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Nennius’

‘Historia Brittonum’
Translated by Rev. W. Gunn & J. A. Giles
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The Historia Brittonum
Table of Contents
Ac-no+led.ements..................................................................................................................................../
$re,ace........................................................................................................................................................0
1. TH2 $R'3'G42..................................................................................................................................5
6.............................................................................................................................................................5
7.............................................................................................................................................................8
11. TH2 A$'3'G9 'F N2NN14:...........................................................................................................8
;.............................................................................................................................................................8
111. TH2 H1:T'R9 ...................................................................................................................................<
/0..........................................................................................................................................................<
5.............................................................................................................................................................<
8.............................................................................................................................................................<
<.............................................................................................................................................................=
=.............................................................................................................................................................=
6>.........................................................................................................................................................6>
66.........................................................................................................................................................66
67.........................................................................................................................................................66
6;.........................................................................................................................................................66
6/.........................................................................................................................................................67
60.........................................................................................................................................................67
65.........................................................................................................................................................6;
68.........................................................................................................................................................6;
6<.........................................................................................................................................................6/
6=.........................................................................................................................................................6/
7>. .......................................................................................................................................................60
76.........................................................................................................................................................60
77.........................................................................................................................................................60
7;.........................................................................................................................................................65
7/.........................................................................................................................................................65
70.........................................................................................................................................................65
75.........................................................................................................................................................65
78.........................................................................................................................................................68
7<.........................................................................................................................................................68
7=.........................................................................................................................................................68
;>.........................................................................................................................................................6<
;6.........................................................................................................................................................6<
;7.........................................................................................................................................................6=
;;.........................................................................................................................................................7>
;/.........................................................................................................................................................7>
;0.........................................................................................................................................................76
;5.........................................................................................................................................................76
;8.........................................................................................................................................................76
;<.........................................................................................................................................................77
;=.........................................................................................................................................................77
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Nennius
/>.........................................................................................................................................................7;
/6.........................................................................................................................................................7;
/7.........................................................................................................................................................7/
/;.........................................................................................................................................................70
//.........................................................................................................................................................70
/0.........................................................................................................................................................75
/5.........................................................................................................................................................78
/8.........................................................................................................................................................78
/<.........................................................................................................................................................7<
/=.........................................................................................................................................................7<
0>.........................................................................................................................................................7=
06.........................................................................................................................................................;>
07.........................................................................................................................................................;6
0;.........................................................................................................................................................;6
0/.........................................................................................................................................................;6
00.........................................................................................................................................................;7
G2N2A3'G9 'F TH2 ?1NG: 'F B2RN1&1A...................................................................................;7
08.........................................................................................................................................................;7
TH2 G2N2A3'G9 'F TH2 ?1NG: 'F ?2NT. .................................................................................;;
0<.........................................................................................................................................................;;
TH2 'R1G1N 'F TH2 ?1NG: 'F 2A:T(ANG31A.............................................................................;;
0=.........................................................................................................................................................;;
?1NG: 'F TH2 %21R1. .........................................................................................................................;;
TH2 G2N2A3'G9 'F TH2 @2R&1AN:. ..........................................................................................;;
5>.........................................................................................................................................................;;
TH2 ?1NG: 'F TH2 %21R1 .................................................................................................................;/
56.........................................................................................................................................................;/
57.........................................................................................................................................................;/
5;.........................................................................................................................................................;/
5/.........................................................................................................................................................;0
50.........................................................................................................................................................;5
55.........................................................................................................................................................;5
;
The Historia Brittonum
Acknowledgements
T!is is an 6<6= translation by Rev. W. Gunn later revised by J. A. Giles in 6</7. T!e
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#re,ace and notes are #reserved muc! o, t!e in,ormation contained t!erein is no+ outdated
and no lon.er re#resents t!e current academic consensus.
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/
Nennius
Preface
TH2 History o, t!e Britons +!ic! occu#ies t!e ,ourt! #lace in t!is volume is .enerally ascribed
to Nennius but so little is -no+n about t!e aut!or t!at +e !ave !ardly any in,ormation !anded do+n
to us res#ectin. !im e"ce#t t!is mention o, !is name. 1t is also ,ar ,rom certain at +!at #eriod t!e
!istory +as +ritten and t!e di,,erence is no less t!an a #eriod o, t+o !undred years some assi.nin.
t!e +or- to seven !undred and ninety(si" and ot!ers to nine !undred and ninety(,our. T!e recent
inBuiries o, @r. :tevenson to be ,ound in t!e $re,ace to !is ne+ edition o, t!e ori.inal 3atin render
it unnecessary at #resent to delay t!e readerAs attention ,rom t!e +or- itsel,. T!e #resent translation is
substantially t!at o, t!e Rev. W. Gunn #ublis!ed +it! t!e 3atin ori.inal in 6<6= under t!e ,ollo+in.
title) CT!e AHistoria BritonumA commonly attributed to NenniusD ,rom a manuscri#t lately discovered
in t!e library o, t!e Eatican $alace at Rome) edited in t!e tent! century by @ar- t!e HermitD +it! an
2n.lis! version ,ac(simile o, t!e ori.inal notes and illustrations.C T!e -indness o, t!at .entleman
!as enabled t!e #resent editor to re#rint t!e +!ole +it! only a ,e+ corrections o, sli.!t errata +!ic!
inadvertency alone !ad occasioned to.et!er +it! t!e t+o #rolo.ues and several #a.es o,
.enealo.ies +!ic! did not occur in t!e @:. used by t!at .entleman.
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The Historia Brittonum
I. THE PROLOGUE.
1.
N2N1N14: t!e lo+ly minister and servant o, t!e servants o, God by t!e .race o, God
disci#le o, :t. 2lbotus to all t!e ,ollo+ers o, trut! sendet! !ealt!.
Be it -no+n to your c!arity t!at bein. dull in intellect and rude o, s#eec! 1 !ave #resumed to
deliver t!ese t!in.s in t!e 3atin ton.ue not trustin. to my o+n learnin. +!ic! is little or none at all
but #artly ,rom traditions o, our ancestors #artly ,rom +ritin.s and monuments o, t!e ancient
in!abitants o, Britain #artly ,rom t!e annals o, t!e Romans and t!e c!ronicles o, t!e sacred ,at!ers
1sidore Hieronymus $ros#er 2usebius and ,rom t!e !istories o, t!e :cots and :a"ons alt!ou.! our
enemies not ,ollo+in. my o+n inclinations but to t!e best o, my ability obeyin. t!e commands o,
my seniorsD 1 !ave lis#in.ly #ut to.et!er t!is !istory ,rom various sources and !ave endeavoured
,rom s!ame to deliver do+n to #osterity t!e ,e+ remainin. ears o, corn about #ast transactions t!at
t!ey mi.!t not be trodden under ,oot seein. t!at an am#le cro# !as been snatc!ed a+ay already by
t!e !ostile rea#ers o, ,orei.n nations. For many t!in.s !ave been in my +ay and 1 to t!is day !ave
!ardly been able to understand even su#er,icially as +as necessary t!e sayin.s o, ot!er menD muc!
less +as 1 able in my o+n stren.t! but li-e a barbarian !ave 1 murdered and de,iled t!e lan.ua.e o,
ot!ers. But 1 bore about +it! me an in+ard +ound and 1 +as indi.nant t!at t!e name o, my o+n
#eo#le ,ormerly ,amous and distin.uis!ed s!ould sin- into oblivion and li-e smo-e be dissi#ated.
But since !o+ever 1 !ad rat!er mysel, be t!e !istorian o, t!e Britons t!an nobody alt!ou.! so
many are to be ,ound +!o mi.!t muc! more satis,actorily disc!ar.e t!e labour t!us im#osed on meD
1 !umbly entreat my readers +!ose ears 1 may o,,end by t!e inele.ance o, my +ords t!at t!ey +ill
,ul,ill t!e +is! o, my seniors and .rant me t!e easy tas- o, listenin. +it! candour to my !istory. For
Fealous e,,orts very o,ten ,ail) but bold ent!usiasm +ere it in its #o+er +ould not su,,er me to ,ail.
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Nennius
@ay t!ere,ore candour be s!o+n +!ere t!e inele.ance o, my +ords is insu,,icient and may t!e
trut! o, t!is !istory +!ic! my rustic ton.ue !as ventured as a -ind o, #lou.! to trace out in
,urro+s lose none o, its in,luence ,rom t!at cause in t!e ears o, my !earers. For it is better to drin-
a +!olesome drau.!t o, trut! ,rom a !umble vessel t!an #oison mi"ed +it! !oney ,rom a .olden
.oblet.
.
And do not be loat! dili.ent reader to +inno+ my c!a,, and lay u# t!e +!eat in t!e
store!ouse o, your memory) ,or trut! re.ards not +!o is t!e s#ea-er nor in +!at manner it is s#o-en
but t!at t!e t!in. be trueD and s!e does not des#ise t!e Ge+el +!ic! s!e !as rescued ,rom t!e mud
but s!e adds it to !er ,ormer treasures.
For 1 yield to t!ose +!o are .reater and more eloBuent t!an mysel, +!o -indled +it!
.enerous ardour !ave endeavoured by Roman eloBuence to smoot! t!e Garrin. elements o, t!eir
ton.ue i, t!ey !ave le,t uns!a-en any #illar o, !istory +!ic! 1 +is!ed to see remain. T!is !istory
t!ere,ore !as been com#iled ,rom a +is! to bene,it my in,eriors not ,rom envy o, t!ose +!o are
su#erior to me in t!e <0<t! year o, our 3ordAs incarnation and in t!e 7/t! year o, @ervin -in. o,
t!e Britons and 1 !o#e t!at t!e #rayers o, my betters +ill be o,,ered u# ,or me in recom#ence o, my
labour. But t!is is su,,icient by +ay o, #re,ace. 1 s!all obediently accom#lis! t!e rest to t!e utmost o,
my #o+er.
II. THE APOLOG! O" #E##IU$.
Here be.ins t!e a#olo.y o, Nennius t!e !istorio.ra#!er o, t!e Britons o, t!e race o, t!e
Britons.
%.
1 Nennius disci#le o, :t. 2lbotus
6
!ave endeavoured to +rite some e"tracts +!ic! t!e
dullness o, t!e Britis! nation !ad cast a+ay because teac!ers !ad no -no+led.e nor .ave any
in,ormation in t!eir boo-s about t!is island o, Britain. But 1 !ave .ot to.et!er all t!at 1 could ,ind as
+ell ,rom t!e annals o, t!e Romans as ,rom t!e c!ronicles o, t!e sacred ,at!ers Hieronymus
2usebius 1sidorus $ros#er and ,rom t!e annals o, t!e :cots and :a"ons and ,rom our ancient
6 'r 2lvod bis!o# o, Ban.or A.%. 800 +!o ,irst ado#ted in t!e &ambrian c!urc! t!e ne+ cycle ,or re.ulatin. 2aster.
8
The Historia Brittonum
traditions. @any teac!ers and scribes !ave attem#ted to +rite t!is but some!o+ or ot!er !ave
abandoned it ,rom its di,,iculty eit!er on account o, ,reBuent deat!s or t!e o,ten recurrin. calamities
o, +ar. 1 #ray t!at every reader +!o s!all read t!is boo- may #ardon me ,or !avin. attem#ted li-e a
c!atterin. Gay or li-e some +ea- +itness to +rite t!ese t!in.s a,ter t!ey !ad ,ailed. 1 yield to !im
+!o -no+s more o, t!ese t!in.s t!an 1 do.
III. THE HI$TOR!
&'(.
From Adam to t!e ,lood are t+o t!ousand and ,orty(t+o years. From t!e ,lood to Abra!am
nine !undred and ,orty(t+o. From Abra!am to @oses si" !undred.
7
From @oses to :olomon and
t!e ,irst buildin. o, t!e tem#le ,our !undred and ,orty(ei.!t. From :olomon to t!e rebuildin. o, t!e
tem#le +!ic! +as under %arius -in. o, t!e $ersians si" !undred and t+elve.
).
T!e ,irst a.e o, t!e +orld is ,rom Adam to Noa!D t!e second ,rom Noa! to Abra!amD t!e t!ird
,rom Abra!am to %avidD t!e ,ourt! ,rom %avid to %anielD t!e ,i,t! to Jo!n t!e Ba#tistD t!e si"t! ,rom
Jo!n to t!e Gud.ment +!en our 3ord Jesus &!rist +ill come to Gud.e t!e livin. and t!e dead and t!e
+orld by ,ire.
T!e ,irst Julius. T!e second &laudius. T!e t!ird :everus. T!e ,ourt! &arinus. T!e ,i,t!
&onstantius. T!e si"t! @a"imus. T!e sevent! @a"imianus. T!e ei.!t! anot!er :everus AeBuantius.
T!e nint! &onstantius.
;

Here be.innet! t!e !istory o, t!e Britons edited by @ar- t!e anc!orite a !oly bis!o# o, t!at
#eo#le.
*.
T!e island o, Britain derives its name ,rom Brutus a Roman consul. Ta-en ,rom t!e sout!(
+est #oint it inclines a little to+ards t!e +est and to its nort!ern e"tremity measures ei.!t !undred
miles and is in breadt! t+o !undred. 1t contains t!irty(t!ree cities
/
viF.
7 And ,orty accordin. to :tevensonAs ne+ edition. T!e rest o, t!is c!ronolo.y is muc! contracted in several o, t!e
manuscri#ts and !ardly t+o o, t!em contain it e"actly t!e same.
; T!is list o, t!e Roman em#erors +!o visited Britain is omitted in many o, t!e @::. t E. R. T+enty(ei.!t t+enty(one.
/ E. R. T+enty(ei.!t t+enty(one.
<
Nennius
6. &air ebrauc HYorkI.
7. &air ceint HCanterburyI.
;. &air .urcoc HAnglesey ?I
/. &air .uort!e.ern
0
0. &air custeint HCarnarvonI.
5. &air .uorane.on HWorcesterI.
8. &air se.eint HSilchesterI.
<. &air .uin truis HNorwhich or WinwickI.
=. &air merdin HCaermarthenI.
6>. &air #eris HorchesterI.
66. &air lion HCaerleon!u"on!#skI.
67. &air menci#it H$erulamI.
6;. &air caratauc HCatterickI.
6/. &air ceri HCirencesterI.
60. &air .loui H%loucesterI.
65. &air lullid HCarlisleI.
68. &air .rant H%rantchester no+ Cam!
bri&geI.
6<. &air daun H'oncasterI or &air dauri
H'orchesterI.
6=. &air britoc HBristolI.
7>. &air me.uaid H(eivo&I.
76. &air maui.uid H(anchesterI.
77. &air li.ion HChesterI.
7;. &air .uent HWinchester or Caeroent in
(onmouthshireI.
7/. &air collon HColchester or St. Colon)
CornwallI.
70. &air londein H*on&onI.
75. &air Guorcon HWorren or Woran in
embrokeshireI.
78. &air lerion H*eicesterI.
7<. &air drait!ou H'raytonI.
7=. &air #onsavelcoit Hevenscy in Susac+I.
;>. &airteimm HTeyn!%race) in 'evonshireI.
;6. &air 4rna!c HWro+ster in Shro"shireI.
;7. &air colemion
5
,Camalet) in
Somersetshire-.
;;. &air loit coit H*incolnI.
T!ese are t!e names o, t!e ancient cities o, t!e island o, Britain. 1t !as also a vast many
#romontories and castles innumerable built o, bric- and stone. 1ts in!abitants consist o, ,our
di,,erent #eo#leD t!e :cots t!e $icts t!e :a"ons and t!e ancient Britons.
+.
T!ree considerable islands belon. to itD one on t!e sout! o##osite t!e Armorican s!ore called
Wi.!tD
8
anot!er bet+een 1reland and Britain called 2ubonia or @anD and anot!er directly nort!
beyond t!e $icts named 'r-neyD and !ence it +as anciently a #roverbial e"#ression in re,erence to
its -in.s and rulers CHe rei.ned over Britain and its t!ree islands.C
,.
1t is ,ertiliFed by several rivers +!ic! traverse it in all directions to t!e east and +est to t!e
sout! and nort!D but t!ere are t+o #re(eminently distin.uis!ed amon. t!e rest t!e T!ames and t!e
:evern +!ic! ,ormerly li-e t!e t+o arms o, Britain bore t!e s!i#s em#loyed in t!e conveyance o,
0 :ite un-no+n. :ee note at sec. /7#. />/.
5 1n t!e J.A. Giles translation t!is is identi,ied as C&amalet in :omersets!ire.C
8 1nis(.ueit! or Gueit!.
=
The Historia Brittonum
t!e ric!es acBuired by commerce. T!e Britons +ere once very #o#ulous and e"ercised e"tensive
dominion ,rom sea to sea.
1-.
+
Res#ectin. t!e #eriod +!en t!is island became in!abited subseBuently to t!e ,lood 1 !ave seen
t+o distinct relations. Accordin. to t!e annals o, Roman !istory t!e Britons deduce t!eir ori.in bot!
,rom t!e Gree-s and Romans. 'n t!e side o, t!e mot!er ,rom 3avinia t!e dau.!ter o, 3atinus -in.
o, 1taly and o, t!e race o, :ilvanus t!e son o, 1nac!us t!e son o, %ardanusD +!o +as t!e son o,
:aturn -in. o, t!e Gree-s and +!o !avin. #ossessed !imsel, o, a #art o, Asia built t!e city o,
Troy. %ardanus +as t!e ,at!er o, Troius +!o +as t!e ,at!er o, $riam and Anc!isesD Anc!ises +as
t!e ,at!er o, Aeneas +!o +as t!e ,at!er o, Ascanius and :ilviusD and t!is :ilvius +as t!e son o,
Aeneas and 3avinia t!e dau.!ter o, t!e -in. o, 1taly. From t!e sons o, Aeneas and 3avinia
descended Romulus and Remus +!o +ere t!e sons o, t!e !oly Bueen R!ea and t!e ,ounders o,
Rome. Brutus +as consul +!en !e conBuered :#ain and reduced t!at country to a Roman #rovince.
He a,ter+ards subdued t!e island o, Britain +!ose in!abitants +ere t!e descendants o, t!e Romans
,rom :ilvius $ost!umus. He +as called $ost!umus because !e +as born a,ter t!e deat! o, Aeneas !is
,at!erD and !is mot!er 3avinia concealed !ersel, durin. !er #re.nancyD !e +as called Silvius because
!e +as born in a +ood. Hence t!e Roman -in.s +ere called :ilvan and t!e Britons +!o s#ran. ,rom
!imD but t!ey +ere called Britons ,rom Brutus and rose ,rom t!e ,amily o, Brutus.
Aeneas a,ter t!e TroGan +ar arrived +it! !is son in 1talyD and !avin. vanBuis!ed Turnus
married 3avinia t!e dau.!ter o, -in. 3atinus +!o +as t!e son o, Faunus t!e son o, $icus t!e son
o, :aturn. A,ter t!e deat! o, 3atinus Aeneas obtained t!e -in.dom o, t!e Romans and 3avinia
brou.!t ,ort! a son +!o +as named :ilvius. Ascanius ,ounded Alba and a,ter+ards married. And
3avinia bore to Aeneas a son named :ilviusD but Ascanius
=
married a +i,e +!o conceived and
became #re.nant. And Aeneas !avin. been in,ormed t!at !is dau.!ter(in(la+ +as #re.nant ordered
!is son to send !is ma.ician to e"amine !is +i,e +!et!er t!e c!ild conceived +ere male or ,emale.
T!e ma.ician came and e"amined t!e +i,e and #ronounced it to be a son +!o s!ould become t!e
most valiant amon. t!e 1talians and t!e most beloved o, all men.
6>
1n conseBuence o, t!is #rediction
< T!e +!ole o, t!is as ,ar as t!e end o, t!e #ara.ra#! is omitted in .eneral @::.
= 't!er @::. :ilvius.
6> E. R. W!o s!ould slay !is ,at!er and mot!er and be !ated by all man-ind.
6>
Nennius
t!e ma.ician +as #ut to deat! by AscaniusD but it !a##ened t!at t!e mot!er o, t!e c!ild dyin. at its
birt! !e +as named BrutusD and a,ter a certain interval a.reeably to +!at t!e ma.ician !ad ,oretold
+!ilst !e +as #layin. +it! some ot!ers !e s!ot !is ,at!er +it! an arro+ not intentionally but by
accident.
66
He +as ,or t!is cause e"#elled ,rom 1taly and came to t!e islands o, t!e Tyrr!ene sea
+!en !e +as e"iled on account o, t!e deat! o, Turnus slain by Aeneas. He t!en +ent amon. t!e
Gauls and built t!e city o, Turones called Turnis.
67
At len.t! !e came to t!is island named ,rom
!im Britannia d+elt t!ere and ,illed it +it! !is o+n descendants and it !as been in!abited ,rom t!at
time to t!e #resent #eriod.
11.
Aeneas rei.ned over t!e 3atins t!ree yearsD Ascanius t!irty(t!ree yearsD a,ter +!om :ilvius
rei.ned t+elve years and $ost!umus t!irty(nine
6;
years) t!e latter ,rom +!om t!e -in.s o, Alba are
called :ilvan +as brot!er to Brutus +!o .overned Britain at t!e time 2li t!e !i.!(#riest Gud.ed
1srael and +!en t!e Ar- o, t!e covenant +as ta-en by a ,orei.n #eo#le. But $ost!umus !is brot!er
rei.ned amon. t!e 3atins.
1.
A,ter an interval o, not less t!an ei.!t !undred years came t!e $icts and occu#ied t!e 'r-ney
1slands) +!ence t!ey laid +aste many re.ions and seiFed t!ose on t!e le,t !and side o, Britain
+!ere t!ey still remain -ee#in. #ossession o, a t!ird #art o, Britain to t!is day.
6/
1%.
3on. a,ter t!is t!e :cots arrived in 1reland ,rom :#ain. T!e ,irst t!at came +as $art!olomus
60

+it! a t!ousand men and +omen t!ese increased to ,our t!ousandD but a mortality comin. suddenly
u#on t!em t!ey all #eris!ed in one +ee-. T!e second +as Nimec! t!e son o, J..
65
+!o accordin.
to re#ort a,ter !avin. !is s!i#s s!attered arrived at a #ort in 1reland and continuin. t!ere several
years returned at len.t! +it! !is ,ollo+ers to :#ain. A,ter t!ese came t!ree sons o, a :#anis! soldier
66 He dis#layed suc! su#eriority amon. !is #lay(,ello+s t!at t!ey seemed to consider !im as t!eir c!ie,.
67 Tours.
6; E. R. T!irty(seven.
6/ :ee BedeAs 2ccles. Hist. ##. 0 5 note.
60 E. R. $art!olomaeus or Bart!olomreus.
65 A blan- is !ere in t!e @:. A.nomen is ,ound in some o, t!e ot!ers.
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The Historia Brittonum
+it! t!irty s!i#s eac! o, +!ic! contained t!irty +ivesD and !avin. remained t!ere durin. t!e s#ace
o, a year t!ere a##eared to t!em in t!e middle o, t!e sea a to+er o, .lass t!e summit o, +!ic!
seemed covered +it! men to +!om t!ey o,ten s#o-e but received no ans+er. At len.t! t!ey
determined to besie.e t!e to+erD and a,ter a yearAs #re#aration advanced to+ards it +it! t!e +!ole
number o, t!eir s!i#s and all t!e +omen one s!i# only e"ce#ted +!ic! !ad been +rec-ed and in
+!ic! +ere t!irty men and as many +omenD but +!en all !ad disembar-ed on t!e s!ore +!ic!
surrounded t!e to+er t!e sea o#ened and s+allo+ed t!em u#. 1reland !o+ever +as #eo#led to t!e
#resent #eriod ,rom t!e ,amily remainin. in t!e vessel +!ic! +as +rec-ed. A,ter+ards ot!ers came
,rom :#ain and #ossessed t!emselves o, various #arts o, Britain.
1&.
3ast o, all came one Hoctor
68
+!o continued t!ere and +!ose descendants remain t!ere to t!is
day. 1storet! t!e son o, 1storinus +it! !is ,ollo+ers !eld %alrietaD Buile !ad t!e island 2ubonia and
ot!er adGacent #laces. T!e sons o, 3iet!ali
6<
obtained t!e country o, %imetae +!ere is a city called
@enavia
6=
and t!e #rovince Gui!er and &et.ueli
7>
+!ic! t!ey !eld till t!ey +ere e"#elled ,rom
every #art o, Britain by &unedda and !is sons.
1(.
Accordin. to t!e most learned amon. t!e :cots i, any one desires to learn +!at 1 am no+
.oin. to state 1reland +as a desert and unin!abited +!en t!e c!ildren o, 1srael crossed t!e Red :ea
in +!ic! as +e read in t!e Boo- o, t!e 3a+ t!e 2.y#tians +!o ,ollo+ed t!em +ere dro+ned. At
t!at #eriod t!ere lived amon. t!is #eo#le +it! a numerous ,amily a :cyt!ian o, noble birt! +!o
!ad been banis!ed ,rom !is country and did not .o to #ursue t!e #eo#le o, God. T!e 2.y#tians +!o
+ere le,t seein. t!e destruction o, t!e .reat men o, t!eir nation and ,earin. lest !e s!ould #ossess
!imsel, o, t!eir territory too- counsel to.et!er and e"#elled !im. T!us reduced !e +andered ,orty(
t+o years in A,rica and arrived +it! !is ,amily at t!e altars o, t!e $!ilistines by t!e 3a-e o, 'siers.
T!en #assin. bet+een Rusicada and t!e !illy country o, :yria t!ey travelled by t!e river @alva
t!rou.! @auritania as ,ar as t!e $illars o, HerculesD and crossin. t!e Tyrr!ene :ea landed in :#ain
68 E. R. %am!octor &lam!octor and 2lam!octor.
6< E. R. 3iet!an Bet!an Eet!an.
6= :t. %avidAs.
7> Gui!er #robably t!e Wels! district Go+er. &et.ueli is &aer ?id+elly in &armart!ens!il.
67
Nennius
+!ere t!ey continued many years !avin. .reatly increased and multi#lied. T!ence a t!ousand and
t+o years a,ter t!e 2.y#tians +ere lost in t!e Red :ea t!ey #assed into 1reland and t!e district o,
%alrieta.
76
At t!at #eriod Brutus +!o ,irst e"ercised t!e consular o,,ice rei.ned over t!e RomansD
and t!e state +!ic! be,ore +as .overned by re.al #o+er +as a,ter+ards ruled durin. ,our !undred
and ,orty(seven years by consuls tribunes o, t!e #eo#le and dictators.
T!e Britons came to Britain in t!e t!ird a.e o, t!e +orldD and in t!e ,ourt! t!e :cots too-
#ossession o, 1reland.
T!e Britons +!o sus#ectin. no !ostilities +ere un#rovided +it! t!e means o, de,ence +ere
unanimously and incessantly attac-ed bot! by t!e :cots ,rom t!e +est and by t!e $icts ,rom t!e
nort!. A lon. interval a,ter t!is t!e Romans obtained t!e em#ire o, t!e +orld.
1).
From t!e ,irst arrival o, t!e :a"ons into Britain to t!e ,ourt! year o, -in. @ermenus are
com#uted ,our !undred and t+enty(ei.t!t yearsD ,rom t!e nativity o, our 3ord to t!e comin. o, :t.
$atric- amon. t!e :cots ,our !undred and ,ive yearsD ,rom t!e deat! o, :t. $atric- to t!at o, :t.
Brid.et ,orty yearsD and ,rom t!e birt! o, &olumcille
77
to t!e deat! o, :t. Brid.et ,our years.
7;
1*.
1 !ave learned anot!er account o, t!is Brutus ,rom t!e ancient boo-s o, our ancestors.
7/
A,ter
t!e delu.e t!e t!ree sons o, Noa! severally occu#ied t!ree di,,erent #arts o, t!e eart!) :!em
e"tended !is borders into Asia Ham into A,rica and Ja#!et! into 2uro#e.
T!e ,irst man t!at d+elt in 2uro#e +as Alanus +it! !is t!ree sons Hisicion Armenon and
Neu.io. Hisicion !ad ,our sons Francus Romanus Alamanus and Brutus. Armenon !ad ,ive sons
Got!us Eala.ot!us &ibidus Bur.undus and 3on.obardus. Neu.io !ad t!ree sons Eandalus :a"o
and Bo.anus. From Hisicion arose ,our nations K t!e Fran-s t!e 3atins t!e Germans and Britons)
,rom Armenon t!e Got!i Eala.ot!i &ibidi Bur.undi and 3on.obardi) ,rom Neu.io t!e Bo.ari
76 Nort!(+estern #art o, Antrim in 4lster.
77 E. R. &olumba.
7; :ome @::. add t!e be.innin. o, t!e calculation is 7; cycles o, 6= years ,rom t!e incarnation o, our 3ord to t!e arrival
o, :t. $atric- in 1reland and t!ey ma-e /;< years. And ,rom t!e arrival o, :t. $atric- to t!e cycle o, 6= years in +!ic!
+e live are 77 cycles +!ic! ma-e /76 years.
7/ T!is #roves t!e tradition o, Brutus to be older t!an Geo,,rey or Tyssilio unless t!ese notices o, Brutus !ave been
inter#olated in t!e ori.inal +or- o, Nennius.
6;
The Historia Brittonum
Eandali :a"ones and Tarinc.i. T!e +!ole o, 2uro#e +as subdivided into t!ese tribes.
Alanus is said to !ave been t!e son o, Fet!uirD
70
Fet!uir t!e son o, '.omuin +!o +as t!e son
o, T!oiD T!oi +as t!e son o, Boibus Boibus o, :emion :emion o, @air @air o, 2ct!actus
2ct!actus o, Aurt!ac- Aurt!ac- o, 2t!ec 2t!ec o, 'ot! 'ot! o, Aber Aber o, Ra Ra o, 2sraa
2sraa o, Hisrau Hisrau o, Bat! Bat! o, Jobat! Jobat! o, Jo!am Jo!am o, Ja#!et! Ja#!et! o,
Noa! Noa! o, 3amec! 3amec! o, @at!usalem @at!usalem o, 2noc! 2noc! o, Jared Jared o,
@alale!el @alale!el o, &ainan &ainan o, 2nos 2nos o, :et! :et! o, Adam and Adam +as ,ormed
by t!e livin. God. We !ave obtained t!is in,ormation res#ectin. t!e ori.inal in!abitants o, Britain
,rom ancient tradition.
1+.
T!e Britons +ere t!us called ,rom Brutus) Brutus +as t!e son o, Hisicion Hisicion +as t!e son
o, Alanus Alanus +as t!e son o, R!ea :ilvia R!ea :ilvia +as t!e dau.!ter o, Numa $om#ilius
Numa +as t!e son o, Ascanius Ascanius o, 2neas 2neas o, Anc!ises Anc!ises o, Troius Troius o,
%ardanus %ardanus o, Flisa Flisa o, Juuin Juuin o, Ja#!et!D but Ja#!et! !ad seven sonsD ,rom t!e
,irst named Gomer descended t!e GalliD ,rom t!e second @a.o. t!e :cyt!i and Got!iD ,rom t!e
t!ird @adian t!e @ediD ,rom t!e ,ourt! Juuan t!e Gree-sD ,rom t!e ,i,t! Tubal arose t!e Hebrei
His#ani and 1taliD ,rom t!e si"t! @osoc! s#run. t!e &a##adocesD and ,rom t!e sevent! named
Tiras descended t!e T!races) t!ese are t!e sons o, Ja#!et! t!e son o, Noa! t!e son o, 3amec!.
1,.
)
T!e Romans !avin. obtained t!e dominion o, t!e +orld sent le.ates or de#uties to t!e Britons
to demand o, t!em !osta.es and tribute +!ic! t!ey received ,rom all ot!er countries and islandsD but
t!ey ,ierce disdain,ul and !au.!ty treated t!e le.ation +it! contem#t.
T!en Julius &aesar t!e ,irst +!o !ad acBuired absolute #o+er at Rome !i.!ly incensed
a.ainst t!e Britons sailed +it! si"ty vessels to t!e mout! o, t!e T!ames +!ere t!ey su,,ered
s!i#+rec- +!ilst !e ,ou.!t a.ainst %olobellus
78
Ht!e #roconsul o, t!e Britis! -in. +!o +as called
Belinus
7<
and +!o +as t!e son o, @inocannus +!o .overned all t!e islands o, t!e Tyrr!ene :eaI
70 T!is .enealo.y is di,,erent in almost all t!e @::.
75 :ome @::. add 1 +ill no+ return to t!e #oint ,rom +!ic! 1 made t!is di.ression.
78 T!ere is !ere some corru#tion or de,ect in t!e ori.inal. :ee Geo,,rey o, @onmout! #. 6;= o, t!is volume.
7< E. R. &assibelanus.
6/
Nennius
and t!us Julius &aesar returned !ome +it!out victory !avin. !ad !is soldiers slain and !is s!i#s
s!attered.
-.
But a,ter t!ree years !e a.ain a##eared +it! a lar.e army and t!ree !undred s!i#s at t!e
mout! o, t!e T!ames +!ere !e rene+ed !ostilities. 1n t!is attem#t many o, !is soldiers and !orses
+ere -illedD ,or t!e same consul !ad #laced iron #i-es in t!e s!allo+ #art o, t!e river and t!is !avin.
been e,,ected +it! so muc! s-ill and secrecy as to esca#e t!e notice o, t!e Roman soldiers did t!em
considerable inGuryD t!us &aesar +as once more com#elled to return +it!out #eace or victory. T!e
Romans +ere t!ere,ore a t!ird time sent a.ainst t!e BritonsD and under t!e command o, Julius
de,eated t!em near a #lace called Trinovantum H3ondonI ,orty(seven years be,ore t!e birt! o, &!rist
and ,ive t!ousand t+o !undred and t+elve years ,rom t!e creation.
Julius +as t!e ,irst e"ercisin. su#reme #o+er over t!e Romans +!o invaded Britain) in !onour
o, !im t!e Romans decreed t!e ,i,t! mont! to be called a,ter !is name. He +as assassinated in t!e
&uria in t!e ides o, @arc! and 'ctavius Au.ustus succeeded to t!e em#ire o, t!e +orld. He +as t!e
only em#eror +!o received tribute ,rom t!e Britons accordin. to t!e ,ollo+in. verse o, Eir.il)
.ur"urea inte+ti tollunt aulaea Britanni..
1.
T!e second a,ter !im +!o came into Britain +as t!e em#eror &laudius +!o rei.ned ,orty(
seven years a,ter t!e birt! o, &!rist. He carried +it! !im +ar and devastationD and t!ou.! not
+it!out loss o, men !e at len.t! conBuered Britain. He ne"t sailed to t!e 'r-neys +!ic! !e li-e+ise
conBuered and a,ter+ards rendered tributary. No tribute +as in !is time received ,rom t!e BritonsD
but it +as #aid to Britis! em#erors. He rei.ned t!irteen years and ei.!t mont!s. His monument is to
be seen at @o.untia Hamon. t!e 3ombardsI +!ere !e died in !is +ay to Rome.
.
A,ter t!e birt! o, &!rist one !undred and si"ty(seven years -in. 3ucius +it! all t!e c!ie,s o,
t!e Britis! #eo#le received ba#tism in conseBuence o, a le.ation sent by t!e Roman em#erors and
#o#e 2varistus.
7=
7= E. R. 2uc!aristus. A mar.inal note in t!e Arundel @:. adds C He is +ron. because t!e ,irst year o, 2varistus +as A.%.
8= +!ereas t!e ,irst year o, 2leut!erius +!om !e ou.!t to !ave named +as A.%. 656.C 4s!er says t!at in one @:. o,
60
The Historia Brittonum
%.
:everus +as t!e t!ird em#eror +!o #assed t!e sea to Britain +!ere to #rotect t!e #rovinces
recovered ,rom barbaric incursions !e ordered a +all and a ram#art to be made bet+een t!e Britons
t!e :cots and t!e $icts e"tendin. across t!e island ,rom sea to sea in len.t! one !undred and t!irty(
t!ree
;>
miles) and it is called in t!e Britis! lan.ua.e G+al.
;6
@oreover !e ordered it to be made
bet+een t!e Britons and t!e $icts and :cotsD ,or t!e :cots ,rom t!e +est and t!e $icts ,rom t!e
nort! unanimously made +ar a.ainst t!e BritonsD but +ere at #eace amon. t!emselves. Not lon.
a,ter :everus dies in Britain.
&.
T!e ,ourt! +as t!e em#eror and tyrant &arausius +!o incensed at t!e murder o, :everus
#assed into Britain and attended by t!e leaders o, t!e Roman #eo#le severely aven.ed u#on t!e
c!ie,s and rulers o, t!e Britons t!e cause o, :everus.
;7
(.
T!e ,i,t! +as &onstantius t!e ,at!er o, &onstantine t!e Great. He died in BritainD !is se#ulc!re
as it a##ears by t!e inscri#tion on !is tomb is still seen near t!e city named &air se.ont Hnear
&arnarvonI. 4#on t!e #avement o, t!e above(mentioned city !e so+ed t!ree seeds o, .old silver
and brass t!at no #oor #erson mi.!t ever be ,ound in it. 1t is also called @inmanton.
;;
).
@a"imianus
;/
+as t!e si"t! em#eror t!at ruled in Britain. 1t +as in !is time t!at consuls
;0

Nennius !e ,ound t!e name o, 2leut!erius. :ee BedeAs 2ccles. Hist. #. 6>.
;> E. R. T!irty(t+o.
;6 'r t!e Wall. 'ne @:. !ere adds C T!e above(mentioned :everus constructed it o, rude +or-mans!i# in len.t! 6;7
milesD i. e. ,rom $en.uaul +!ic! villa.e is called in :cottis! &enail in 2n.lis! $eneltun to t!e mout! o, t!e river &lut!
and &air#entaloc! +!ere t!is +all terminatesD but it +as o, no avail. T!e em#eror &arausius a,ter+ards rebuilt it and
,orti,ied it +it! seven castles bet+een t!e t+o mout!s) !e built also a round !ouse o, #olis!ed stones on t!e ban-s o, t!e
river &arun L&arronM) !e li-e+ise erected a trium#!al arc! on +!ic! !e inscribed !is o+n name in memory o, !is
victory.C
;7 T!is #assa.e is corru#t t!e meanin. is brie,ly .iven in t!e translation.
;; E. R. @irmantum @irmantun @inmanto @inimantone. T!e Segontium o, Antoninus situated on a small river named
:eiont near &arnarvon.
;/ T!is is an inaccuracy o, NenniusD @a"imus and @a"imianus +ere one and t!e some #ersonD or rat!er no suc! #erson as
@a"imianus ever rei.ned in Britain.
;0 Geo,,rey o, @onmout! .ives t!e title o, consul to several Britis! .enerals +!o lived a,ter t!is time. 1t is not unli-ely
t!at t!e to+n name and di.nity still lin.ered in t!e #rovince a,ter t!e Romans +ere .one #articularly as t!e cities o,
Britain maintained ,or a time a s#ecies o, inde#endence.
65
Nennius
be.an and t!at t!e a##ellation o, &aesar +as discontinued) at t!is #eriod also :t. @artin became
celebrated ,or !is virtues and miracles and !eld a conversation +it! !im.
*.
T!e sevent! em#eror +as @a"imus. He +it!dre+ ,rom Britain +it! all !is military ,orce sle+
Gratian t!e -in. o, t!e Romans and obtained t!e soverei.nty o, all 2uro#e. 4n+illin. to send bac-
!is +arli-e com#anions to t!eir +ives c!ildren and #ossessions in Britain !e con,erred u#on t!em
numerous districts ,rom t!e la-e on t!e summit o, @ons Jovis to t!e city called &ant Guic and to
t!e +estern Tumulus t!at is to &ruc 'ccident.
;5
T!ese are t!e Armoric Britons and t!ey remain
t!ere to t!e #resent day. 1n conseBuence o, t!eir absence Britain bein. overcome by ,orei.n nations
t!e la+,ul !eirs +ere cast out till God inter#osed +it! !is assistance. We are in,ormed by t!e
tradition o, our ancestors t!at seven em#erors +ent into Britain t!ou.! t!e Romans a,,irm t!ere
+ere nine.
T!e ei.!t! +as anot!er :everus +!o lived occasionally in Britain and sometimes at Rome
+!ere !e died.
T!e nint! +as &onstantius +!o rei.ned si"teen years in Britain and accordin. to re#ort +as
treac!erously murdered in t!e seventeent! year o, !is rei.n.
+.
T!us a.reeably to t!e account .iven by t!e Britons t!e Romans .overned t!em ,our !undred
and nine years. A,ter t!is t!e Britons des#ised t!e aut!ority o, t!e Romans eBually re,usin. to #ay
t!em tribute or to receive t!eir -in.sD nor durst t!e Romans any lon.er attem#t t!e .overnment o, a
country t!e natives o, +!ic! massacred t!eir de#uties.
,.
We must no+ return to t!e tyrant @a"imus. Gratian +it! !is brot!er Ealentinian rei.ned
seven years. Ambrose bis!o# o, @ilan +as t!en eminent ,or !is s-ill in t!e do.mata o, t!e
&at!olics. Ealentinianus and T!eodosius rei.ned ei.!t years. At t!at time a synod +as !eld at
&onstantino#le attended by t!ree !undred and ,i,ty o, t!e ,at!ers and in +!ic! all !eresies +ere
condemned. Jerome t!e #resbyter o, Bet!le!em +as t!en universally celebrated. W!ilst Gratian
;5 T!is district in modern lan.ua.e e"tended ,rom t!e .reat :t. Bernard in $iedmont to &antavic in $icardy and ,rom
$icardy to t!e +estern coast o, France.
68
The Historia Brittonum
e"ercised su#reme dominion over t!e +orld @a"imus in a sedition o, t!e soldiers +as saluted
em#eror in Britain and soon a,ter crossed t!e sea to Gaul. At $aris by t!e treac!ery o, @ellobaudes
!is master o, t!e !orse Gratian +as de,eated and ,leein. to 3yons +as ta-en and #ut to deat!D
@a"imus a,ter+ards associated !is son Eictor in t!e .overnment.
@artin distin.uis!ed ,or !is .reat virtues +as at t!is #eriod bis!o# o, Tours. A,ter a
considerable s#ace o, time @a"imus +as divested o, royal #o+er by t!e consuls Ealentinianus and
T!eodosius and sentenced to be be!eaded at t!e t!ird mile(stone ,rom ABuileiaD in t!e same year
also !is son Eictor +as -illed in Gaul by Arbo.astes ,ive t!ousand si" !undred and ninety years
,rom t!e creation o, t!e +orld.
%-.
T!rice +ere t!e Roman de#uties #ut to deat! by t!e Britons and yet t!ese +!en !arassed by
t!e incursions o, t!e barbarous nations viF. o, t!e :cots and $icts earnestly solicited t!e aid o, t!e
Romans. To .ive e,,ect to t!eir entreaties ambassadors +ere sent +!o made t!eir entrance +it!
im#ressions o, dee# sorro+ !avin. t!eir !eads covered +it! dust and carryin. ric! #resents to
e"#iate t!e murder o, t!e de#uties. T!ey +ere ,avourably received by t!e consuls and s+ore
submission to t!e Roman yo-e +it! +!atever severity it mi.!t be im#osed.
T!e Romans t!ere,ore came +it! a #o+er,ul army to t!e assistance o, t!e BritonsD and !avin.
a##ointed over t!em a ruler and settled t!e .overnment returned to Rome) and t!is too- #lace
alternately durin. t!e s#ace o, t!ree !undred and ,orty(ei.!t years. T!e Britons !o+ever ,rom t!e
o##ression o, t!e em#ire a.ain massacred t!e Roman de#uties and a.ain #etitioned ,or succour.
'nce more t!e Romans undertoo- t!e .overnment o, t!e Britons and assisted t!em in re#ellin. t!eir
nei.!boursD and a,ter !avin. e"!austed t!e country o, its .old silver brass !oney and costly
vestments and !avin. besides received ric! .i,ts t!ey returned in .reat trium#! to Rome.
%1.
A,ter t!e above(said +ar bet+een t!e Britons and Romans t!e assassination o, t!eir rulers and
t!e victory o, @a"imus +!o sle+ Gratian and t!e termination o, t!e Roman #o+er in Britain t!ey
+ere in alarm ,orty years. Eorti.ern t!en rei.ned in Britain. 1n !is time t!e natives !ad cause o,
dread not only ,rom t!e inroads o, t!e :cots and $icts but also ,rom t!e Romans and t!eir
6<
Nennius
a##re!ensions o, Ambrosius.
;8
1n t!e meantime t!ree vessels e"iled ,rom Germany arrived in Britain. T!ey +ere
commanded by Horsa and Hen.ist brot!ers and sons o, Wi!t.ils. Wi!t.ils +as t!e son o, WittaD
Witta o, WectaD Wecta o, WodenD Woden o, Frit!o+aldD Frit!o+ald o, Frit!u+ul,D Frit!u+ul, o,
FinnD Finn o, God+ul,D God+ul, o, Geat +!o as t!ey say +as t!e son o, a .od not
;<
o, t!e
omni#otent God and our 3ord Jesus &!rist H+!o be,ore t!e be.innin. o, t!e +orld +as +it! t!e
Fat!er and t!e Holy :#irit co(eternal and o, t!e same substance and +!o in com#assion to !uman
nature disdained not to assume t!e ,orm o, a servantI but t!e o,,s#rin. o, one o, t!eir idols and
+!om blinded by some demon t!ey +ors!i##ed accordin. to t!e custom o, t!e !eat!en. Eorti.ern
received t!em as ,riends and delivered u# to t!em t!e island +!ic! is in t!eir lan.ua.e called
T!anet and by t!e Britons Ruym.
;=
Gratianus AeBuantius at t!at time rei.ned in Rome. T!e :a"ons
+ere received by Eorti.ern ,our !undred and ,orty(seven years a,ter t!e #assion o, &!rist and
/>

accordin. to t!e tradition o, our ancestors ,rom t!e #eriod o, t!eir ,irst arrival in Britain to t!e ,irst
year o, t!e rei.n o, -in. 2dmund ,ive !undred and ,orty(t+o yearsD and to t!at in +!ic! +e no+
+rite +!ic! is t!e ,i,t! o, !is rei.n ,ive !undred and ,orty(seven years.
%.
At t!at time :t. Germanus distin.uis!ed ,or !is numerous virtues came to #reac! in Britain)
by !is ministry many +ere savedD but many li-e+ise died unconverted. ', t!e various miracles
+!ic! God enabled !im to #er,orm 1 s!all !ere mention only a ,e+) 1 s!all ,irst advert to t!at
concernin. an iniBuitous and tyrannical -in. named Benlli.
/6
T!e !oly man in,ormed o, !is +ic-ed
conduct !astened to visit !im ,or t!e #ur#ose o, remonstratin. +it! !im. W!en t!e man o, God
+it! !is attendants arrived at t!e .ate o, t!e city t!ey +ere res#ect,ully received by t!e -ee#er o, it
+!o came out and saluted t!em. Him t!ey commissioned to communicate t!eir intention to t!e -in.
;8 T!ese +ords relate evidently to some cause o, dis#ute bet+een t!e Romans Ambrosius and Eorti.ern. Eorti.ern is said
to !ave been soverei.n o, t!e %imetae and Ambrosius son to t!e -in. o, t!e %amnonii. T!e latter +as !al, a Roman by
descent and naturally su##orted t!e Roman interest) t!e ,ormer +as entirely a Briton and as naturally seconded by t!e
ori.inal Britons. :ee W!ita-erAs @anc!ester b. ii. c. 7.
;< E. R. not t!e God o, .ods t!e Amen t!e 3ord o, Hosts but one o, t!eir idols +!ic! t!ey +ors!i##ed.
;= :ometimes called Ruoic!in Ruit!(in or Criver islandC se#arated ,rom t!e rest o, ?ent and t!e mainland o, Britain by
t!e estuary o, t!e Wantsum +!ic! t!ou.! no+ a small broo- +as ,ormerly navi.able ,or lar.e vessels and in BedeAs
time +as t!ree stadia broad and ,ordable only at t+o #laces. :ee BedeAs 2ccles. Hist. #. ;8 note.
/> T!e rest o, t!is sentence is omitted in some o, t!e @::.
/6 ?in. o, $o+ys. E. R. Benli in t!e district o, 1al Hin %erbys!ireID in t!e district o, %alrietaD BelinusD BeluniD and Benty.
6=
The Historia Brittonum
+!o returned a !ars! ans+er declarin. +it! an oat! t!at alt!ou.! t!ey remained t!ere a year t!ey
s!ould not enter t!e city. W!ile +aitin. ,or an ans+er t!e evenin. came on and t!ey -ne+ not
+!ere to .o. At len.t! came one o, t!e -in.As servants +!o bo+in. !imsel, be,ore t!e man o, God
announced t!e +ords o, t!e tyrant invitin. t!em at t!e same time to !is o+n !ouse to +!ic! t!ey
+ent and +ere -indly received. 1t !a##ened !o+ever t!at !e !ad no cattle e"ce#t one co+ and a
cal, t!e latter o, +!ic! ur.ed by .enerous !os#itality to !is .uests !e -illed dressed and set be,ore
t!em. But !oly :t. Germanus ordered !is com#anions not to brea- a bone o, t!e cal,D and t!e ne"t
mornin. it +as ,ound alive uninGured and standin. by its mot!er.
%%.
2arly t!e same day t!ey a.ain +ent to t!e .ate o, t!e city to solicit audience o, t!e +ic-ed
-in.D and +!ilst en.a.ed in ,ervent #rayer t!ey +ere +aitin. ,or admission a man covered +it!
s+eat came out and #rostrated !imsel, be,ore t!em. T!en :t. Germanus addressin. !im said C%ost
t!ou believe in t!e Holy TrinityNC To +!ic! t!e man !avin. re#lied C1 do believeC !e ba#tiFed and
-issed !im sayin. CGo in #eaceD +it!in t!is !our t!ou s!alt die) t!e an.els o, God are +aitin. ,or
t!ee in t!e airD +it! t!em t!ou s!alt ascend to t!at God in +!om t!ou !ast believed.C He overGoyed
entered t!e city and bein. met by t!e #re,ect +as seiFed bound and conducted be,ore t!e tyrant
+!o !avin. #assed sentence u#on !im !e +as immediately #ut to deat!D ,or it +as a la+ o, t!is
+ic-ed -in. t!at +!oever +as not at !is labour be,ore sun(risin. s!ould be be!eaded in t!e citadel.
1n t!e meantime :t. Germanus +it! !is attendants +aited t!e +!ole day be,ore t!e .ate +it!out
obtainin. admission to t!e tyrant.
%&.
T!e man above(mentioned !o+ever remained +it! t!em. CTa-e careC said :t. Germanus to
!im Ct!at none o, your ,riends remain t!is ni.!t +it!in t!ese +alls. 4#on t!is !e !astily entered t!e
city brou.!t out !is nine sons and +it! t!em retired to t!e !ouse +!ere !e !ad e"ercised suc!
.enerous !os#itality. Here :t. Germanus ordered t!em to continue ,astin.D and +!en t!e .ates +ere
s!ut CWatc!C said !e Cand +!atever s!all !a##en in t!e citadel turn not t!it!er your eyesD but #ray
+it!out ceasin. and invo-e t!e #rotection o, t!e true God.C And be!old early in t!e ni.!t ,ire ,ell
,rom !eaven and burned t!e city to.et!er +it! all t!ose +!o +ere +it! t!e tyrant so t!at not one
esca#edD and t!at citadel !as never been rebuilt even to t!is day
7>
Nennius
%(.
T!e ,ollo+in. day t!e !os#itable man +!o !ad been converted by t!e #reac!in. o, :t.
Germanus +as ba#tiFed +it! !is sons and all t!e in!abitants o, t!at #art o, t!e countryD and :t
Germanus blessed !im sayin. Ca -in. s!all not be +antin. o, t!y seed ,or ever.C T!e name o, t!is
#erson is &atel %runluc)
/7
C,rom !ence,or+ard t!ou s!alt be a -in. all t!e days o, t!y li,e.C T!us +as
,ul,illed t!e #ro#!ecy o, t!e $salmist) CHe raiset! u# t!e #oor out o, t!e dust and li,tet! u# t!e needy
out o, t!e dun.!ill.C And a.reeably to t!e #rediction o, :t. Germanus ,rom a servant !e became a
-in.) all !is sons +ere -in.s and ,rom t!eir o,,s#rin. t!e +!ole country o, $o+ys !as been .overned
to t!is day.
%).
A,ter t!e :a"ons !ad continued some time in t!e island o, T!anet Eorti.ern #romised to
su##ly t!em +it! clot!in. and #rovision on condition t!ey +ould en.a.e to ,i.!t a.ainst t!e
enemies o, !is country. But t!e barbarians !avin. .reatly increased in number t!e Britons became
inca#able o, ,ul,illin. t!eir en.a.ementD and +!en t!e :a"ons accordin. to t!e #romise t!ey !ad
received claimed a su##ly o, #rovisions and clot!in. t!e Britons re#lied C9our number is
increasedD your assistance is no+ unnecessaryD you may t!ere,ore return !ome ,or +e can no lon.er
su##ort youDC and !ereu#on t!ey be.an to devise means o, brea-in. t!e #eace bet+een t!em.
%*.
But Hen.ist in +!om united cra,t and #enetration #erceivin. !e !ad to act +it! an i.norant
-in. and a ,luctuatin. #eo#le inca#able o, o##osin. muc! resistance re#lied to Eorti.ern CWe are
indeed ,e+ in numberD but i, you +ill .ive us leave +e +ill send to our country ,or an additional
number o, ,orces +it! +!om +e +ill ,i.!t ,or you and your subGects.C Eorti.ern assentin. to t!is
#ro#osal messen.ers +ere des#atc!ed to :cyt!ia +!ere selectin. a number o, +arli-e troo#s t!ey
returned +it! si"teen vessels brin.in. +it! t!em t!e beauti,ul dau.!ter o, Hen.ist. And no+ t!e
:a"on c!ie, #re#ared an entertainment to +!ic! !e invited t!e -in. !is o,,icers and &eretic !is
inter#reter !avin. #reviously enGoined !is dau.!ter to serve t!em so #ro,usely +it! +ine and ale
t!at t!ey mi.!t soon become into"icated. T!is #lan succeededD and Eorti.ern at t!e insti.ation o, t!e
devil and enamoured +it! t!e beauty o, t!e damsel demanded !er t!rou.! t!e medium o, !is
/7 'r &adell %eyrnllu. #rince o, t!e Eale Royal and t!e u##er #art o, $o+ys.
76
The Historia Brittonum
inter#reter o, t!e ,at!er #romisin. to .ive ,or !er +!atever !e s!ould as-. T!en Hen.ist +!o !ad
already consulted +it! t!e elders +!o attended !im o, t!e '.!.ul
/;
race demanded ,or !is dau.!ter
t!e #rovince called in 2n.lis! &entland in Britis! &eint H?ent.I T!is cession +as made +it!out t!e
-no+led.e o, t!e -in. Guoyranc.onus
//
+!o t!en rei.ned in ?ent and +!o e"#erienced no
inconsiderable s!are o, .rie, ,rom seein. !is -in.dom t!us clandestinely ,raudulently and
im#rudently resi.ned to ,orei.ners. T!us t!e maid +as delivered u# to t!e -in. +!o sle#t +it! !er
and loved !er e"ceedin.ly.
%+.
Hen.ist a,ter t!is said to Eorti.ern C1 +ill be to you bot! a ,at!er and an adviserD des#ise not
my counsels and you s!all !ave no reason to ,ear bein. conBuered by any man or any nation
+!ateverD ,or t!e #eo#le o, my country are stron. +arli-e and robust) i, you a##rove 1 +ill send ,or
my son and !is brot!er bot! valiant men +!o at my invitation +ill ,i.!t a.ainst t!e :cots and you
can .ive t!em t!e countries in t!e nort! near t!e +all called CGual.C
/0
T!e incautious soverei.n
!avin. assented to t!is 'cta and 2busa arrived +it! ,orty s!i#s. 1n t!ese t!ey sailed round t!e
country o, t!e $icts laid +aste t!e 'r-neys and too- #ossession o, many re.ions even to t!e $ictis!
con,ines.
/5
%,.
1n t!e meantime Eorti.ern as i, desirous o, addin. to t!e evils !e !ad already occasioned
married !is o+n dau.!ter by +!om !e !ad a son. W!en t!is +as made -no+n to :t. Germanus !e
came +it! all t!e Britis! cler.y to re#rove !im) and +!ilst a numerous assembly o, t!e ecclesiastics
and laity +ere in consultation t!e +ea- -in. ordered !is dau.!ter to a##ear be,ore t!em and in t!e
#resence o, all to #resent !er son to :t. Germanus and declare t!at !e +as t!e ,at!er o, t!e c!ild. T!e
immodest
/8
+oman obeyedD and :t. Germanus ta-in. t!e c!ild said C1 +ill be a ,at!er to you my
/; E. R. W!o !ad come +it! !im ,rom t!e island o, '.!.ul 'e!.ul Hor Tin.leI An.ul. Accordin. to Gunn a small island
in t!e duc!y o, :les+ic- in %enmar- no+ called Angel) o, +!ic! Flensbur. is t!e metro#olis. Hence t!e ori.in o, t!e
Angles.
// E. R. Gnoiram cono Goirane.ono Guoirac.ono. @almesbury Goron.iD &amden Guoron. su##osed to mean .overnor
or viceroy.
/0 AntoninusAs +all.
/5 :ome @::. add Obeyond t!e Frenesic Fresicum Hor FresicI seaP i. e. +!ic! is bet+een us and t!e :cotc!. T!e sea
bet+een :cotland and 1reland. &amden translates it Cbeyond t!e Frit!DC 3an.!orne saysC :ol+ay Frit!.C
/8 E. R. C1mmodestC is omitted in some @::.
77
Nennius
sonD nor +ill 1 dismiss you till a raFor scissors and comb are .iven to me and it is allo+ed you to
.ive t!em to your carnal ,at!er.C T!e c!ild obeyed :t. Germanus and .oin. to !is ,at!er Eorti.ern
said to !im CT!ou are my ,at!erD s!ave and cut t!e !air o, my !ead.C T!e -in. blus!ed and +as
silentD and +it!out re#lyin. to t!e c!ild arose in .reat an.er and ,led ,rom t!e #resence o, :t.
Germanus e"ecrated and condemned by t!e +!ole synod.
&-.
But soon a,ter callin. to.et!er !is t+elve +ise men to consult +!at +as to be done t!ey said
to !im CRetire to t!e remote boundaries o, your -in.domD t!ere build and ,orti,y a city
/<
to de,end
yoursel, ,or t!e #eo#le you !ave received are treac!erousD t!ey are see-in. to subdue you by
strata.em and even durin. your li,e to seiFe u#on all t!e countries subGect to your #o+er !o+
muc! more +ill t!ey attem#t a,ter your deat!QC T!e -in. #leased +it! t!is advice de#arted +it! !is
+ise men and travelled t!rou.! many #arts o, !is territories in searc! o, a #lace convenient ,or t!e
#ur#ose o, buildin. a citadel. Havin. to no #ur#ose travelled ,ar and +ide t!ey came at len.t! to a
#rovince called GuenetD
/=
and !avin. surveyed t!e mountains o, Heremus
0>
t!ey discovered on t!e
summit o, one o, t!em a situation ada#ted to t!e construction o, a citadel. 4#on t!is t!e +ise men
said to t!e -in. CBuild !ere a cityD ,or in t!is #lace it +ill ever be secure a.ainst t!e barbarians.C
T!en t!e -in. sent ,or arti,icers car#enters stone(masons and collected all t!e materials reBuisite to
buildin.D but t!e +!ole o, t!ese disa##eared in one ni.!t so t!at not!in. remained o, +!at !ad been
#rovided ,or t!e constructin. o, t!e citadel. @aterials +ere t!ere,ore ,rom all #arts #rocured a
second and t!ird time and a.ain vanis!ed as be,ore leavin. and renderin. every e,,ort ine,,ectual.
Eorti.ern inBuired o, !is +ise men t!e cause o, t!is o##osition to !is underta-in. and o, so muc!
useless e"#ense o, labourN T!ey re#lied C9ou must ,ind a c!ild born +it!out a ,at!er #ut !im to
deat! and s#rin-le +it! !is blood t!e .round on +!ic! t!e citadel is to be built or you +ill never
accom#lis! your #ur#ose.C
&1.
1n conseBuence o, t!is re#ly t!e -in. sent messen.ers t!rou.!out Britain in searc! o, a c!ild
/< E. R. 9ou s!all ,ind a ,orti,ied city in +!ic! you may de,end yoursel,.
/= E. R. Guined Guoienet GueneF Nort! Wales.
0> E. R. Heremi Heriri or 2ryri si.ni,yin. ea.le roc-s t!e mountains o, :no+don in &arnarvons!ire. T!e s#ot alluded to
is su##osed to be %inas 2mrys or t!e ,ortress o, Ambrosius.
7;
The Historia Brittonum
born +it!out a ,at!er. A,ter !avin. inBuired in all t!e #rovinces t!ey came to t!e ,ield o, Aelecti
06
in
t!e district o, Glevesin.
07
+!ere a #arty o, boys +ere #layin. at ball. And t+o o, t!em Buarrellin.
one said to t!e ot!er C' boy +it!out a ,at!er no .ood +ill ever !a##en to you.C 4#on t!is t!e
messen.ers dili.ently inBuired o, t!e mot!er and t!e ot!er boys +!et!er !e !ad !ad a ,at!erN W!ic!
!is mot!er denied sayin. C1n +!at manner !e +as conceived 1 -no+ not ,or 1 !ave never !ad
intercourse +it! any manDC and t!en s!e solemnly a,,irmed t!at !e !ad no mortal ,at!er. T!e boy
+as t!ere,ore led a+ay and conducted be,ore Eorti.ern t!e -in..
&.
A meetin. too- #lace t!e ne"t day ,or t!e #ur#ose o, #uttin. !im to deat!. T!en t!e boy said to
t!e -in. CW!y !ave your servants brou.!t me !it!erNC CT!at you may be #ut to deat!C re#lied t!e
-in. Cand t!at t!e .round on +!ic! my citadel is to stand may be s#rin-led +it! your blood
+it!out +!ic! 1 s!all be unable to build it.C CW!oC said t!e boy Cinstructed you to do t!isNC C@y
+ise menC ans+ered t!e -in.. C'rder t!em !it!erC returned t!e boyD t!is bein. com#lied +it! !e
t!us Buestioned t!em) CBy +!at means +as it revealed to you t!at t!is citadel could not be built
unless t!e s#ot +ere #reviously s#rin-led +it! my bloodN :#ea- +it!out dis.uise and declare +!o
discovered me to youDC t!en turnin. to t!e -in. C1 +ill soonC said !e Cun,old to you every t!in.D
but 1 desire to Buestion your +ise men and +is! t!em to disclose to you +!at is !idden under t!is
#avement)C t!ey ac-no+led.in. t!eir i.norance Ct!ere isC said !e Ca #oolD come and di.)C t!ey did
so and ,ound t!e #ool. CNo+C continued !e Ctell me +!at is in itDC but t!ey +ere as!amed and
made no re#ly. C1C said t!e boy Ccan discover it to you) t!ere are t+o vases in t!e #oolDC t!ey
e"amined and ,ound it so) continuin. !is Buestions CW!at is in t!e vasesNC t!ey +ere silent) CT!ere
is a tent in t!emC said t!e boyD Cse#arate t!em and you s!all ,ind it soDC t!is bein. done by t!e -in.As
command t!ere +as ,ound in t!em a ,olded tent. T!e boy .oin. on +it! !is Buestions as-ed t!e
+ise men +!at +as in itN But t!ey not -no+in. +!at to re#ly CT!ere areC said !e Ct+o ser#ents
one +!ite and t!e ot!er redD un,old t!e tentDC t!ey obeyed and t+o slee#in. ser#ents +ere
discoveredD Cconsider attentivelyC said t!e boy C+!at t!ey are doin..C T!e ser#ents be.an to
stru..le +it! eac! ot!erD and t!e +!ite one raisin. !imsel, u# t!re+ do+n t!e ot!er into t!e middle
o, t!e tent and sometimes drove !im to t!e ed.e o, itD and t!is +as re#eated t!rice. At len.t! t!e red
06 E. R. 2lleti 2lecti Gleti. :u##osed to be Bassali. in @onmout!s!ire.
07 T!e district bet+een t!e 4s- and Rumney in @onmout!s!ire.
7/
Nennius
one a##arently t!e +ea-er o, t!e t+o recoverin. !is stren.t! e"#elled t!e +!ite one ,rom t!e tentD
and t!e latter bein. #ursued t!rou.! t!e #ool by t!e red one disa##eared. T!en t!e boy as-in. t!e
+ise men +!at +as si.ni,ied by t!is +onder,ul omen and t!ey e"#ressin. t!eir i.norance !e said to
t!e -in. C1 +ill no+ un,old to you t!e meanin. o, t!is mystery. T!e #ool is t!e emblem o, t!is
+orld and t!e tent t!at o, your -in.dom) t!e t+o ser#ents are t+o dra.onsD t!e red ser#ent is your
dra.on but t!e +!ite ser#ent is t!e dra.on o, t!e #eo#le +!o occu#y several #rovinces and districts
o, Britain even almost ,rom sea to sea) at len.t! !o+ever our #eo#le s!all rise and drive a+ay t!e
:a"on race ,rom beyond t!e sea +!ence t!ey ori.inally cameD but do you de#art ,rom t!is #lace
+!ere you are not #ermitted to erect a citadelD 1 to +!om ,ate !as allotted t!is mansion s!all remain
!ereD +!ilst to you it is incumbent to see- ot!er #rovinces +!ere you may build a ,ortress.C CW!at is
your nameNC as-ed t!e -in.D C1 am called Ambrose Hin Britis! 2mbres.uleticIC returned t!e boyD and
in ans+er to t!e -in.As Buestion CW!at is your ori.inNC !e re#lied CA Roman consul +as my ,at!er.C
T!en t!e -in. assi.ned !im t!at city +it! all t!e +estern #rovinces o, BritainD and de#artin. +it! !is
+ise men to t!e sinistral district !e arrived in t!e re.ion named Gueneri +!ere !e build a city
+!ic! accordin. to !is name +as called &air Guort!e.irn.
0;
&%.
At len.t! Eortimer t!e son o, Eorti.ern valiantly ,ou.!t a.ainst Hen.ist Horsa and !is
#eo#leD drove t!em to t!e isle o, T!anct and t!rice enclosed t!em +it! it and beset t!em on t!e
+estern side. T!e :a"ons no+ des#atc!ed de#uties to Germany to solicit lar.e rein,orcements and
an additional number o, s!i#s) !avin. obtained t!ese t!ey ,ou.!t a.ainst t!e -in.s and #rinces o,
Britain and sometimes e"tended t!eir boundaries by victory and sometimes +ere conBuered and
driven bac-.
&&.
Four times did Eortimer valorously encounter t!e enemyD
0/
t!e ,irst !as been mentioned t!e
0; An ancient sc!oliast adds OHe t!en built Guasmoric near 3u.ubalia L&arlisleM a city +!ic! in 2n.lis! is called
$almecaster.P :ome di,,erence o, o#inion e"ists amon. antiBuaries res#ectin. t!e site o, Eorti.ernAs castle or city. 4s!er
#laces it at %went) @onmout!s!ire +!ic! name !e says +as ta-en ,rom &aer(Went near &!e#sto+. T!is a##ears to
a.ree +it! Geo,,reyAs account in #a.e 7>< o, t!is volume. :ee 4s!erAs Britan. 2ccles. ca#. v. #. 7;. Accordin. to ot!ers
su##osed to be t!e city ,rom t!e ruins o, +!ic! arose t!e castle o, Gurt!renion in Radnors!ire &amdenAs Britannia #.
/8=. W!ita-er !o+ever says t!at &air Guort!e.irn +as t!e @aridunum o, t!e Romans and t!e #resent &aermart!en.
HHist . o, @anc!ester boo- ii. c. 6.I :ee also Nennius sec. /8.
0/ :ome @::. !ere add OT!is Eortimer t!e son o, Eorti.ern in a synod !eld at Guart!erniaun a,ter t!e +ic-ed -in. on
70
The Historia Brittonum
second +as u#on t!e river %arent t!e t!ird at t!e Ford in t!eir lan.ua.e called 2#s,ord t!ou.! in
ours :et t!ir.abail
00
t!ere Horsa ,ell and &ati.ern t!e son o, Eorti.ernD t!e ,ourt! battle !e ,ou.!t
+as near t!e stone
05
on t!e s!ore o, t!e Gallic sea +!ere t!e :a"ons bein. de,eated ,led to t!eir
s!i#s.
A,ter a s!ort interval Eortimer diedD be,ore !is decease an"ious ,or t!e ,uture #ros#erity o, !is
country !e c!ar.ed !is ,riends to inter !is body at t!e entrance o, t!e :a"on #ort viF. u#on t!e roc-
+!ere t!e :a"ons ,irst landedD C,or t!ou.!C said !e Ct!ey may in!abit ot!er #arts o, Britain yet i,
you ,ollo+ my commands t!ey +ill never remain in t!is island.C T!ey im#rudently disobeyed t!is
last inGunction and ne.lected to bury !im +!ere !e !ad a##ointed.
08
&(.
A,ter t!is t!e barbarians became ,irmly incor#orated and +ere assisted by ,orei.n #a.ansD ,or
Eorti.ern +as t!eir ,riend on account o, t!e dau.!ter
0<
o, Hen.ist +!om !e so muc! loved t!at no
one durst ,i.!t a.ainst !im K in t!e meantime t!ey soot!ed t!e im#rudent -in. and +!ilst #racticin.
every a##earance o, ,ondness +ere #lottin. +it! !is enemies. And let !im t!at reads understand t!at
t!e :a"ons +ere victorious and ruled Britain not ,rom t!eir su#erior #ro+ess but on account o, t!e
.reat sins o, t!e Britons) God so #ermittin. it.
For +!at +ise man +ill resist t!e +!olesome counsel o, GodN T!e Almi.!ty is t!e ?in. o,
-in.s and t!e 3ord o, lords rulin. and Gud.in. every one accordin. to !is o+n #leasure.
A,ter t!e deat! o, Eortimer Hen.ist bein. stren.t!ened by ne+ accessions collected !is s!i#s
and callin. !is leaders to.et!er consulted by +!at strata.em t!ey mi.!t overcome Eorti.ern and !is
armyD +it! insidious intention t!ey sent messen.ers to t!e -in. +it! o,,ers o, #eace and #er#etual
,riends!i#D unsus#icious o, treac!ery t!e monarc! a,ter advisin. +it! !is elders acce#ted t!e
account o, t!e incest committed +it! !is dau.!ter ,led ,rom t!e ,ace o, Germanus and t!e Britis! cler.y +ould not
consent to !is ,at!erAs +ic-ednessD but returnin. to :t. Germanus and ,allin. do+n at !is ,eet !e sued ,or #ardonD and in
atonement ,or t!e calumny brou.!t u#on Germanus by !is ,at!er and sister .ave !im t!e land in +!ic! t!e
,orementioned bis!o# !ad endured suc! abuse to be !is o+n ,or ever. W!ence in memory o, :t. Germanus it received
t!e name o, Guarenniaun HGuart!erniaun Gurt!renion G+art! 2nnianI +!ic! si.ni,ies a calumny /ustly retorte&) since
+!en !e t!ou.!t to re#roac! t!e bis!o# !e covered !imsel, +it! re#roac!.P
00 Accordin. to 3an.!orne H#. 6;I 2#s,ord +as a,ter+ards called in t!e Britis! ton.ue Saessenaeg habail) or At!e
slau.!ter o, t!e :a"ons.A :ee also t!e note at #a.e 6<< o, t!is volume.
05 E. R. OT!e stone o, TitulusP t!ou.!t to be :tone in ?ent or 3ar.er(stone in :u,,ol-.
08 Ra#in says !e +as buried at 3incolnD Geo,,rey at 3ondon see #. 6<=.
0< E. R. ', !is +i,e and no one +as able man,ully to drive t!em o,, because t!ey !ad occu#ied Britain not ,rom t!eir o+n
valour but by GodAs #ermission.
75
Nennius
#ro#osals.
&).
Hen.ist under #retence o, rati,yin. t!e treaty #re#ared an entertainment to +!ic! !e invited
t!e -in. t!e nobles and military o,,icers in number about t!ree !undredD s#eciously concealin. !is
+ic-ed intention !e ordered t!ree !undred :a"ons to conceal eac! a -ni,e under !is ,eet and to mi"
+it! t!e BritonsD Cand +!enC said !e Ct!ey are su,,iciently inebriated &c. cry out ONimed eure
:a"esP t!en let eac! dra+ !is -ni,e and -ill !is manD but s#are t!e -in. on account o, !is marria.e
+it! my dau.!ter ,or it is better t!at !e s!ould be ransomed t!an -illed.P
0=
T!e -in. +it! !is com#any a##eared at t!e ,eastD and mi"in. +it! t!e :a"ons +!o +!ilst
t!ey s#o-e #eace +it! t!eir ton.ues c!eris!ed treac!ery in t!eir !earts eac! man +as #laced ne"t
!is enemy.
A,ter t!ey !ad eaten and drun- and +ere muc! into"icated Hen.ist suddenly voci,erated
ONimed eure :a"esQP and instantly !is ad!erents dre+ t!eir -nives and rus!in. u#on t!e Britons
eac! sle+ !im t!at sat ne"t to !im and t!ere +as slain t!ree !undred o, t!e nobles o, Eorti.ern. T!e
-in. bein. a ca#tive #urc!ased !is redem#tion by deliverin. u# t!e t!ree #rovinces o, 2ast :out!
and @iddle :e" besides ot!er districts at t!e o#tion o, !is betrayers.
&*.
:t. Germanus admonis!ed Eorti.ern to turn to t!e true God and abstain ,rom all unla+,ul
intercourse +it! !is dau.!terD but t!e un!a##y +retc! ,led ,or re,u.e to t!e #rovince
Guort!e.irnaim
5>
so called ,rom !is o+n name +!ere !e concealed !imsel, +it! !is +ives) but :t.
Germanus ,ollo+ed !im +it! all t!e Britis! cler.y and u#on a roc- #rayed ,or !is sins durin. ,orty
days and ,orty ni.!ts.
T!e blessed man +as unanimously c!osen commander a.ainst t!e :a"ons. And t!en not by
t!e clan. o, trum#ets but by #rayin. sin.in. !alleluGa! and by t!e cries o, t!e army to God t!e
enemies +ere routed and driven even to t!e sea.
56
A.ain Eorti.ern i.nominiously ,le+ ,rom :t. Germanus to t!e -in.dom o, t!e %imetae +!ere
0= T!e EE. RR. o, t!is section are too numerous to be inserted.
5> A district o, Radnors!ire ,ormin. t!e #resent !undred o, R!aiadr.
56 E. R. T!is #ara.ra#! is omitted in t!e @::.
78
The Historia Brittonum
on t!e river To+y
57
!e built a castle +!ic! !e named &air Guot!er.irn. T!e saint as usual ,ollo+ed
!im t!ere and +it! !is cler.y ,asted and #rayed to t!e 3ord t!ree days and as many ni.!ts. 'n t!e
t!ird ni.!t at t!e t!ird !our ,ire ,ell suddenly ,rom !eaven and totally burned t!e castle. Eorti.ern
t!e dau.!ter o, Hen.ist !is ot!er +ives and all t!e in!abitants bot! men and +omen miserably
#eris!ed) suc! +as t!e end o, t!is un!a##y -in. as +e ,ind +ritten in t!e li,e o, :t. Germanus.
&+.
't!ers assure us t!at bein. !ated by all t!e #eo#le o, Britain ,or !avin. received t!e :a"ons
and bein. #ublicly c!ar.ed by :t. Germanus and t!e cler.y in t!e si.!t o, God !e betoo- !imsel, to
,li.!tD and t!at deserted and a +anderer !e sou.!t a #lace o, re,u.e till bro-en !earted !e made an
i.nominious end.
:ome accounts state t!at t!e eart! o#ened and s+allo+ed !im u# on t!e ni.!t !is castle +as
burnedD as no remains +ere discovered t!e ,ollo+in. mornin. eit!er o, !im or o, t!ose +!o +ere
burned +it! !im.
He !ad t!ree sons) t!e eldest +as Eortimer +!o as +e !ave seen ,ou.!t ,our times a.ainst t!e
:a"ons and #ut t!em to ,li.!tD t!e second &ate.irn +!o +as slain in t!e same battle +it! HorsaD t!e
t!ird +as $ascent +!o rei.ned in t!e t+o #rovinces Built! and Guort!e.irnaim
5;
a,ter t!e deat! o,
!is ,at!er. T!ese +ere .ranted !im by Ambrosius +!o +as t!e .reat -in. amon. t!e -in.s o, Britain.
T!e ,ourt! +as Faustus born o, an incestuous marria.e +it! !is dau.!ter +!o +as brou.!t u# and
educated by :t. Germanus. He built a lar.e monastery on t!e ban-s o, t!e river Renis called a,ter !is
name and +!ic! remains to t!e #resent #eriod.
5/
&,.
T!is is t!e .enealo.y o, Eorti.ern +!ic! .oes bac- to Fernvail
50
+!o rei.ned in t!e -in.dom
o, Guort!e.irnaim
55
and +as t!e son o, TeudorD Teudor +as t!e son o, $ascentD $ascent o,
GuoidcantD Guoidcant o, @oriudD @oriud o, 2ltatD 2ltat o, 2ldocD 2ldoc o, $aulD $aul o, @eu#ritD
@eu#rit o, BraciatD Braciat o, $ascentD $ascent o, Guort!e.irnD Guort!e.irn o, Guort!eneuD
Guort!eneu o, GuitaulD Guitaul o, GuitolionD Guitolion o, Gloui. Bonus $aul @auron Guotelin
57 T!e Tobias o, $tolemy.
5; 1n t!e nort!ern #art o, t!e #resent counties o, Radnor and Brec-noc-.
5/ E. R. T!e @::. add Aand !e !ad one dau.!ter +!o +as t!e mot!er o, :t. Faustus.A
50 Fernvail or Farinmail a##ears to !ave been -in. o, G+ent or @onmout!.
55 E.R. A T+o #rovinces Built! and Guort!e.irnaim.A
7<
Nennius
+ere ,our brot!ers +!o built Gloiuda a .reat city u#on t!e ban-s o, t!e river :evern and in Britis!
is called &air Gloui in :a"on Gloucester. 2nou.! !as been said o, Eorti.ern.
(-.
:t. Germanus a,ter !is deat! returned into !is o+n country.
58
At t!at time t!e :a"ons .reatly
increased in Britain bot! in stren.t! and numbers. And 'cta a,ter t!e deat! o, !is ,at!er Hen.ist
came ,rom t!e sinistral #art o, t!e island to t!e -in.dom o, ?ent and ,rom !im !ave #roceeded all
t!e -in.s o, t!at #rovince to t!e #resent #eriod.
T!en it +as t!at t!e ma.nanimous Art!ur +it! all t!e -in.s and military ,orce o, Britain
,ou.!t a.ainst t!e :a"ons. And t!ou.! t!ere +ere many more noble t!an !imsel, yet !e +as t+elve
times c!osen t!eir commander and +as as o,ten conBueror. T!e ,irst battle in +!ic! !e +as en.a.ed
+as at t!e mout! o, t!e river Gleni.
5<
T!e second t!ird ,ourt! and ,i,t! +ere on anot!er river by
t!e Britons called %u.las
5=
in t!e re.ion 3inuis. T!e si"t! on t!e river Bassas.
8>
T!e sevent! in t!e
+ood &elidon +!ic! t!e Britons call &at &oit &elidon.
86
T!e ei.!t! +as near Gurnion castle
87

+!ere Art!ur bore t!e ima.e o, t!e Holy Eir.in
8;
mot!er o, God u#on !is s!oulders and t!rou.!
t!e #o+er o, our 3ord Jesus &!rist and t!e !oly @ary #ut t!e :a"ons to ,li.!t and #ursued t!em t!e
+!ole day +it! .reat slau.!ter.
8/
T!e nint! +as at t!e &ity o, 3e.ion
80
+!ic! is called &air 3ion.
T!e tent! +as on t!e ban-s o, t!e river Trat Treuroit.
85
T!e elevent! +as on t!e mountain Bre.uoin
+!ic! +e call &at Bre.ion.
88
T!e t+el,t! +as a most severe contest +!en Art!ur #enetrated to t!e
58 E. R. All t!is to t!e +ord AAmenA in ot!er @::. is #laced a,ter t!e le.end o, :t. $atric-.
5< :u##osed by some to be t!e Glem in 3incolns!ireD but most #robably t!e Glen in t!e nort!ern #art o, Nort!umberland.
5= 'r %ub.las. T!e little river %un.las +!ic! ,ormed t!e sout!ern boundary o, 3ot!ian. W!ita-er says t!e river %u.las
in 3ancas!ire near Wi.an.
8> Not a river but an isolated roc- in t!e Frit! o, Fort! near t!e to+n o, Nort! Ber+ic- called OT!e Bass.P :ome t!in- it
is t!e river 3usas in Ham#s!ire.
86 T!e &aledonian ,orestD or t!e ,orest o, 2n.le+ood e"tendin. ,rom $enrit! to &arlisle.
87 Eariously su##osed to be in &orn+all or Binc!ester in %ur!am but most #robably t!e Roman station o, Garionenum
near 9armout! in Nor,ol-.
8; E. R. T!e ima.e o, t!e cross o, &!rist and o, t!e #er#etual Eir.in :t. @ary.
8/ E. R. For Art!ur #roceeded to Jerusalem and t!ere made a cross to t!e siFe o, t!e :aviourAs cross and t!ere it +as
consecrated and ,or t!ree successive days !e ,asted +atc!ed and #rayed be,ore t!e 3ordAs cross t!at t!e 3ord +ould
.ive !im t!e victory by t!is si.n over t!e !eat!enD +!ic! also too- #lace and !e too- +it! !im t!e ima.e o, :t. @ary
t!e ,ra.ments o, +!ic! are still #reserved in .reat veneration at Wedale in 2n.lis! Wodale in 3atin $allis!&oloris.
Wodale is a villa.e in t!e #rovince o, 3odonesia but no+ o, t!e Gurisdiction o, t!e bis!o# o, :t. Andre+As o, :cotland
si" miles on t!e +est o, t!at !ereto,ore noble and eminent monastery o, @eilros.
80 2"eter.
85 'r Ribroit t!e Brue in :omersets!ireD or t!e Ribble in 3ancas!ire.
88 'r A.ned &at!re.onion &adbury in :omersets!ireD or 2dinbur.!.
7=
The Historia Brittonum
!ill o, Badon.
8<
1n t!is en.a.ement nine !undred and ,orty ,ell by !is !and alone no one but t!e
3ord a,,ordin. !im assistance. 1n all t!ese en.a.ements t!e Britons +ere success,ul. For no stren.t!
can avail a.ainst t!e +ill o, t!e Almi.!ty.
T!e more t!e :a"ons +ere vanBuis!ed t!e more t!ey sou.!t ,or ne+ su##lies o, :a"ons ,rom
GermanyD so t!at -in.s commanders and military bands +ere invited over ,rom almost every
#rovince. And t!is #ractice t!ey continued till t!e rei.n o, 1da +!o +as t!e son o, 2o##a !e o, t!e
:a"on race +as t!e ,irst -in. in Bernicia and in &air 2brauc H9or-I.
W!en Gratian AeBuantius +as consul at Rome because t!en t!e +!ole +orld +as .overned by
t!e Roman consuls t!e :a"ons +ere received by Eorti.ern in t!e year o, our 3ord ,our !undred and
,orty(seven and to t!e year in +!ic! +e no+ +rite ,ive !undred and ,orty(seven. And +!osoever
s!all read !erein may receive instruction t!e 3ord Jesus &!rist a,,ordin. assistance +!o co(eternal
+it! t!e Fat!er and t!e Holy G!ost lives and rei.ns ,or ever and ever. Amen.
1n t!ose days :aint $atric- +as a ca#tive amon. t!e :cots. His masterAs name +as @ilc!o to
+!om !e +as a s+ine!erd ,or seven years. W!en !e !ad attained t!e a.e o, seventeen !e .ave !im
!is liberty. By t!e divine im#ulse !e a##lied !imsel, to readin. o, t!e :cri#tures and a,ter+ards
+ent to RomeD +!ere re#lenis!ed +it! t!e Holy :#irit !e continued a .reat +!ile studyin. t!e
sacred mysteries o, t!ose +ritin.s. %urin. !is continuance t!ere $alladius t!e ,irst bis!o# +as sent
by #o#e &elestin. to convert t!e :cots Lt!e 1ris!M. But tem#ests and si.ns ,rom God #revented !is
landin. ,or no one can arrive in any country e"ce#t it be allo+ed ,rom aboveD alterin. t!ere,ore !is
course ,rom 1reland !e came to Britain and died in t!e land o, t!e $icts.
8=
(1.
T!e deat! o, $alladius bein. -no+n t!e Roman #atricians T!eodosius and Ealentinian t!en
rei.nin. #o#e &elestine sent $atric- to convert t!e :cots to t!e ,ait! o, t!e Holy TrinityD Eictor t!e
an.el o, God accom#anyin. admonis!in. and assistin. !im and also t!e bis!o# Germanus.
Germanus t!en sent t!e ancient :e.erus +it! !im as a venerable and #raise+ort!y bis!o# to
-in. Amat!eus
<>
+!o lived near and +!o !ad #rescience o, +!at +as to !a##enD !e +as consecrated
8< Bat!.
8= At Fordun in t!e district o, @eatus in :cotland.R#sher.
<> E. R. Germanus Csent t!e elder :e.erus +it! !im to a +onder,ul man t!e !oly bis!o# Amat!eare".C Anot!er @:. C :ent
t!e elder :e.erus a bis!o# +it! !im to Amat!eore".C
;>
Nennius
bis!o# in t!e rei.n o, t!at -in. by t!e !old #onti,,
<6
assumin. t!e name o, $atric- !avin. !it!erto
been -no+n by t!at o, @aunD Au"ilius 1sserninus and ot!er brot!ers +ere ordained +it! !im to
in,erior de.rees.
(.
Havin. distributed benedictions and #er,ected all in t!e name o, t!e Holy Trinity !e embar-ed
on t!e sea +!ic! is bet+een t!e Gauls and t!e BritonsD and a,ter a Buic- #assa.e arrived in Britain
+!ere !e #reac!ed ,or some time. 2very necessary #re#aration bein. made and t!e an.el .ivin. !im
+arnin. !e came to t!e 1ris! :ea. And !avin. ,illed t!e s!i# +it! ,orei.n .i,ts and s#iritual
treasures by t!e #ermission o, God !e arrived in 1reland +!ere !e ba#tiFed and #reac!ed.
(%.
From t!e be.innin. o, t!e +orld to t!e ,i,t! year o, -in. 3o.iore +!en t!e 1ris! +ere
ba#tiFed and ,ait! in t!e unity o, t!e individual Trinity +as #ublis!ed to t!em are ,ive t!ousand
t!ree(!undred and t!irty years.
(&.
:aint $atric- tau.!t t!e .os#el in ,orei.n nations ,or t!e s#ace o, ,orty years. 2ndued +it!
a#ostolical #o+ers !e .ave si.!t to t!e blind cleansed t!e le#ers .ave !earin. to t!e dea, cast out
devils raised nine ,rom t!e dead redeemed many ca#tives o, bot! se"es at !is o+n c!ar.e and set
t!em ,ree in t!e name o, t!e Holy Trinity. He tau.!t t!e servants o, God and !e +rote t!ree !undred
and si"ty(,ive canonical and ot!er boo-s relatin. to t!e cat!olic ,ait!. He ,ounded as many c!urc!es
and consecrated t!e same number o, bis!o#s stren.t!enin. t!em +it! t!e Holy G!ost. He ordained
t!ree t!ousand #resbytersD and converted and ba#tiFed t+elve t!ousand #ersons in t!e #rovince o,
&onnau.!t. And in one day ba#tiFed seven -in.s +!o +ere t!e seven sons o, Amal.aid.
<7
He
continued ,astin. ,orty days and ni.!ts on t!e summit o, t!e mountain 2li t!at is &ruac!an(
Aic!leD
<;
and #re,erred t!ree #etitions to God ,or t!e 1ris! t!at !ad embraced t!e ,ait!. T!e :cots say
t!e ,irst +as t!at !e +ould receive every re#entin. sinner even at t!e latest e"tremity o, li,eD t!e
<6 E. R. CReceived t!e e#isco#al de.ree ,rom t!e !oly bis!o# Amat!eore".C Anot!er @:. CReceived t!e e#isco#al de.ree
,rom @at!eore" and t!e !oly bis!o#.C
<7 ?in. o, &onnau.!t.
<; A mountain in t!e +est o, &onnau.!t county o, @ayo no+ called &roa.!($atric-.
;6
The Historia Brittonum
second t!at t!ey s!ould never be e"terminated by barbariansD and t!e t!ird t!at as 1reland
</
+ill be
over,lo+ed +it! +ater seven years be,ore t!e comin. o, our 3ord to Gud.e t!e Buic- and t!e dead
t!e crimes o, t!e #eo#le mi.!t be +as!ed a+ay t!rou.! !is intercession and t!eir souls #uri,ied at
t!e last day. He .ave t!e #eo#le !is benediction ,rom t!e u##er #art o, t!e mountain and .oin. u#
!i.!er t!at !e mi.!t #ray ,or t!emD and t!at i, it #leased God !e mi.!t see t!e e,,ects o, !is labours
t!ere a##eared to !im an innumerable ,loc- o, birds o, many colours si.ni,yin. t!e number o, !oly
#ersons o, bot! se"es o, t!e 1ris! nation +!o s!ould come to !im as t!eir a#ostle at t!e day o,
Gud.ment to be #resented be,ore t!e tribunal o, &!rist. A,ter a li,e s#ent in t!e active e"ertion o,
.ood to man-ind :t. $atric- in a !ealt!y old a.e #assed ,rom t!is +orld to t!e 3ord and c!an.in.
t!is li,e ,or a better +it! t!e saints and elect o, God !e reGoices ,or evermore.
((.
:aint $atric- resembled @oses in ,our #articulars. T!e an.el s#o-e to !im in t!e burnin. bus!.
He ,asted ,orty days and ,orty ni.!ts u#on t!e mountain. He attained t!e #eriod o, one !undred and
t+enty years. No one -no+s !is se#ulc!re nor +!ere !e +as buriedD si"teen
<0
years !e +as in
ca#tivity. 1n !is t+enty(,i,t! year !e +as consecrated bis!o# by :aint @at!eus
<5
and !e +as ei.!ty(
,ive years t!e a#ostle o, t!e 1ris!. 1t mi.!t be #ro,itable to treat more at lar.e o, t!e li,e o, t!is saint
but it is no+ time to conclude t!is e#itome o, !is labours.
<8
LHere endet! t!e li,e o, t!e !oly bis!o#
:aint $atric-.M
HA0ter this) the (SS gives us Cha"ter 12) the legen& o0 3ing Arthur) which in this e&ition) occurs in
Cha"ter 14.I
GE#EALOG! O" THE .I#G$ O" /ER#ICIA.
++
(*.
Woden be.at Belde. +!o be.at Beornec +!o be.at Get!brond +!o be.at Aluson +!o be.at
</ E. R. t!at no 1ris!man may be alive on t!e day o, Gud.ment because t!ey +ill be destroyed seven years be,ore in !onour
o, :t. $atric-.
<0 E.R. Fi,teen.
<5 E. R. By t!e !oly bis!o# Amat!eus.
<8 Here ends t!e Eatican @:. collated by @r. Gunn.
<< T!ese titles are not #art o, t!e ori.inal +or- but added in t!e @::. by a later !and.
;7
Nennius
1n.+i +!o be.at 2dibrit! +!o be.at 2sa +!o be.at 2o##a +!o be.at 1da. But 1da !ad t+elve
sons Adda Belric T!eodric T!elric T!eod!ere 'smer and one Bueen Bearnoc! 2alric. 2t!elric
be.at 2t!el,rid) t!e same is Aedl,red Flesaur. For !e also !ad seven sons 2an,rid 's+ald 's+in
's+y 's+udu 'slac ',,a. 's+y be.at Al,rid 2l,+in and 2.,rid. 2.rid is !e +!o made +ar
a.ainst !is cousin Brudei -in. o, t!e $icts and !e ,ell t!erein +it! all t!e stren.t! o, !is army and
t!e $icts +it! t!eir -in. .ained t!e victoryD and t!e :a"ons never a.ain reduced t!e $icts so as to
e"act tribute ,rom t!em. :ince t!e time o, t!is +ar it is called Gueit!lin Garan.
But 's+y !ad t+o +ives Riemmelt! t!e dau.!ter o, Royt! son o, RumD and 2an,ied t!e
dau.!ter o, 2d+in son o, Alla.
THE GE#EALOG! O" THE .I#G$ O" .E#T.
(+.
Hen.ist be.at 'cta +!o be.at 'ssa +!o be.at 2ormenric +!o be.at 2t!elbert +!o be.at
2adbald +!o be.at 2rcombert +!o be.at 2.bert.
THE ORIGI# O" THE .I#G$ O" EA$T0A#GLIA.
(,.
Wodeen be.at &asser +!o be.at Titinon +!o be.at Tri.il +!o be.at Rodmunt +!o be.at
Ri##a +!o be.at Guillem Guerc!a
<=
+!o +as t!e ,irst -in. o, t!e 2ast An.les.
.I#G$ O" THE 1EIRI.
Guerc!a be.at 4,,a +!o be.at Tytillus +!o be.at 2ni +!o be.at 2dric +!o be.at Ald+ul,
+!o be.at 2lric.
THE GE#EALOG! O" THE 2ERCIA#$.
)-.
Woden be.at Guedol.eat +!o be.at Guea.on +!o be.at Guit!le. +!o be.at Guerdmund
+!o be.at 'ssa +!o be.at 'n.en +!o be.at 2amer +!o be.at $ubba.
=>
T!is $ubba !ad t+elve
<= Guerc!a is a distortion o, t!e name o, 4,,a or Wu,,a arisin. in t!e ,irst instance ,rom t!e #ronunciation o, t!e Britis!
+riterD and in t!e ne"t #lace ,rom t!e error o, t!e transcriber.Ralgrave.
=> 'r Wibba.
;;
The Historia Brittonum
sons o, +!om t+o are better -no+n to me t!an t!e ot!ers t!at is $enda and 2a+a. 2adlit is t!e son
o, $ant!a $enda son o, $ubba 2albald son o, Al.uin. son o, 2a+a son o, $enda son o, $ubba.
2.,ert son o, ',,a son o, T!in.,ert! son o, 2n+ul, son o, 'ssul, son o, 2a+a son o, $ubba.
THE .I#G$ O" THE 1EIRI
)1.
Woden be.at Belde. Brond be.at :i..ar +!o be.at :ibald +!o be.at Se.ul, +!o be.at
:oemil +!o ,irst se#arated
=6
%eur ,rom Berneic! H'eira 0rom Bernicia.I :oemil be.at :.uert!in.
+!o be.at Giul.lis +!o be.at 4l,rea +!o be.at 1,,i +!o be.at 4lli 2d+in 's,rid and 2an,rid.
T!ere +ere t+o sons o, 2d+in +!o ,ell +it! !im in battle at @eicen
=7
and t!e -in.dom +as never
rene+ed in !is ,amily because not one o, !is race esca#ed ,rom t!at +arD but all +ere slain +it! !im
by t!e army o, &at.uollaunus
=;
-in. o, t!e Guendota. 's+y be.at 2.,rid t!e same is Ail.uin +!o
be.at 'slac! +!o be.at Al!un +!o be.at Adlsin. +!o be.at 2c!un +!o be.at 'sla#!. 1da be.at
2adric +!o be.at 2c.ul, +!o be.at 3eod+ald +!o be.at 2ata t!e same is Glinmaur +!o be.at
2adbert and 2.bert +!o +as t!e ,irst bis!o# o, t!eir nation.
1da t!e son o, 2o##a #ossessed countries on t!e le,t(!and side o, Britain i.e. o, t!e Humbrian
sea and rei.ned t+elve years and united
=/
%yn.uayt! Guart!(Berneic!.
).
T!en %uti.irn at t!at time ,ou.!t bravely a.ainst t!e nation o, t!e An.les. At t!at time
Tal!aiarn &ata.uen
=0
+as ,amed ,or #oetry and Neirin and Taliesin and Bluc!bard and &ian +!o is
called Guenit! Guaut +ere all ,amous at t!e same time in Britis! #oetry.
T!e .reat -in. @ailcun
=5
rei.ned amon. t!e Britons i.e. in t!e district o, Guenedota because
!is .reat(.reat(.rand,at!er &unedda +it! !is t+elve sons !ad come be,ore ,rom t!e le,t(!and #art
i.e. ,rom t!e country +!ic! is called @anau Gustodin one !undred and ,orty(si" years be,ore
@ailcun rei.ned and e"#elled t!e :cots +it! muc! slau.!ter ,rom t!ose countries and t!ey never
=6 E. R. &onBuered.
=7 Hat,ield in t!e West Ridin. o, 9or-s!ire. :ee BedeAs 2ccles. Hist #. 6>5.
=; &ad+alla -in. o, t!e Western Britons.
=/ E. R. 4nited t!e castle i. e. %in.uerin and Gurdbernec! +!ic! t+o countries +ere in one country i. e. %eurabernec!D
An.lice %eGra and Bernicia. Anot!er @:. Built %in.uayr! Guart! Berneic!.
=0 Tal!aiarn +as a descendant o, &oel Godebo. and c!a#lain to Ambrosius.
=5 Better -no+n as @ael.+n.
;/
Nennius
returned a.ain to in!abit t!em.
)%.
Adda son o, 1da rei.ned ei.!t yearsD 2t!elric son o, Adda rei.ned ,our years. T!eodoric son
o, 1da rei.ned seven years. Freot!+ul, rei.ned si" years. 1n +!ose time t!e -in.dom o, ?ent by t!e
mission o, Gre.ory received ba#tism. Hussa rei.ned seven years. A.ainst !im ,ou.!t ,our -in.s
4rien and Rydert!en and Guallauc and @orcant. T!eodoric ,ou.!t bravely to.et!er +it! !is sons
a.ainst t!at 4rien. But at t!at time sometimes t!e enemy and sometimes our countrymen +ere
de,eated and !e s!ut t!em u# t!ree days and t!ree ni.!ts in t!e island o, @etcautD and +!ilst !e +as
on an e"#edition !e +as murdered at t!e instance o, @orcant out o, envy because !e #ossessed so
muc! su#eriority over all t!e -in.s in military science. 2ad,ered Flesaurs rei.ned t+elve years in
Bernicia and t+elve ot!ers in %eira and .ave to !is +i,e Bebba t!e to+n o, %yn.uoaroy +!ic!
,rom !er is called Bebbanbur..
=8
2d+in son o, Alla rei.ned seventeen years seiFed on 2lmete and 2"#elled &erdic its -in..
2an,ied !is dau.!ter received ba#tism on t!e t+el,t! day a,ter $entecost +it! all !er ,ollo+ers
bot! men and +omen. T!e ,ollo+in. 2aster 2d+in !imsel, received ba#tism and t+elve t!ousand o,
!is subGects +it! !im. 1, any one +is!es to -no+ +!o ba#tiFed t!em it +as Rum @a# 4rb.en)
=<
!e
+as en.a.ed ,orty days in ba#tiFin. all classes o, t!e :a"ons and by !is #reac!in. many believed on
&!rist.
)&.
's+ald son o, 2t!el,rid rei.ned nine yearsD t!e same is 's+ald 3laui.uinD
==
!e sle+
&at.ublaun H&ad+allaI
6>>
-in. o, Guenedot
6>6
in t!e battle o, &atscaul
6>7
+it! muc! loss to !is o+n
army. 's+y son o, 2t!el,rid rei.ned t+enty(ei.!t years and si" mont!s. %urin. !is rei.n t!ere +as
=8 Bambrou.!. :ee Bede iii. 5 and :a". &!ron. A.%. 0/8.
=< :ee BedeAs 2ccles. Hist. #. =5. From t!e s!are +!ic! $aulinus !ad in t!e conversion o, t!e Nort!umbrian -in. it !as
been in,erred t!at !e actually ba#tiFed !imD but Nennius e"#ressly states t!at t!e !oly sacrament +as administered by
R!un t!e son o, 4rien. T!e Wels! name o, $aulinus is $a+l Hen or $olin 2s.ob.
== 3laui.uin means t!e C ,airC or t!e Cbounteous !and.C
6>>T!is name !as been variously +rittenD Bede s#ells it Cae&ualla H&ad+allaID Nennius Catgublaun5 t!e :a"on &!ronicle
Cea&walla5 and t!e Wels! +riters Ca&wallon and 3atwallawn6 and t!ou.! t!e identity o, t!e #erson may be clearly
#roved it is necessary to observe t!ese #articulars to distin.uis! !im ,rom Ca&wala&r) and ,rom anot!er Cae&ualla or
Cae&walla) a -in. o, t!e West :a"onsD all o, +!om as t!ey lived +it!in a s!ort time o, eac! ot!er !ave been ,reBuently
con,ounded to.et!er.R7eel8s Welsh Saints.
6>6G+ynedd Nort! Wales.
6>7Bede says at %enisAs(broo-. 2ccles. Hist. #. 6>=.
;0
The Historia Brittonum
a dread,ul mortality amon. !is subGects +!en &at.ualart H&ad+alladerI +as -in. amon. t!e Britons
succeedin. !is ,at!er and !e !imsel, died amon.st t!e rest.
6>;
He sle+ $enda in t!e ,ield o, Gai and
no+ too- #lace t!e slau.!ter o, Gai &am#i and t!e -in.s o, t!e Britons +!o +ent out +it! $enda
on t!e e"#edition as ,ar as t!e city o, Judeu +ere slain.
)(.
T!en 's+y restored all t!e +ealt! +!ic! +as +it! !im in t!e city to $endaD +!o distributed it
amon. t!e -in.s o, t!e Britons t!at is Atbert Judeu. But &at.abail alone -in. o, Guenedot risin.
u# in t!e ni.!t esca#ed to.et!er +it! !is army +!ere,ore !e +as called &at.abail &at.uommed.
2.,rid son o, 's+y rei.ned nine years. 1n !is time t!e !oly bis!o# &ut!bert died in t!e island o,
@edcaut.
6>/
1t +as !e +!o made +ar a.ainst t!e $icts and +as by t!em slain.
$enda son o, $ybba rei.ned ten yearsD !e ,irst se#arated t!e -in.dom o, @ercia ,rom t!at o,
t!e Nort!(men and sle+ by treac!ery Anna -in. o, t!e 2ast An.lians and :t. 's+ald -in. o, t!e
Nort!(men. He ,ou.!t t!e battle o, &ocboy
6>0
in +!ic! ,ell 2a+a son o, $ybba !is brot!er -in. o,
t!e @ercians and 's+ald -in. o, t!e Nort!(men and !e .ained t!e victory by diabolical a.ency. He
+as not ba#tiFed and never believed in God.
)).
From t!e be.innin. o, t!e +orld to &onstantinus and Ru,us are ,ound to be ,ive t!ousand si"
!undred and ,i,ty(ei.!t years.
Also ,rom t!e t+o consuls Ru,us and Rubelius to t!e consul :tilic!o are t!ree !undred and
seventy(t!ree years.
Also ,rom :tilic!o to Ealentinian son o, $lacida and t!e rei.n o, Eorti.ern are t+enty(ei.!t
years.
And ,rom t!e rei.n o, Eorti.ern to t!e Buarrel bet+een Guitolinus and Ambrosius are t+elve
years +!ic! is Guolo#um t!at is &at.+alo#!.
6>5
Eorti.ern rei.ned in Britain +!en T!eodosius and
Ealentinian +ere consuls and in t!e ,ourt! year o, !is rei.n t!e :a"ons came to Britain in t!e
consuls!i# o, FeliF and Taurus in t!e ,our !undredt! year ,rom t!e incarnation o, our 3ord Jesus
6>;T!e Britis! c!ronicles assert t!at &ad+allader died at Rome +!ilst Nennius +ould lead us to conclude t!at !e #eris!ed
in t!e #estilence at !ome. :ee Geo,,rey #. 7<<.
6>/T!e isle o, Farne.
6>0@aser,ield. :ee BedeAs 2ccles. Hist. #. 67;.
6>51n &armart!ens!ire. $er!a#s t!e to+n no+ called ?id+elly.
;5
Nennius
&!rist.
From t!e year in +!ic! t!e :a"ons came into Britain and +ere received by Eorti.ern to t!e
time o, %ecius and Ealerian are si"ty(nine years.
;8