (al-waliiJ is the
speech of God to human beings. The literaI meaning of walJI is vocal inspiration that
someone hears, so that divine walJI consists in a prophet regularly receiving
communication directly from Allah or from agents chosen by Allah, like the angel
Jibrll.
ll8
This message is articulated in the the Qur'an and in the Prophet Mul}ammad's
teachings (the Sunnah), which explicate the intentions of God. The identity of Islam is
therefore grounded in the event the revelation of holy texts to Prophet Mul}ammad. AlI
branches of the discourse that emerged within the Islamic heritage, e.g. mysticism (al-
theology ( 'ilm al-kaliim), jurisprudence al-fiqh), rhetoric (al-baliighah),
sciences of al-Qur'an ('uliïm al-Qur'iin), and sciences of al-l}adlth ('uliïm al-l}adlth), are
based on the process of representing and building exegesis of the MlÙ].ammadan
revelation. This process of discussing the Mul}ammadan revelation, through exegesis,
amplification, and ramification, is what may be called the hermeneutics of revelation.
The present case study of human cloning is explored in the following, through the
hermeneutics of revelationas set forth by Shatbl's (d. 790/ 1388 ), in his magnum opus,
al-Muwiifàqiit fi al-sharI'ah, where he considers this methodology in the light of
Maqiisad al-sharI'ah. The relationship between revelation and the issue of human cloning
is due to the fact that the religious legitimacy that produces fàtwiis and legal opinions
118 W. M. Watt and R. Bell, Introduction ta the Qur'an (Edinburgh: Edinburgh
University Press, 1977), 19-154.
66
about this techonology is essentially derived from a certain understanding of revelation.
Therefore, it is important to discuss the worldview behind the second doctrine of
prohibition, i.e., that of utilitarian legal hermeneutics. This will be analyzed in the light of
the Islamic understanding of revelation as presented by Shatb1.
Section 3.2 discusses how Shatbl's theory can be approached from a perspective
different than those hitherto applied to his thought. It goes on in Section 3.3. to analyze
Shatibl's hermeneutics of revelation, firstly, by investigating the presuppositions that
epistemologicallyl19 generated the theory of al-shari'ah (namely, the concepts of
the divine proof, dani) and, secondly, by investigating the logical techniques applied in
his theory (induction, and the construction of the dani). A new understanding of
revelation is offered on the basis of hermeneutics in Section 3.4, to develop the
systematic concepts of the theory of al-shaii'ah, by restructuring Shatibl's
techniques, namely, the criticism of al-danlby means of its final results, ma 'alal al-aPal
l build on the results of the second chapter, which focused on al-fiqh
hermeneutics generally and how it is based on both textual and legislative consistancy.
This will allow us to proceed to the main task of "criticizing the methodology of danl and
rebuilding it through the problematic fiqhicase ofhuman cloning."
This chapter goes about the aforementioned task by asking the question, "Why
does there exist a deficiency in the contemporary methodological practices?" The answer
to this question is found in the third claim made earlier in the thesis: if there is a
methodological discrepancy in contemporary Islamic legal discourse, the path for
reformation exists in continuing the traditional endeavor of al-fiqh through the
119 For further analysis see the introduction in: Michel Foucault, The Order ofThings: An
Archaeology of the Human Sciences (New York: Vintage Books, 1973).
67
divine concept of revelation (al-walJ.l) as the knowledge of the sign. Here a new
understanding is proposed to resolve the for this legal-epistemological crisis, the author's
own legal opinion on human cloning as it were, through a new theory of the mechanism
of revelation.
The basic contents of the theory of al-shari'ah identified in many
studies
120
are comprised of the five faculties of the shai'ah (kulliyiit al-shai'ah): the
preservation of religion, life, mind, progeny, and property (respectively: al-mn, al-
nafs, al- 'aql, al-nasl, al-miil). Moreover, these five universalities are considered the
shai'ah's çfariiriyyiit (lit. necessities), and leading to a classification of the rest of the
shari'ah's laws and rulings under the headings of J;.iijiyyiit (lit. needs) and taJ;.siniyyiit (lit.
improvements ).
3.2. Epistemological Presumptions and A Restating of Shalbl's Hermeneutics of
Revelation
al-fiqh is endowed with a clear program of legal problem-solving, whose
structure can be seen in the table to contents of any book of al-fiqh. al-fiqh
recognizes many legal daHIs, but the Qur'an and the Sunnah are considered the major
ones. However, the structure of al-fiqh depends on the answer to the question:
120 For further information about the detailed content Sha!ibl's theory of al-
shari'ah, see: 'Allal al-FasI, al-Shari'ah al-Isliimiyyah wa-Makirimuhii (al-
Riba!: Dar al- Gharb al-Islam 1, 1967), Wael Hallaq, History of Islamic le gal theory: An
Introductoion to the Sunni l.J.siil al-fiqh (Cambridge: Cambridge Press, 1997),
A.4mad al-ijas'!!ll, Nlqariyyat 'inda al-Imiim al-Liihir Ibn 'Ashiir (Virginia:
al-Ma'had al-'Alam1lil-Fikr al-Islam1, 1996), al-J:ahir Ibn 'Ashlir, al-Shari'ah
(Tunisia: al-Dar al-Tunisiyyah lil-Tiba'ah wal-Nashr, 1964), A.4mad al-Raysiinl,
Nlqariyyat 'inda al-Imiim al-Shii!ibi (Virginia: al-Ma'had al-' Alam1lil-Fikr
al-IsIam1, 1995), and 'Abd al-MaJîd al-Fila- wa-Ishkiiliyyat
Qirii'ah fJ Nash 'at 'Ilm al-Shari'ah (Beirut: al-Dar al-Jami'iyyah lil-
Dirasat wal-Nashr, 1996).
68
"What is the legitimate legal proof (dafil) that can derive rulings?" An answer to this
question involves two levels of analysis: 1) discussing the number and differentiating
criteria of legitimate dafi1s such as the Qur'an, the Sunnah, consensus and legal
analogy (qiyiis) and 2) discussing the linguistic tools through which the meaning of major
dafi1s (the Qur'iin and the Sunnah) and the differentiation criterion of these legal tools.
These two levels revolve around the issue of revelation - the principle that motivated
Muslim scholars to build the structure of a1-iiqh in the first place. This principle
involved making the utmost effort to find the truth that cornes from the "Source," and this
perceived truth was considered to be divine revelation.
ln order to discuss Shatibl's hermeneutics of revelation, a vast range of
terminology pertaining to the dafi1s of a1-iiqh must be emplyed. The list of potential
dafi1s is very long as weIl as extremely controversial, according to the three major
schools of a1-iiqh introduced earlier: al-Mutakallimlin (lit. theologians), 121 al-
I:Ianafiyyah (lit. the school of Abu I:Ianlfah), and al-Zahiriyyah (lit. literalists). However,
foIlowing a taxonomy formed by the pair of external versus internaI proofs, (adillah, pl.
of dafil) can simplify this task. By the category of external dafiJ, 1 mean a method that
does not derive rulings and laws from the direct text of revelation; on the other hand, the
category of internaI dafi1 is the method that derives rulings and laws from a direct text of
revelation.
Furthermore, a1-iiqh developed an extensive terminology for both external
and internaI proofs. For example: 1) external proofs are the inteIlectual tools designed to
generate laws based on the Qur'an and Sunnah e.g., a1-qiyiis (lit., Legal anal ogy) , a1-
121 This school includes the rest of the four legal Sunnl: al-Shafi'iyyah, al-Malikiyyah,
and al-I:Ianabilah.
69
ijmii' (lit. consensus), al-istilJsiin (lit., legal preference), sadd al-dharJ'ah (lit., prevention
of a path that leads to evil), (lit., utilitarian legal hermeneutics), shar' man
qablanii(lit., laws ofprevious religions), qawl reports ofCompanions), and
(lit., presumption of continuity), etc.
122
2) InternaI proofs are the linguistic tools designed to extract a meaning from the
language of the Qur'an and Sunnah. There are two types of internaI proofs: a) semantic
tools, such as daliilat al- 'ibiirah (lit., explicit meaning) and daliilat (lit., implicit
meaning) and b) tools of propositional analysis: al-ta 'mlm, (lit. specification!
generalization), and al-taqyId/ al-Ifliiq (lit. restriction!unrestriction,) ... etc.
123
The previously mentioned category of external versus internaI proofs of revelation
can shed light on the duality of al-fiqh methodology (which existed before
renovation); in the process, revelational texts were interpreted and accessed. Without
exaggeration, it can be said that the problem of dual revelational proofs exhausted
al-fiqh intelIectual debate throughout history. The title of Shatibl's book, al-Muwiifàqiit
fi al-SharI'ah (lit. the correspondences or the reconciliation in the origins of the
sharI'ah), elucidates what 1 would calI the problem of duality existing in al-fiqh.
Shatibl did not, after alI, leave the purpose of his project to conjecture. He states in his
prologue, to al-Muwaraqiit, that it is devoted to achieving his dream of reconciling the
122 For a complete list see al-Zarqa, Al-Madkhal al-FiqhI al- 'Alnm (Beirut: Dar
al-Fikr, 1968),60-142, Badr al-Dln al-Zarakshl, al-BalJr al-MulJI! fi al-Fiqh (Beirut:
Dar al-Kutub al-'Ilmiyyah, 2000), and MuJ.}ammad KamaIi, Principles of Islamic
Jurisprudence (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991)
123 There is a third category to, comprehensively, restructure al-fiqh proofs, which is
the investigative proofs, such as: Qur'anic naskh (lit. abrogation), and lJadith
authentication!/de-authentication). However, these processes are dealing
with the revelational proofs in an earlier step, which is in the borders of distinguishing
which is revelational in origin and which is not. Thus, this third category is not included
in our discussion.
70
doctrine of Abu ijanlfah (d. 150 / 767) and the doctrine of Malik (d. 179 / 795).124 This
declaration, in the context of the historical accumulation of u$iïl al-fiqh, could entail
various meanings; one of the most probable interpretations is that he was dissatisfied
with the first and most famous attempt to perform this reconciliation - namely, Shafi'1's
attempt in his al-Risalah to do the same. If this is true, Shatibl must not have accepted
Shafi'1's attempt in al-Risalah
l25
(five centuries prior) to reconcile the thought of the
aforementioned figures; Sl}.atibl believed that the issue needed to be reexamined. In other
words, Shatibl's venture aimed at solving the problems generated by the contradiction
dividing Ahl al-Ra'y (lit. the people of opinion/judgment) represented by Abu ijanlfah
from the Ahl al-Athar (lit. the people of traditions) represented by Malik. If Shafi'1's
project can be seen as an effort to establish u$iïJ aJ-fiqh by investigating possible
reconciliation between Abu }fanlfah and Malik, his would be the first muwafàqat work
ever written, and Shatibl's muwafàqat the second, offering in its turn an alternative
solution. What assures Shatibl's different understanding compared to the history of u$iïl
al-fiqh are two points: (1) Shafi'1's definition of fiqh as the knowledge of extracting
practical rulings from particular proofs: 4=J..l\ e;.. :i..:J.-.l1 126 may be
contrasted with, Shatib1's methodology in conceiving of fiqh as the knowledge of
inducing universal rulings from constructive proofs 4=J..l\ e;..
and (2) the structure of al-Muwafàqat demonstrates a very different notion of the process
of legislation, i.e., as the joint project of two parties. This latter notion is a dialectic
124 Abu Is4aq Ibrarlm al-Shatibl, al-Muwa1àqat fi U$iïl al-SharI'ah (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub
al-'Ilmiyyah, [?]), 17.
125 Which is claimed to be the first book establishing the science of u$iïl al-fiqh. See Wael
Hallaq, History of Islamic legal theory: An Introduction to the SunnI [fsiïl al-fiqh
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 21.
126 'Abd al-Wahhab Khallaf, 'Ilm U$iïl al-Fiqh(Kuwait: Dar al-Qalam, 1986), Il.
71
structuring Shatibl's theory, and posits a certain mechanism linking the intentions of God
or the Legislator, al-Shiïrij, and those of the human being, or the receiver of
revelation al-mukallafj This mechanism corroborates the problem of duality in
al-fiqh identified earlier in this study, indicating the fundamental difference between
Shatibl and the history of al-fiqh.
If we further scrutinize the epistemological problem of duality in al-fiqh In
relation to the hermeneutics of revelation according to Shatibl's theory, the key solution
offered in Sha!ibl's thought would be the search for reconciliation (muwifàqah) between
the external and internaI proofs of revelation. This reconcliation would take place once
the similarity between intellect (which precipitates the external proofs) and language
(which grounds the internaI proofs) is recognized.
The significance of this recognition, in this author's view, is what constitutes
Shatibl' s contribution to the intellectual debate in the history of al-fiqh . Shatibl saw
the point of unit y between external revelational proofs (as part of the intellect) and
internaI revelational proofs (as part of the language) as located in the concept of the
intention of God al-shiïrij, which literally means "the intention of the revelator."
Sha!ibl arrived at this solution by implementing a program consisting of two main
sequences, inductive and constructive, but before clarifying these two operations, one
point must be addressed.
This point is the guiding concept of Sha!ibl's pro gram, which can be defined as a
presmise that the apparent meaning of the Qur'an and Sunnah cannot be the real
meaning. This is because the Qur'an and Sunnah are not merely straightforward texts that
can be read and applied by a person of legal age and status (mukallafj. On the contrary,
72
the texts of the Qur'an and the Sunnah are mere particulars (juz'iyyiit) and these
particulars lead to several difficulties in reading them as direct narrative - problems such
as contradiction, inconsistency, and specificity to time and place. These difficulties
undermine the superficial and direct meaning ofthe Qur'an and Sunnah.
The previous notion of the essentially indirect meaning of the Qur'an and Sunnah
can be understood within the history of u ~ i ï l al-fiqh as weIl. As we saw in the second
chapter, the history over u ~ i ï l al-fiqh can be seen in its totality as a literary battle of
specification! generalization, restriction!unrestriction, and literalization /metaphorization
that was never resolved. This fact can clearly be seen in the discipline of controversial
understandings of the Qur'an and Sunnah ( 'ilm al-khiliiiJ. The intellectuai complexity of
revelatory texts has nothing to do with the authenticity of their divine origin, but with
their intellectuai comprehensibility in the consciousness of their believeing audience.
This impossibility of direct meaning is never expressed as such in Shatibl's work, nor has
it been stated at any point in the entire history of u ~ i ï l al-fiqh, but it is the premise
presupposed beneath the entire Shatiblan pro gram. What is more, Shatibl was able to
implement the premise successfuIly, with results that are as revolutionary as they are
impressive. His unstated assumption that the Qur'an and Sunnah are impossible to
understand in their essence, me ans that not a paragraph, sentence, or even a single word
can be understood without expert interpretation. The Qur'an and the Sunnah are even not
a text, in the philosophical sense of the term, i.e., that sets out to prove certain
premises.
127
In fact, the Qur'an and Sunnah are large conglomerations of varying
preaching speeches, historical tales, and moral commands, that need to be treated with
1271.'aha 'Abd al-Ra4man, Fiqh al-Falsafah 2: al-Qawl al-Falsafi, Kitiib al-Mafhiïm wal-
Ta'thll(Beirut: al-Markaz al-Thaqafi al-'Arabl, 2000), 35.
73
care III order to recogmze their shape and tendencies and arrIve at their originally
intended meaning.
Assuming the impossibility of the direct meaning of the Qur'ân and the Sunnah is
true, one might ask how Shatibl arrives at the notion that the al-shiiri' represents the
meeting point that unifies externai and internaI proofs. How he does so, consists of two
main intellectuai sequences: inductive and constructive. The first process consists of
daHl-induction (istiqrii' aJ-ai}kiim), the main process, which represents most
important contribution. The process of searching for the al-shiiri' is based on the
mechanism of inducing aIl the particuIar, controversial, and contentious proofs of both
the divinely-inspired texts of the Qur'an and Sunnah. Inducing the proofs means that the
mujtahid is expected to read and understand the entire corpus of rhe reveaied texts while
focusing his attention on what is common in each of the particulars. The mujtahid is
asked to observe how the manner ofrevelation oprates, in the process ofwhich: 1) he/she
gains the ability to know why the revelation happened this way; and 2) he/she gains the
ability to predict when and how a new legal case should be judged under the title of
revelation.
DalIl construction is the second process, and it tries to solve the problem of how
the body of revelation, as Qur'an and S unn ah, be differentiated and restructured to
provide a consistent text that enables application from the mukallafwithout contradiction
or hardship. In other words, how can revelation avoid the duaHty of external and internaI
proofs of revelation, proofs derived by the language or by the intellect, or more
specifically, proofs that are elicited by the explicit reader or by the mujtahid? How can
all the se parallels be unified in proofs that are derived from the interaction between the
74
explicit reader and the intellect, or the mukallafand the revelation, or the human being
and God?
This process of reconliation (muwiifaqah) is the core concept of revelation: the
interaction between human beings and God. It is the central contribution of Shatibl's
pro gram because, according to the prevailing understanding, the separation between
human beings and God is what constitutes the concept of revelation as a transcendental
entity, revealed to a profane human being. This separation dominated the previous
understanding of a1-fiqh as recognized by ibn al_Qayyim,128 and later, by If
we look at the framework developed by the latter, revelation would, surprisingly, no
longer be the Qur'an and Sunnah as such, simply because of the impossibility ofrelying
on this apparent meaning of the Qur'an and the Sunnah. Therefore, according to Shatibl,
the leading proof - transcending even the Qur'an and Sunnah themselves - consists in the
faculties or universalities (ku1liyiit). Astonishingly, the process of reading the particulars
of both the Qur'an and Sunnah and inducing from them the major themes, a1-
ku1liyiit min al-juz'iyyiit,129 is precisely "what the revelator intended to reveal." Hence,
God, or the Legislator (al-Shari') may have revealed certain particulars in the Qur'an and
Sunnah, but these do not represnt the particular "text" originally intended by Him. What
determines the intentionality of a particular text is its being intended or not by al-Shari'.
In other words, consistent repetition with no contradiction in the body of the shaii'ah to
establish a consistent habit of God ('iidat al-Shiiri) is what the revelator intends of
verses. Thus, the hermeneutical work of combing-applying the intellect of the mujtahid
128 For fut!her information see Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah. l'1iim a1- Muwaqqi'In 'an
Rabb a1-'A1amln (Egypt: Matba'at al-Sa'ada, 1955),38. voU
129 Abu Is4aq Ibradm al-Shatibl, a1-Muwiifaqiit fi al-SharI'ah (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub
al- 'Ilmiyyah, [?]), vol.3, 16.
75
to the language of Qur'an and Sunnah by sensing the consistent habit of God ('iidiit al-
Shiiri) is what determines the intentionality of that revealed text and gives it its
legitimacy. By the same token, the profanity of the human intellect is, without doubt,
sanctioned by the contact of the mujtahid with the soul of God (riilJ al-Sharij; thus,
through the language of his revelation and its contexts, he/she is able to disco ver God's
aims and intentions. Ibn al-Qayyim, as we saw earlier, prefers to calI this connection
between the mujtahidand the soul ofGod as "signing on behalf of the Lord.,,130
The previously analyzed mechanism of daRI induction, used to construct faculties
that lead to unification in the body of revelation, yields particular findings in Shatibl's
theory. DaRI-induction is thus said to create the following hierarchy of faculties: the
çfariiriyyiit (lit. necessities), then the l}iijiyyiit (lit. needs), and finally the tal}sIniyyiit (lit.
improvements). Shatibl identifies the necessities as the five aspects that the sharI'ah must
preserve: religion, life, mind, progeny, and property (respectively: l}if? al-clin, al-nafs, al-
'aqI, al-nasI, al-miil). However, the definition of the needs or improvements are not
presented by Shatibl under any particular faculties, but rather as random examples.
131
If there is unit y, or muwiifàqah, between the intention of God or the revealer
al-Shiirij and that of the human being that implements revelation al-
mukallaiJ, this will not only be achieved via the aforementioned hermeneutical
techniques of induction and construction of the daRI by creating kulliyiit. This will
instead emerge, according to through criticism of the daRI in light of its final
130 For information see Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah. l'liim al- Muwaqqi'In 'an
Rabb al- 'Alamln, 38. vol. 1
131 al-Duraynl, al-Maniihij 478.
76
results, ma'iiliit al_arii1
132
This conceptual technique examines the functional validity of
any generated legal judgment. The examination consists of the following steps: if there
are laws that are explicitly mentioned by the Qur'an and the Sunnah or implicitly
generated by the intellect and that do not meet the criterion of the faculties of SharI'ah,
they must be rescinded. The legal authority of the faculties of sharl'ah has the ability to
criticize laws whose application or final results do not achieve, or even contradict, the
goals of these faculties. This means that the legal authority of the faculties of Sharl' ah are
superior to the Qur'an and the Sunnah, since they are constructed with a view to
achieving consistency.
methodology of achieving the muwiifaqah in the problem of duality
cannot of course be solved by a one-time static endeavor of the mujtahid's induction and
the construction of the diRl The Ma'iiliit al-ariil are considered to be criticism of the
daRl in the light of its final outcome, resulting in an infinite and open-ended endeavor
whenever the two parts of intentions are in a dialectic. This means that there is an infinite
enterprise of generating legal rulings (alJ.kiim). For example, if the mujtahid, while
directly applying the aJ;.kiim of the Qur'an or Sunnah, recognizes that their final results
go against general principles, he has the right to suspend or delete the application of these
aJ;.kiim. An important key point that manifests is that revelation (wahl) is a more a
posteriori process than an a priori one. In other words, revelation is an effort shaped by a
sincere intention of discovering the reality and the results of our human perception of
guidance, proof, or evidence. This effort integrates text and reality in one act, known as
the muwiifàqah. Another point in methodology, subject to speculation, is the
132 AI-Shatbl, al-Muwiifàqiit, vol. 2, 34.
77
superiority of kuJliyiit. In other words, particulars lose their authority, as verses or lJadith
and are no longer in themselves proof or guidance, in comparison to faculties.
Before introduced his methodology, this entire mechanism of dafll
induction aimed at constructing faculties so as to unify the body of revelation was
unknown in al-fiqh. Still, the question arises: Does not the hermeneutics of
revelation, as presented in Shatibl's findings, contain a methodological problem related
to its perception of the nature of the Qur'an? If the answer is yes, this may require a
restructuring of the theory of al-shaii'ah. Sorne answers to these questions will
be found in the next section.
3.3. Restructuring The Theory al-shari'ah
So far, the broadest and most fundamental mechanisms in Shatibl's theory of
al-shari'ah have been explained by the aforementioned three key concepts:
induction, construction, and criticism of the dafll The presentation and restatement of
Shatibl's theory gives earlier off ers the most articulate formula possible for utilitarian
legal hermeneutics doctrine by contemporary Islamic legal discourse (presented in the
previous section, 1.4.2). The comparison between the doctrine of the prohibition of
utilitarian legal hermeneutics and the original methodology of al-fiqh shows that
none of the three fundamental mechanisms in Shatibl's theory (induction, construction,
and criticism of the dafll) are present in the contemporary doctrine of utilitarian legal
hermeneutics used to justify the prohibition on human cloning. In sections 1.4.2.1 and
1.4.2.2, the opinions of both al-Qaraqawl and al-Butl, neither of which incorporated
78
induction, construction, or criticism of the dalil This of course raises the question "Why
does there exist a deficiency in contemporary methodological practices7"
There are in fact a few relatively weak points in theory of al-sharI'ah that
have prevented it from taking on a serious role in the later development of al-
fiqh,133 and this is almost bound to continue. The central weak point in this theory is its
understanding of the nature of the Qur'an. Even if one grants the revolutionary
presupposition that the Qur'an and Sunnah cannot possibly be understood at face value,
the acceptance of the Qur'an as a book arranged according to the sequence ofits chapters
(suwar) can still be heavily criticized. There is no divine proof that can be attributed to
the process of collecting the Qur'an Uam' al-Qur'in) by the companions after the
Prophet' s death (10 /631 ).134 As a result, the concept of the induction of the dalil from the
pages of the Qur'an as it stands is fundamentally undermined, due to fact that Sha!ibl
accepts only the traditional, synchronic arrangement of the pages of the Qur'an. The
diachronic alternative of the induction of the dalil in the Qur'an is not examined in
Sha!ibl's theory at aIl. In other words, the diachronic alternative considers the arrangment
of the Qur'anic verses from the standpoint of the chronological order of revelation (tartIb
al-nuziïl), which is usually correlated with the reasons of revelation (asbiib al-nuziïl). In
the rest of this chapter, the regular edition of the Qur'an will be referred to as the
synchronic Qur'an and the rearranged chapters of the Qur'an according to the chronology
of revelation as the diachronic Qur'an. It should be noted that no such edition yet exists,
133 Mu4amad 'Abd Allah Darraz, the contemporary discoverer and editor of Sha!ib's
Muwiifàqiit confirms the unrecognized role of Sha!ibl's theory in the later history of
al-fiqh. See Abii Is4aq Ibrarlm al-Shatibl, al-Muwiifàqiit D al-Shari'ah (Beirut: Dar
al-Kutub al-'Ilmiyyah, [7]),9.
134 Watt and Bell, Introduction to the Qur'iin, 40.
79
except for narrations of the reasons of revelation and the general classifications into
Makki and Madanl. The overall themes of the Qur'an - metaphysics, historical stories,
laws, and ethical preaching - can nevertheless be easily located and placed in relation to
the Prophetic sIrah with the help of the books of Asbiib al-Nuziïl
J5
and the available
classifications into Makki and Madanl.
Looking at Shatibi' s theory from the angle of the diachronic induction of the dalil
manifests another weak point in his system, since it changes the scenery of the kulliyyiit
that generated the revelation itself in early Islam al-Isliim). As this chapter covers
hermeneutics of revelation, the diachronic induction of the relationship between God (al-
Shiirij and the revelation receiver (al-mukallafj may prove to be a hermeneutical
contribution in itselfto the restructuring ofShatibl's theory of al-Shari'ah.
What Shatibl's inductive kulliyyiit accomplished with respect to the synchronic
Qur'an can be carried over into another set of inductive kulliyyiit based on the diachronic
Qur' an, along with a distinct concentration on the process of the criticism of the dalil by
its final results, ma 'iiliit ai-ariii In this way, it can be shown how Shatibl's kulliyyiit
were frozen in a particular time and worldview and how a restructuring can reform the
fundamentals of al-fiqh.
Although Shatibl's contribution (as analyzed in section 3.4) is very instructive, it
still only recapitulates what al-Juwaynl (d. 484/1190) and al-Ghazali (d. 52511130)
contemplated nearly four centuries earlier.
136
The preservation of religion, life, mind,
135 See: Abu Bakr al-Suyut1, Libiib al-Nuqiïl fi Asbiib al-Nuziïl (Beirut, Dar al-Kit ab al-
'ArabI, 2003).
136 'Abd al-Majld al-Fila- wa-Ishkiiliyyat al-$ulfah al- 'Ilmiyyah fi al-
Isliim: Qirii'ah fi Nash 'at 'Ilm al-SharI'ah (Beirut: al-Mu'ssasah al-
Jami'iyyah lil-Dirasat wal-Nashr, 1998),34.
80
progeny, and property (respectively: al-din, al-nafs, al- 'aq/, al-nas/, al-miil) are still
the unchanged and unchallenged kulliyyiit. This consistency is not surprising, since
certain issues in the synchronie Qur'an. most probably necessitate this reading. This solid
undercurrent of the kulliyyiitin the history of al-fiqh, is a product, it would seem, of
the very early separation between creed ( 'aqIdah) and its legal and ethical applications,
shari'ah. The separation cannot be seen as early as the time of the Companions
for instance, as was seen in chapter 2, but it can be se en clearly and seminally in Abü
I:Ianlfah's hierarchic understanding of 'aqIdah and shari'ah. This understanding is seen
clearly in his description of 'aqIdah and shari'ah as the greater and the lesser
understanding: "al-Fiqh al-Akbar In addition, Shafi'1's intellectual works
did not touch on matters of theology; nor did he build the theory of al-fiqh by
employing ijtihiid on matters of 'aqIdah. This early disjunction between 'aqIdah and
sharI'ah resulted in an odd tradition in Sunnl practice that shows itself in the traditions of
the 'aqIdah and sharI'ah sciences whereby 'aqIdah is not considered a subject of ijtihiid
and thus, not subject to disagreement, (mimmii Iii yalJtamiluh al-khiliifj. One of the
results of this double standard of disagreement in theological and legal judgments is the
status of first, of the five categories of kulliyyiit mentioned earlier: ad-din. In this
first class, 'aqIdah is given no really clear function or application in comparison to the
rest of the four kulliyyiit. al-nafs, al- 'aq/, al-nas/, and al-miil
137 For further information see Abü l:Ianlfah al-Nu'man, al-Fiqh al-Akbar (Cairo:
Matba'at Dar al-Kutub al-'Arabiyyah al-Kubra, [?] ).
81
In addition, a contemporary Taha 'Abd al-Raç.man,138 expresses the view
that the five kulliyyit do not respond to the conditions of logical taxonomy. This
criticism is supported by the three criteria of the traditional Islamic-Aristote1ian
conditions of logical taxonomy al-taqsJm al-manliqJ): 1) absolute inclusion
(tamim which necessitates that a taxonomy must include all the elements that it
claims it represents, which is not the case in one of the five faculties if we ask about
preserving justice or beauty; 2) absolute differentiation (tamiïm al-tabiyun) which
requires that the elements of the category must be different from each other, although
preserving the soul is not differentiated from preserving the mind in the five
universalities, finally 3) the prevention of specification ('adam which
demands that categories must be in the same statutes and that they do not compose a
specification of each other. However, in the case of the five universalities all of the rest of
the universalities are derived from the first one.
This vague taxonomy of the preservation of the religion (lJif? al-din), which is
derived from the primacy of 'aqJdah, has consciously and unconsciously prevented any
advanced understanding of the diachronie kulliyyit. Contrary to this tendency, I shall
trace a more solid methodology of daHl for the kulliyyit. Thus, if we want to trace the
origin that builds the major daH1, Qur'an itself, I think it might be by investigating the
structure of 'time' in the Qur'an. Why choose the concept of time? There are two
reasons: 1) because the concept of time is always the mold where verbs or events are
going on or it is where existence is taking place. The powerful semantic field of the
notion of time is capable of re1ating vast amount of vocabularies, namely, creation,
138 Taha 'Abdu al-Raç.man, Tajdid al-Manhaj fi TaqwJm al-Turith (Beirut: al-Markiz al-
Thaqafi al-'Arabl, 1994), 111.
82
creatures, eschatology, and values ... etc. 2) because the Islamic world view presents
itself in a time line that starts with a beginning that is creation and ends with the Day of
Judgment as the end of the entire creation. Within this timeline, God decided to create
human beings and to have herlhim as part of this process in which he/she seeks good
deeds in order to receive a good reward and to prevent torture in hello
The structure of 'time' in the Qur'an will be seen clearly after l fully explain how
the synchronie Qur'an is a timeline that eompels an unehallengeable worldview that
includes the program of both 'aqJdah and shari'ah. l will elueidate now the faeulties of
the synchronie timeline in the Qur'an and then l will show what the diachronie
understanding can do to change this worldview.
l induced the whole Qur'an and l find the synchronic timeline is shown in five
essential steps that shape the Islamic worldview: 1) It starts with the story of creating the
existence (kha1q a1-kawn), the universe, and the whole creatures, 2) then the story of
creating the human being (kha1q banJ iidam) and deciding its destiny, 3) after that is the
history of vanished nations and their Prophets ( a 1 - q a ~ a s a1-Qur'iinJ fi a1-anbiyii' wa1-
umam a1-khiiliyah) which ends up with the path of Prophet Mul}.ammad and creates a
unit y in the mission of the Prophets and the source of all religions, 4) afterward cornes
the story of Prophet Mul}.ammad and his affairs in Makkah and Madinah as the finest
example of human behavior in the world, and finally 5) The unseen world and the final
destiny of the existence and humanity in the Day of Judgment (a1-ghayb wa1-yawm a1-
iikhii). This synchronic Qur'anic timeline provides us with a very fertile standpoint to
perceive how Qur'an is generated.
83
If my interpretation and induction of the notion oftime in the Qur' an is accurate,
then 1 would caU the aforementioned five timeline steps a construction of new synchronic
faculties oftime in the Qur'an. Analogous to what 1 mentioned before, the construction of
the semantic field of the notion of time is, in fact, a construction of the notion of
existence itself in Qur'an. Now, 1 can take the five timeline steps in the Qur'an as in
Shatibi's pro gram to be examined by the condition of criticizing the faculties by their
final results (ma'iiliit al-ariil).
Since 1 began my restructuring of Shatibl's project by changing the premise of
the conventional arrangement of the chapters of the Qur'an to the time arrangement, the
contents of Shatibl's metaphors and terminology will be changed. These five timeline
steps, surprisingly, can be investigated to show how the ma 'iilal al-ariil are highly
reflected as reasons of revelation (asbiib al-Naziïl) and can be used as the criterion to
which the themes of Qur'an are articulated. This means that diachronic asbiib al-naziïl
shows the muwiifàqah technique between the q a ~ d al-Shiiri' and q a ~ d al-mukallaf,
Prophet Mu4ammad this time. Next, we will elucidate how the aforementioned timeline
is a result of a certain reflection on the world and thus this particular reflection would
restrict its outcome. In other words, this synchronic Qur'anic timeline that is the hidden
program of 'aqldah is subject to the hermeneutical technique of daRI criticism whenever
there arises a need to criticize the daRlby new outcomes ofhuman reflection.
Now, 1 will show sorne examples that illustrate what reasons of revelation (asbiib
al-Naziïl) generated the five timeline faculties respectively: 1) the verses that discuss the
story of creation usually suggest their source by the act of reflection on the signs of God,
84
a1-iiyiit al-kawniyyah. Thus, 1 say that the creed of creating the existence is itself a result
ofthis contemplation on the worldly signs. For example this verse says:
Indeed, in the creation of the heavens and the earth and alteration of the
night and the day are signs for the those of understanding Men who celebrate
the praises of Allah, standing, sitting, and lying down on their sides, and
contemplate the (wonders of) creation in the heavens and the earth, (With the
thought): "Our Lord! not for naught Hast Thou created (aIl) this! Glory to
Thee! Give us salvation from the penalty of the Fire.
139
In this verse the dialectic between the worldly signs and humans is what generates an
understanding of the early creation.
2) The human creation verses, for instance, the story of creating the first man
(Adam) from mud, mention that the mission of this being starts by the ability of naming
and judging.
140
"And He taught Adam the names al! ofthem ... ,,141 or a mission that was
started by giving the ability of logos - the language that shapes the perception, bayiin. In
other occasions: "The most merciful, taught Qur'an, created the Man, [And] taught him
bayiin [logoS],,142 In these verses, the Qur'anic reflection distinguishes the characteristic
of human being as determined by the ability to reveal the meanings of things. Thus, the
beginning of man was distinguished by having the intellect that enables the production of
language. This idea is clearly taken from the notion that what distinguishes human beings
from other creatures is the capacity to speak language.
139 Qur'an 3:190-191
140 This sharp and bright recognition was a result of the various and enlightening
conversations 1 had with my colleague Mr. Simon Staszewski, an M.A student at the
Institute ofIslamic Studies at McGill University.
141 Qur'an 2:31
142 Qur'an 55: 1- 4, J:aha 'Abd al-Ra4man, argues that Heidegger's translation of the
Greek concept "Logos" as "the language that reveals," goes exactly with the meaning of
the Arabic word "bayiin." See J:aha 'Abd al-Ra4man, Fiqh a1-Fa1safah 2: al-Qaw1 al-
Fa1safi, Kitao a1-Mafhiïm wa1-Ta'thl1 (Beirut: al-Markaz al-Thaqafi al-'ArabI, 2000),
315, and A1lisiin wa1-Miziin Aw a1- Takawthur a1- 'AqR (Beirut: al-Markiz al-Thaqafi al-
'ArabI, 1998),423.
85
3) The historical verses typically propose the command of reflection on the laws
of God in history (sunnat Allah). This command is given in order to allow Muslims to see
what bad or good deeds can do for the previous nations.
Such [have] been the laws of God [ sunnat Allah] with respect to those who
have gone before; and the command of Allah is a decree that is made
absolute
143
In another set of verses with historical import, the Qur'anic command for reflection uses
another term to describe the process of contemplation:
Say: Travel [through] the land and see what the end of those who rejected
truth was.
144
4) The verses that touch on the life of Prophet Mu4ammad and his affairs are the
richest of several instances of dialectics in the Qur'an. The migration from Makkah to
Madinah especially imposed new obligations on the Prophet. The effects of these
obligations can be seen from the reactions that occurred after his contact with Jews and
Christians. The emergence for instance of 'aqldah and the sorne elements of the notion of
an unseen world, featuring concepts that had never existed in the Makld period, such as
angels and the messenger of God (Jibra'11),145 are evidence of the use of muwafàqah
technique resulting in the formation of the diachronic Qur'an from the aforementioned
kulJiyyat extracted eariier. The appearance of sorne of the shari'ah rules in the Madanl
period, Iike the punishment of stoning for the crime of adultery,I46 resemble a direct
positive or negative reaction to the Iaws of the Jews, further substantiating the existence
of the muwafàqah technique.
143 Qur'an 33:38
144 Qur'an 27:69
145Watt and Bell, Introduction to the Qur'iin, 40.
146 S.D. Goitein, "The Birth-Hour of Muslim Law," Muslim World, 50, 1, (1960), 25.
86
5) Even the verses on eschatology and final destiny on the Day of Judgment,
perhaps among the most metaphysical and 'aqldah related topics, are no exception to the
hermeneutics of revelation. The human capacity of bayin to recognize truth in the signs
of the world leads to realization of the value of resurrection in the following verse:
We will show them Our Signs in the universe, and in their own selves, until it
becomes manifest to them that this (the Qur'iin) is the truth. Is it not sufficient
in regard to your Lord that He is a Witness over all things? Verily! They are
in doubt conceming the Meeting with their Lord? Verily! He it is Who is
surrounding all things! 147
The verses that are re1ated to the concept oftime in the Qur'iin allow for construction of
five timeline steps that cover that notion of time. A vast amount of related meanings that
shape the entire timeline or worldview of Islam can then be gathered, and used to trace
the generation of this Qur'an discourse. Yet, the perspective of the diachronie Qur'an
would account for these five timeline steps differently. Restructuring Sha!ibl's the ory
would be understood in the terminology of the muwiïfaqah technique. Thus, the dialectic
between the intention of God ( q a ~ d al-Shiiri') and the intention of the human being ( q a ~ d
al-mukallafj, Prophet Mu4ammad this time, is the generator of the revelation, Qur'an and
Sunnah.
l can improve the synchronie faculties l presented above by taking into account
the critical condition of Sha!ibl methodology. Still, the criticism of the dalll by its final
results can undermine my synchronie faculties whenever there is a fact that opposes my
time line construction. l will construct diachronie faculties that perceive the giving of the
previous five time1ine steps and may face criticism as long as possible. This being the
case, a new kulliyyiït can take a step backwards, in order to have a wider vision of the
147 Qur'an 41:53
87
process of revelation. l represent the aforementioned five-timeline steps, consequently, in
the context of the philosophy of being in an interrogative case instead of a declarative
one. In this case l can invest the infinite ability of the question without falling into
challenging the future outcomes. The five diachronic faculties are: 1) The question of the
origin and the mission of the existence, 2) The question of the origin and the purpose of
human being, 3) The question of the formation of human history, 4) The question of the
particular affairs of our social group, and finally 5) The question of the destiny of
existence, humanity, and thought. These are the ku1liyyiitthat we will have after inducing
the diachronie Qur'an.
As a result, my hermeneutics of revelation attempts to regenerate the kulliyyiit of
the Qur'an again without falling into the mistake of disconnecting 'aqJdah and sharJ 'ah,
but tying them as an infinite task for the intellect. Then, these ku1liyyiit shall be taken not
in declarative statements but in interrogative ones. Then the diachronie ku1liyyiit shall be
processed by the muwiifaqah technique that was operated by Prophet Mu4ammad, as a
semiological discourse that extracts the dall1 from the worldly sign. In this case, if the
function of Sha!ibl's ku11iyyiit is the knowledge of inducing universal rulings from
constructive proofs ( ÙA the function ofmy ku1liyyiit
depends on the criticism of the daR1 diachronically and would be the knowledge of
questioning and constructing universal rulings from critical proofs:
ÙA
My restructuring cannot exist as a novel contribution if the doctrines of a1-
fiqh has recognized that the written words in the Qur'an are not the mere revelation and
do not exclusively constitute the divine daRI This contribution criticizes two groundless
88
and unverified premises: 1) 'aqldah is disconnected from shaIi'ah and of a higher status,
thus not subject to ijtihad and disagreement (khiliiJ and 2) revelation subsists as the
particular written signs (iyit) found in Qur'an. 1 think the abovementioned two
unjustified premises along with the denial of the traditional methodology of u ~ i ï l al-fiqh
to achieve textual and legislative consistency, discussed in chapter two, is the answer to
the question "Why does there exist a deficiency in the contemporary methodological
practices?" Moreover, demonstrating the defenselessness and vulnerability of the
aforementioned two premises, it is the second premise that validates the first, although it
is false. The refutation of the second premise relies on the fact that God' s iyit are in only
one occurrence
148
in the Qur'an out of 84, for the singular iyah, means written Qur'anic
verse, on the other hand, only in 16 verses
149
out of 148, for the plural iyit, mean written
Qur'anic verses. Thereafter, in a logical progression, one cannot help but to be compelled
in asking, "Why would such a mutilation of the massive and great majority of the
occurrence of the concept of iyah or iyit compel them to lump themall as written
words?"
It is not the purpose, in this chapter, to answer this question. However, the
disfigurement of the concept of iyah, as sign or proof, is shown to no longer be
legitimate. Ifwe take into consideration that the sign in the major occurrence of Qur'an is
a worldly sign rather a written one, revelation would be defined as the relation between
the mzljtahid and the worldly sign. As a result, the process in which the mzljtahid
constructs the da1l1 from the signs to produce the law, can aptly be labeled as the
148 Qur'an 2:106
149 Qur'an 2:99, 2:231, 2:252, 3:7, 3:58, 3:101, 3:113, 4:140, 7:23, 29:49, 45:6-8,57:9,
58:5,62:5,65:11.
89
hermeneutics of revelation. Following suit, we can calI this path of hermeneutics as the
semiological science that produces law. This would involve all kinds of human faculties,
e.g. sensation, perception, cognition, and emotional intelligence as part of this legal and
ijtihiidic semiology. Maybe the common pronunciation and meaning between the science
of semiology and the singular Arabic word slmah, is more than a proof to my argument.
Contemplation for such a comparison may be further strengthened when one takes into
account the following verse:
: ~ .-: .11 üL'} .clIj . ...i • \150
....,;;--~ ~ <.,r (J,
Indeed in that are signs for those who seek and interact with signs
1 think the rewriting of al-muwiifàqiit, for the modern times, will solve two
problems: the rigidity in contemporary Islamic legal discourse and the disconnection
from heritage caused by Modernity. Several semiological answers can approach the five
interrogative kulliyyiit presented on page 87 and can be determined by the level of
intellect humanity reaches in a given age. The interrogative kulliyyiit can be approached
by: 1) A physical and chemical answer such as the Big Bang theory to approach the first
interrogative kulliyah, the origin of the existence; 2) A biological and environmental
response like the Organic Evolution to approach the second interrogative kulliyah, the
origin and the purpose of human being; 3) An economical and political answer such as
the Genealogy of Power theory to approach the third interrogative kulliyah, the formation
of human history; 4) A communally structured system for the financial and legislative
issue like the Social Communicative Democracy to approach the fourth interrogative
150 Qur'an 15:75
90
kulliyah, the particular affairs of our social group; 151 or finally 5) By an elaborate and
integrated theology of the natural and human sciences to achieve the Qur'anic aim of
being as the creator's successor, khalifah.
3.4. Conclu ding Remarks
l have shown the broader and most fundamental mechanisms in Shatibl's theory
of al-sharI'ah by the three key concepts: induction, construction, and criticism of
the daliL l restructured Sha!ibl's theory of al-Shari'ah by criticizing the
conventional arrangement of the verses of the Qur'an and by clarifying its hidden
structure of the time line concept. This restructuring resulted in rebuilding the
universalities (kulliyiit) of the Qur'an in a diachronic basis that reveals the hidden
questions that generated the general themes and contents of the Qur'anic verses.
The semiological switch in the worldview of revelation or dalil we have just buiIt
in this chapter has several revolutionary consequences. One of these consequences is the
discovery of a forgotten Qur'anic doctrine of semiology. A doctrine that converts the
bases of hermeneutics in al-fiqh from being inclusively based on the text to be
oriented toward the worldly signs with all its interactions with the human cognitive
capacities. Another consequence would, first, build faculties of consistency instead of
relying on partial treatment of the revelational proof daliL Second, it would build the
validity of revelation not on a priory basis stated in a written text, but rather on a
151 For further information see Jürgen Habermas, The Theory of Communicative Action,
Volume 1: Reason and the Rationalization of Society, Volume 2: Lifeword and System:
A Critique of Functionalist Reason. Translated by Thomas McCarthy (Boston: Beacon
Press, 1984).
91
posteriori basis examined by final results of the legislation the feeds back the daIJl by
ma 'iiliit al-af'iiL The aforementioned consequences totally change both traditional
understandings of revelation (al-waliiJ and the contemporary application for such
authoritative and religious sources of law. Semiological, constructive, and functional
scholarly orientations are the arguments that oppose the notions of textual, partial, priory
treatment to revelation. This scholarly orientation is what justifies the claim of this
chapter: if there is a methodological discrepancy in contemporary Islamic legal
discourse, the path for reformation exists in continuing the traditional endeavor of u . ~ i ï l
al-fiqh through the divine concept ofrevelation (al-walJJ) as the knowledge of the sign.
As I planed this chapter to be as a response to the second doctrine that prohibited
human cloning of utilitarian legal hermeneutics, I can say now that my argument has
been completed. I am in agreement with most of the reasons for the fiqhI prohibition
proposed by this doctrine, namely, the expected disastrous results on the human family
and relationship structures
152
and other generally anticipated and expected nefarious
problems.
153
The point that I intend to concentrate on is the necessity and
comprehensiveness of the methodology performed by this doctrine. This is of eminent
importance due to the nature of this thesis, which questions Islamic legal methodology. I
insist that all the reasons suggested by and for fiqhI forbiddance proposed in this doctrine
are not convincing in answering the question: "Why cannot a married man and woman,
that are sterile, have a child through human cloning technology?" In this particular case, I
would suggest, the deterministic and generalized attitude for the prohibition from the
second doctrine, without rendering any kind of restricted or conditional prohibition, is
152 Balhasanl, Al-Istinsiikh al-Basharl, 26.
153 Ibid., 101.
92
most probably an indication of failure of this fàtwii The failure of the second doctrine
that is based on utilitarian legal hermeneutics is reasoned due to not taking the important
key concept in Shatib's theory of m a q i i ~ i d al-shaiPah. The induction, construction, and
criticism of the dalil are necessary and essential restrictions for a justified treatment to
revelation. Yet, the second doctrine did not consider any of Shatib's theory key concepts
and especially violated the third element, criticism of the dalil, by prohibiting human
cloning in the case of a married couples that suffers sterilization and want to have a child
through human cloning.
93
4. FINAL CONCLUSION
Islamic law is a law of religion in the first place; it seeks its legitimacy from an
authoritative proof. This proof in the traditions of the theory of Islamic law ( u ~ i ï l al-fiqh)
is the da1l1 Facing a new legal case necessitates deriving and interpreting an authoritative
verdict from the dalll, as demonstrated by the case of human cloning. This thesis
concentrated on the methodology of producing legal opinions and fàtwis by investigating
the process ofhermeneutics as the source oflegal authority.
Contemporary Islamic legal dis course produces fàtwis and legal opinions that
prohibit human cloning while relying on two doctrines of prohibition. The first doctrine
supports its argument with Qur'anic text, "he said [Satan}: ... 1 will command them so
that they shall change Alliih's creation. ,,154 The second doctrine sees no texts to support
the prohibition, instead relying on an alternative legal source, which is utilitarian legal
hermeneutics. In the first chapter l undertook the mission of examining the two doctrines
by comparing them to the sources and methods that contemporary Islamic legal discourse
adopts, namely, u ~ i i 1 al-fiqh. l discovered a discrepancy in the methodology that leads to
prohibition in the first doctrine - the semantic interpretation of the verse does not lead to
what that doctrine inferred and l did not find a necessary and comprehensive argument in
the second doctrine. This situation led me to argue: It is not true that contemporary
Islamic legal discourse on human cloning is based on a legal methodology of the
religious texts since the fatwas and fiqhl opinions offered in this regard are based neither
154 Qur'an 4: 118-119
94
on a valid legal interpretation of the religious texts nor on a comprehensive and
necessary application ofutilitarian legal hermeneutics.
The aforementioned discrepancy in the first doctrine that is caused by
contradicting partial verses and iJadiths motivated me to clarify what is the foundation of
hermeneutics in a1-fiqh. 1 arrived in the second chapter with the following result:
Textual and legislative consistency is the objective of a1-fiqh hermeneutics. 1 built
upon al-Duraynl's definition ofhermeneutics (ta'wll) and 1 illustrated key concepts in a1-
ta'wJl 1 found that specification restriction (a1-taqyld), and metaphor
(majiiz.) are the key techniques that achieve textual consistency. 1 inferred that textual
reconciliation (a1-tawiiq) and textual preponderance (a1-taJjJ1!) are the key techniques to
achieving legislative consistency.
In order to complete the endeavor of hermeneutics that derives laws from the
principle of legal utilization similar to the second doctrine in human cloning, 1 examined
Shatibl's theory of a1-sharJ<ah (in the third chapter), which is the most important
theory in the history of u.sü1 a1-fiqh and discusses the principle of legal utilization. 1
suggested in Shatibl's theory a new basis for the hermeneutics of revelation. 1 presented
three key concepts: induction, construction, and criticism of the daIJ1 in Shatibl's theory.
Afterward, 1 restructured this theory by criticizing the conventional arrangement of the
verses of the Qur'an and by clarifying its hidden structure of the time line concept. My
restructuring resulted in rebuilding the faculties (ku1liyiit) of the Qur'an in a diachronic
basis that reveals the hidden questions that generated the general themes and contents of
the Qur'anic verses. These interrogative faculties are: 1) The question of the origin and
the mission of the existence, 2) The question of the origin and the purpose of human
95
being, 3) The question of the formation of human history, 4) The question of the
particular affairs of our social group, and finally 5) The question of the destiny of
existence, humanity, and thought. This restructuring of the theory of al-sharI'ah
leads to a semiological, constructive, and functional orientation to the relation between
revelation and Islamic law. This argument opposes the traditional notions of textual,
partial, priory treatment to reve1ation. This scholarly orientation is what justifies the
claim of the third chapter: if there is a methodological discrepancy in contemporary
Islamic legal discourse, the path for reformation exists in continuing the traditional
endeavor of al-fiqh through the divine concept of revelation (al-walji) as the
knowledge of the sign.
96
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•••

TABLE OF CONTENTS

* English Abstract

*

French Abstract

* Introduction 1. Opinions and Legal Doctrines of Human Cloning
1.1. Defining Human Cloning as a biotechnological subject for contemporary Islamic legal discourse 1.2. The difficulty of classifying of Human Cloning in the light of shari'ah and creed ( 'aqldah) 1.3. The implicit influences on the concepts God's primordial creation (fi!rah) and God's system in the world (sunnah) 1.4. Evaluating the doctrines on human cloning 1.4.1. The doctrine based on the Qur'anic prohibition of Human Cloning 1.4.1.1. Examining the legal interpretation of the verse 4:116-121 in relation to this fatWB 1.4.1.2. Critiquing the fatWB based on the Qur'anic Interpretation 1.4.2. The doctrine of prohibition based on utilitarian legal hermeneutics 1.4.2.1. The first objection of the second doctrinal position to human cloning 1.4.2. La. The evidence for the element (a) in the first objection to doctrine of prohibition based on utilitarian legal hermeneutics 1.4.2. La. 1. Critiquing the evidence (a) 1.4.2. Lb. The evidence for the element (b) in the first objection to doctrine of prohibition based on utilitarian legal hermeneutics 1.4.2. Lb. 1. Critiquing the evidence (b) 1.4.2.2. The second objection of second doctrinal position to human cloning 1.4.2.2.1. Critiquing this objection 1.5. Concluding remarks 2. The Foundations of Hermeneutics in U~iï1 a/-Fiqh: a/-Ta'wJI a/-U~iïli 2.1. Qur'anic hermeneutics in U~iïl al-Fiqh: a historical background 2.1.1. The example of 'Iddah 2.1.2. The example ofSawad al-'Iraq 2.2.The structure of Qur'anic hermeneutics in U~iil al-Fiqh 2.2.1. Textual consistency of the legal dis course 2.2.1.1. Specification, al- Takh~l~ 2.2.1.2. Restriction, al-Taqyld 2.2.1.3. Metaphor, al-Majiz 2.2.2. Legislative consistency of the legal discourse 2.2.2. 1. Textual reconciliation, al-Tawfiq 2.2.2. 2.Textual preponderance, al-Tarjl1! 2.3. Concluding remarks

* Acknowledgment

4 5 6 7 13

14 18

20 21 22

24 26 30
32

33 35

37 37 37 39 40 42 45 45 48 51 54 55 56 57 60 60 62 63

2

3.3. Epistemological presumptions and a restating of Shiitibl's hermeneutics of revelation 3.1.2. Conc1uding remarks 4. The Hermeneutics of Revelation in Shiitibl's Theory of Maqii!jld al. Introduction 3.4. Final Conclusion 66 68 67 78 91 94 97 * Bibliography 3 . Restructuring the theory ofMaqa~id al-Shari'ah 3.Shari'ah 3.

4 . al-fiqh. For this.ABSTRACT This thesis discusses the prohibition of human cloning in contemporary Islamic legal discourse. namely. When this is done. Shiitibl's theory of maqii~id al-sharl'ah offers one of the most reliable bases for the hermeneutics to evaluate the second doctrine. The methodological venture in this thesis aims at criticizing the CUITent methodology while at the same time offering a justified approach to hermeneutics in contemporary Islamic legal discourse and in the case ofhuman cloning. which in tum requires further clarification of the foundations of hermeneutics in u~iïl al-fiqh . while the second depends on method of utilitarian legal hermeneutics (alisti~liilJ). which relies on two distinct doctrines: the first seeks support in the Qur'anic text. These doctrines are examined by comparing them to the method that u~iïl contemporary Islamic legal discourse adopts.identified here as textual and legislative consistency. a discrepancy emerges in the first doctrine that traces this prohibition back to the text of revelation.

5 . soit la consistance textuelle et juridique. maqii~jd al-sharJ<ah. Pour bien faire ressortir cette inconsistance méthodologique.ABSTRACT Cette thèse porte sur l'interdiction du clonage humain énoncée par la pensée légale musulmane contemporaine. à savoir l' u~iïl al-fiqh. Cet examen fera apparaître combien les deux formes que prend la pensée légale musulmane contemporaine sont contraires à un fondement essentiel de l' u~iïl al-fiqh. la théorie de Shatibl. l'effort déployé en cette thèse cherche à la fois à critiquer les méthodes employées par la pensée légale musulmane contemporaine et à introduire une meilleure articulation dans l'entreprise herméneutique impliquée dans le droit islamique contemporain en général et dans le cas du clonage humain en particulier. sera la plus utile. qui peut prendre deux formes différentes selon le principe à partir duquel elle s'articule: soit celui qui impose de prendre appui sur le texte coranique. Ces deux aspects seront évalués à l'aune des sources et des méthodes plus générales que la pensée légale musulmane adopte uniformément. D'un point de vue plus général. soit celui que l'on nomme: «herméneutique légale utilitariste» (al-jsti~lih).

The enlightening discussions 1 had with Mr. 1 salute the bright methodological guidance.ACKNOWLEDGMENT 1 am extremely indebted for the assistance 1 received from three scholars . Mr. 1 am eternally indebted for her outstanding assistance in aiding me to acquire numerous sources. without which. Lena Salayme. To Ms. Steve Millier. Salwa Ferahian. 1 direct my deep thanks to my family and fiancée for their infinite support and love. Jason Hersch. 1 also want to thank the Institute of Islamic Studies at McGill University for offering me their generous fellowship. student at Mc Gill University's Institute of Islamic Studies. a student at Harvard University's School of Law. and Carl Sharif EI-Tobgui were vital to my daily contemplation of these issues. Professor Wael Hallaq. and Ms. which were essential to the completion of this thesis. Their help was instructive for my thesis editing. Simon Stazewski. this the sis would not have been possible. a professional editor. Their reading of my ideas informed me of many corrections. 6 . and the creative scholarship of my supervisor.A.Mr. Finally. Fahad alI:Iumudi. the sharp notes. an M.

The bioethical position of human cloning must be conceived in Muslim consciousness in shaii'ah terms.INTRODUCTION Since the middle of the twentieth century. and many other new procedures." dedicated to engaging the ethical aspects of these technological interventions in human nature. For example. these challenges include test-tube babies. Although there is vast material in the Sunnl Arabic media discussing the issue of human cloning from a religious perspective. 117. where human cloning (a1-istinsiikh a1-basharl) is being extensively sensationalized by the media. the field of knowledge dedicated to studying both the legal and ethical dimensions of any phenomenon is Islamic law (fiqh). Muslims are beginning to question the legitimacy and the benefits of such an invention. particularly in the West. Human cloning. sorne currently available Ahmad 'Ulwanl. 1997). euthanasia. is one ofthe most recent controversial issues in this field. as a subentity. a1-Istinsiikh: Jada1 a1. organ transplantation. Nevertheless. Consequently. l In the Muslim world. hence the issue has motivated Muslim jurist-authors and jurist-consults (muftis) to hold conferences and media interviews in order to generate legal arguments on this new. In the Arab world.'I1m wa1-Dln wa1-Akh1iiq (Damascus: Dar alFikr. sorne of the most important contemporary legal figures have developed a fiqh argumentation on this question. medical and technological innovations have come to challenge the relationship between the human body and the traditional ethical worldview. a field of human sciences has emerged known as "bioethics. l 7 . problematic bioethical issue. very little of it can be classified as part of fiqh discourse.

4 For further information see ~adiq Jalal al-'A?m.rur. Tahir Khaznah Katbih. and many others. These contemporary jurist-authors. Ibn 'UthaytIÙn. post-colonial development of Arab governments and societies. as weIl as writings by al-But1. 2000). al-Na~~ wal-Sultah wal-lfaqIqah: lridat al-Ma'rifah wa-Iridat al-Haymanah (Beirut: al-Markaz al-Thaqafi al-'Arabl. and jurist-authors. al-Tabi' li-Mun~?amat al-'Alam al-IslatIÙ).ayn. legal thinkers. 1997). Mi Ba 'da Dhihniyyat al-TalJrIm (Damascus: Dar al-Mada.works include publications of the Fiqh Academy of the Muslim World League (Majma' al-Fiqh al-Islam1. 3 For further information see Na~r Iiamid Abu Zayd. which is itself characterized by: 1) a general dismantling of the sharI'ah. qualified and trained jurists. and the European Council for Ifta' (al-Majlis al-Urub1 lil-Ifta'). firstly. This burgeoning Islamic legal discourse is perceived by many Islamic traditionalists2 and reformers 3 (on the one hand) and secularists4 (on the other) as a crisis. 2000).IatIÙd Abu Sulayman. and 2) a dismantling of the indigenous educational system that once produced educated. Azmat aJ-'AqJ aJ-Muslim (Virginia: al-Ma'had al-'AlatIÙ lil-Fikr al-IslatIÙ. by 2 For further information_see 'Abd al-l. 1994). It is se en as an unnatural.amad Shal). alZ1Ù}. Bearing aIl this in mind. Na~r Farld Wa~il. 23. Mu4ammad Mahdi Shams al-Din. al-Qaraqaw1. the thesis will deal with the fiqhIopinions and fatwis in contemporary Islamic legal discourse relating to human cloning in relation to two essential and primary questions. The first of these is: what is the broader context in which the aforementioned discourse of human cloning exists? The answer to this question is the hermeneutical methodology represented in Islamic legal theory (u~iïl al-fiqh).227. NaiJwa U~iïJ JadJdah lil-Fiqh al-Islaml· Fiqh al-Mar'ah (Damascus: al-Ahan lil-Tiba'ah wal-Nashr wal-Tawzl'. and muftis constitute a fair representation of the core ideas pertaining to the issue ofhuman cloning in the Sunnl Arab world. Dr. 'Abd al-Ghanl 'Abd al-Khaliq. muftIs. and M1Ù}. 8 . therefore depriving Muslim societies of governance.

This will be the theme. or the broader framework that shall play a key role in the establishment of the theme of the thesis.the concept of dali1 (lit. which is certainly theologically grounded. a1-Istinsiikh bayn a1. The second question is: To what exent are the contemporary hermeneutics of dalilresponsible for the present approach to the problematic fiqhI case of human cloning? In answering these two questions. evidence. the methodological approach to legal theory. Since contemporary Islamic discourse claims that the science of Islamic jurisprudence. 125. u~iï1 a1-fiqh. we will test this claim by applying it to the case in hand. which therefore necessitates a creative mental effort (ijtihiid) to assess it legally. guidance) and. 5 The muflI of Egypt. Na~r Farld Wa~il. The reason for taking legal discussion of human cloning as a case-study for critical analysis stems from the challenges that this new technological invention poses for the fiqhI mind on a practical level . human cloning is said to have no precedent (nazi1ah musta1Jdathah). our underlying thesis will emerge. by the theory of the objectives of shan'ah (maqii~id a1-shan'ah). By logically criticizing the methodology of dalil. as a theological issue. See I:Iusam al-Dln Shi4adah. secondly. constitutes its epistemological foundation and binds it to the tradition of the shan'ah. 1998). 9 . 5 which complicates and extends the methodological criteria necessary to deal with it. proof. human cloning is a legal case that is seen.'Ilm wa1-Fa1safah wa1DIn (Damascus: Markaz al-'Ilm wal-SaIam lil-Dirasat wal-Nashr. particularly by sorne thinkers. For this reason especially. AIso. human cloning is an intriguing yardstick against which to examine the methodological capacity of contemporary Islamic legal discourse.challenges that have philosophical dimensions derived from the Western worldview. and then restructuring it through the problematic fiqhI case of human cloning. is of the opinion that the one who clones is an infidel (kiifir). For instance.

will be advanced and new henneneutical solutions proposed. Additionally, this critical analysis may suggest a new path for the revivalist writers of today, such as Mu4ammad Sha4rur, by proposing a more elaborate and systematic diagnosis of modem legal problems than those currently offered. 6 Contennpoary Islamic legal discourse lies at the heart of many of the problems discussed in the present thesis. The main reason for this appears to be the discontinuity that exists between it and traditional methodology, which offers a solid interpretive foundation for understanding both the legal text and the world. The contemporary discourse shows fundamental weaknesses, as demonstrated in its attempt to seek improbable and very generalized methods to face the challenges of modemity. It is the intention of this thesis, therefore, to offer a solution for this legal and eminently methodological crisis, which has been often characterized as emanating from a "mentality of prohibition" (dhihniyyat al-taJp1m). 7 Although human cloning serves as the case study, it is not the major concem of this work. Much of the discussion will in fact be devoted to a more important concem the methodological foundations that groud the case study. The thesis will initially explore the foundations that support the legal methodology enterprise and then seek to enhance the foundations ofthis methodology. The prohibition or the pennission ofhuman cloning, furthennore, does not motivate this thesis: its sole aim, as previously noted, is to criticize the contemporary henneneutics of dalil and reconstructing a new theory of dalil through the problematic fiqhl case ofhuman cloning.

6

For an example, see Shaqrur, NalJwa U~iïl Jadldah lil-Fiqh al-Islam], 23. 7 For further infonnation, see al-'A?m, Mi ba'da Dhihniyyat al-Ta1;rlm, 227.
10

In order to achieve the aforementioned goals, the first chapter will endeavor to explore the Islamic legal discourse on human doning and to describe its doctrines. This exploration and analysis of the fatwis and legal discourse will draw a map for the present case study, making it possible to demonstrate the existence of two basic doctrines: one that extracts its judgments directly from the Qur'an and/or Sunnah and another that formulates its judgments not directly from the Qur'an, but on the legislative principles of the shari'ah. These two doctrines are extensions of historical traditions in fiqh - one following the traditions of the Ahl al-Athar school and the other that of the Ahl al-Ra y. Within this exploration and analysis, a critical comparison will be made between the methodology of u~iïl al-fiqh and the previously mapped legal doctrines of human doning. This first chapter makes the following argument: It is not true that contemporary Islamic legal discourse on human cloning is based on a legal methodology of the religious texts since the fatwas and fiqhl opinions offered in this regard are based neither on a valid legal interpretation of the religious texts nor on a comprehensive and necessary application of utilitarian legal hermeneutics. The second chapter will explore the foundations of
u~iïl

al-fiqh hermeneutics,

which will provide a reply to the first basic doctrine and its misuse of legal interpretation of religious texts. The work of the distinguished contemporary Duraynl will be used as a model when defining
(takh~i~), u~iïli u~iïli

writer Fat41 al-

terms such as specification

restriction (taqid), and metaphor (majiiz). By this elucidation of the foundations

of legal hermeneutics in u$iïl al-fiqh, the major daim of second chapter will be demonstrated: Textual and legislative consistency is the objective of hermeneutics.
u~iïl

al-fiqh

11

The third chapter asks and answers the question: "Why does a discrepancy exist between both the traditional and the contemporary methodological practices?" To do so, the theoretical discoveries of chapter two regarding the foundations of herrneneutics in
u~iïl al-fiqh

will be applied to an interesting development in
U~iïl

u~iïl al-fiqh history,

found in

the text al-Muwiifàqiit fi

al-Shar J'ah written by the Andalusian scholar Abü Is4aq

ibrahIm al-Shiitibl (d. 790/1388). This elaboration will serve as a reply to the second basic doctrine applied to the issue of human cloning, from which a comprehensive employment of legal herrneneutics is lacking. This criticism will further develop the theme of the second chapter, that of textual and legislative consistency, by investigating the worldview of 'time' in the Qur'iin as the major criterion in the process of legislation. Due to the original ingenuity and the reforrnative aspect of Shiitibl's theory, this step is necessary to prove the essential claims of the third chapter:

If there is a methodological

discrepancy in contemporary Islamic legal discourse, the path towards reform lies in continuing the traditional endeavor of
u~iïl

al-fiqh through the divine concept of

revelation (al-walil) as the knowledge of the sign.

12

The majority of contemporary Muslim writers consider human cloning to be prohibited. 8 One u~iï1 a1-fiqh professor has categorically and emphatically declared that human cloning lies in the realm of the forbidden.CHAPTERONE OPINIONS AND LEGAL DOCTRINES OF HUMAN CLONING This chapter will explore the Islamic legal discourse on human cloning (a1istinsakh or a1-istinsiil a1-bashrJ) and analyze its conclusions. 9 In the first part of this chapter. In describing the description of the fiqhl doctrines on human cloning. and banned. sorne of the issues raise in their writings and future will be categorized and elaborated on under the following headings: 1. due This includes works by: The Fiqh Academy of The Muslim World League and major legal figures and muftis such as al-But1. 9 Nlir al-Dln Mukhtar al-Khadinii. Tahir Khaznah Katibah. Dr. l will concentrate on comparing methodology of the contemporary Islamic legal discourse and the traditional methodology of u~iï1 a1-fiqh. prohibited. Particular attention will be paid to critiquing the contemporary methodology wherever there arises a deviation from the principles of u~iï1 a1-fiqh. al-Qaraq.awl. 66. 8 13 . a1-Tiibi' li. and many others. 'Abd al-Ghanl 'Abd al-Khaliq.) the difficulty of classifying human cloning. Na~r Fadd Wa~il. the ShI'! Scholar Mu4ammad Mahdi Shams al-Dln. The analysis and exploration of fàtwas and other legal texts will generate a map essential to further exploration of our case study. therefore.) Defining human cloning as a bio-technological subject matter. aJ-Istinsakh fi J)aw' a1-U~iï1 wa1-Qawa'id wa1Maqa~id a1-Shar'iyyah: BalJth MulJakkam min Qiba1 Markiz a1-BulJiïth wa1-Diriisat a1Is1iimiyyah bi1-Riyaçf. Ibn 'Uthaymln.Wizarat a1-Shu'iïn a1-Is1amiyyah (Riyadh: Dar alZii4im lil-Nashr wal-Tawzl'. al-Zu4ayIi. 2. 2001).

BI. The first known. al-Istinsiikh: AblJiith Nadwat alMajlis al-IsliimJ al-A 'Iii (Tunis: Sharikat Funlin al-Rasm wal-Nashr wal-~a4afah. in 1996. 86. there has not yet been an authenticated instance of a successful human clone. 1998). Defining Human Cloning as a Biotechnological Subject for Contemporary Islamic Legal Discourse The ability to clone living creature is a recent biomedical and genetic engineering breakthrough. of the the claim that cloning constitutes a fonu of creation (khalq). 14 . The definition of this phenomenon should be based on its place of origin. 11 al-Tayyib Salamah and 'Abd al-Majld Bin I:Iamiidh. Cloning. where. and 3. l will not address those texts that do not recognize the technological nature of cloning. al-Istinsiikh Bayna al. since lawmaking without proper understanding produces a verdict outside 10 The only truly qualified Muslim scholar encountered in the course of this research that did not issue a fatwii prohibiting Human Cloning is the ShI'! Lebanese scholar al-Sayyid Mul}. documented and scientifically accepted implementation of this technology took place in Britain.ammad I:Iusayn Fa4l Allah. see Shihiidah. is not clearly understood (in sorne cases) within the discourse of Muslim legal scholars. while the cloning of animaIs has been achieved.'Ilm wal-Falsafah wal-DJn. This omission is intentional. in an attempt to cite an authoritative concept. 10 1. Il Yet.1. a sheep named Dolly was engineered as an exact copy of an existenting sheep.to legal (shari'ah) and theological ('aqJdah) implications. as it stands in the bioengineering and medical fields.) the obscuring of cloning as a practice contradictory to God's primordial creation (fi!rah) and His system in the world (Sunnah). because to do otherwise would legitimate erroneous adjudication. the scientific field of biotechnology.

72.from the General Department of al-1ft li' .'Ilm wal-Falsafah wal-Din. or rich man in order to procreate a child with more valuable characteristics.2003): http://www. suggesting it bears a resemblance to a type of pre-Islamic marriage known as "nikiiJ. 12 In other fatwas.asharqalawsat. these scholars have miscategorized cloning as creation (al-takhliq) and. This latter fact stems from Islamic theological principles declaring that creation is God's exclusive work. prohibition is understood to be the only plausible and possible outcome. NikiiJ. calling it "NikËÎlJ. al-Istinsakh Bayna al.of the proper realm of the case (mana!). powerful. consequently.salafi. al-istibqa' is a pre-Islamic and ancient Arab custom whereby a poor or an unintelligent man could send his wife to an intelligent. (accessed. (accessed. al-istibqii' of the modem age of ignorance". sorne fatwas do not take into account the technological nature of cloning and... The Kuwaiti scholar 'Abd al-Ghanl 'Abd al-Khliliq advocates this stance.. and other non-permissible sexual peculiarities are erroneously made analogous to human cloning.has classified human cloning as a form of adultery "qarb min quriib al-zinâ'.iyyan. thus. Istiniikh al-Insiin wal-lfayawiin pajjah Mufta 'alah wa-Ukdhiibah Kabirah wa-Fasad '~im. the sins of adultery. rahir Khaznah Klitibah . For example." published in Jaiidat al-Sharq al-Awsa!.13 The ratio legis (' illah) for his qiyas is the desire to obtain better genetic features in a child through illegitimate means. through legal analogy (qiyas). therefore. December 13. The Kuwaiti scholar.netlarticles/article 18. 'Abd al-Ghanl 'Abd al-Khliliq. arguing that human cloning is part of a larger framework of Shi\1lidah... 14 ln a further display of incorrect classification and understanding. See 'Abd al-Ghanl 'Abd al-Khliliq. fornication. sorne scholars have placed human cloning within the same category of genetic engineering that seeks to fashion new creatures and organisms. Similarly. 8 December 2001. al-istibqa. the mufti of Jordan. December 13. necessarily prohibited (lJaram). similarly analogizes to this marriage form.com 12 13 15 . 2003): http://www.html 14 See "al-Shaykh rahir Khaznah Klitibah: al-Islam YulJarrim al-Istinskh Talpiman Qa!.

salafi. 2000) vol." He has further classified them as fàtwiis that have been issued 15 'Abd al-Khaliq. a mule and asked him why do we not we let donkeys mate with horses? The Prophet. Istiniikh al-Insiin wal-lfayawiin IJajjah Mufta'alah. (accessed.designing new organisms and humansY 'Abd al-Khaliq derives and substantiates his position in favor of prohibition from a lJadith that deals with a similar issue. peace be upon him. December 13.17 However.16 and the lJadith. al-TarIkh al-KabIr. do not take the trouble to understand the scientific aspects of the question at hand. fJadith Number: 7/247 (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-'Ilmiyyah. The President of the National Counsel of the Sudan and an acknowledged expert on u~iil al-flqh. "'Ali presented Prophet MuJ}.439. 259. 15/ biib 59 in Jam'jawiimi' al-AlJiidith wal-AsiinId wa-Maknaz al-$ilJiilJ wal-Sunan wal-MasiinId (Cairo: Jam'iyyat al-Maknaz al-lslam1. Sunan AbI Dawiid. responded. 17 Abu Dawud. 2001). peace be upon him.1 8 Many scholars recognize that sorne of the fàtwiis about cloning do not fulfill the legal condition of identifying the true nature of the legal case. has even identified these types of inaccurate and naive fàtwiis as a "crisis. lfimiiyat al-bl'ah wal-Mawiirid al-TbI'iyyah fi al-Sunnah alNabawiyyah (Saudi Arabia. Riyadh: Masters' thesis in Imam University. 2000) 16 .. He adduces the Prophetie saying. 2. the historical context of the lJadiths does not support' Abd al-Khaliq's contention. The context and commentaries on the lJadiths suggest that the cause of the prohibition (ta 'Dl al-ta1p1m) expressed in them was a fear of decreasing the numbers ofhorses needed for military purposes. only ignorant people do this.. That is to say.. and his citation of this material is unique among flqh jurists who write in opposition to cloning.netlarticles/article 18. 18 Fahad al-ijumudi. voU.ammad. sorne scholars.ammad Isma'il al-Bukhari. and are as a consequence too ill-informed to deduce valid legal opinions. kitiib al-jihiid. I:Iasan al-Turab1. when rendering fàtwiis. "The Prophet prohibited letting donkeys mate with horses. 2003): http://www.html 16 MuJ}.

Growing a colony of genetically identical cells or organisms in vitro. December 13. 23 Mu'ln Qadduml. the Islamic Fiqh Academy of the Muslim World League (Majma' al-Fiqh al-Islam1 al-Tabi' li-MunaHamat al-'Alam al-Islaml).without the perception of the natural and physical sciences: "al-fatiïwa lJawaJ alistinshiïkh . 2000).asp?cu_ no=2&item_ no=2883 &version= 1&te mplate_id=130&parent_id=17 21 'Ulwiinl. Moreover. al-Istinsiïkh bayna al-MasllJiyyah wal-Isliïm.July 3. at its tenth meeting (held in Jeddah.24 This pronouncement and in fact the majority of texts by Muslim scholars present human cloning in a detailed and precise framework that is faithful to its biotechnological and medical origins... ~adarat bi-ghayr idriïk" 19 By contrast. Mawqi' al-Qaraqawl (accessed. 122.netlsite/topics/article. many identical embryos can thus be generated by 19 17 .qaradawi.'ilm waJ-Dln wal-Akhliïq. 20 Yusuf al-Qaraqawl: al-Istinsiïkh wa-Ra y ai-Qaraejawi Rh. 2003): http://www. 1997). A comparison of the above quoted Jeddah statement with accepted scientific definitions of cloning will show how much importance they assign to having an informed position?5 Mu'ln Qaddum1. 2. 25 For further information. 364.. which then develops into an embryo. June 28 .. "1.307. or by duplicating a fertilized egg.21 as weIl as the members of the Higher Islamic Council of Tunisia (al-Majlis al-Islam1 al-A'la ).22 have demonstrated a very accurate understanding of the scientific and technological aspects of cloning. 315. al-Istinsiïkh. 315.. al-Istinsiïkh bayna al-MasllJiyyah wal-Isliïm: Maqiïliït wa AblJiïth liKibiïr Rijiïl al-Dln wal-Mufakldrln wal-BiilJithln min Mukhtalaf al-Adyiïn wal-Madhiïhib (Beirut: Dar al-Fikr al-Lubnanl. 85. such as alQaraqaw120 and al-Zu4ayIi. 24 Ibid. see cloning entry in Stedman 's Medical Dictionary (Maryland: Lippircott and Williams. certain recognized contemporary scholars of Islamic law. 1999).23 offered this definition of cloning: "generation of one or more living creatures or more either by transferring a nucleus from a body cell to an egg without a nucleus. 22 al-Tayyib Salamah. al-Istinsiïkh: Jadal al. Transplantation of a nucleus from a somatic cell to an ovum.

there arose a new dilemma that challenged not only Islamic legal discourse.e. This theological concem plays a discrete role in fatwiïs and opinions in contemporary Islamic legal discourse because it is vindicated by a legal method that intends to prove the prohibition. However. The cloning vehicle penetrates a bacterial cell or yeast (the host). in u~iïl al-fiqh. assigned to Allah. 26 Creation in the Islamic 'aqldah is conclusively. It can be argued that scientists in the field of human cloning comprehend their work as resulting in the creation of humans. there are certain methods to interpreting a Qur'anic verse. i. which is then grown in vitro or in an animal host. and particularly its stance on creation. may be implanted in an animal for gestation. The fragment is spliced into a cloning vehicle (i.e." 26 'Ulwanl. whether it resembles a natural means of reproduction. The resulting embryos. the inserted DNA becomes activated and alters the chemical functioning of the host cell. dividing a cluster of cells through microsurgery and transferring one-half of the cells to a zona pellucida that has been emptied of its contents. 4. This scenario is a serious concem in contemporary Islamic legal discourse and is the topic addressed in most of the fatwiïs. The technology of human cloning is understood by sorne scholars as posing a threat to the Islamic creed ('aqldah). The Difficulty of Classifying Human Cloning in the Light of Shaii'ah and Creed ( 'Aqldah) With the advent of technology that makes it possible to understake human cloning. A recombinant DNA technique used to produce millions of copies of a DNA fragment. beginning with the fact that such interpretation is restricted to legal verses of the Qur'an (iïyiït al-alJkiïm). and solely. 3. or animal virus).2. but also. Islamic theological tenets. bacteriophage.1. Developing legal rulings from 'aqldah principles is irrelevant. plasmid. AI-Istinsiïkh. genetically identical. 122. 18 . In sorne cases. This assumed confrontation with Islamic 'aqldah has contributed to overall legal stance asexual reproduction. The theological problem originates in how to define the process of human cloning.. as in the = production of genetically engineered drugs. With blastocysts.

The second is based on a technological definition of cloning. Two methods were used to prove the aforementioned claim: The first is based on a pure belief-reaction that adduces the Qur'anic verses to the effect that creation is exclusively in the hands of Allah. and 1.2003): http://www.4. These Qur'anic verses are: And Allah has created you and what you make. But. would not be permanently true. namely. The silent role played by 'aqldah is discemible in the legal proofs that are insufficient to establish the prohibition. because only prohibition would be a means way to maintain its veracity.favoring prohibition. that it is based on utilizing the nucleus of a living ce II . In other words.netlsite/topics/article. the second method acknowledges that human cloning is merely the modification of an already created life. which is itself Allah's creation.1.asp?cu_no=2&item_ no=2883&version= 1&te mplate_id=130&parent_id=17 28 Qur'an 37:96 27 19 . as will be shown in sections 1.4. Mawqi' al-Qaraqawl (accessed. Therefore. but rather on Allah's creation. then the Islamic 'aqldah. December 13. in the second method it is claimed that cloning has simplified the Islamic creed of resurrection (al-ha 'th).27 relying for proof on the same Qur'anic verses that are used to establish the 'aqldah aspect of the legal discourse on human cloning. 28 Yusuf al-Qaraqawl: al-Istinsiïkh wa-Ra y al-Qaraejawl Rh. in and of itself. This 'aqldah concem is peculiar since most of the legal texts encountered in the course of this research operate under the assumption that human cloning cannot be equated with creation. this stance is not clearly explained: if the Islamic prohibition is the way to prevent human cloning or to prevent creating humans.qaradawi. human cloning does not rely an ordinary methods of reproduction.2. In addition.

many men and women. quoted in the preceding section. 33 Qur'an 3:6 29 30 20 . there is no god but He. 29 This is AlIah's creation. Nay. He creates you in the wombs of your mothers -a creation after a creation.in triple darkness. that is Qur'an 86:5-8 Qur'an 31: Il 31 Qur'an 76:2 32 Qur'an 4:1. 32 He it is Who shapes you in the wombs as He likes.3.) and Allah's system in the world (sunnah). surely Allah ever watches over yoU. opponents also appeal to Qur'an 86:5-8. They also focus on the traditional paradigm of marri age and procreation as Allah's primordial creation (D/rab. so We have made him hearing. The relevant verses are: Surely We have created man from a smalliife-germ uniting (itself): We mean to try him. and (to) the ties of relationship. and He has made for you eight of the cattle in pairs.h's System in the World (sunnab. the Mighty. then made its mate of the same (kind).So let man consider of what he is created: He is created of water pouring forth. seeing these as the theological background of human cloning. and be careful of (your duty to) Allah. The Implicit Influences on the Concepts of God's Primordial Creation (D!rab. by Whom you demand one of another (your rights). Who created you from a single being and created its mate of the same (kind) and spread from these two. Most surely He is able to return him (to life). 31 o people! be careful of (your duty to) your Lord. seeing. Coming from between the back and the ribs. but show Me what those besides Him have created. 33 He has created you from a single being. the Wise.) and Al18.) Writings on human cloning incessantly and repeatedly refer to the Qur'anic verses describing the creation and growth of the embryo. the unjust are in manifest error 30 1.

Wiazirat al-Shu'iïn al-Islimiyyah (Riyadh: Dar alZa4im lil-Nashr wal-Tawz1'. 34 35 21 . although it contain little of interest besides.4. whence are you then turned away? 34 Thus. sorne legal principle (qi'idah fiqhiyyah). The first seeks to find Qur'anic or Sunnaic textual evidence to this effect. These two methods are sometimes combined in an attempt to establish the prohibition from an u~iïH perspective. 35 The evaluation offered below therefore proposes the following: It is not true that contemporary Islamic legal discourse on human cloning is based on a legal methodology of the religious texts since the fatwas and fiqh1 opinions offered in this regard are based neither on a valid legal interpretation of the religious texts nor on a comprehensive and necessary application of utilitarian legal hermeneutics. by means of qiyis. Qur'an 39:6 Nur al-D1n Mukhtar al-Khadim1. 1. That this is the case will demonstgrated through an analysis of the two u~iïH doctrines and their application. Al-Istinsikh fi IJaw' al-U~iïI waI-Qawi'id walMaqi~id al-Shar'iyyah: BalJth MulJakkam min Qibal Markiz al-BulJiïth wal-Dirisit alIslimiyyah bil-Riyiq. al-Tibi' li.. there is no god but He. while the second aims to affirm the prohibition by way of an established u~iïH proof. it is argued that there is no need to apply the techniques of human cloning and thus tamper with the natural world's reproductive process.Allah your Lord.e. two traditional fiqhl methods are employed. 2001). Evaluating the Doctrines on Human Cloning: In most attempts at proving the invalidity of human cloning. or legislative principles (mabda' tashrl'i). His is the kingdom. An example of just such an effort may be found in the very detailed work of Nur al-D1n Mukhtar al-Khadim1. i. being vased on opinion from supporters of the aforementioned two legal doctrines and therefore far from original.

36 The majority of those who support prohibition of cloning consider this Qur' aiiic passage to be the clearest evidence. has resulted in unneceSSarY and incomprehensible inferences. l note the first doctrine' s appropriation as a complete failure of legal interpretation and deem that the second. 37 'DIwan1. AI-Istinsiïkh.37 the leader of the Lebanese Muslim Brothers Fat41 Yakan.38 the leader of the Supreme 36 Qur'an 4: 116-121.1. while operating from sound premises and procedures. 122. The Doctrine Based on the Qur'8nic Prohibition of Human Cloning A consensus has evolved among sorne Muslim scholars in this doctrine that the Qur'an prohibits human cloning. and the Satan does not promise them but to deceive. for which they cite the foHowing verse as evidence: Surely Allah does not forgive that anything should be associated with Him. and they shall not find any refuge from it.209. and most certainly l will command them so that they shaH change Allah's creation. 1. These are they whose abode is hell. al-Istinsiïkh bayna al-MasliJiyyah wal-Isliim. 38 Qaddum1. and he said: Most certainly l will take of They servants an appointed portion: And most certainly l will lead them astray and excite in them vain desires. he indeed strays off into a remote error. and l will command them so that they shall slit the ears of the cattle. 22 .The first doctrine is based on a Qur'anic prohibition against changing Allah's creation. Allah has cursed him. They do not calI besides Him on anything but idols. and they do not calI on anything but a rebellious Satan. and He forgives what is besides this to whom He pleases. while the second doctrine corre1ates to the prohibition vis-à-vis the implementation of utilitarian legal hermeneutics. and whoever associates anything with Allah. He gives them promises and excites vain desires in them.4. and whoever takes the Satan for a guardian rather than Allah he indeed shaH suffer a manifest loss. The Syrian jurist-author Mu4ammad Wahbah aI-Zu4ayIi. In a preliminary assessment of the two.

i. and thus understand it as a prohibition of human cloning.e. Mu4ammad Mahdi Shams al-Din. See Shi4iidah. al-Istinsikh bayna al. al-Istinsikh al-Bashazi: Wahm am Wiqi'?(Casablanca: s. 41 This analysis led to a strange attitude on the part of the muftI of Egypt. in their view. however." See 'Abd al-Wii4id Shu'ayr. or cloning. The fact. 1997). of changing God's creation. these decisions are issued without showing how the verse leads to the prohibition.n. This analysis has more radical implications. However.40 aIl adopt this interpretation. Sorne scholars further comprehend the alteration of AIlah's creation not only as conforming to Satan's order. is that certain implicit u~iïfi foundations underlie their arguments: the task at hand is to demonstrate how these fatwas were plausibly generated. al-Istinsikh bayna al. one must consider the question: Is the notion of al-istinsikh included or connoted in the Qur'anic expression changing AIlah's creation? By examining the aforementioned Qur'anic expression of changing AIlah's creation. Still. 129. since one of the most important figures in the Counsel of Chief Scholars in Saudi Arabia (Hay'at Kibiir al-'Ulamii'). none of the fatwis or legal opinions issued by the above applying anything resembling u~iïl al-tiqh methodology. In other words. 85. 39 Shi4iidah. 40 Saliimah. 125. al-Istinsikh. they see it as prohibited. that they should be subjected to the harshest of punishments.'Ilm wal-Falsafah wal-DIn. and they should get their hands and legs cut from opposite sides.. Na~r Farld Wii~il. cornes under the heading. al-Shaykh Mu~tafiî Kamal al-Tiizl. or that they should be killed for their sowing corruption in the earth (ifsid).39 and a Tunisian member of the Higher Islamic Council.'Ilm wal-Falsafah wal-DIn. 23 . an answer may be found. 85. but adduce it to be equivalent to and on the level of polytheism. It can be understood from their treatment of this verse that these scholars interpret Satan's order to alter the nature created by Allah as an inherent source of sin and one that should be avoided. 41 Since al-istinsikh. Ibn 'UthayllÙn stated that: "those in charge of the technique of human cloning must be treated under the Islamic legal judgment accorded to renegades (al-ftiribah). who is of the opinion that the one who clones is an infidel (kitir).ShI'! Islamic Council in Lebanon.

Jami' a1-Bayiin fi TafsJr a1-Qur'in (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al'Ilmiyyah. the second involves the tattooing of humans. and Qutb. specifically the statement. 5.1. Jimi' a1Bayiin fi Tafslr a1-Qur'in by al-1. al-Razi. 1997). but also upon the religion of God. Thus. in terms of sin and virtue." while relied on as a basis for the judgment against cloning. AI-1. while the third touches on modification of God's religion.1. A quick overview of the most formative works on the interpretation of the Qur'an. God's religion is what is referred 42 Ibn Jarlr al-1. 56.1.'abarl chooses the third narration because he thinks that the Qur'an should be understood through the best rhetorical hermeneutics.42 "So that they shall change A11iïh '8 creation. AI-Tabad justifies his choice by asserting that Arabie rhetoric does not consider it good to specify a word and then to generalize it again. vol. According to one of the earliest surviving Qur'anic exegetical work. 24 . "So that they shall change Alliïh '8 creation.'abad. which confers this meaning not only upon physical changes.'abarl. Examining tbe Legal Interpretation of Verses 4:116-121 in Relation to tbis FatwB The modem juristic understanding of Quranic verses 4:116-121.'abar1. The first of these narration concems the castration of cattle. alZamakhsharl." was explained in three narrations by prominent successors of the Prophet's companions (tibi'iïn). such as those of al-1.4. al-Altisl. show that this semantically adduced evidence is mistaken. is nevertheless incorrect.

adding a further element that can be understood from this verse . under the conidition that the fifth is a male. it would lead him to change the nature created by Allah. "So that they shall change Alliih 's creation" refers to an old Arab custom. he understands the verse to correlate other issues. such as attempts to alter God's religion.44 The first interpretation is that the act of changing nature created by Allah is "changing God's religion. Additionally." The second is that it consists in "changing any of the apparent state of anything through tattooing. 3) poking out the eye of the best camel in its group. [?]) Vo1. in addition to castrating it. if a man accepts the word of Satan. 36.. a1-TafsIr al-Kabir (Beirut: Dar IlIya' al-Turath al-'Arab!.to in the phrase "So that they shall change Alliih 's creation. poking out an eye of a male camel. that entails the following activities: 1) cutting its ear. and further examples of effeminate behavior on the part of the human male. once that group reaches a specified number. 566. and sacrificing certain cattle to idols.mud Zamakhshad." Al-Raz! himself agrees on aIl of these interpretations. "this verse can be interpreted according to two doctrines of interpretation. A1-Kashshiïf 'an 'Uyiïn a1-Aqiïwll fi Wujiïh a1Ta'wll(Beirut: Dar al-Kit ab al-'Arab1 [?]). 44 al-Fakhr al-Raz!. related to the camel. effeminate behavior. 25 . traditions oftattooing. 2) forbidding it food once it has birthed five offspring. castration.namely." AI-Alus! for his part says that "So that they shall change Alliih 's creation" includes changing the 43 Abu al-Qasim Mal]. Therefore.9. "if we go back to the words of Satan in the context of this Qur'anic verse." This interpretation is concise and· instructive conceming the most traditional Islamic understanding of this Qur'anic verse.. 43 According to al-Raz!. al-Zamakhshar!. he says: l will arouse in them false desires. voU. According to the Mu'taziIi interpreter.

the one making this claim would be required to demonstrate that the text is not limited to the case of camels and! or cattle." for. 210. it cannot be generalized to include human beings or even aU creatures because there would be three serious problems. this verse is directed toward attemptso to alter the shape of the body or to mutilate it in sorne From the above survey it is clear that the foremost interpreters of the Qur'an saw the context of the verse in question as pertaining to the changing of God's religion in general and/or to other acts such as castration.4. it cannot be understood to mean that "any change in the world is prohibited. it 45 Sayyid Qu~b. Critiquing the Fatwii Based on the Qur'amc Interpretation An objection may be raised not against the validity of the above Qur'anic interpretive claims. more proofs will be offered to further corroborate this interpretation in the next section. Still. while it can be interpreted differently. tattooing. if this were the case. Even if it is supposed that one could extend the aforementioned meaning of the verse. The first fundamental dilemma is: How can the meaning of "changing" in the context of this verse be transferred from livestock to human beings? Legally speaking.tb. 1. 26 . but against the final meaning and authority of these interpretations.1. or is contemporary Islamic legal discourse juistified in extending their application? The answer is that. Fi ?iliil al-QUI'in (Beirut: Dar al-'Arablyah lil-Tiba'a wal-Nashr.2. to strengthen this point of possible contention.4. while for Sayyid Qu.appearance or shape of any of God's primordial creation.[?]) Vol. etc. and the maiming of the eye of the camel. Do the above hermeneutical conclusions represent the final word on the verses in question.

which is. 46 Then. however. 49 Ibn Qudiimah al-Maqdisl. 48 These laws would. implying that this unrestricted clause should be restricted by the previous context . 27 . What assures the previous determination is that the methodology of u~iïl al-fiqh treats a legal text of the Qur'an under a triad of laws concerning consistency: 1) generalized/specified. al-Maniihij al. 92. require that the sentence "Alliih 's creation" treated as an unrestricted clause (mutlaqah). 1997). but only a casual association of disparate facts. the word creation in "Alliih's creation" is in a subjunctive grammatical state (man~iïb) and the whole sentence is in a conjunction postion (ma ~tiïiJ. firstly. and 3) literal/metaphorical relations between the vocabularies. This qiyiis would include the following procedure: a classification and successive elimination (al-sabr wal-taqsJm) of elements in which the ratio legis ('illah) is generally determined.. yields no such methodical attempt. 2) restricted/unrestricted. 90.'U~iïliyyah fi al{jtihiid bil-Ra'y fi al-TashrJ' al-IslamJ(Damascus: al-Sharikah al-Mutta4idah lil-Tawzl' 1985). "and 1 will command them so that they shall slit the ears of the cattle. connoting random items of its connotation substitutively.668. 232. Rawejat al-Niiz. 47 A thorough survey of the contemporary Islamic legal discourse on cloning. 47 Ibid. A History ofIslamic Legal Theories: An Introduction to SunnJ U~iïl AIfiqh (New York: Cambridge University Press.49 Secondly.e. and most certainly 1 will command them so that they shall change Alliih s 46 Wael Hallaq. i.vo1.is necessary to formulate a valid legal analogy. Hence. this 'illah should be examined for consistency Ut!iriid) against all cases that would be included under its application. and Fat41 al-Duraynl.ir wa-Junnat al-Munii?ir (Beirut: Dar alKitiib al-'Arabl 1992). qiyiis. 48 1 will give a full analysis for this methodology in the second chapter. the conclusion reached by opponents of cloning on the verse in question may be valid in the context of moral preaching or exhortation.2. but it certainly does not constitute a legitimate and articulated legal argument on human cloning.

." The second serious problem is the claim that "any change in the world is prohibited.creation. the proliferation of new creatures such as mules. interpret sorne 50 Rafiq al-'Ajam. 1456. The second contradiction emerges from. No change would exist in A11iih 's creation. and Ibn al-Subk1. in this case.52 The fact that these two verses cannot be reconciled with the position of contemporary legal discourse on verses invalidates the latter interpretation. for you to ride and as an adornment.trah of A11iih upon which he has created [aU] people. 51 Qur'an: 8:16 52 Qur'an: 30:30 28 . And He creates [other] things ofwhich you have no knowledge.2. it is meaningless. lfiishiyat a1. 84.t. The third problem is that there is a clear contradiction with the position of two other Qur'rulic texts. "they shaU slit the ears of the cattle.. in a tone of admiration. mules and donkeys.tiir 'a1ii Jam' a1-Jawami' (Bierut : Dar al-Kit ab al.51 This verse highlights. "So direct your face [MulJammad] toward the religion. inclining to the truth. Mawsiï'at Mu~. 50 Then that unrestricted clause should be restricted in connotations to the restricted phrase. vol. but most of the people do not know.'Ilm1 ).ta1ahit U~iï1 a1-Fiqh 'inda a1-Muslimln (Beirut: Maktabat Lubnan. this is impossible.firiib). From the foregoing analysis of the scholars of this doctrine we observe that their theory is based on a particular method of Qur'anic interpretation: First. or in other words. The tirst is the verse: "And [He has created] horses. declares that if any unrestricted clause positioned in the context of a non-negated (ghayr manfiyyah) restricted sentence with the similarity of reason and judgment." Practically speaking. 1998). . and thus on the basis of the traditional u~iïli principle of preserving the divine speech from contradiction (Nf? ka1iim a1-shiîri' min a1-içf.'A.." Since the u~iïli principle. itself a hybrid of horses and donkeys. [Adhere toi the fi.

Clearly. The opponents of human cloning extend the analogy to include entities (humans) not mentioned in the verse and yet. It can therefore be reiterated: It is not true that contemporary Islamic legal discourse on human cloning is based on a legal methodology of the religious texts since the fatwas and fiqh1 opinions offered in this regard are not based on a valid legal interpretation of the religious texts.53 thus represents a massive self-contradiction of fiqhl doctrine. 1. 122. insisting that the practice is acceptable when it is for the betierment of humankind. And to this the fact the verse specifically refers to animaIs. from which these scholars interpret a prohibition against humans. significantly.4. yet. conveniently ignore the objects of ruling in the first place. do so without acknowledging that an entirely new method of understanding Qur'anic semantics would be needed to substantiate their conclusion. The analysis provided by the Islamic Fiqh Academy of the Muslim World League and by Muslim scholars such as al-Zl$ayIi.Qur'anic verses against human cloning in a way incompatible with the methods of the traditional methodology of u~iïl al-fiqh related to this field (the methodology of u~iïl al- fiqh insists on consistency in defining terms. they declare the cloning of animaIs and plants to be permissible. this egregious contradiction in interpretation is allowed to standfor ideological purposes. 29 . particularly in applying the laws of restrictedlunrestricted vocabularies in our case) and second. Al-Istinsikh. The Doctrine of Prohibition Based on Utilitarian Hermeneutics 53 'Ulwan1.2. The end result can only be described as a comprehensive fai/ure of legal interpretation.

14. and that the most that can said is that they refer to the Qur'an in a manner more attuned to pierty. who are sterile. al-Maniihij al-U~iï1iyyah. which is remarkable in that it does not limit itself to a restricted or conditional prohibition. will be shown in the following for as we also state at the outset of the chapter: It is not true that contemporary Islamic legal discourse on human cloning is based on a legal methodology of the religious texts since the fatwas and fiqhl opinions offered in this regard are not based on a comprehensive and necessary application ofutilitarian legal hermeneutics. the methodology used to support it is incomplete and faulty. the deterministic attitude for the prohibition. the utilitarian legal hermeneutics. it may instead be assumed that they are basing their proofs on another fundamentally legitimate basis. 54 For further information see Fat41 al-Duraynl. is most probably an indication of failure in devising fàtw3s. 30 . which is the hermeneutical principle of seeking benefits and preventing evil (al-ta 'wH bijalb al-ma~lal. That this is not the case. contemporary Muslim scholars who advocate against human cloning are not performing a true fiqhJ interpretation of the Qur'an. the reasons offered for the negative fiqhJ response to the question: "Why cannot a married man and woman. irrespective of whether the reasons for the fiqhJ prohibition proposed by this doctrine is right or wrong. Here. In other words.It has been shown that in their fàtwiïs and legal opinions. Indeed. have a child through human cloning technology?" Here. however.54 known in u~iïl al-fiqh. Thus. they can then argue that they are following one of the most important legislative principles (al-mabiïdi' al-tashii'iyyah).ah wa-dar' al-mafsadah).

net/site/topics/article. 2003): http://www. In u~iïH methodology. none of the scholars advocating the second doctrine interpret the verse "changing Alliih's creation" to mean what has been inferred by other opponents of the technology. i. saying: "li yuqis 'alayh. For instance.56 and al-Tayyib Salamah.ammad Sa'1d Ramaqiin al-Bu!1. Istinsikh al-Bashar wa-Ra'y al-Qaracfiwl Rh. 58 al-Qaraqawl. (accessed. Al-Istinsikh bayna al.adah. The contents of this doctrine and its two major objections against human cloning will be discussed in the light of two issues: the first is the expected nefarious results that human 55 Yusuf al-Qaraqawl. December 13. Similarly.qaradawi.islam-online.121." 58 The second doctrine for advocating prohibition depends on the epistemological application of two methodological principles of u~iïl al-fiqh: 1) the prevention of the wrong means (sadd al-dharl'ah) and 2) the final results of rulings (ma 'ilit al-ari!).e. 57 Ibid.'ilm wa l-Falsafàh wal-Dln.net/fatwaapplicationlarabic/display. citing a supposed Qur'iinic prohibition ofhuman cloning. the doctrine of the prohibition oflegal hermeneutics claims that the case of human cloning is unstated in the Qur'an ( ghayr man~iï~ 'alayh).55 Muq. (accessed. moreover. 57 Common to each of these scholars is the fact that none of them rely on the aforementioned methodology. 2003): http://www. Al-Istinsikh al-Bashaii wa-Tadi'iyituh.asp?cu_no=2&item_n0=2883&version=1&te mplate_id=130&parent_id=17 31 . asp?hF atwaID= 13 986 56 Shiq. Yusuf al-Qaraqawl goes so far as to deny the existence of a previous case on which to practice qiyis. December 13..The doctrine of utilitarian legal hermeneutics has among its followers three of the most highly regarded scholars in both the fields of fiqh and u~iïl al-fiqh: Yusuf al- Qaraqawl.

Following the description ofthese two elements. 60 These two objections will be further analyzed in terms of the particular legal and ethical arguments they offer for the prohibition of human cloning.I. Al-Istinsiikh al-Basharl: Muqiirabah Fiqhiyyah wa-Qiiniïniyyah ~fasablanca: al-Dar al-Bayqii' al-A4madiyyah lil-Nashr. 32 . the evidence for their validity will be examined and a critique offered for each in sections I.2.2.a. respectively.a.2.4.4. would in turn.2. Lastly. Ibid.1.2..1.4.2. 101.b.cloning portends for the family and relationship structures. in sections 1. The First Objection of the Second Doctrinal Position to Human Cloning: The expected disastrous results of human cloning and its potential effect on the human family and its relationship structures is the first objection raised by scholars who would prohibit the practice on the basis of utilitarian legal hermeneutics.4. 2000). result in the destruction of the family as the exclusive entity through which a child receives her/his normal human upbringing: This issue will be called element (b) and will be discusses in section I.59 while the second is the generally anticipated and wider problems this entails. 1. 26. and 1. Traditional family structures would be destroyed since the cloned (al-mustansakh) and the source (almustansakh minhu) do not fit into normal models of human relations.I. The Evidence for Element (a) in the First Objection of the Doctrine 59 Husayn Balhasanl. respectively.1.4. 1. ojection will be criticized in an effort pinpoint their weaknesses.1.2.4. This issue will be referred to as the element (a) in the following presentation of the first objection to human cloning in section I. critic say.1.2.1 and 1. This.a.4.b.1.4.2.

December 13.of the Prohibition of Utilitarian Legal Hermeneutics The most fundamental argument (iJujjah) and the one to which Muslim scholars continually refer is the evidence of element (a) in the first objection to the doctrine of the prohibition of utilitarian legal hermeneutics.edu!~aas/issues/cloning. Islamic Perspectives on Cloning. AI-Qaraqawl applies his understanding of utilitarian legal hermeneutics to the issue of human cloning by beginning his argument with reference to these nefarious results of human cloning (almafiisid al-mutarattibah 'alii al-istinsiikh). is couched in modernistic terms.htm 62 Qur'an 35:27 33 . 2003): http://www. and presents an Islamic theological axiom. but differs from most Muslim scholars by relying on a very rare interpretation of the following serves.. of various hues and (others) intensely black?62 This verse. according to his interpretation. preserving the phenomenon of pluralism (-?ËÏhirat 61 Abdulaziz Sachedina.people. white and red. This element is the destruction posed to the traditional family by the fact that the cloned (al-mustansakh) and the source (almustansakh minhu) do not fit in traditional models of human relationships.61 AI-Qaraqawl works within the aforementioned framework described by Sachedina. the Muslim scholar Abdulaziz Sachedina sees the following basic principles of shaii'ah as pertaining to new technical inventions: "(1) refraining from causing harm and loss to oneself and others (lii qarar wa-lii çfiriir).. and (2) averting causes of corruption has precedence over bringing about benefit (dar' al-mafiisid muqaddam 'aliijalb al-ma$iiliiJ). namely. then We bring forth therewith fruits of various colors. quoted above in a different context: Do you not see that Allah sends down water from the cloud. In another example. (accessed.virginia. and in the mountains are streaks.

goes against this necessary phenomenon.'I1miyyah. Human cloning. fi.aljazeera. 34 . Mawqif al-SharI'ah min a1. 64 Within this theological conceptualization.Ta!awwuriit a1." 67 Similarly. i. Allah's rule ofpairs and pairing (sunnat a1-zawjiyyah): And of everything We have created pairs that you may be mindful. a mother. Mawqif al-SharI'ah min a1. a twin brother. (accessed. or "cloned from" (a1-mustansakh minhu)? Is the source a father. In other words. 2003): http://www.e. how can we build (upon this vague relationship) legal fiscal relations.'I1miyyah. especially inheritance? In the absence of any answer to such concems. December 24. thus filling the world copies of cloned humans will violate this divine principle.htm 64 Qur'an 51:49 65 al-Qaragawl. God's primordial creation. if human cloning cannot fit in any classification of the traditional models of human relationships. "we should deny this process from its origins.'I1miyyah.netiprograms/shareeaJarticles/2001l4/4-3-1. sorne of which have just been revealed while the rest are still hidden in the future. if the legal relation between the cloned and the source cannot be determined. because of all these nefarious results and these sins.trah.a1-tanawwuj. or a stranger unrelated to the cloned?65 Furthermore. this 63 al-Qaragawl.Ta!awwuriit a1. the Qur'anic definition for classification of a progeny (bunuwwah) is: "their mathers are na athers than thase wha gave birth ta them. al-Qaragawl asks the following question: How can we understand the relation between the cloned (a1-mustansakh) and the source. then it can only pose a danger to. 63 This suggests to him another divine principle that may be set against the practice. according to al-Qaragawl. 66 Qur'an 58:2 67 al-Qaragawl.Ta!awwuriit a1." 66 Thus. Mawqifal-SharI'ah min a1.

1992).4. indicating the signs of Allah's creation (dhikr ayat Alliih fi khalqih). Critiquing the Evidence (a) According to u~iïl al-fiqh. due to the fact that the other type of verse is adduced for other reasons. such as for preaching for reward and punishment (al-wa'ad wal-wa'ld).4. ijtihiid. For according to u~iïl al-fiqh. or relating historical narrations al-Qur'iinI).2. 1.1. vol. al-Qaraqawl's Qur'anic conceptualization and argument can be subjected to serious criticism since it is not possible to infer an imperative mode (ami) from a declarative clause (jumlah khabariyyah). such as in the context ofthe Qur'anic wonder at (tasbllJ) and praise for Allahs' creation: Do you not see that Allah sends down water from the cloud.69 U~iïl al-fiqh sees only these two types of texts as valid grounds for deriving legal implications.bio-technological invention will ultimately be destructive of the structure of familial relations. and in the mountains are streaks. since they are not a direct divine injunction. or 2) a conditional description of legal cases (khi!ab wacJ'I). then We bring forth therewith fruits of various colors.a. white and red. ofvarious hues and (others) intensely black? 68 Qaraqawl' s analysis can be seen as exceeding by a wide margin the conclusions arrived at by earlier u~iïlis.r al-Muhl! fi U~iïl al-Fiqh (Cairo: Dar al-~afwah.. the above Qur'anic text is not classified as a dis course of religious obligation (khi!ab takllfi) since it is not: 1) in an imperative mode (al-amr wa al-nahI). (al-qa~a~ The methods of (sadd al-dhaii'ah) and (ma'iilat al-af'al) are products of creative legal thinking.1. 68 35 . al-Ba1. 127. This makes Qur'an 35:27 69 al-Zarkashl.

awl's doctrine and show how applying the principles of (sadd al-dharJ'ah) and (ma 'iiliit alaf'iil) can lead to controversial positions on legal rulings when they are over. the cloned human ought not to be attributed to that couple? Straightforward intuition suggests that the female source is a mother and the male source is a father. As a result.4. These inconsistencies constrain al-Qaraq. the phenomenon of identical twin children.2.awl's position could have been much more consistent had he limited the prohibition to cases in which the process of cloning takes place outside the limits of a legitimate family. if it is from their cells that the clone is obtained. one might ask. AI-Qaraq.awl does not offer an 'authentic' u~iïH analysis explaining how he established the phenomenon of pluralism as a divine principle.1.b. And these family relations are precisely what al-Qaraq. would be a sinful phenomenon. AI-Qaraq. as well as the family relations.awl admits in the case of test-tube babies. AI-Qaraq. Financial relations can be just as firmly built on this criterion.awl wants to highlight the exceptional aspects of the phenomenon of human cloning.generalized and unlimited. If his argument were a universal and divine argument. he fails to illustrate what the 'illah is in order to see the consistency Ci!priid) that designates where and when we shaH respect the principle of pluralism. since they go against the principle of pluralism. especiaHy pertaining to very specific cases or cases that the mujtahid does not anticipate. The Evidence For Element (b) in the First Objection of the Doctrine of the Prohibition of Legal Hermeneutics 36 . 1.them controversial. Accepting the premise that a given married couple is sterile. such a case might well accord with the nefarious results he assumes.

with which few would disagree.'I1m wa1-Fa1safah wa1-Din. based on incorrect assumptions.2. There is an endless list of anticipated horrors. who provide herlhim with a good example in education. since the family in this case does not have both parents.4. cannot be a necessary (liizim). Once agam.2.is element (b) in the first objection justifying the prohibition of human based on legal hermeneutics.70 such as: 1) a population explosion due to the expected 70 Shihadah. while also supporting herlhim financially and spiritually.1. According to al-Qaraq. 1. 112-113. 101-103. this element will have a disastrous effect upon the institution of the family and its relationship structures.awl. in this respect.awl speaking in terms of universals.4. 37 . Critiquing the Evidence (b) Even the foregoing the argument. but only a sufficient cause (kali). This is because its logic implies that a pregnant woman whose husband has recently died would be subject to the charge of undermining the family. Allah's system in the world (Sunnah) is to have the child born and raised with the support and compassion of its parents. 1. the doctrine of utilitarian legal hermeneutics reinforces the proofs of the prohibition. Most of the efforts by Muslim scholars. The Second Objection in the Second Doctrinal Position to Human Cloning In the second objection to human cloning.Destroying the basis of the family . we see al-Qaraq. A1-Istinsakh bayna a1.b.2.1.the environment where a child ideally receives a normal human upbringing . can be classified as a collective discourse based on the internationalliterature concerning the phobia against human cloning.

The above list. Nevertheless.ammad Sa'1d Ramaqan al-But!. is employed by the scholar MuQ. 2001). which may be described by sorne as paranoia. al-Jihad fi al-Isliim: Kayfà Nafhamuh wa-Kayfà Numarisuh? (Damascus: Dar al-Fikr al-Mu'a~ir. in which a man would not know his wife or a teacher her/his students.ammad Sa'id Ramaqan alBu!l: al-Isliim Mladh kull al-Mujtama 'at al.Bashariyyah: Limadha wa-kayf ? (Damascus: Dar al-Fikr al-Mu'a~ir 1991). 2) the ensuing despotism of governments and companies gaining control over the cloning process. although it is not the kemel of the juristic argument. he refers to the following verses to demonstrate the prohibition of human cloning: For further information see the following works by MuQ. 4) the possible advent of a universal matriarchal society. according to al-But!. 71 38 . 1994). who is weIl known for his philosophical legal writings. would be the consequence of such a sinful offence against AlIah's system (Sunnah) and measurements (taqdir) in the world. This list catalogue of potential horrors also informs the doctrine of the legal interpretation of the Qur'an. These are but a few of the numerous possible calamities that may arise and that are reasons for such vehement opposition to human cloning. 2001). the doctrine of utilitarian legal hermeneutics relies on these elements and uses them as the primary source. rather. AlI of these chaotic phenomena and anticipated horrors of human cloning.1991). Kubra al-YaqJniyyat al-Kawniyyah (Damascus: Dar al-Fikr al-Mu'a~ir.71 to make the required religious argument for prohibition. 3) the cloning of evil historical figures and dictators as timeless rulers in sorne communities. 5) the epidemic susceptibility to infection between the same cloned humans and new diseases. and 6) potential disasters stemming from massive social disorder.industry of cloning. lfJwir lfawl Mushldlat lfatfiriyyah (Mu'assasat al-Risalah lil-l)ba'ah wal-Nashr wal-Tawzl'. I?awab~t al-Ma~lal!-ah fi al-Shaii'ah alIsliimiyyah (Damascus: Mu'assasat al-Risalah lil-J:iba'ah wal-Nashr wal-Tawzl'.

or.2. he is forced to ban the whole process of the advancement of technology in order to prevent further tampering with the structure of nature.75 1. but not in this form of articulated discourse.He has created everything. social.which he already knows not to be the case.2. A1-Istinsiïkh bayna a1. in this sense.. after its reformation 74 This phenomenology of the sinfulness of human cloning can be found scatlered throughout most of the fatwiïs on the subject.. does not even agree with the permissibility of animal cloning. It is not clear what the limits are to his conception of the so-called tampering (ta1iï'ub) with the structure of genetics or nature at large. if any.4. 72 Surely we have created everything according to a measure 73 And do not make mischief in the earth. and has measured it exactly according to its due measurements. AI-But1 starts his very short legal opinion by pointing out that "cloning is a type of tampering (ta1iï'ub) with the structure of genetics. the only Muslim scholar. who Qur'iin 25:2 73 Qur'iin 54:49 74 Qur'iin 7:56 75 Shihiidah. He is either forced to prove that human cloning is textually prohibited . to the writer's knowledge. 72 39 . a doctrine to which he might weIl be unwilling to commit himself. since he did not follow the previous doctrine of the Qur'iinic legal interpretation . Critiquing tbis Objection AI-Butl.1. 121. AI-But1's argument thus places him in difficulty in two respects. Therefore. we may not tamper with it. and the Qur'iin wams that the ecological.'I1m wa1-Fa1safah wa1-Din. A far more cautious approach is takeb by the ShI'! Lebanese scholar al-Sayyid Mu4ammad I:Iusayn Faql Allah. and genetic structures are composed chemically and microbiologically by God in a careful manner.

This evalution of the hermeneutics of the contemporary 1slamic legal discourse. will continue in the coming two chapters. Hence. The second chapter will assess the first doctrine of the interpretation based on the Qur'anic verses pertaining to the prohibition of human Shihadah. the 1slamic Fiqh Academy and the majority of scholars studied in this chapter. alQaraq. 131. prohibited on the casis of two different doctrines of contemporary 1slamic legal discourse. the specified hermeneutics of the legal case of human cloning. And here lies the heart of the problem: 1s it possible to alter nature for the bene fit of humankind while remaining faithful to religious commitments? This orientation of the necessity of technology within religious paradigms is agreed upon by al-Bii!1. in this instance. preferring to suspend his judgment until a successful realization of the experiment of human cloning has been accomplished.5.aw1. Al-Istinsiikh bayna a1.'I1m wa1-Fa1safah wa1-DJn. by comparing its methodology to the original methodology of u~iï1 a1-fiqh. rests upon altering the normal course of nature in order to render it more pliant to the needs of the human being. the only conclusion is the following: It is not true that contemporary Islamic legal discourse on human cloning is based on a legal methodology of the religious texts since the fatwas and fiqh1 opinions offered in this regard are based neither on a valid legal interpretation of the religious texts nor on a comprehensive and necessary application of utilitarian legal hermeneutics.has not issued a fàtwii prohibiting human cloning. Concluding remarks The entire enterprise oftechnology. 76 1. is excessively ideological and shows insufficient legal judgment. However. 76 40 .

41 . while the third chapter will be directed at appraising the second doctrine of utilitarian legal hermeneutics.cloning.

1 al-Durayn1. One example is the work al-Maniihij al-U$iiliyyah fi al. 77 77 Mu!}.ijtihiïd bil-Ra'y fi alTashrl' al.Islanii (lit. a brief illustration will be offered of the position of hermeneutics (ta 'wll) within the various fields of u$iil al-fiqh .1 al-Durayn1. 1997). This critique will offer methodological insight into the critical claim of the first chapter: It is not true that contemporary Islamic legal discourse on human cloning is based on a legal methodology of the religious texts. This elucidation will serve as a reply to the first doctrinal argument against human cloning.ammad Fat!}. u$iil al-fiqh.to the exclusion of theological and mystical ta 'wll In the Arab world. "changing Alliih 's creation.ijtihiïd bil-Ra'y fi aJ-Tashrl' al. al-Maniihij al-U$iiliyyah fi al-." Before presenting the structure of the hermeneutics of u$iil al-fiqh. 152.ammad Fat!}. there is currently underway a massive effort to reintroduce traditional Islamic legal therory. Jurisprudential Methodologies of Creative Thinking In Islamic Legislation) by Professor Mul}. 42 . This methodological background will support the critiques already made of the adduced generalizations and will argue a particular meaning for the verse. since the fatwas and fiqh1 opinions offered in this regard are based neither on a valid legal interpretation of the religious texts nor on a comprehensive and necessary application of utilitarian legal hermeneutics. u$iil al-fiqh.CHAPTERTWO THE FOUNDATIONS OF HERMENEUT}ÇS IN U~UL AL-FIQH: AL-TA'WIL AL-U~ULI The purpose of this chapter is to discover the foundations of the hermeneutics of Islamic legal theory. Books and articles appear on a regular basis in support of this effort. which is based in Qur'anic interpretation.IslimJ(Beirut: Mu'assasat al-Risalah. and for added clarity regarding relevant terminology.

The author demonstrates a masterful understanding of the three major schools of u~iil al-fiqh: al-Mutakallimiïn (lit. 3. al-Duraynl chooses the methodology of the second school. literalists). Then. or objectives of the sharI'ah .to make it the common theme of his text. 318. 43 . 1982). having proved his satisfaction why its approach is the most efficient. (al-~ifiit.'!bar wa-Kitab al-Mubtada' wal-Khabar fi Akhbiir aJ. he integrates the general accumulation of the theory of maqa~id al-sharI'ah.'Arab wal. 79 Na~r Ifamid Abiï Zayd. Although Islamic hermeneutics achieved a high level of logical elaboration in 'ilm al-kalam and an intense usage of symbolic and metaphorical reading in tasaTywuf. 'An 'Abd al-Wiî4id Wafi (Cairo: Dar Nahqat Mi~r lil-Tiba'ah walNashr.80 which makes it less rigorous then theologians' hermeneutics of the Qur'an in terms of logic and structure. theologians). After evaluating each. the lfanafiyyah. 1981) vol. Mafhiïm al-Na~~: Dirasah fi 'Uliïm al-Qur'an (Cairo: alHay' ah al-Mi~riyyah lil-Kitab. its approach to Quranic language is very subjective and symbolic. al-Duraynl's work stands out as an original contribution to the science of u~iïl al-fiqh itself. Muqaddimat ibn Khuldiïn: DIwiin al. 1990). in 78 See. it may be useful to position al-ta 'wll alu~iïH within the various other types of al-ta 'wIl A widely-held contention exists within the field of Islamic studies that the methodological and rigorous process of hermeneutics (al-ta'wIl) is exclusively the territory of Islamic theology ('ilm al-kaliim. 78 and the ~iihiriyyah (lit.especially as structured by Shatibl .'Ajam wal-Barbar wa-Man 'A~rahum min DhawI alSu~tan al-Akbar. 80 Na~r Ifamid Abiï Zayd.) Theological hermeneutics was developed to solve the contradictory readings of certain Qur'anic verses illustrating God's attributes. 245. Ibn Khuldiin. al-Ittijiih al-'AqH fi al-TafSIr(Beirut: Dar al-Tanwlr. Before delving into the heart of our topic. ed.Nevertheless.)79 ta~awwufj Although Islamic mysticism (al- is one of the competing doctrines of theological hermeneutics. 1066.

37.t.). seeking discord and seeking hermeneutics." 83 1.nic Hermeneutics in The origins of u~iil U~iïl al-fiqh: A Historical Background al-fiqh 's hermeneutics can be traced back to a point many years before the theological hermeneutics associated with the problem of fitnah. a period of disagreement and disorder in Islamic society that arose in 35/655. 81 44 . MaDliïm al-Na~~. the following sections will constitute an attempt to answer the question: "What is the structure of u~iïl al-fiqh hermeneutics" To do so. disceming the process of ta 'wH as an endeavor that seeks consistency within the text itself firstly and within the body oflegislation. a reference will be made to the system of Mu4ammad Fat41 al-Duraynl?" However. and gave rise to Abu Zayd.'aha 'Abd al-Ra4man.tilah (Saudi Arabia: Ma!abi' al-Jami'ah alIslamiyyah bil-Madinah al-Munawwarah. 82 For further information see Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah. Unfortunately. 1407 A.82 Indeed. is the present auther's own contribution. vol. 83 For this reason. and the Qur'anic verse 7:3 "as for those in whose hearts is deviation [[rom the truth] follow that of which is equivocallanguage. secondly. 275-336. al-Maniihij a1U~iïliyyah.1.neither does one find a logical-linguisitc approach to the religious text. 81 The previously mentioned critique may be one of the reasons why hermeneutics was highly condemned outside the fields of 'ilm al-kaliim and ta~awwuf. under the 'aqJdah classification of condemned hermeneutics (al-ta 'wJl al-madhmiïm).317. Tajdid al-Manhaj fi TaqwJm al-Turiith (Beirut: al-Markaz alThaqafi al-' ArabI. 2. al-$awii'iq a1-Munazza1ah 'alii al-Tii'ifah al-Jahmiyyah wal-Mu'a. the only type of hermeneutics that was not methodologically suspect and condemned. 1.H. 1999). existed in the field of u~iïl al-fiqh. Qur'3. however. 130. this area of scholarship did not receive much attention. and Mu4ammad Fath1 al-Duraynl.

1. 12. 152.2).1 and 2. a question not originally addressed was: What if a woman's husband died while she was pregnant? This question was a legal case that required the exercise of legal hermeneutics. there is no blame on you for what they do for themselves in a lawful manner. 2. 86 Qur'an 2: 234 87 Qur'an 65: 4 45 . a1-Ittijih a1.1. In the next two sections (2. the Prophet's companions.1. if you have a doubt. The Example of 'Iddah According to the Qur'an. and of those too who have not had their courses. they should keep themselves in waiting for four months and ten days. a1-Manihij a1-U~uliyyah. in essence. 85 al-Duraynl.1. as ~a4abah. The Qur'an may suggest a solution to this question in the following verse: And (as for) those of your women who have despaired of menstruation.84 Qur'anic hermeneutics. a woman who wants to marry a new husband after she had a divorce case or her previous husband has passed away needs to wait for several menstruational periods known as 'iddah.'AqJJ fi a1-Tafslr. at which point.many theological issues -beginning with the problem of Muslim leadership (imiimah). and whoever is careful of (his duty to) Allah He will make easy for him his affair. were faced with the problem of understanding the legal portions of the Qur'an. 85 in order to be certain that she is not pregnant: "And (as for) those of you who die and leave wives behind. two detailed examples will be offered in order to shed light on the implementation of u~uJJhermeneutics. their prescribed time shall be three months. then when they have fully attained their term." 86 However. and (as for) the pregnant women. started after Prophet MlÙ}ammad passed away. their prescribed time is that they lay down their burden. 87 84 Abu Zayd.

the period is determined by the moment of a woman's giving birth. wherease in the specific case of pregnancy.. In the first verse. of the first one. This means that the Qur'anic verse "And (as for) those ofyou who die and leave wives behind. their prescribed time is that they lay down their burden. even if the pregnant woman were to deliver before the limit of four months and ten days or afterwards. this period may extend. in a text that daims to be canonical as weIl as holy.. divorce). The Prophet's companions (~alJiibah) found two ways to resolve this discrepancy through Qur'anic hermeneutics.88 should be a general rule for alliegai cases. form only one day if the delivery happened exactly after the death (as. the verse "(as for) the pregnant women. to more than the four months and ten days proscribed in the first verse. the period is four months and ten days. In the second cited verse.It is evident from the two Qur'anic verses cited above that there is contradictory information being offered. 'Abd Allah ibn Mas'iïd (d.89 applies. mukha~~j~ah. 23/643) issued his legal opinion (ra y) on this problem. which could constitute a wait from the first discovery of the pregnancy until a point of time of nine months later. by extension. dedaring the second verse a specifier. they should keep themselves in waiting for four months and ten days. would be logically and practically impossible to implement. In other words. This contradictory set of Qur'anic rulings. Ibn Mas'iïd's interpretation prevents the Qur'an from Qur'an 2: 234 89 Qur'an 65: 4 88 46 . 'Abd Allah ibn Mas 'iïd determined the period to be that which elapses until a woman gives birth. conceivably.

man articulates it. he maintained that a woman cannot marry a new husband even if she gives birth before the 'iddah is over. i.92 We can generalize his ta 'wll and say that he accepts new particular legal case to contradict any general Qur'anic verse unless these verses are not articulated to connote particularly the same legal case. His legal decision (fàtwii) rests on a Quranic interpretation that fuses the meaning of both of the two sentences..e. the women should continue her 'iddah period until she gives birth.falling into a contradiction that might confuse Muslim practice. taking it in the sence of "logical consistency. 91 Ibid. 'Abd Allah ibn Mas'ud seems to have accepted a new legal case contradicting the Qur'anic verse.. the application of this concept on the foundations ofhermeneutics in u~iïl al-fiqh is totally mine. they should keep themselves in waiting for four months and ten days. 'AIT ibn Ab1 Talib. But in contrast to 'Abd Allah ibn Mas'ud's ra'y. another important ~a4ab1 and the fourth KhaITfah of Islam (d. 92 Qur'an 2: 234 47 . "And (as for) those of you who die and leave wives behind. Then a rational and creative effort (ijtihiid) could practice Qur'anic 90 l am borrowing the concept of ittisiiq as 1. he concluded that the further of the two limits should be adhered to: this means that if the four months and ten days for the pregnant women elapse without giving birth. From this point ofview. 40/660) issued a different legal opinion. The interpretation seeks to prevent a new legal case from arising that may contradict any Qur'anic verse. The ta 'wll or hermeneutics of 'AIT ibn Ab1 Talib aims at preserving the functional validity of the two Qur'anic sentences at once and in the same time." However. 91 In his interpretation of the two previously cited verses. and likewise preserves the textual consistency (ittisiiq)90 of the Qur'anic legal discourse.'aha 'Abd al-Ral]. 153.

94 Ibid. provides in the following case of sawiid al. 94 Qur'an 8 :41 93 48 . The Example of Sawad al-Iraq It may be argued that 'Umar ibn al-KhaHab. 93 He was regarded as a leader in creative legal reasoning and is in fact known as Imiim Ahl al-Ra y. a fifth of it is for Allah and for the Messenger and for the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer. l will calI this ijtihiid.1. 154. or 'textual consistency.2.' as will be explained in section 2. and the next is one of them. that this is what motivated the whole discussion between the two muftis.1. 24/644).2. which seeks to establish consistency between apparently contradictory texts of the Qur'an. The problem of our hermeneutical legal case is based on this verse: And know that whatever thing you gain. There are copious other similar examples that have engaged human reason in its approach in the core of the Qur' anic legal text.. It is clear in fact that their prime concem was to preserve the consistency of the Qur'an in the face ofthis legal case. and achieved the aim ofunifying contradictory or equivocal passages of the Qur'anic and enabled it to cover new legal cases.interpretation by specifying a non-contradicted Qur'anic sentence with a contradicted generalized Qur'anic sentence.'iriiq the best example of u~iïl al-fiqh hermeneutics. The various perceptions and opinions as presentd by 'Abd Allah ibn Mas'ud and 'Ali ibn Ab1 Talib exhibited a high level of intellectual sophistication. a Companion and Caliph (d. 2. at a very early stage in the history of Islam.

The particular problem faced at that time was the fighters' desire to possess movable and immovable properties. 'Umar ibn al-Khattab.The verse establishes that if Muslims obtain war booty. if given the land. al-Maniihij al-U~iiJjyyah. including a huge amount of lands from the newly conquered (sawad al.'Iraq) country. The rest. declaring. "this is my legal opinion (hadha ra Yi). or shiïrii. four-fifths. His decision was to rest upon an understanding of the Qur'anic verse on war-booty expenditure. one-fifth is to go toward the aforementioned expenditures. 'Umar ibn al-Khattab. which itself is a major religious duty (wiïjib shar'i)? Additionally. In his fàtwii. and not simply settle in Iraq?95 'Umar answered these questions in the process of establishing his own argument at a government-Iegislative meeting. however did not find this legal conjecture applicable to the conque st of Iraq (fàtq al. how can it be ensured that the fighters will continue fighting in the cause of Islam. but rather.'Iraq). 155. what is to be given to the coming generations of Muslims? 2) If Muslims offers offer four-fifths of the immovable properties to fighters. what will constitute the financial source to fund future conquests. Additionally. is for the fighters who won the war. had to issue a fàtwa to the army. as head of state. the immovable properties of Iraq would not be given to the fighters. The fighters requested that they receive their stated portion in the Qur' an. would be left in the possession of the prior." His interpretations were based on an argument that answers the following two questions: 1) If Muslims offer immovable properties to the fighters. those owners 95 al-Duraynl. 49 . non-Muslim Iraqi owners. even if this meant dividing up a newly conquered country for private purposes.

He admonishes you that you may be mindful. The reason behind this hermeneutical approach of legislative consistency was that contradiction is not to be found between two texts that discuss the same legal case or between a verse and a new legal case. was what controlled 'Umar ibn al-Khattab's Qur'anic hermeneutics. not textual consistency. 14-16. 154. These two undesirable results are mentioned in two other general verses: Surely Allah enjoins the doing of justice and the doing of good (to others) and the giving to the kindred. 98 Abii Yiisuf. 1353 A. Instead. In the case in question. vol. Still stronger legislative principles. Bidiiyat al-Mujtahid wa-Nihiiyat al-Muqta~id(Beirut: al-Matba'ah al'A~riyyah. however. kulliyah.). while the four-fifths were to the fighters. the stated verse asserts that the portion taken from the total of the war booty for communal purposes was to be one-fifth. mabda'.H. that is induced from other stronger legislative principles that occur more often in the primary texts of the Qur'an and Sunnah. The legislative consistency of the legal discourse. forbade the nefarious results of stopping the conquests (futiÏl!) and impoverishing the generations to come. or the spirit of the law (nafs al-sharl'ah). 97 Ibn Rushd. 1982).2. Kitiib al-Khariij(Cairo: al-Matba'ah al-Salafiyyah. l see that 'Umar ibn al-Khattab's interpretation of the Qur'anic verse illustrates a different approach in comparison to the previously discussed hermeneutics of 'Abd Allah Qur'anic ibn Mas'iid and 'AIT ibn Ab1 Talib.97 understood from whole passages of the Qur'an. 98 Qur'an 16:90 96 50 . Yet. and He forbids indecency and evil and rebellion. it is usually between a stated verse and a principle.would be expected to paya citizenship and security tax Uizyah)96 to reward the fighters for their fighting and coyer both the expenses of subsequent Muslims generations and future Islamic conquests. or a faculty.

'Iriiq and studied them systematically. and when an unrestricted 51 . mechanical. a1-Maniihij a1-U~iïliyyah.99 And strive hard in (the way of) Allah. and sent down with them the Book and the balance that men may conduct themselves with equity. implying that interpretation could generate a ruling to be comparable to the divine source itself. legal theoristes or gathered most of the similar examples to cases of 'iddah and sawiid a1. (kha~~ah). and We have made the iron. and this process aims to prevent the Qur'an from turning into a blind. but for now consideration must be given to the legal mind and the methodology that are implicit in hermeneutics: these are the foundations of the hermeneutics. The u~iï1ists developed in the process a highly elaborate method to determine when a generalized ('iimmah) Qur'anic sentence should be specified 99 Qur'an 57: 25 100 Qur'an 22:78 101 al-Duraynl. Thus. u~iïH 2. a1-i~1iiiJ fi a1-arçl. (such) a striving a is due to Him lOo 'Umar ibn al-KhaHab's legal hermeneutics pays close attention to the outcomes of the sharI'ah or the legislative consistency of the legal discourse and its functionality. his hermeneutics reached a level of authority that would restrict the applicability of a Qur'anic verse. in order to establish a the ory of hermeneutics. Mighty. 494. The Structure of Hermeneutics in ~iï1 al-Fiqh u~iï1ists Equipped with an extensive hermeneutical experience. and that Allah may know who helps Him and His messengers in the secret. This point will be elaborated in more detail in the third chapter.2. surely Allah is Strong. wherein is great violence and advantages to men.101 and formalistic text that would contradict its own aims of seeking virtue in the world.Certainly We sent Our messengers with clear arguments. as will be shown in the next section.

literally meaning to go back to the origin 'or the first' (al-awwai). 52 . this theory of hermeneutic could be used to help distinguish metaphoric (majiïz) from literaI (lJaqlqah) usage oftexts.. by "rounding off' certain inapplicable Qur'anic sentence in order to tease out its most accessible meaning. In the same vein. In the case of ta 'wllwith respect to a certain Qur'anic sentence. al-Maniihij al-U~iïliyyah. but in its final outcome (2).99999). The question that may be posed is: What is the essence of Islamic hermeneutics (ta 'wli)? Ta 'wll is "the clarification of God' s intentions behind revealing certain Qur'anic sentences. Ta'wllin this approach can be said to consist of three premises. 2) a human rational and creative effort (ijtihiid) is capable of communicating what God originally 102 al-Duraynl. the infinite decimal number (1. as if God would have revealed a sentence discussing a given legal case in question. it means having well-guided ijtihiid into God's intention. This is to say.(muflaqah) Qur'anic sentence should be restricted (muqayadah).. In this example. 167.99999) rounds up (ya 'iïi) to the number (2). However. it is technically used to convey meaning or to have something in its final outcome. This is similar to the example of the infinite decimal in the number (1. the mathematical phenomenon ofthe infinite decimal number (1. namely: 1) God had an original intention (maqa~id al-shiiri'ah) in leaving an undefined connotation within certain verses.99999) does not have a definite quantity in itself. For instance. In the ta 'wll endeavor the mujtahid reaches the level of knowledge most probable (ghiilib al--?an). This suggests that sorne Qur'anic sentences are undefined and in their meaning with regards to particular legal cases.102 Ta'wll is a verbal noun from the Arabic verb awwal. by changing its obvious or literaI meaning to other possibly stronger meanings.

and 3) the mujtahid is capable of reaching the level of determining the connotation of a Qur'anic sentence by . because they declare that.'Alamin). support its ta 'wH approach. they can know what is implied in the text. is there a strict technique to be followed when practicing hermeneutics? Consider the ~uRhermeneutic approach in subjective discourse of explicit (-?8hir) and implicit (biitin). unlike the ~uR approach to Qur' anic hermeneutics. MaD1iiin al-Na~~. This being the case.changing the connotation from generalization to specification. the second aims to apply and utilize the virtuous functionality (al-isti~liilJ) u~ul al-fiqh still has a methodology to of this whole unit by achieving 103 Abu Zayd. 772/ 1370). a ijanbafi jurist. whereas the obvious Qur'anic language (-?8hir) gives no idea of God' s real intention. The latter methodology can be summarized in two key notions: the first takes aIl of the various legal texts as a whole unit of legal faculties (kulliyyyiit al-shari'ah) and recognizes the consistency that establishes a logical legal reference.tin. In recognition of this role of the mzljtahid as the khaHfah. which is condemned by a great number of Sunnl figures. ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah (d. in other words.for example . to be achieved by looking for an intentional virtuous state of being.since he/she is the successor of God Himself in the world (khaHfah). by bii. decided to entitle his magnum opus on the hermeneutics of jurisprudence The Declaration for Those Who Sign on Behalf of the Lord of the Worlds (J'liïm alMuwaqqi'in 'an Rabb al.in effect using it as as an inexhaustable legal source . the mzljtahidis capable of rewriting the literaI Qur'an again and again . this ~ufJ discourse resembles the u~ulist notion of AŒih's intention (maqii~id al-shiirij. 53 . 350.wanted. 103 Thus.

).1. and then in another verse it is specified. These concepts are key to achieving the previously mentioned goal of taking the sources of legal texts as a single unit. 2. the u~iïJists assert that if there exists a verse discussing a case in general terms on the one hand.1. Thus. in order to rebuild aIl the legal propositions in one single detailed proposition known as a legal chapter (bab fiqhl). or kulJiyat al-shaii'ah. The Textual Consistency of Legal Discourse U~ul al-fiqh's hermeneutics approaches the legal sources of the Qur'an and the (al-takh~l$). these three methods are designed to achieve textual consistency (al-ittisaq alna~~l) in legal discourse.2. This mechanism shaIl be illuminated in the coming sections: 2. and 2. if we have a verse discussing an unrestricted case once and then in another verse it is restricted. Sunnah through a tri-past apparatus: specification restriction (al-taqyld).1. the final interpretation would be in favor of the restricted one.3.2. 2. Similarly. It is the role of ijtihadi hermeneutics to establish coherence of the Qur'an and Sunnah. and metaphor (majiiz. Taking the legal texts as a whole unit presumes that the verses discussing similar legal cases in different Qur'anic chapters (suras) or similarly pertinent lJadiths are continuous and should be read in a way that fuses their combined meaning. U~ul al-fiqh's hermeneutical approach to the text itself shall be u~ul discussed in the next section on the textual consistency of legal discourse.2. while al- fiqh' s approach to the relationship between the text and the legal world will be illuminated in the foIlowing section on the legislative consistency of legal discourse.1.1.1. In linguistic vocabulary.2.legislative consistency. 54 . the final understanding would be in favor of the specified one.

Specification.1.2. one of them is freedom of ownership and the capability of entering into aH possible financial contracts. This semantic specification of the verse supersedes the previously mentioned verse of general application. al.104 This verse has several implications. 105 The second verse treats ownership and trade as matters that depend on mutual consent.. From a legal point of view. Thus. giving permission to someone who wants to cut down the trees in a huge forest. it states: You who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves unjustly except it be a trade arnongst you. 104 105 55 . the more pertinent verse can determine the interpretation in preference to Qur'an 2:29 Qur'an 4:29 106 al-Duraynl. such as in the case of the verse."createdfor you al! ofthat which is on the earth. for instance.~l~ In the linguistic technique of specification (takhsls). for exarnple. in which the legal case is mentioned or referred to directly and clearly. this verse can justify. However.2. In u~iïJ aJ-fiqh 's hermeneutical approach. the second verse is a specification of the verse. "It is He who created for you al! of that which is on the earth. to prevent of restrict the clear-cutting of trees cited in the above example. the jurist is faced with a number of verses that apply to a given legal case in a generalized mode... in the u~iïJl hermeneutics. there is another verse that deals with the issue of ownership and entering into financial contracts in a more specific manner.1. .106 The reason for this specification is the semantic status of the second verse. and can be used. by mutual consent.Takh. 185. aJ-Maniihij aJ-U~iïJiyyah.

more specific verse.2.the less pertinent one. he/she is not free to prevent other neighbors from accessing that road. The mujtahid can thus approximate (yuqiïrib) Allah's intention by the method of u. In this case the common element is similar expressions occurring in the Qur'an in different passages. al-Taqyld The aforementioned method of specification (al-takh.JI$) deals with verses that apply to legal cases by virtue of having the same connotation.JuJJ hermeneutics to achieve better legislation in the conflict between public and private ownership. the problem is manifest: Should the family provider of the orphan(s) release their own money instantly? Or should the provider wait until the Another possible interpretation is that if someone owns a piece of land or house that blocks another neighbors' road. 2. release their property to them l09 In considering these two verses. the legislation conceming the financial relations between orphans and their family provider: And give to the orphans their properties l08 And test the orphans [in their abilities] until they reach the marriageable age. Then ifyou perce ive in them soundjudgment. simultaneously possessing additional descriptions and information surrounding them. is a linguistic technique that attempts another aspect of textual consistency. i. In the following example.e.1. 108 Qur'an 4:2 109 Qur'an 4:6 \07 56 .2. Al-taqyld. the additional description in the second verse restricts the other expressions. Restriction. 107 This demonstrates how human interaction with the Qur'anic text can abrogate sorne meaningful part of one verse by applying another. and this in order to achieve consistent meaning of the holy text. by contrast.

i. as a word. means a compound metaphor. in the terminology of the science of rhetoric (baliighah). Logical-linguistic analysis allows one to distinguish majiz as compound metaphor from tashbIh as simple metaphor by virut of the fact that the latter is a sentence that contains two major elements of assimilation. 1987). in contrast to other rhetorical concepts such as tashbIh and isti'iirah. the assimilated (al- mushabbah) and the assimilated-to (al-mushabbah bih). al-Majiz Al-majiz. in the case of al-taqyIdwe can recognize the same theme of textual consistency as in the case of specification. is a type of verbal noun called al-ma~dar al-mImI derived from the Arabic verb jiiz. majiz. Compound Metaphor. However. whereby restriction elicits a certain theme allowing the jurist to approximate (yu'wwIl) God's original intention. Thus.orphan reaches the age of maturity? Obviously.3. For example. enables the mujtahidto say that God most probably wants this or that in such a legal case. the second verse suggests that the family provider should wait until he/she is certain that the orphan reached the legal age before entrusting herlhim with the property. al-Baliighah: Funiïnuhii wa-Aihiinuhii 2: 'Ilm al-Bayiin wal-Badi'(Amman: Dar al-Furqan lil-Nashr wal-Tawzl'. In this way the mziftahid can attain a divine rational status that allows him to state what the Qur'an does not say literally. on one hand. This theme.2.1. 110 57 .110 which signifies the idea of crossing or bridging something from one state to another ('abar). 2. the following sentences may be considered typical of the tashbIh style in the science of rhetoric (baliighah) and u~iïl al-fiq: For further information see Faql Ifasan 'Abbas. and perhaps also a particle of similie (adiit aJ-tashbIh) along with a theme of simile (wajh al-shabah).e.

l consider it to be a compound metaphor. Robin Hood is like a lion. The foUowing sentences about Robin Hood in the context of bravery and strength may be considered examples of the isti'iirah style according to the sciences of rhetoric (baliïghah) and u$ul al-fiq: A lion fought bravely in the battle. Yet. the isti'iirah is a metaphor that contains neither of the two elements of the assimilation: the assimilated (al-mushabbah) and the assimilated-to (al-mushabbah bihl) at once and in the same time nor even the particle of simile (adat al-tashbih) or the theme of simile (wajh al-shabah). Robin Hood ravaged his enemies in the battle. We see cleady that neither Robin Hood (al-mushabbah) nor the lion or its attributes (almushabbah bihl) appear in the same sentence. the particle of simile is optional. indeed. as is the theme ofbravery. Thus. Nor is the simile found in this style of metaphor. the signified (al-mushabbah) is absent and there is a complexity in the signifier (al-mushabbah bih). Robin Hood is a lion in bravery. majiiz finds 58 . This technical concept is a remarkable inteUectual enterprise in Arabie rhetoric and. By the same token. and this is what constitutes the style of the isti'iirah metaphor. By contrast. In the majiiz of the two steps of isti'iirah. Robin Hood is a lion We see clearly that Robinhood (al-mushabbah) and the lion (al-mushabbah bih) are in aU the sentences the tenus require to establish the simile.Robin Hood is like a lion in bravery. al-majiiz in the logical analysis is either two steps of isti 'iirah or the context in which the common usage of naturallanguage is utilized.

Nevertheless. the expression "when yau rise ta" in the sentence "when yau rise ta {perfarm] prayer.. proceed to to make ablution. In this instance. Al-Lisan wal-Mlzan. one may consider the verse: o you who have believed. the mujthaid would favor the sound understanding of the legal text. the u~iïlists. The reason beneath that results from contradictions in the order of things or in what the text wants to say. 59 . simply on how the audience of the Qur'an reacted to such an expression. wucjiï'. or what is called the usage of natural language (al-lughah al-!abl'iyyah). wash yaur faces . The reason behind this permission relies. when you rise to [perform] prayer." which is 111 Qur'an 5:6 112 'Abd al-Ra4man. because it is very well known from the practice of the Prophet and the practices of all the generations after him that wucjiï' is the process of cleaning the body as a preparation for the praying. Al-majiïz is a textual reading process in which the reader recognizes the usage of naturallanguage as a less than pure reflection of reality. This process is exactly what is meant by al-majiiz. ifyou pray. 401. made valuable advances in the amplification of this rhetorical technique. This literaI understanding is very odd.its origins within the theological doctrine of the Mu'tazilah. the reader says: it is not possible that the text here means what it says literally.112 in which it permits itself the usage of sorne expressions instead of others that may be more strictly logical. Therefore. To show how this operates. " is a possible usage for "if you intend to. So why does the Qur'anic style use this odd order? The mujtahid's ta'wll asserts the Qur'an is employing the habits of common usage. Furthermore. wash your faces and your hands forearms up to the elbows and wipe over your heads and wash your feet up to ankles 111 This verse literally says that.. in coniparison to theologians (mutaldllimiin).

For instance. In contrast to the textual consistency.2. ablution in this case.2. The dual apparatus of textual reconciliation (al-tawliq) and textual preponderance (al-tarjI4). The reason for this is that the intention of doing an instant action. these two methods are designed to achieve legislative consistency.2.1. 149-190.e. if the method of textual reconciliation is applied to contradicting Qur'anic passages. it is now time to illustrate al-fiqh 's hermeneutical approaches to the relationship between the text and the world. in which attention is paid to actuallegal practice rather than the language of the legal discourse.2. u~iïl or the textual consistency of the legal discourse.2. i." The ta'wllin this case tries to go beyond what is literally and naturally said to what is intentionally and originally meant. the same methods would be used as in 2. Textual Reconciliation. al-Maniihij al-U~iïliyyah.1. can be substituted and reworded by name of the action itself. Legislative Consistency of Legal Discourse After discussing u~iïl al-fiqh 's hermeneutical approaches to the legal text itself. as well as metaphorical ones. this hermeneutics is spiritually motivated to find out what is divine in the Qur'an and how it can be understood in specific and restricted cases. 2. 113 al-Duraynl. al-Tawfiq Usually. specification. l13 2.. or j~liï/l. "rise up. in order to realize the purpose of the text and prepare it to set things right in the world. are the key methods that may be used to achieve the notion of applying and utilizing the functionality of this legal text by consistent legislative principles (al-jsti~liilJ). 60 .a metaphorical usage.

such as the prophetie Sunnah.restriction. mediated meaning (al-qadr al- mushtarak) to reconcile the contradiction. a controversial case involving Qur'anic passages and texts from other legal sources. within contradicting Qur'anic passages or within contradicting texts from the Prophetie narrations. typically. One of the hermeneutical solutions for this issue is to establish a new. a possible mediation can be: "giving both the father and the son accessibility to each other' s money on the condition of replacement in the future.." The justification of this analysis is: 1) that the mediation depends on the possible meaning of the preposition ''for'' in the sentence "the son and his money are for his father. to restore contradictory legal proofs that have the same legal authority or semantic clarity. it is be applied." since the meaning of possession is not implied visibly in the sentence. would rarely be considered part of the reconciliation method. "the son and his money are for his father" while another lJadith states this "the father and his money are for the son. Sunnah. textual reconciliation will only demonstrate its clear functionality if it is used between texts that have the same legal authority or semantic clarity. A very well known problem in the world of u~iïl al-fiqh is the contradiction between the Prophet's iJadith. u~iïl al-fiqh's hermeneutics approaches the issue very creatively. and "metaphorization." This is a very extreme example of legal contradiction. The hermeneutical rule here declares that "reconciling alliegai texts is better than ignoring any of them" (i'miil al-daRI awlii min ihmiilih). i. In this case. 61 . and 2) that the mediation saves most of the meaning of both contradicting sentences. As a result.e. However. In spite of this. Thus.

it is appropriate to discuss the latter of these applications.2.tllaqah thaliithan) discussed in 'Umar ibn al-KhaHab's time is instructive. and particularly the question of preponderance in the enounter between the Qur' an and the Sunnah. the contradiction between the Qur'an and the Sunnah would be an excellent application for the concept of preponderance. Textual Preponderance.adith narrated by one chain of narrators (iilJiid) could be used to challenge an authoritative source like the Qur'an. depending on whether it is comparing: 1) Qur'anic verses one with another. aJ-TaIJÔ! The second conceptual tool in u~iïl al-fiqh herrneneutics is preponderance (al- tarjJ1!). would appear to have been a key figure in the development of this method.2. This tool has different application. power. Since preponderance falls under the heading of the legislative consistency of the legal discourse that deals with relations between the text and the world. Fatimah ibnat Qays. which is narrated by multiple chains of narrators (mutawiitii). or strength of a legal proof. or 2) the Qur'an and other legitimate legal sources. An often weIl discussed issue is the contradiction between an authoritative text and another. 'Umar ibn al-KhaHab. again. how to recognize superiority in the weight.2. 62 . In this case. 'Umar ibn al-KhaHab did not accept the fact that a Prophetie 1. 431. importance. 114 The problem involved a ~a4abl woman. who claimed that she was not paid post-divorce expenses by a decision of the Prophet himself. especiallY as the verse in question seems unequivocal: 114 al-Duraynl. less authoritative text. al-Maniihij al-U~iïJiyyah.2. The legal case of the post-divorce expenses (nafàqat al-mut 'ah) of a fully divorced woman (al-mu.

These objectives produced the hermeneutical procedure of preponderance and reconciliation. simply. 2) the rational responsibility to preserve the divine phenomenon of the Qur'an from falling into contradiction by the divinely ordained mission of the ijtihid. Interference in the interpretation and implementation of the divine text is a very serious act in the religious realm.3.Lodge them [the divorced women] where you dwell. Umar ibn al-KhaHab refused to apply the proofbased on Prophetie narrative. Thus. because it is narrated in the mutawitir form and 2) the virtuous nature of 'Umar ibn al-KhaHab's hermeneutics would not abandon a divorced a woman without the financial means to support herself. U~iil al-fiqh hermeneutics is based on three justified premises: 1) the significant role of man as God's sucees sor in the world. 115 Simply put. The responsibility that the role of khaIifah entails in practicing ijtihidtc hermeneutics to achieve consistency in the realm of text and reality is what motivated u~iil al-fiqh scholars to generate an elaborate apparatus of conceptual tools to deal with the phenomena of religious texts. Specification is a tool to be applied to contradictions 115 Qur'an 65:6 63 . and do not treat them in such a harmful way that they be obliged to leave. Concluding Remarks U~iïl al-fiqh hermeneutics IS a Socially constructed endeavor that mms to implement the teachings of the divine text in worldly affairs. to fall into the realm of formalistic legal texts. khaIifah. 2. according to your means. and 3) the responsibility to allow the text to be a means of reform and virtue in the world and not. because the Qur'an is stronger both in: 1) authenticity. since it amounts to interpolating the speech of God (al-taqawwul 'ali Allah).

almost archeological activity of discovering the foundations of the legal hermeneutics of u~iïl al-fiqh. The crux of the argument respectring the first doctrine on prohibiting human cloning based on the Qur'an lies in its misuse of legal interpretation of the religious texts by not recognizing the existence of contradiction and the primacy of performing textual and legislative consistency. while restriction is a conceptual tool designed to limit the application of certain verses that connote sorne legal cases in an unrestricted manner. The following contradictions have been left to stand without being addressed by hermeneutics. compound metaphors or the usage of natural language (majiiz) is what helps the scholar rationalize problems of the natural usage of the Qur'iinic language. or strength of the legal proof.that may arise because of sorne general verses. usually. importance. If the aforementioned linguistic tools seek consistency in the inner realm of the text. for you to ride and as an adornment. in the event of contradicting legal proofs that have the same legal authority or semantic clarity while preponderance recognizes superiority in the weight. Reconciliation is be applied. it can be claimed that: textual and legislative al-fiqh hermeneutics. textual reconciliation (tawiiq) and preponderance (tarjJ1!) operate in a different realm which is outside the text. In the same vein. After the foregoing. And He 64 . This claim supports the first consistency is the objective of u~iïl chapter's claim: It is not true that contemporary Islamic legal discourse on human cloning is based on a legal methodology of the religious texts since the fatwas and the fiqhJ opinions studied in this regard are based on a valid legal interpretation of the religious text. power. mules and donkeys. The first is the verse: "And [He has createdJ horses.

The next step in this survey is to look at a larger methodological concern that contemporary Islamic legal discourse evades. itself a hybrid of horses and donkeys. "So direct your face [MulJammad] toward the religion. No change would exist in Allah 's creation. but most of the people do not knoW. the role of perceiving revelation in Islamic legal practice...creates [other] things ofwhich yOU have no knowledge. [Adhere toi the fi.116 This verse highlights. specifically. in a tone of admiration.. inclining to the truth.117 These two verses show an extreme example of conflict with the traditional u$iïli methodology of preserving the divine speech from contradiction (lJi~ kaliim al-shiri' min al-ùf.trah of Allah upon which he has created [ail] people.tiriib). The second contradiction of their thesis emerges from. the proliferation of new creatures such as mules.. Qur'an: 8:16 117 Qur'an: 30:30 116 65 .

19-154. like the angel Jibrll. is what may be called the hermeneutics of revelation. e. theology ( 'ilm al-kaliim). ll8 This message is articulated in the the Qur'an and in the Prophet Mul}ammad's teachings (the Sunnah). through the hermeneutics of revelationas set forth by Shatbl's (d.CHAPTER THREE THE HERMENEUTICS OF REVELATION ~ SHATIBI'S THEORY OF MAQA~ID AL-SHARI'AH 3. This process of discussing the Mul}ammadan revelation. in his magnum opus.g. 1977). through exegesis. and sciences of al-l}adlth ('uliïm al-l}adlth). which explicate the intentions of God. The relationship between revelation and the issue of human cloning is due to the fact that the religious legitimacy that produces fàtwiis and legal opinions W. mysticism (alta~awwuiJ. and ramification. 118 66 . Introduction According to the traditional Islamic understanding. The literaI meaning of walJI is vocal inspiration that someone hears. rhetoric (al-baliighah). are based on the process of representing and building exegesis of the MlÙ].1. 790/ 1388 ). The present case study of human cloning is explored in the following. so that divine walJI consists in a prophet regularly receiving communication directly from Allah or from agents chosen by Allah. M. Watt and R. al-Muwiifàqiit fi U~iïl al-sharI'ah. Introduction ta the Qur'an (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. where he considers this methodology in the light of Maqiisad al-sharI'ah. The identity of Islam is therefore grounded in the event the revelation of holy texts to Prophet Mul}ammad. Bell. sciences of al-Qur'an ('uliïm al-Qur'iin). amplification.ammadan revelation. jurisprudence (u~iïl al-fiqh). revelation (al-waliiJ is the speech of God to human beings. AlI branches of the discourse that emerged within the Islamic heritage.

2 discusses how Shatbl's theory can be approached from a perspective different than those hitherto applied to his thought. namely. dani) and. by restructuring Shatibl's techniques. by investigating the presuppositions that epistemologicallyl19 generated the theory of maqa~id al-shari'ah (namely. This will be analyzed in the light of the Islamic understanding of revelation as presented by Shatb1. firstly.e. "Why does there exist a deficiency in the contemporary methodological practices?" The answer to this question is found in the third claim made earlier in the thesis: if there is a methodological discrepancy in contemporary Islamic legal discourse." This chapter goes about the aforementioned task by asking the question. i. secondly. 67 . which focused on u~iïl al-fiqh hermeneutics generally and how it is based on both textual and legislative consistancy. to develop the systematic concepts of the theory of maqa~id al-shaii'ah.4. it is important to discuss the worldview behind the second doctrine of prohibition.3. that of utilitarian legal hermeneutics. the path for reformation exists in continuing the traditional endeavor of 119 u~iïl al-fiqh through the For further analysis see the introduction in: Michel Foucault. This will allow us to proceed to the main task of "criticizing the methodology of danl and rebuilding it through the problematic fiqhicase ofhuman cloning. Section 3. It goes on in Section 3. the criticism of al-danlby means of its final results.. by investigating the logical techniques applied in his theory (induction. the concepts of the divine proof.about this techonology is essentially derived from a certain understanding of revelation. The Order ofThings: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences (New York: Vintage Books. 1973). ma 'alal al-aPal l build on the results of the second chapter. A new understanding of revelation is offered on the basis of hermeneutics in Section 3. Therefore. to analyze Shatibl's hermeneutics of revelation. and the construction of the dani).

. Moreover.siniyyiit (lit. improvements).siil al-fiqh (Cambridge: Cambridge Univer~ty Press.. al-J:ahir Ibn 'Ashlir. 1995).divine concept of revelation (al-walJ. 3. 1997).i~ al-mn. progeny.al-U~iiH wa-Ishkiiliyyat al-$u~tah: Qirii'ah fJ Nash 'at 'Ilm al-U~iil wa-Maqii~id al-Shari'ah (Beirut: al-Dar al-Jami'iyyah lilDirasat wal-Nashr. al- nafs.2.iijiyyiit (lit. al-Fila. Here a new understanding is proposed to resolve the for this legal-epistemological crisis. History ofIslamic legal theory: An Introductoion to the Sunni l. mind.l) as the knowledge of the sign. whose u~iil structure can be seen in the table to contents of any book of al-fiqh. 1996). 1996). and leading to a classification of the rest of the shari'ah's laws and rulings under the headings of J. al-nasl. Nlqariyyat al-Maqii~id 'inda al-Imiim al-Liihir Ibn 'Ashiir (Virginia: al-Ma'had al-'Alam1lil-Fikr al-Islam1. life. needs) and taJ.4mad al-ijas'!!ll. However. A. al. Epistemological Presumptions and A Restating of Shalbl's Hermeneutics of Revelation U~iil al-fiqh is endowed with a clear program of legal problem-solving. but the Qur'an and the Sunnah are considered the major ones. U~iil al-fiqh recognizes many legal daHIs. The basic contents of the theory of maqii~id al-shari'ah identified in many studies 120 are comprised of the five faculties of the shai'ah (kulliyiit al-shai'ah): the preservation of religion.. Nlqariyyat al-Maqii~id 'inda al-Imiim al-Shii!ibi (Virginia: al-Ma'had al-' Alam1lil-Fikr al-IsIam1. 120 68 . necessities). the author's own legal opinion on human cloning as it were. and property (respectively: J. 1967).4mad al-Raysiinl.'aql. the structure of u~iil al-fiqh depends on the answer to the question: For further information about the detailed content Sha!ibl's theory of maqii~id alshari'ah. al-miil). and 'Abd al-MaJîd al-~aghlr.J. Maqii~id al-Shari'ah (Tunisia: al-Dar al-Tunisiyyah lil-Tiba'ah wal-Nashr.Gharb al-Islam1. Wael Hallaq. through a new theory of the mechanism of revelation. see: 'Allal al-FasI. Maqii~id al-Shari'ah al-Isliimiyyah wa-Makirimuhii (alRiba!: Dar al. A. 1964). these five universalities are considered the shai'ah's çfariiriyyiit (lit.

the Sunnah. according to the three major schools of u~iï1 a1-iiqh introduced earlier: al-Mutakallimlin (lit. consensus (ijmii~. The list of potential dafi1s is very long as weIl as extremely controversial. literalists). 121 alI:Ianafiyyah (lit. on the other hand. These two levels revolve around the issue of revelation . u~iï1 a1-iiqh developed an extensive terminology for both external and internaI proofs. 1 mean a method that does not derive rulings and laws from the direct text of revelation. the category of internaI dafi1 is the method that derives rulings and laws from a direct text of revelation. For example: 1) external proofs are the inteIlectual tools designed to generate laws based on the Qur'an and Sunnah e.. Furthermore. ln order to discuss Shatibl's hermeneutics of revelation." and this perceived truth was considered to be divine revelation. and al-I:Ianabilah. and legal analogy (qiyiis) and 2) discussing the linguistic tools through which the meaning of major dafi1s (the Qur'iin and the Sunnah) and the differentiation criterion of these legal tools. a vast range of terminology pertaining to the dafi1s of u~iï1 a1-iiqh must be emplyed. theologians). and al-Zahiriyyah (lit. This principle involved making the utmost effort to find the truth that cornes from the "Source. 121 69 . (adillah. of dafil) can simplify this task. a1-qiyiis (lit."What is the legitimate legal proof (dafil) that can derive rulings?" An answer to this question involves two levels of analysis: 1) discussing the number and differentiating criteria of legitimate dafi1s such as the Qur'an. foIlowing a taxonomy formed by the pair of external versus internaI proofs.. Legal anal ogy) . pl.g. a1This school includes the rest of the four legal Sunnl: al-Shafi'iyyah. the school of Abu I:Ianlfah). al-Malikiyyah. However. By the category of external dafiJ.the principle that motivated Muslim scholars to build the structure of u~iï1 a1-iiqh in the first place.

such as daliilat al.. authentication!/de-authentication).. He states in his prologue. 70 . in the process. explicit meaning) and daliilat meaning) and b) tools of propositional analysis: al-na~~ (lit. prevention of a path that leads to evil). Badr al-Dln al-Zarakshl. and al-taqyId/ al-Ifliiq (lit..60-142. revelational texts were interpreted and accessed. implicit al-takh~I$ al-ta 'mlm. 1968).'Alnm (Beirut: Dar al-Fikr. which is in the borders of distinguishing which is revelational in origin and which is not.. 122 2) InternaI proofs are the linguistic tools designed to extract a meaning from the language of the Qur'an and Sunnah. to al-Muwaraqiit.. Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.. restructure u~iïl al-fiqh proofs. al-Isti~liilJ (lit. and al-isti~lJiib (lit. Without exaggeration. 123 The previously mentioned category of external versus internaI proofs of revelation can shed light on the duality of u~iïl al-fiqh methodology (which existed before Shat~bl's renovation).. specification! generalization). shar' man qablanii(lit. and MuJ. Al-Madkhal al-FiqhI al. which is the investigative proofs.. abrogation).. utilitarian legal hermeneutics). Thus..}ammad KamaIi. al-BalJr al-MulJI! fi U~iïl al-Fiqh (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-'Ilmiyyah. (lit. There are two types of internaI proofs: a) semantic tools. comprehensively. the correspondences or the reconciliation in the origins of the u~iïl sharI'ah).ijmii' (lit. Shatibl did not. presumption of continuity). consensus). reports ofCompanions). that it is devoted to achieving his dream of reconciling the 122 For a complete list see Mu~tafii al-Zarqa. leave the purpose of his project to conjecture. al-Muwiifàqiit fi U~iïl al-SharI'ah (lit. 1991) 123 There is a third category to. sadd al-dharJ'ah (lit. However. laws ofprevious religions). after alI. and lJadith ta~lJIlJIta4·If(lit. this third category is not included in our discussion. etc. legal preference).) . these processes are dealing with the revelational proofs in an earlier step. al-istilJsiin (lit. 2000). elucidates what 1 would calI the problem of duality existing in al-fiqh. it can be said that the problem of dual revelational proofs exhausted u~iïl al-fiqh intelIectual debate throughout history. qawl al-~alJiibI(lit. etc. The title of Shatibl's book.'ibiirah (lit. such as: Qur'anic naskh (lit. restriction!unrestriction.

[?]). al-Muwa1àqat fi U$iïl al-SharI'ah (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-'Ilmiyyah. This latter notion is a dialectic 124 Abu Is4aq Ibrarlm al-Shatibl.namely. offering in its turn an alternative solution. 71 . 126 'Abd al-Wahhab Khallaf.:J. in the context of the historical accumulation of u$iïl al-fiqh. History of Islamic legal theory: An Introduction to the SunnI [fsiïl al-fiqh (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press..l\ e. Shatib1's methodology in conceiving of fiqh as the knowledge of inducing universal rulings from constructive proofs (~4111 4=J.b~~ ~I).. 150 / 767) and the doctrine of Malik (d. and Shatibl's muwafàqat the second. and (2) the structure of al-Muwafàqat demonstrates a very different notion of the process of legislation. ~I ~\"s""'J1 "Ifo~ ~I).l\ e..e. 'Ilm U$iïl al-Fiqh(Kuwait: Dar al-Qalam.l1 ~\"s""'J1 . i. as the joint project of two parties. :i. Il. the people of traditions) represented by Malik. Shatibl's venture aimed at solving the problems generated by the contradiction dividing Ahl al-Ra'y (lit.124 This declaration.atibl believed that the issue needed to be reexamined.. his would be the first muwafàqat work ever written.. 1997). one of the most probable interpretations is that he was dissatisfied with the first and most famous attempt to perform this reconciliation . 1986). Shatibl must not have accepted Shafi'1's attempt in al-Risalahl25 (five centuries prior) to reconcile the thought of the aforementioned figures.-.doctrine of Abu ijanlfah (d.. 126 may be contrasted with. If this is true.. the people of opinion/judgment) represented by Abu ijanlfah from the Ahl al-Athar (lit. If Shafi'1's project can be seen as an effort to establish u$iïJ aJ-fiqh by investigating possible reconciliation between Abu }fanlfah and Malik. 125 Which is claimed to be the first book establishing the science of u$iïl al-fiqh. 179 / 795). What assures Shatibl's different understanding compared to the history of u$iïl al-fiqh are two points: (1) Shafi'1's definition of fiqh as the knowledge of extracting practical rulings from particular proofs: (~I 4=J. could entail various meanings. 21. See Wael Hallaq. 17. Sl}. Shafi'1's attempt in his al-Risalah to do the same.. In other words..

one point must be addressed. indicating the fundamental difference between Shatibl and the history of u~iil al-fiqh. inductive and constructive. the key solution offered in Sha!ibl's thought would be the search for reconciliation (muwifàqah) between the external and internaI proofs of revelation. 72 . or the receiver of This mechanism corroborates the problem of duality in u~iil (qa~d al-mukallafj al-fiqh identified earlier in this study. If we further scrutinize the epistemological problem of duality in u~iil al-fiqh In relation to the hermeneutics of revelation according to Shatibl's theory. is what constitutes Shatibl' s contribution to the intellectual debate in the history of u~iil al-fiqh .structuring Shatibl's theory. Shatibl saw the point of unity between external revelational proofs (as part of the intellect) and internaI revelational proofs (as part of the language) as located in the concept of the intention of God (qa~d al-shiïrij. which can be defined as a presmise that the apparent meaning of the Qur'an and Sunnah cannot be the real meaning. which literally means "the intention of the revelator. but before clarifying these two operations. revelation (qa~d al-Shiïrij." Sha!ibl arrived at this solution by implementing a program consisting of two main sequences. and posits a certain mechanism linking the intentions of God or the Legislator. This is because the Qur'an and Sunnah are not merely straightforward texts that can be read and applied by a person of legal age and status (mukallafj. and those of the human being. in this author's view. This point is the guiding concept of Sha!ibl's pro gram. On the contrary. This reconcliation would take place once the similarity between intellect (which precipitates the external proofs) and language (which grounds the internaI proofs) is recognized. The significance of this recognition.

the Qur'an and Sunnah are large conglomerations of varying preaching speeches. This fact can clearly be seen in the discipline of controversial understandings of the Qur'an and Sunnah ( 'ilm al-khiliiiJ. with results that are as revolutionary as they are impressive. What is more. 2000). restriction!unrestriction. that sets out to prove certain premises. sentence. Fiqh al-Falsafah 2: al-Qawl al-Falsafi. and moral commands. The intellectuai complexity of revelatory texts has nothing to do with the authenticity of their divine origin. or even a single word can be understood without expert interpretation. As we saw in the second al-fiqh can be seen in its totality as a literary battle of specification!generalization. Kitiib al-Mafhiïm walTa'thll(Beirut: al-Markaz al-Thaqafi al-'Arabl. The Qur'an and the Sunnah are even not a text. These difficulties undermine the superficial and direct meaning ofthe Qur'an and Sunnah. that need to be treated with 1271. in the philosophical sense of the term.e. The previous notion of the essentially indirect meaning of the Qur'an and Sunnah can be understood within the history of chapter. and specificity to time and place.problems such as contradiction. but it is the premise presupposed beneath the entire Shatiblan pro gram. 127 In fact. and literalization /metaphorization that was never resolved. Shatibl was able to implement the premise successfuIly.the texts of the Qur'an and the Sunnah are mere particulars (juz'iyyiit) and these particulars lead to several difficulties in reading them as direct narrative .'aha 'Abd al-Ra4man. 73 . but with their intellectuai comprehensibility in the consciousness of their believeing audience. His unstated assumption that the Qur'an and Sunnah are impossible to understand in their essence. historical tales. nor has it been stated at any point in the entire history of u~iïl al-fiqh. 35. This impossibility of direct meaning is never expressed as such in Shatibl's work. the history over u~iïl u~iïl al-fiqh as weIl. inconsistency.. i. me ans that not a paragraph.

or more specifically. consists of two main intellectuai sequences: inductive and constructive. proofs derived by the language or by the intellect. Inducing the proofs means that the mujtahid is expected to read and understand the entire corpus of rhe reveaied texts while focusing his attention on what is common in each of the particulars.care III order to recogmze their shape and tendencies and arrIve at their originally intended meaning. in the process ofwhich: 1) he/she gains the ability to know why the revelation happened this way. The first process consists of daHl-induction (istiqrii' aJ-ai}kiim). the main process. DalIl construction is the second process. proofs that are elicited by the explicit reader or by the mujtahid? How can all the se parallels be unified in proofs that are derived from the interaction between the 74 . and it tries to solve the problem of how the body of revelation. which represents Shat~bl's most important contribution. How he does so. controversial. how can revelation avoid the duaHty of external and internaI proofs of revelation. In other words. The mujtahid is asked to observe how the manner ofrevelation oprates. The process of searching for the qa~d al-shiiri' is based on the mechanism of inducing aIl the particuIar. as Qur'an and Sunn ah. and contentious proofs of both the divinely-inspired texts of the Qur'an and Sunnah. be differentiated and restructured to provide a consistent text that enables application from the mukallafwithout contradiction or hardship. one might ask how Shatibl arrives at the notion that the qa~d al-shiiri' represents the meeting point that unifies externai and internaI proofs. Assuming the impossibility of the direct meaning of the Qur'ân and the Sunnah is true. and 2) he/she gains the ability to predict when and how a new legal case should be judged under the title of revelation.

vol.3. the hermeneutical work of combing-applying the intellect of the mujtahid 128 For fut!her information see Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah. 16. by Shat~bl. surprisingly. [?]). In other words. voU 129 Abu Is4aq Ibradm al-Shatibl. or the mukallafand the revelation. 1955). If we look at the framework developed by the latter. God. What determines the intentionality of a particular text is its being intended or not by al-Shari'.transcending even the Qur'an and Sunnah themselves .consists in the faculties or universalities (ku1liyiit). according to Shatibl.129 is precisely "what the revelator intended to reveal./~ explicit reader and the intellect. according to the prevailing understanding. Astonishingly.'Ilmiyyah.Muwaqqi'In 'an Rabb a1-'A1amln (Egypt: Matba'at al-Sa'ada. the process of reading the particulars of both the Qur'an and Sunnah and inducing from them the major themes. revelation would. the leading proof . the separation between human beings and God is what constitutes the concept of revelation as a transcendental entity. a1-Muwiifaqiit fi U~iï1 al-SharI'ah (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al. 75 . or the Legislator (al-Shari') may have revealed certain particulars in the Qur'an and Sunnah.38. a1- ku1liyiit min al-juz'iyyiit.128 and later. simply because of the impossibility ofrelying on this apparent meaning of the Qur'an and the Sunnah. consistent repetition with no contradiction in the body of the shaii'ah to establish a consistent habit of God ('iidat al-Shiiri) is what the revelator intends of verses. Thus. no longer be the Qur'an and Sunnah as such. but these do not represnt the particular "text" originally intended by Him. Therefore. ta~affulJ. It is the central contribution of Shatibl's pro gram because." Hence. or the human being and God? This process of reconliation (muwiifaqah) is the core concept of revelation: the interaction between human beings and God. revealed to a profane human being. This separation dominated the previous understanding of u~iï1 a1-fiqh as recognized by ibn al_Qayyim. l'1iim a1.

to the language of Qur'an and Sunnah by sensing the consistent habit of God ('iidiit al-

Shiiri) is what determines the intentionality of that revealed text and gives it its
legitimacy. By the same token, the profanity of the human intellect is, without doubt, sanctioned by the contact of the mujtahid with the soul of God (riilJ al-Sharij; thus, through the language of his revelation and its contexts, he/she is able to disco ver God's aims and intentions. Ibn al-Qayyim, as we saw earlier, prefers to calI this connection between the mujtahidand the soul ofGod as "signing on behalf of the Lord.,,130 The previously analyzed mechanism of daRI induction, used to construct faculties that lead to unification in the body of revelation, yields particular findings in Shatibl's theory. DaRI-induction is thus said to create the following hierarchy of faculties: the

çfariiriyyiit (lit. necessities), then the l}iijiyyiit (lit. needs), and finally the tal}sIniyyiit (lit.
improvements). Shatibl identifies the necessities as the five aspects that the sharI'ah must preserve: religion, life, mind, progeny, and property (respectively: l}if? al-clin, al-nafs, al-

'aqI, al-nasI, al-miil). However, the definition of the needs or improvements are not
presented by Shatibl under any particular faculties, but rather as random examples. 131

If there is unity, or muwiifàqah, between the intention of God or the revealer
(qa~d

al-Shiirij and that of the human being that implements revelation

(qa~d

al-

mukallaiJ, this will not only be achieved via the aforementioned hermeneutical
techniques of induction and construction of the daRI by creating kulliyiit. This will instead emerge, according to
Shat~bl,

through criticism of the daRI in light of its final

130 For furt~er information see Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah. l'liim al- Muwaqqi'In 'an Rabb al- 'Alamln, 38. vol. 1 131 al-Duraynl, al-Maniihij al-U~iïliyyah, 478.

76

results, ma'iiliit al_arii1 132 This conceptual technique examines the functional validity of any generated legal judgment. The examination consists of the following steps: if there are laws that are explicitly mentioned by the Qur'an and the Sunnah or implicitly generated by the intellect and that do not meet the criterion of the faculties of SharI'ah, they must be rescinded. The legal authority of the faculties of sharl'ah has the ability to criticize laws whose application or final results do not achieve, or even contradict, the goals of these faculties. This means that the legal authority of the faculties of Sharl' ah are superior to the Qur'an and the Sunnah, since they are constructed with a view to achieving consistency.
Shat~bl's

methodology of achieving the muwiifaqah in the problem of duality

cannot of course be solved by a one-time static endeavor of the mujtahid's induction and the construction of the diRl The Ma'iiliit al-ariil are considered to be criticism of the
daRl in the light of its final outcome, resulting in an infinite and open-ended endeavor

whenever the two parts of intentions are in a dialectic. This means that there is an infinite enterprise of generating legal rulings (alJ.kiim). For example, if the mujtahid, while directly applying the aJ;.kiim of the Qur'an or Sunnah, recognizes that their final results go against general principles, he has the right to suspend or delete the application of these
aJ;.kiim. An important key point that manifests is that revelation (wahl) is a more a

posteriori process than an a priori one. In other words, revelation is an effort shaped by a

sincere intention of discovering the reality and the results of our human perception of guidance, proof, or evidence. This effort integrates text and reality in one act, known as the muwiifàqah. Another point in
Shat~bl's

methodology, subject to speculation, is the

132

AI-Shatbl, al-Muwiifàqiit, vol. 2, 34.

77

superiority of kuJliyiit. In other words, particulars lose their authority, as verses or lJadith and are no longer in themselves proof or guidance, in comparison to faculties. Before
Shat~bl

introduced his methodology, this entire mechanism of dafll

induction aimed at constructing faculties so as to unify the body of revelation was unknown in
u~iïl

al-fiqh. Still, the question arises: Does not the hermeneutics of

revelation, as presented in Shatibl's findings, contain a methodological problem related to its perception of the nature of the Qur'an? If the answer is yes, this may require a restructuring of the theory of maqii~id al-shaii'ah. Sorne answers to these questions will be found in the next section.

3.3. Restructuring The Theory ofMaqa~id al-shari'ah

So far, the broadest and most fundamental mechanisms in Shatibl's theory of
maqii~id

al-shari'ah have been explained by the aforementioned three key concepts:

induction, construction, and criticism of the dafll The presentation and restatement of Shatibl's theory gives earlier offers the most articulate formula possible for utilitarian legal hermeneutics doctrine by contemporary Islamic legal discourse (presented in the previous section, 1.4.2). The comparison between the doctrine of the prohibition of utilitarian legal hermeneutics and the original methodology of
u~iïl

al-fiqh shows that

none of the three fundamental mechanisms in Shatibl's theory (induction, construction, and criticism of the dafll) are present in the contemporary doctrine of utilitarian legal hermeneutics used to justify the prohibition on human cloning. In sections 1.4.2.1 and 1.4.2.2, the opinions of both al-Qaraqawl and al-Butl, neither of which incorporated

78

In the rest of this chapter. In other words. 134 Watt and Bell. The central weak point in this theory is its understanding of the nature of the Qur'an. construction.9. It should be noted that no such edition yet exists. the diachronic alternative considers the arrangment of the Qur'anic verses from the standpoint of the chronological order of revelation (tartIb al-nuziïl).134 As a result.133 and this is almost bound to continue. the regular edition of the Qur'an will be referred to as the synchronic Qur'an and the rearranged chapters of the Qur'an according to the chronology of revelation as the diachronic Qur'an. Introduction to the Qur'iin. Even if one grants the revolutionary presupposition that the Qur'an and Sunnah cannot possibly be understood at face value. 133 Mu4amad 'Abd Allah Darraz. [7]). due to fact that Sha!ibl accepts only the traditional. There is no divine proof that can be attributed to the process of collecting the Qur'an Uam' al-Qur'in) by the companions after the Prophet' s death (10 /631 ). the concept of the induction of the dalil from the pages of the Qur'an as it stands is fundamentally undermined. or criticism of the dalil This of course raises the question "Why does there exist a deficiency in contemporary methodological practices7" There are in fact a few relatively weak points in theory of maq~id al-sharI'ah that have prevented it from taking on a serious role in the later development of u~iïl al- fiqh. 40. See Abii Is4aq Ibrarlm al-Shatibl. which is usually correlated with the reasons of revelation (asbiib al-nuziïl).induction. the acceptance of the Qur'an as a book arranged according to the sequence ofits chapters (suwar) can still be heavily criticized. The diachronic alternative of the induction of the dalil in the Qur'an is not examined in Sha!ibl's theory at aIl. 79 . al-Muwiifàqiit D U~iïl al-Shari'ah (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-'Ilmiyyah. synchronic arrangement of the pages of the Qur'an. the contemporary discoverer and editor of Sha!ib's Muwiifàqiit confirms the unrecognized role of Sha!ibl's theory in the later history of u~iïl al-fiqh.

Although Shatibl's contribution (as analyzed in section 3. al-Fila.metaphysics.34. mind. along with a distinct concentration on the process of the criticism of the dalil by its final results. As this chapter covers hermeneutics of revelation. See: Abu Bakr al-Suyut1. Looking at Shatibi' s theory from the angle of the diachronic induction of the dalil manifests another weak point in his system. 52511130) contemplated nearly four centuries earlier. life. 484/1190) and al-Ghazali (d. and ethical preaching . 136 The preservation of religion. Libiib al-Nuqiïl fi Asbiib al-Nuziïl (Beirut. 2003). it still only recapitulates what al-Juwaynl (d.except for narrations of the reasons of revelation and the general classifications into Makki and Madanl.can nevertheless be easily located and placed in relation to the Prophetic sIrah with the help of the books of Asbiib al-NuziïlJ5 and the available classifications into Makki and Madanl. it can be shown how Shatibl's kulliyyiit were frozen in a particular time and worldview and how a restructuring can reform the fundamentals of u~iïl al-fiqh. historical stories. The overall themes of the Qur'an . Dar al-Kit ab al'ArabI. 136 'Abd al-Majld al-~aghlr. 135 80 . What Shatibl's inductive kulliyyiit accomplished with respect to the synchronic Qur'an can be carried over into another set of inductive kulliyyiit based on the diachronic Qur' an. ma 'iiliit ai-ariii In this way. 1998). laws.'Ilmiyyah fi alIsliim: Qirii'ah fi Nash 'at 'Ilm al-U~iïl wa-Maqa~id al-SharI'ah (Beirut: al-Mu'ssasah alJami'iyyah lil-Dirasat wal-Nashr. the diachronic induction of the relationship between God (al- Shiirij and the revelation receiver (al-mukallafj may prove to be a hermeneutical contribution in itselfto the restructuring ofShatibl's theory of Maqii~id al-Shari'ah.al-U~iïli wa-Ishkiiliyyat al-$ulfah al. since it changes the scenery of the kulliyyiit that generated the revelation itself in early Islam (~adr al-Isliim).4) is very instructive.

shari'ah. and al-miil For further information see Abü l:Ianlfah al-Nu'man. One of the results of this double standard of disagreement in theological and legal judgments is the status of first. it would seem.137 In addition.. al. is a product. This early disjunction between 'aqIdah and sharI'ah resulted in an odd tradition in Sunnl practice that shows itself in the traditions of the 'aqIdah and sharI'ah sciences whereby 'aqIdah is not considered a subject of ijtihiid and thus. as was seen in chapter 2. nor did he build the theory of u~iïl al-fiqh by employing ijtihiid on matters of 'aqIdah. not subject to disagreement. al-nas/. but it can be se en clearly and seminally in Abü I:Ianlfah's hierarchic understanding of 'aqIdah and shari'ah. The separation cannot be seen as early as the time of the Companions (~alJiibah). and property (respectively: lJi~ al-din. al. In this first class.'aq/. [?] ). lJi~ al-nafs. This consistency is not surprising. al-miil) are still the unchanged and unchallenged kulliyyiit. of the very early separation between creed ( 'aqIdah) and its legal and ethical applications.. al-nafs. This understanding is seen clearly in his description of 'aqIdah and shari'ah as the greater and the lesser understanding: "al-Fiqh al-Akbar wal-A~ghar. (mimmii Iii yalJtamiluh al-khiliifj.progeny.'aq/. 137 81 . for instance. since certain issues in the synchronie Qur'an. This solid undercurrent of the kulliyyiitin the history of u~iïl al-fiqh. of the five categories of kulliyyiit mentioned earlier: lJi~ ad-din. Shafi'1's intellectual works did not touch on matters of theology. al-nas/. 'aqIdah is given no really clear function or application in comparison to the rest of the four kulliyyiit. al-Fiqh al-Akbar (Cairo: Matba'at Dar al-Kutub al-'Arabiyyah al-Kubra. most probably necessitate this reading.

finally 3) the prevention of specification ('adam al-takh~J~) which demands that categories must be in the same statutes and that they do not compose a specification of each other. This criticism is supported by the three criteria of the traditional Islamic-Aristote1ian conditions of logical taxonomy (shari'~t al-taqsJm al-manliqJ): 1) absolute inclusion (tamim al-lJa~r). a contemporary u~iï!tst. 111. I shall trace a more solid methodology of daHl for the kulliyyit. namely. 1994). although preserving the soul is not differentiated from preserving the mind in the five universalities. However. which is not the case in one of the five faculties if we ask about preserving justice or beauty. creation. in the case of the five universalities all of the rest of the universalities are derived from the first one. has consciously and unconsciously prevented any advanced understanding of the diachronie kulliyyit.In addition. I think it might be by investigating the structure of 'time' in the Qur'an. Tajdid al-Manhaj fi TaqwJm al-Turith (Beirut: al-Markiz alThaqafi al-'Arabl. which necessitates that a taxonomy must include all the elements that it claims it represents.138 expresses the view that the five kulliyyit do not respond to the conditions of logical taxonomy. 2) absolute differentiation (tamiïm al-tabiyun) which requires that the elements of the category must be different from each other. The powerful semantic field of the notion of time is capable of re1ating vast amount of vocabularies. Why choose the concept of time? There are two reasons: 1) because the concept of time is always the mold where verbs or events are going on or it is where existence is taking place. Taha 'Abd al-Raç.man. Qur'an itself. Contrary to this tendency.man. Taha 'Abdu al-Raç. which is derived from the primacy of 'aqJdah. if we want to trace the origin that builds the major daH1. Thus. 138 82 . This vague taxonomy of the preservation of the religion (lJif? al-din).

4) afterward cornes the story of Prophet Mul}. 83 . 3) after that is the history of vanished nations and their Prophets (a1-qa~as a1-Qur'iinJ fi a1-anbiyii' wa1- umam a1-khiiliyah) which ends up with the path of Prophet Mul}. and values . and finally 5) The unseen world and the final destiny of the existence and humanity in the Day of Judgment (a1-ghayb wa1-yawm a1- iikhii). l induced the whole Qur'an and l find the synchronic timeline is shown in five essential steps that shape the Islamic worldview: 1) It starts with the story of creating the existence (kha1q a1-kawn).. the universe. and the whole creatures. 2) then the story of creating the human being (kha1q banJ iidam) and deciding its destiny. 2) because the Islamic world view presents itself in a time line that starts with a beginning that is creation and ends with the Day of Judgment as the end of the entire creation. Within this timeline.creatures.ammad and his affairs in Makkah and Madinah as the finest example of human behavior in the world.ammad and creates a unity in the mission of the Prophets and the source of all religions. eschatology. etc. l will elueidate now the faeulties of the synchronie timeline in the Qur'an and then l will show what the diachronie understanding can do to change this worldview. God decided to create human beings and to have herlhim as part of this process in which he/she seeks good deeds in order to receive a good reward and to prevent torture in hello The structure of 'time' in the Qur'an will be seen clearly after l fully explain how the synchronie Qur'an is a timeline that eompels an unehallengeable worldview that includes the program of both 'aqJdah and shari'ah.. This synchronic Qur'anic timeline provides us with a very fertile standpoint to perceive how Qur'an is generated.

the construction of the semantic field of the notion of time is. we will elucidate how the aforementioned timeline is a result of a certain reflection on the world and thus this particular reflection would restrict its outcome. 1 can take the five timeline steps in the Qur'an as in Shatibi's pro gram to be examined by the condition of criticizing the faculties by their final results (ma'iiliit al-ariil). These five timeline steps. the contents of Shatibl's metaphors and terminology will be changed. then 1 would caU the aforementioned five timeline steps a construction of new synchronic faculties oftime in the Qur'an. a construction of the notion of existence itself in Qur'an. 84 . This means that diachronic asbiib al-naziïl shows the muwiifàqah technique between the qa~d al-Shiiri' and qa~d al-mukallaf. Analogous to what 1 mentioned before. In other words. this synchronic Qur'anic timeline that is the hidden program of 'aqldah is subject to the hermeneutical technique of daRI criticism whenever there arises a need to criticize the daRlby new outcomes ofhuman reflection. in fact. Now.If my interpretation and induction of the notion oftime in the Qur' an is accurate. 1 will show sorne examples that illustrate what reasons of revelation (asbiib al-Naziïl) generated the five timeline faculties respectively: 1) the verses that discuss the story of creation usually suggest their source by the act of reflection on the signs of God. Since 1 began my restructuring of Shatibl's project by changing the premise of the conventional arrangement of the chapters of the Qur'an to the time arrangement. can be investigated to show how the ma 'iilal al-ariil are highly reflected as reasons of revelation (asbiib al-Naziïl) and can be used as the criterion to which the themes of Qur'an are articulated. Prophet Mu4ammad this time. surprisingly. Next. Now.

mention that the mission of this being starts by the ability of naming and judging. Fiqh a1-Fa1safah 2: al-Qaw1 alFa1safi. the story of creating the first man (Adam) from mud. 1998). This idea is clearly taken from the notion that what distinguishes human beings from other creatures is the capacity to speak language. bayiin. and contemplate the (wonders of) creation in the heavens and the earth.'AqR (Beirut: al-Markiz al-Thaqafi al'ArabI. 2) The human creation verses." See J:aha 'Abd al-Ra4man.A student at the Institute ofIslamic Studies at McGill University.a1-iiyiit al-kawniyyah. and lying down on their sides. 139 In this verse the dialectic between the worldly signs and humans is what generates an understanding of the early creation. the Qur'anic reflection distinguishes the characteristic of human being as determined by the ability to reveal the meanings of things. for instance. 140 "And He taught Adam the names al! ofthem . 1 say that the creed of creating the existence is itself a result ofthis contemplation on the worldly signs. 315.. argues that Heidegger's translation of the Greek concept "Logos" as "the language that reveals. the beginning of man was distinguished by having the intellect that enables the production of language. standing. created the Man. in the creation of the heavens and the earth and alteration of the night and the day are signs for the those of understanding Men who celebrate the praises of Allah. Simon Staszewski. J:aha 'Abd al-Ra4man.142 In these verses.the language that shapes the perception. .. Kitao a1-Mafhiïm wa1-Ta'thl1 (Beirut: al-Markaz al-Thaqafi al-'ArabI. sitting. For example this verse says: Indeed. (With the thought): "Our Lord! not for naught Hast Thou created (aIl) this! Glory to Thee! Give us salvation from the penalty of the Fire. and A1lisiin wa1-Miziin Aw a1-Takawthur a1. In other occasions: "The most merciful. Thus. Qur'an 3:190-191 This sharp and bright recognition was a result of the various and enlightening conversations 1 had with my colleague Mr. 2000). 141 Qur'an 2:31 142 Qur'an 55: 1..141 or a mission that was started by giving the ability of logos . Thus. [And] taught him bayiin [logoS]..4. taught Qur'an. an M. 139 140 85 ." goes exactly with the meaning of the Arabic word "bayiin.423.

143 Qur'an 33:38 144 Qur'an 27:69 145Watt and Bell. This command is given in order to allow Muslims to see what bad or good deeds can do for the previous nations. Such [have] been the laws of God [sunnat Allah] with respect to those who have gone before." Muslim World. "The Birth-Hour of Muslim Law. and the command of Allah is a decree that is made 143 absolute In another set of verses with historical import. further substantiating the existence of the muwafàqah technique. 25. The migration from Makkah to Madinah especially imposed new obligations on the Prophet. 40. 1.145 are evidence of the use of muwafàqah technique resulting in the formation of the diachronic Qur'an from the aforementioned kulJiyyat extracted eariier. 146 S. Iike the punishment of stoning for the crime of adultery. The emergence for instance of 'aqldah and the sorne elements of the notion of an unseen world. The appearance of sorne of the shari'ah rules in the Madanl period.I46 resemble a direct positive or negative reaction to the Iaws of the Jews. the Qur'anic command for reflection uses another term to describe the process of contemplation: Say: Travel [through] the land and see what the end of those who rejected truth was. Introduction to the Qur'iin. such as angels and the messenger of God (Jibra'11). 86 . The effects of these obligations can be seen from the reactions that occurred after his contact with Jews and Christians. (1960). Goitein. 144 4) The verses that touch on the life of Prophet Mu4ammad and his affairs are the richest of several instances of dialectics in the Qur'an. 50.3) The historical verses typically propose the command of reflection on the laws of God in history (sunnat Allah).D. featuring concepts that had never existed in the Makld period.

Still. Thus. This being the case. perhaps among the most metaphysical and 'aqldah related topics. l can improve the synchronie faculties l presented above by taking into account the critical condition of Sha!ibl methodology. l will construct diachronie faculties that perceive the giving of the previous five time1ine steps and may face criticism as long as possible. and used to trace the generation of this Qur'an discourse. The human capacity of bayin to recognize truth in the signs of the world leads to realization of the value of resurrection in the following verse: We will show them Our Signs in the universe. Prophet Mu4ammad this time. a new kulliyyiït can take a step backwards. A vast amount of related meanings that shape the entire timeline or worldview of Islam can then be gathered. the criticism of the dalll by its final results can undermine my synchronie faculties whenever there is a fact that opposes my time line construction. the dialectic between the intention of God (qa~d al-Shiiri') and the intention of the human being (qa~d al-mukallafj. the perspective of the diachronie Qur'an would account for these five timeline steps differently.5) Even the verses on eschatology and final destiny on the Day of Judgment. in order to have a wider vision of the 147 Qur'an 41:53 87 . Qur'an and Sunnah. Restructuring Sha!ibl's the ory would be understood in the terminology of the muwiïfaqah technique. and in their own selves. until it becomes manifest to them that this (the Qur'iin) is the truth. Is it not sufficient in regard to your Lord that He is a Witness over all things? Verily! They are in doubt conceming the Meeting with their Lord? Verily! He it is Who is surrounding all things! 147 The verses that are re1ated to the concept oftime in the Qur'iin allow for construction of five timeline steps that cover that notion of time. is the generator of the revelation. are no exception to the hermeneutics of revelation. Yet.

process of revelation.. In this case. the function ofmy ku1liyyiit depends on the criticism of the daR1 diachronically and would be the knowledge of questioning and constructing universal rulings from critical proofs: (~. Then the diachronie ku1liyyiit shall be processed by the muwiifaqah technique that was operated by Prophet Mu4ammad. Then. l represent the aforementioned five-timeline steps. as a semiological discourse that extracts the dall1 from the worldly sign.S.lt ÙA ~4'i1 ~1.S.\l1 . The five diachronic faculties are: 1) The question of the origin and the mission of the existence. and thought. consequently.>I. 2) The question of the origin and the purpose of human being. As a result. In this case l can invest the infinite ability of the question without falling into challenging the future outcomes.. humanity.>~ ~I) My restructuring cannot exist as a novel contribution if the doctrines of u~iï1 a1- fiqh has recognized that the written words in the Qur'an are not the mere revelation and do not exclusively constitute the divine daRI This contribution criticizes two groundless 88 . but tying them as an infinite task for the intellect.~ ~I).. 3) The question of the formation of human history.fo.lilll ~..:. These are the ku1liyyiitthat we will have after inducing the diachronie Qur'an.:. if the function of Sha!ibl's ku11iyyiit is the knowledge of inducing universal rulings from constructive proofs ( ~4.li ÙA ~I ~1. these ku1liyyiit shall be taken not in declarative statements but in interrogative ones.. in the context of the philosophy of being in an interrogative case instead of a declarative one.. and finally 5) The question of the destiny of existence... my hermeneutics of revelation attempts to regenerate the kulliyyiit of the Qur'an again without falling into the mistake of disconnecting 'aqJdah and sharJ 'ah. 4) The question of the particular affairs of our social group.!I ~.\l1 J~IJ.

means written Qur'anic verse. "Why would such a mutilation of the massive and great majority of the occurrence of the concept of iyah or iyit compel them to lump themall as written words?" It is not the purpose. 2:231. 3:7. 45:6-8. demonstrating the defenselessness and vulnerability of the aforementioned two premises. 148 89 .65:11. 58:5. only in 16 verses 149 out of 148. the process in which the mzljtahid constructs the da1l1 from the signs to produce the law.and unverified premises: 1) 'aqldah is disconnected from shaIi'ah and of a higher status. However. 3:101. Ifwe take into consideration that the sign in the major occurrence of Qur'an is a worldly sign rather a written one. 3:58. although it is false.62:5. 3:113. on the other hand. 29:49. discussed in chapter two. to answer this question. As a result. as sign or proof. revelation would be defined as the relation between the mzljtahid and the worldly sign. 2:252. it is the second premise that validates the first. is the answer to the question "Why does there exist a deficiency in the contemporary methodological practices?" Moreover. can aptly be labeled as the Qur'an 2:106 149 Qur'an 2:99. 7:23. mean written Qur'anic verses. is shown to no longer be legitimate.57:9. in this chapter. the disfigurement of the concept of iyah. 4:140. for the singular iyah. in a logical progression. The refutation of the second premise relies on the fact that God' s iyit are in only one occurrence 148 in the Qur'an out of 84. for the plural iyit. 1 think the abovementioned two unjustified premises along with the denial of the traditional methodology of u~iïl al-fiqh to achieve textual and legislative consistency. Thereafter. thus not subject to ijtihad and disagreement (khiliiJ and 2) revelation subsists as the particular written signs (iyit) found in Qur'an. one cannot help but to be compelled in asking.

2) A biological and environmental response like the Organic Evolution to approach the second interrogative kulliyah.-. is more than a proof to my argument... The interrogative kulliyyiit can be approached by: 1) A physical and chemical answer such as the Big Bang theory to approach the first interrogative kulliyah. and emotional intelligence as part of this legal and ijtihiidic semiology. 3) An economical and political answer such as the Genealogy of Power theory to approach the third interrogative kulliyah. the formation of human history.clIj <. the origin and the purpose of human being.g. will solve two problems: the rigidity in contemporary Islamic legal discourse and the disconnection from heritage caused by Modernity. Following suit. Maybe the common pronunciation and meaning between the science of semiology and the singular Arabic word slmah.-: . perception.. 4) A communally structured system for the financial and legislative issue like the Social Communicative Democracy to approach the fourth interrogative 150 Qur'an 15:75 90 .11 üL'} .~ :~ . Contemplation for such a comparison may be further strengthened when one takes into account the following verse: . Several semiological answers can approach the five interrogative kulliyyiit presented on page 87 and can be determined by the level of intellect humanity reaches in a given age.r (J. This would involve all kinds of human faculties. cognition.\150 ... . sensation.hermeneutics of revelation.... we can calI this path of hermeneutics as the semiological science that produces law.. for the modern times. the origin of the existence.i • ~ Indeed in that are signs for those who seek and interact with signs 1 think the rewriting of al-muwiifàqiit. e.

khalifah. first. Another consequence would. 151 or finally 5) By an elaborate and integrated theology of the natural and human sciences to achieve the Qur'anic aim of being as the creator's successor.kulliyah. it would build the validity of revelation not on a priory basis stated in a written text. Conclu ding Remarks l have shown the broader and most fundamental mechanisms in Shatibl's theory of maqii~d al-sharI'ah by the three key concepts: induction.4. One of these consequences is the discovery of a forgotten Qur'anic doctrine of semiology. 3. The semiological switch in the worldview of revelation or dalil we have just buiIt in this chapter has several revolutionary consequences. A doctrine that converts the bases of hermeneutics in u~iïl al-fiqh from being inclusively based on the text to be oriented toward the worldly signs with all its interactions with the human cognitive capacities. construction. 1984). and criticism of the daliL l restructured Sha!ibl's theory of Maqa~d al-Shari'ah by criticizing the conventional arrangement of the verses of the Qur'an and by clarifying its hidden structure of the time line concept. the particular affairs of our social group. This restructuring resulted in rebuilding the universalities (kulliyiit) of the Qur'an in a diachronic basis that reveals the hidden questions that generated the general themes and contents of the Qur'anic verses. The Theory of Communicative Action. Translated by Thomas McCarthy (Boston: Beacon Press. Volume 2: Lifeword and System: A Critique of Functionalist Reason. 151 91 . Volume 1: Reason and the Rationalization of Society. but rather on a For further information see Jürgen Habermas. build faculties of consistency instead of relying on partial treatment of the revelational proof daliL Second.

Al-Istinsiikh al-Basharl. the expected disastrous results on the human family and relationship structures 152 and other generally anticipated and expected nefarious problems. which questions Islamic legal methodology. priory treatment to revelation. I insist that all the reasons suggested by and for fiqhI forbiddance proposed in this doctrine are not convincing in answering the question: "Why cannot a married man and woman. partial. that are sterile. This scholarly orientation is what justifies the claim of this chapter: if there is a methodological discrepancy in contemporary Islamic legal discourse. 153 The point that I intend to concentrate on is the necessity and comprehensiveness of the methodology performed by this doctrine. As I planed this chapter to be as a response to the second doctrine that prohibited human cloning of utilitarian legal hermeneutics. without rendering any kind of restricted or conditional prohibition. I am in agreement with most of the reasons for the fiqhI prohibition proposed by this doctrine.~iïl al-fiqh through the divine concept ofrevelation (al-walJJ) as the knowledge of the sign. This is of eminent importance due to the nature of this thesis. have a child through human cloning technology?" In this particular case. and functional scholarly orientations are the arguments that oppose the notions of textual. constructive. the path for reformation exists in continuing the traditional endeavor of u. Semiological. is Balhasanl. namely. 26. 101. 152 92 . I can say now that my argument has been completed. the deterministic and generalized attitude for the prohibition from the second doctrine.. I would suggest.posteriori basis examined by final results of the legislation the feeds back the daIJl by ma 'iiliit al-af'iiL The aforementioned consequences totally change both traditional understandings of revelation (al-waliiJ and the contemporary application for such authoritative and religious sources of law. 153 Ibid.

construction. The induction.most probably an indication of failure of this fàtwii The failure of the second doctrine that is based on utilitarian legal hermeneutics is reasoned due to not taking the important key concept in Shatib's theory of maqii~id al-shaiPah. 93 . criticism of the dalil. and criticism of the dalil are necessary and essential restrictions for a justified treatment to revelation. Yet. by prohibiting human cloning in the case of a married couples that suffers sterilization and want to have a child through human cloning. the second doctrine did not consider any of Shatib's theory key concepts and especially violated the third element.

This situation led me to argue: It is not true that contemporary Islamic legal discourse on human cloning is based on a legal methodology of the religious texts since the fatwas and fiqhl opinions offered in this regard are based neither 154 Qur'an 4: 118-119 94 . it seeks its legitimacy from an authoritative proof.the semantic interpretation of the verse does not lead to what that doctrine inferred and l did not find a necessary and comprehensive argument in the second doctrine.. The first doctrine supports its argument with Qur'anic text. as demonstrated by the case of human cloning. which is utilitarian legal hermeneutics.. This proof in the traditions of the theory of Islamic law (u~iïl al-fiqh) is the da1l1 Facing a new legal case necessitates deriving and interpreting an authoritative verdict from the dalll. In the first chapter l undertook the mission of examining the two doctrines by comparing them to the sources and methods that contemporary Islamic legal discourse adopts.154 The second doctrine sees no texts to support the prohibition.4.. l discovered a discrepancy in the methodology that leads to prohibition in the first doctrine . u~ii1 al-fiqh. 1 will command them so that they shall change Alliih's creation. FINAL CONCLUSION Islamic law is a law of religion in the first place. namely. instead relying on an alternative legal source. "he said [Satan}: . This thesis concentrated on the methodology of producing legal opinions and fàtwis by investigating the process ofhermeneutics as the source oflegal authority. . Contemporary Islamic legal dis course produces fàtwis and legal opinions that prohibit human cloning while relying on two doctrines of prohibition.

sü1 a1-fiqh and discusses the principle of legal utilization. My restructuring resulted in rebuilding the faculties (ku1liyiit) of the Qur'an in a diachronic basis that reveals the hidden questions that generated the general themes and contents of the Qur'anic verses. 1 examined Shatibl's theory of maqii~d a1-sharJ<ah (in the third chapter). 1 presented three key concepts: induction. which is the most important theory in the history of u. In order to complete the endeavor of hermeneutics that derives laws from the principle of legal utilization similar to the second doctrine in human cloning. restriction (a1-taqyld). 1 inferred that textual reconciliation (a1-tawiiq) and textual preponderance (a1-taJjJ1!) are the key techniques to achieving legislative consistency. and criticism of the daIJ1 in Shatibl's theory. Afterward. These interrogative faculties are: 1) The question of the origin and the mission of the existence. construction. 1 restructured this theory by criticizing the conventional arrangement of the verses of the Qur'an and by clarifying its hidden structure of the time line concept. 1 built upon al-Duraynl's definition ofhermeneutics (ta'wll) and 1 illustrated key concepts in a1- ta'wJl 1 found that specification (a1-takh~J$). 1 arrived in the second chapter with the following result: Textual and legislative consistency is the objective of u~ü1 a1-fiqh hermeneutics.) are the key techniques that achieve textual consistency. 2) The question of the origin and the purpose of human 95 . 1 suggested in Shatibl's theory a new basis for the hermeneutics of revelation. The aforementioned discrepancy in the first doctrine that is caused by contradicting partial verses and iJadiths motivated me to clarify what is the foundation of hermeneutics in u~ü1 a1-fiqh. and metaphor (majiiz.on a valid legal interpretation of the religious texts nor on a comprehensive and necessary application ofutilitarian legal hermeneutics.

3) The question of the formation of human history.being. 96 . the path for reformation exists in continuing the traditional endeavor of u~iil al-fiqh through the divine concept of revelation (al-walji) as the knowledge of the sign. humanity. This restructuring of the theory of maqi~d al-sharI'ah leads to a semiological. and functional orientation to the relation between revelation and Islamic law. and thought. This scholarly orientation is what justifies the claim of the third chapter: if there is a methodological discrepancy in contemporary Islamic legal discourse. 4) The question of the particular affairs of our social group. priory treatment to reve1ation. and finally 5) The question of the destiny of existence. This argument opposes the traditional notions of textual. partial. constructive.

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