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1.

INTRODUCTION

Satisfactory performance criteria for buildings can be broadly classified into two categories: (a) Structural behavior (b) Environmental aspect The first criteria (a) stipulates that the building should be designed in such a manner that the main structural members are not damaged and there is no excessive cracking or malfunctioning of the various secondary components like partitions, windows, lifts etc. The buildings are generally designed with these structural concepts in mind. The environmental aspect deals with the behavior of people when subjected to oscillations. Modern tall buildings have a tendency to vibrate due to use of lighter construction materials and reduced damping. These oscillations may not damage the structure excessively, but can cause discomfort to the occupants. A new ISO standard 10137 (ref 1) has been published1 dealing with serviceability criteria for buildings subjected to vibrations. The standard covers various aspects of serviceability of buildings and walkways against vibrations. The main object of this paper is to examine the ISO standard in relation to wind induced vibration of buildings and illustrate its application with a practical example.

2.

Annex D of ISO 10137 provides a limiting criteria for human comfort caused by wind loads. Figure (2.1) is reproduced in this paper and is based on peak accelerations caused by wind speeds with a return period of one year.

1

0.1

Offices

Residence

0.01 0.01

0.1

10

f (Hz)

Faststlld och publicerad som SS-ISO Grundlggande dimensioneringsregler fr brverk Byggnaders samt gngoch cykelbroars brukbarhet med hnsyn till svngningar och vibrationer (p engelska)

Limiting criteria for human comfort shown in figure (2.1) is derived from ISO 6897 (ref 3) and ISO 2632Part 2 (ref. 4). ISO 6897 uses Root mean square (R.M.S) values of accelerations based on a return period of 5 years wind speeds while ISO 2632 Part 2 does not deal with the wind induced accelerations. Table (2.1) presents the data used in the derivation of figure (2.1). Values of (R.M.S.) accelerations given in column 2 of table (2.1) are multiplied with a peak factor of 2.8 resulting in peak accelerations for inhabitants as shown in column 4. Use of peak factor of 2.8 is arbitrary as the peak factor can vary between 2 and 4.5 depending on the type of flow (laminar to turbulent).

Based on ISO 6897 Col 2 R.M.S (m/s2)

& &

Col 1 Frequency Hz

Based on ISO 2631Part II Col 3 R.M.S (m/s2) & & & = &1 4

Data used in ISO 10137 Col 4 Peak (Residence) (m/s2) & ( & 2.8 ) 0.144 0.127 0.114 0.095 0-084 0.070 0.061 0.055 0.051 0.045 0.040 0.040 0.040 0.060 0.081 0.101

Data used in ISO 10137 Col 5 Peak (Office) (m/s2) & ( & 2.8 1.5 ) 0.216 0.190 0.172 0.143 0.125 0.104 0.092 0.083 0.076 0.067 0.061 0.061 0.061 0.091 0.121 0.151

0.06 0.08 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0

0.0514 0.0454 0.0407 0.0339 0.030 0.0250 0.0218 0.0196 0.0182 0.0161 0.0143

0.0036 4 = 0.0143 0.0036 4 = 0.0143 0.0036 4 = 0.0143 0.0054 4 = 0.0216 0.0072 4 = 0.0288 0.009 4 = 0.036

Table 2.1:

Column 2 of table (2.1) is relevant up to 1 Hz frequency. For higher values of frequency, ISO 10137 uses another document, ISO 2631, as shown in column 3 in table (2.1). R:M.S. accelerations in column 3 are multiplied with a factor of 4 taken from ISO 2632. However, examination of data in ISO 2632 show that the multiplying factor can vary between 1.4 to 4 depending on the living conditions. The choice of factor 4 is also arbitrary.

3.

CALCULATION OF ACCELERATIONS

A simplified model for calculating accelerations caused by wind gusts in the along wind direction is derived for free standing towers vibrating in the first mode only. Relevant data is taken from Swedish wind document BSV 97 (ref 2). & The maximum acceleration Y&max ( z ) at a height z is given by:

& Y&max ( z ) = g w && ( z ) y

(3.1)

&y& ( z ) = ( 2f 1 ) 2 y ( z )

(3.2)

The Swedish document (ref 2) provides equation for calculating total response due to resonant and quasistatic parts as: (3.3) y ( z ) 2 = y ,B ( z ) 2 + y ,R ( z ) 2 y,B (z)2 and y,R (z)2 are the quasi-static and resonant part of the response respectively as shown in figure 3.1. The acceleration is caused by the resonant part of the response. The quasi-static part of the response does not contribute and is omitted. The standard deviation of displacement due to resonant part of the response is obtained from equation (3.3) as: y ,B ( z ) = 0.0

y ( z ) = y ,R ( z ) = 2 I v R y m ( z )

R= 2Vc H c Fv a +m

(3.4)

(3.5)

f Syy(f)

f f1

The vertical correlation is obtained from:

Vc = 1 2 f 1h 1+ vm ( h )

(3.6)

Hc = 1 3. 2 f 1 b 1+ vm ( h )

600 f 1 / v m ( h )

1

(3.7)

Fv =

[1 + 70.8{150 f

/ v m ( h )}2

5/6

(3.8)

(3.9)

vref,50 is the reference wind velocity with a probability of occurrence of 1 in 50 years for open site conditions (z0=0.05) at a reference height of 10 meters as given in BSV 97 (ref 2). For serviceability, the wind speeds are calculated for a probability of occurrence of 1 in 5 years as recommended in reference (3). Formula for converting 50 years wind into N years return periods is given by:

1 v m ,N = v m ,50 0.75 1 0 .2ln ln N vm,5 (z)= 0.855 vm,50 (z)

SIS EurokodNytt 4/2008

(3.10) (3.11)

Site Sea Open (Reference surface roughness) Semi Urban City Centres

Table 3.1 Constants for Velocity profile ISO 10137 (ref 1) recommends acceleration criteria based on return period of one year, but it does not provide any method for converting 50 years return period wind speeds into one year return period. Equation (3.10) is applicable up to 2-years return period and cannot be used for annual return period. However, reference (3) suggests that this may be achieved by multiplying equation (3.11) by 0.72. This gives:

vm,1 (z)= 0.62 vm,50 (z) (3.12)

Iu = 1 ln( h / z 0 )

(3.13)

g w = 2ln( f 1T ) + 0.58 2ln( f 1T )

(3.14)

1 1 ( )d Pm ,1 0 y m ( z ) = 1 ( z ) (2f 1 )2 M e 1 2 1 ( ) d 0

(3.15)

1 ( ) = h

z

1.5

= 1.5

(3.16)

4.

tot,2 b1 h tot,1 m1 h1 m2

b2 Plan Elevation

z v m ( z ) = v m ( h ) = v m ( h ) h

(4.1)

qm ( h ) = 1 v m ( h ) 2 2 (4.2)

Equivalent generalised load for a non-uniform structure is calculated by employing appropriate aerodynamic coefficients, velocity profile and mode shape. This can be written as:

1 1 q m ( h )b1 tot ,1 1 ( ) 2 d + b2 tot ,2 1 ( ) 2 d 0 1

1 0

Pm ,1 =

(4.3)

1 ( )d

1

For a structure with discrete masses at the top of the tower, the equivalent mass is::

1

m1 1 ( ) 2 d +

1

Me = M e =

m ( )

2 1

1

d (4.4)

( )

1 0

5.

AERODYNAMIC DAMPING

The aerodynamic part of the damping in the along wind direction is needed in equation (3.5) and is expressed in terms of equivalent generalised mass as:

aero =

1 1 q m ( h )b1 tot ,1 1 ( ) 2 2 d + b2 tot ,2 1 ( ) 2 2 d 1 0

M e v m ( h ) f 1 1 ( ) d

0

(5.1)

6.

NUMERICAL EXAMPLE

In order to illustrate the method for calculating accelerations needed for the comfort of the inhabitants, a numerical example of a tower is considered.

Input Data Mean velocity at top vm,50 (h) Mean velocity at top vm,5 (h) Mean velocity at top vm,1 (h) Breadth b1 & b2 Total Height h Cabin Height Height under the cabin h1 Natural frequency f1 Air density Velocity profile exponent Surface Roughness z0

SIS EurokodNytt 4/2008

Airport Tower 28.9 24.7 17.8 10.0 to 15.0 87.0 83.0 72.0 0.57 1.25 0.22 0,346

Equivalent generalised mass Me Equation (4.4) Shape factor tot,1 Shape factor tot,2

(kg / m)

Table 6.1

Input Data

ISO 10137

Mean velocity at top vm,5 (h) Mean velocity at top vm,1 (h) Logarithmic decrement m Aerodynamic damping a (Equation 5.1) Total damping m + a q(h) (Equation 4.2) HC (Equation 3.7) Vc (Equation 3.6) Fv (Equation 3.8) R (Equation 3.5) gw (Equation 3.14) Iu (Equation 3.13) P1 (Equation 4.3) ym (87) (Equation 3.4) y (87) (Equation 3.4) R.M.S. accelerations &y& ( 83 ) (Equation 3.1)

ISO 6897 24.7 0.05 0.028 0.078 381 0.47 0.2 0.05 0.62 3.59 0.18 4988 0.0207 0.0046 0.054 0.194

Units

17.8 0.05 0.02 0.07 198 0.39 0.15 0.04 0.46 3.59 0.18 2590 0.0108 0.0018 0.021 0.075 0.08

(Pa)

Allowable Accelerations Allowable Accelerations (ISO 10137) (ISO 6897)

0.04

(m/s2)

Table 6.2

Calculation of accelerations

Examination of table (6.2) shows that the structure satisfies the comfort criteria as stipulated in ISO 10137. Table 6.2 also shows that the same building is liable to higher accelerations when calculated according to ISO 6897 and the values are more than double as compared to ISO 10137. The two ISO standards give entirely different results. It should be mentioned that some people have felt the oscillations at high wind speeds in the building under consideration.

7.

RECOMMENDATIONS

The note deals with calculation of accelerations of buildings subjected to wind induced vibration and examines comfort criteria given in the ISO document 10137. The main conclusions are: 1. 2. Limiting criteria given in ISO 10137 is derived from two different documents and lacks continuity. It is not advisable to convert R.M.S. values of acceleration based on 5 years return period into peak values for one year return period as suggested in ISO 10137. Comfort criteria given in figure (7.1) are recommended for buildings subjected to wind induced vibrations. Figure (7.1) is based on ISO 6897 and uses R.M.S. accelerations as the criteria for

SIS EurokodNytt 4/2008

3.

frequencies below 1 Hz. This is due to the fact that buildings with low natural frequencies (f < 1) are generally liable to cause discomfort to the inhabitants due to higher accelerations and needs extra precautions.

0.1

Offices

Residence

f (Hz)

Figure 7.1:

8.

1.

LIST OF REFERENCES

Bases for design of structures -- Serviceability of buildings and walkways against vibrations ISO 10137 Handbok om Sn och vindlast BSV 97, Boverket Guidelines for the evaluation of the response of occupants of fixed structures, especially buildings and off-shore structures to low frequency horizontal motion ISO 6897 Evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration Part 2 ISO 2631-2

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