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2.1 INTRODUCTION:-
Matter in the universe is mainly classified into three kinds solids,
liquids and gases. In solids all the atoms (or) molecules are arranged
in a fixed manner. Solids have a definite shape and size, where as in
liquids and gasses atoms (or) molecules are not fixed. On the basis
of arrangement of atoms (or) molecules solids are classified into two
categories, they are crystalline and amorphous solids.

2.2 CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS:-

In crystalline solids the atoms (or) molecules are arranged in a regular
and orderly manner in three-dimensional pattern called lattice


2.3 AMORPHOUS SOLIDS: -
In amorphous solids, the atoms or molecules are arranged in an
irregular manner otherwise there is no lattice structure
2.4 SPACE LATTICE: -
The property that distinguishes crystals from other solids is that the
constituent particles in crystals are arranged in a three dimensional
periodic manner. In order to describe the periodicity in crystals Bravais
introduced the concept of space lattice.
The atomic arrangement in crystal is called crystal structure. In a
perfect crystal, there is a regular arrangement of atoms. The
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periodicity of atoms changes in different directions. It is convenient to
imagine points in space about which these atoms are located; such
points are called lattice points.

Def:-
An infinite array of points in three dimensional space in which every point
has same environment with respect to all other points is called space
lattice.

A two-dimensional space lattice is shown in fig:

The dots represent the lattice points in which atoms can be
accommodated and a

& b

are two translation vectors along x-axis


&y-axis respectively. The resultant vector OP T =

can be represented as
1 2
T n a n b = +


Let n
1
be no of translations along x- direction each of magnitude a.
then its translational vector is given as
1
T n a =


Let n
2
be the no of translations along Y-direction of each magnitude
b. Then its translational vector is given as
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2
T n b =


Now the resultant translation vector is
1 2
T T T = +


1 2
T n a n b = +


An infinite array of points in a three dimensional space in which every
point has the same environment with respect to all other points. In
this case the resultant vector can be expressed as

1 2 3
T n a n b n c = + +



2.5 BASIS (or) MOTIF:-
A lattice is an imaginary concept and therefore, it is essential to
distinguish a lattice from a crystal. A crystal structure is formed only
when a group of atoms or molecules is attached identically to each
lattice points. This group of atoms or molecules is called basis. The
basis is identical in composition and arrangement. The logical relation
is

Lattice +Basis = crystal structure

In crystalline solids like Al, Cu, Ag, Na the basis contains single atom.
In case of NaCl, NaBr, KCl, CsCl the basis contains two atoms.


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2.6 UNIT CELL AND LATTICE PARAMETERS: -
Unit cell:-
A unit cell is a small geometrical unit which on repetition in all
directions gives actual crystal structure.
Or
The unit cell may also be defined as the fundamental elementary pattern
with minimum number of atoms (or) molecules which represents the total
characteristics of the crystal.

The choice of the unit cell is not unique. According to the
requirements of the case, either primitive or non-primitive cell can be
selected as a unit cell. A parallelepiped is defined by translations a, b,
c as the shortest possible sides along three crystallographic axes x, y,
z is called a primitive cell.
A primitive cell is a minimum volume unit cell and has only one lattice
point on it. The volume V
c
of a primitive cell is defined by primitive
translation a, b, c is


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Non-primitive unit cell contains more than one lattice point per unit
cell.
2.7 LATTICE PARAMETERS: -
A crystal is made up of repetition of unit cell. A unit cell can be
completely described by three vectors a , b , c usually referred to as
lattice parameters along three different directions. The angleso , | , and
are taken as angles between vectors
( )
, b c

( )
, c a

and
( )
, a b

respectively.

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For different crystals the values of a , b and c are different. Both
primitives (a, b, c) and interfacial angles ( ) , , o | are known as Lattice
parameters of the unit cell.
2.8 CRYSTAL SYSTEMS: -
A three-dimensional space lattice is generated by repeated
translations of three non-coplanar vectors a, b & c. There are fourteen
distinguishable ways of arranging points in three-dimensional space.
These 14 space lattices are known as Bravais lattices. They belong
to seven crystal systems. The primitives & interfacial angles for seven
crystal systems are given below:

1. CUBIC CRYSTALS: -
In cubic crystal system, the three crystal axes are perpendicular to
each other and all three lengths of unit cell are equal.

Lattice parameters are
0
90
a b c
o |
= =
(
(
= = =




These crystals have three types of lattices depending on arrangement
of atoms. They are
1. Simple cubic lattice or primitive (P)
2. Body-centered cubic lattice (I)
3. Face-centered cubic lattice (F)
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EX: Diamond, Zinc Sulphide, Au, Cu, Ag, NaCl.

2. TETRAGONAL CRYSTAL SYSTEM: -
In tetragonal system, the three crystal axes are perpendicular to each
other and two of three axial lengths are equal while third one is
longer or shorter.
Lattice parameters are
0
90
a b c
o |
= =
(
(
= = =


It has two Bravais lattices
1. Simple (or) primitive (P)
2. Body centered (I)


EX: -NiSo
4,
SnSo
4.

3. ORTHORHOMBIC CRYSTAL SYSTEM:-
In this crystal system the three axes are perpendicular to each other.
In this all the three axial lengths are unequal lengths.
Lattice parameters are
0
90
a b c
o |
= =
(
(
= = =


It exhibit four Bravais lattices
1. Primitive (P)
2. Body centered (I)
3. Base centered (C)
4. Face centered (F)
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Ex: -MgSio
4,
SnSo
4.

4. MONOCLINIC CRYSTALS:-
In this monoclinic system all the three axial lengths of unit cell are
unequal and different. Two axes are perpendicular to each other and
third is obliquely inclined.
Lattice parameters are
0 0
90 , 90
a b c
o |
= =
(
(
= = =


It exhibit two Bravais lattices
1. Primitive (P)
2. Base-Centered (C)



Ex: Monazite, Titanite



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5. TRICLINIC CRYSTAL SYSTEM: -
In this triclinic system, all the three crystal axes are not perpendicular
to each other and also three axial lengths are not equal.

Lattice parameters are
0
90
a b c
o |
= =
(
(
= = =



It exhibit one Bravais lattices
1. Primitive (P)



Ex: - CuSo
4 ,
K
2
Cr
2
o
7
etc.,

6.TRIGONAL (OR) RHOMBOHEDRAL CRYSTAL SYSTEM: -
In this system three axes are inclined to each other and three axial
lengths are equal.
Lattice parameters are
0
90
a b c
o |
= =
(
(
= = =



It exhibit one Bravais lattices
1. Primitive (P)
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Ex: - CaCo
3 ,
As , Sb ,Bi etc.,

7. HEXAGONAL CRYSTAL SYSTEM: -

The hexagonal system has eight faces. In this crystal two of the axes
are equal to 90
0
and third axes is equal to 120 apart and two axial
lengths are equal and third is larger than these.
Lattice parameters are
0 0
90 , 120
a b c
o |
= =
(
(
= = =


It exhibit one Bravais lattices
1. Primitive (P)


Ex: - Sio
2
, AgI etc.





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2.9 BRAVAIS LATTICE:-
According to Bravais lattice, there are only 14 possible ways of
arranging points in space lattice from the 7 crystal systems such that,
all the lattice points have exactly the same surroundings. These 14
space lattices are called the Bravais lattices.
Bravais lattices of seven crystal systems are shown below:
1. Cubic crystal:

2. Tetragonal:


3. Orthorhombic:



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4. Monoclinic:

5. Triclinic:

6. Rhombohedral:

7. Hexagonal:


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2.10 DIRECTIONS AND PLANES IN CRYSTAL:-
Directions in crystals:-
In crystal analysis, it is essential to indicate certain directions inside
the crystal. To describe a direction in a crystal lattice, a straight line
passing through the origin is chosen. It is defined by the indices first
lattice point which is calculated by following procedure.
(1) Note down the co-ordinates of the lattice point nearest to the
origin in a given direction.
(2) Divide the co-ordinates by appropriate unit translation vectors
(3) If any fraction results, multiply each of them by smallest
common divisor.
(4) Put the resulting integers in a set of square brackets i.e. [hkl] to
get the required indices of directions.
Some important directions in a cubic crystal is shown in fig.



2.11 PLANES IN A CRYSTAL: -
A crystal lattice may be considered as an assembly of number of
equidistant parallel planes passing through the lattice points these
parallel planes are called lattice planes.
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For a given lattice these sets of planes can be selected in a number
of ways. The inter planer spacing for a given set of parallel planes is
fixed.


2.12 Miller indices: -
A crystal is made up of a large number of parallel equidistant planes
passing through lattice points called lattice planes. The perpendicular
distance between adjacent planes is called inter planar spacing.
According to miller a set of parallel planes in a crystal by three
numbers (hkl) Known as Miller indices.

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(1) Determine the intercepts of the planes along x, y and z axes in
terms of lattice parameters.
X Y Z
3a 2b c

(2) Divide these intercepts by the appropriate unit translations.

3 2

a b c
a b c

3 2 1
(3) Note their reciprocals.

1 1
1
3 2

(4) If fractions result multiply each of them by the smallest common
divisor

1 1 1
6 6 6
3 2 1

2 3 6
(5) Put the resulting in parenthesis (hkl) to get the require miller
indices.
Miller indices = (2 3 6)
Definition: -
Thus miller indices may be defined as the reciprocals of the intercepts
made by the planes on the crystallographic axes when reduced to
smallest numbers.

Important features of miller indices: -
(1) All the parallel and equidistant planes in a given set have the
same (hkl) value.
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(2) If a plane is passing through origin, it should be taken in terms
of parallel planes having non-zero intercept.
(3) If the miller indices of two planes have the same ratio. For ex
(8 4 4), (422 ),
(4) (2 1 1) then the planes are parallel to each other.
Important planes in a cubic crystal:-






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2.13 Distance of separation between successive (h k l) planes:
Now we shall derive an expression for the spacing between two
parallel planes in a given crystal lattice.
Here, we shall take a simple unit cell in which the co-ordinate axes
are mutually perpendicular. Then we can use Cartesian co-ordinates
for calculating inter planar spacing. Let us consider three mutually
perpendicular co-ordinate axes OX, OY and OZ and assume that a
plane (h k l) parallel to the plane passing through the origin makes
intercepts , and
a b c
h k l
on the three axes at A,B and C.

Let OP = d is normal to the plane drawn from the origin and makes
angles , and o | with three axes.
Now
a
OA
h
=

b
OB
k
=
c
OC
l
=

OP d =
From triangle OPA we have
cos
OP d
a
OA
h
o = =

cos
OP d
b
OB
h
| = =
cos
OP d
c
OC
l
= =

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Now, making use of the direction of the cosine which states that
2 2 2
cos cos cos 1 o | + + =
Substituting the values of coso ,
cos |
and
cos
we obtain
2 2 2
2 2 2
1
d d d
a b c
h k l
+ + =
| | | | | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

2 2 2
2
2 2 2
1
h k l
d
a b c
(
+ + =
(


2 2 2
2 2 2
1
d
h k l
a b c
=
+ +

This is a general formula and is applicable to the lattice of
orthorhombic and cubic crystal.
(1) Tetragonal system:-
In this system a = b = c so
2 2 2
2 2
1
d
h k l
a c
=
+
+

(2) Cubic system: -
In this a = b = c so
2 2 2
a
d
h k l
=
+ +
.









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2.14 SOME IMPORTANT CUBIC STRUCTURES:-
Be fore going to see some important cubic crystal structures it is
necessary to know few basic definitions.
(1) Co-ordination number:-
The number of nearest neighbouring atoms that an atom has in the
given structure. Greater is the co-ordination number the more closer
packing of atoms.
(2) Packing factor: -
It is also called as packing fraction (or) packing density. It is
defined as the ratio of the volume occupied by the atom in a unit
cell to the volume of the unit cell.
(3) Atomic radius:-
The atomic radius (r) is defined as half the distance between
neighbouring atoms in a crystal of pure element.

Some important cubical structures: -
(1) Simple cubic structure
(2) Body centered structure
(3) Face centered cubic structure
(4) Diamond cubic structure
2.14.1Simple cubic structure: -
Simple cubic structure is a loosely packed structure. Because each
atom has six nearest neighboring atoms so, the co-ordination
number is six. The unit cell of this structure has only eight atoms
at the eight corners of the cube.
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The atoms touch each other along the edge of the cube. Let a be
the lattice parameter of the unit cell. The atomic radius (r) is equal
to
2
a
. Each corner of the atom is shared by 8 neighbouring unit
cells. So, that the share of each unit cell is only
1
8
of the atom.
The number atoms in a unit cell of simple cubic
=
1
8
8
= 1
atom
cell


The unit cell of a simple cubic is it self the primitive cell. Because
there is only one atom per unit cell.
The radius of the atom
2
a
r = 2r a =

The volume of the atom =
3
4
3
r t

The volume of the unit cell =
3 3
(2 ) a r =
3
8r =
Packing factor (or) packing fraction
volume of the atoms in the unit cell
volume of the unit cell
=
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=
3
3
4
3
0.52( )52%
8 6
r
or
r
t
t
= =


Atomic packing factor=0.52 ( ) 52% or

Thus 52 % of the volume of the cell is occupied by the atoms and
48 % of the cell volume is empty. There fore it is called as loosely
packed structure.

2.14.2 Body centered cubic structures: -
The unit cell of the body centered cubic structure is shown below. It
has eight corner atoms and one atom at center of the cell.

The number of atoms per unit cell =
1
8
8
+1 = 2
atom
cell

Hence, the unit cell of BCC structure is non-primitive. It is a
multiple cell. Here all the corner atoms are at the same distance
from the center atom.
Center atom in these crystal systems has eight nearest
neighbouring at eight corners. Hence, the co-ordination number of
this crystal system is eight.
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From ADB A
2 2 2
AB AD DB = +
2 2
a a = +
2 2
2 AB a =
2 AB a =
From ABC
2 2 2
AC AB BC = +

( )
2
2
2 a a = +

2 2
2a a = +

2
3a =
( )
2
2
4 3 r a =

2 2
16 3 r a =

2 2
16
3
a r =


4
3
a r =
Atomic radius
3
4
r a =

Volume of the atoms in the unit cell
3
4
2
3
r t
| |
=
|
\ .
3
8
3
r t =

The volume of the unit cell
3
a =
3
4
3
r
| |
=
|
\ .
3
64
3 3
r =
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Packing factor (or) packing fraction
volume of the atoms in the unit cell
volume of the unit cell
=
3
3
8
3
64
3 3
r
r
t
=
8 3
64
t =
3
8
t =

0.68 =
68%. =

Atomic packing factor=0.68 ( ) 68% or

i.e. in BCC structure 68 % of its volume is occupied by the atoms
and 32 % is empty space. Compared to simple cubic structure body
centered cubic structure, body centered cubic structure is closely
packed.
2.14.3 Face centered cubic structure: -
The unit cell of a face centered cubic structure is shown below.

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It has eight atoms at the corners of the unit cell and 6 atoms at
the center of 6 faces of the cube. Each atom at the corners is
shared by eight unit -cell and each atom at the center of the face
is shared by two unit cells.
The number of atoms per unit cell =
1 1
8 6 4
8 2
+ =

atom
cell

For the atom at the center of the face, there are 12 nearest
neighbouring atoms.
Hence the co-ordination number of FCC is 12.


From triangle ABC
2 2 2
AC AB BC = +
( )
2
2 2
4r a a = +
2
2a =
2 2
16 2 r a =
2 2
8 a r =
2 2 a r =

Atomic radius
2 2
a
r =
Volume of the unit cell =
( )
3
3
2 2 a r =

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Number of atoms per unit cell = 4.
Now Volume of the atoms in the unit cell
3
4
4
3
r t
| |
=
|
\ .

Packing factor (or) packing fraction
volume of the atoms in the unit cell
volume of the unit cell
=

3
3
16
3
16 2
r
r
t
=


3 2
t
=
= 0.74 (or) 74 %

Atomic packing factor = 0.74 (or) 74 %

In FCC structure 74 % of the volume is occupied by the atoms and
the remaining 26 % is empty space. FCC has the highest packing
density among the cubic family.
2.15 Diamond cubic structure:-
The diamond lattice formed by interpenetrating two FCC lattice
along the body diagonal by
1
4
th cube edge. One sub lattice has
its origin at the point (0, 0, 0) and the other at a point quarter
of the way along the body diagonal i.e. at , ,
4 4 4
a a a | |
|
\ .
.
Each atom has four neighbor i.e. co-ordination number is 4 and
each corner atom is shared by eight unit cells, each face
centered atom is shared by two unit cells.

The position of carbon atoms in two FCC lattices are

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First FCC lattice: ( ) 0, 0, 0
1 1
0, ,
2 2
| |
|
\ .

1 1
, 0,
2 2
| |
|
\ .

1 1
, , 0
2 2
| |
|
\ .

Second FCC lattice:
1 1 1
, ,
4 4 4
| |
|
\ .

1 3 3
, ,
4 4 4
| |
|
\ .

3 1 3
, ,
4 4 4
| |
|
\ .

3 3 1
, ,
4 4 4
| |
|
\ .

There are 14 carbon atoms situated at the corners (8) and face
centers (6). A part from those, there is 4 carbon atoms situated
along the 2 body diagonals at a height of
1
4
and
3
4
from the
bottom.
A view the structure from the top of the unit cell is shown in fig.



Number of atoms in a unit cell =
1 1
8 6 4
8 2
+ +
1 3 4 8 = + + =

From fig.


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( )
2 2
2
4 4
a a
XZ
| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .

2
8
a
=
( )
2 2
2
8 16
a a
XY = +
2
3
16
a
=
But 2 XY r = ( )
2
2
4 XY r =

2
2
3
4
16
a
r =
8
3
a r =

Atomic radius =
3
8
a
r =

Atomic packing fraction =
atom
crystal
V
V

3
3
4
8
3
r
a
t
=
3
3
4
8
3
8
3
r
r
t
=
| |
|
\ .

3
16
t
=

Atomic packing fraction = 0.34%

Hence, it is observed that 34% of space of diamond cubic crystal is
occupied by atom and reaming 66% of the space is empty. Hence, it
is noted that diamond cubic is most loosely packed than that of all
cubic structures.

2.16 Hexagonal Close Packed (HCP) structure:-
The unit cell of the Hexagonal close packed structure is shown in fig.
The HCP structure has three layers of atoms. In each top and bottom
layers there are six atoms that arrange themselves in the shape of
hexagon and a seventh atom that sits in the middle of the hexagon.
The middle layers has three atoms are in a triangular shape.
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In HCP unit cell there are six atoms.
Each 12 atoms in the corners of the top and bottom layers
contribute
1
6
of the atom to the unit cell.
Two atoms in the centre of the hexagon of both the top and
bottom layers each contribute
1
2
atom and each of three atoms
in the middle layer.

1 1
12 2 3 2 1 3 6
6 2
+ + = + + =
The co-ordination number of the atoms in this structure is 12.
Calculation of
c
a
ratio in HCP:-
Let c be the height of unit cell and a be the distance between two
neighbouring atoms. Consider the triangle ABO in the bottom layer of
HCP structure. Here A,B and O are the lattice points and exactly
above these at a perpendicular distance
2
c
the next layer atom lies at
C.
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'
the triangle from ABA

' 0
30 AAB Z =
'
0
cos30
AA
AB
=
' 0
3
cos30
2
AA AB a = =
the triangle AXC from
2 2 2
AC =AX +CX
2 2 2
CX AC AX =

2
2
3
a
a
| |
=
|
\ .


2
2
3
a =


2
c
CX =

2
2
2
2 3
c
a
| | | |
=
| |
\ . \ .


2
2
8
3
c
a
=


8
1.633
3
c
a
= =



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Calculation of packing fraction:-
Area of the base = 6 area of the triangle ABO

'
1
6
2
AB OO =

2
3 3 3
3
2 2
a a a = =

Volume of the unit cell = area of the base height

2
3 3

2
a c =
Packing fraction =
atom
crystal
V
V

3
2
4
6
3

3 3
2
r
a c
t
| |

|
\ .
=

Since 2 a r = , substituting for r in the above equation
Packing fraction
3
2
16
2
3 3
a
a c
t
| |
|
\ .
=
3
2
2
3 3
a
a c
t
=
2
3 3
a
c
t
=
Substituting
c
a
value in above equation we get
Packing fraction
2 3
8 3 3
t
= 0.74
3 2
t
= = 74% =

Since the density of packing is 74% it is close packed structure.
Magnesium, Zinc and cadmium crystallize in this structure.



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2.17 Sodium chloride structure:-
Sodium chloride (NaCl) is an ionic crystal. It has FCC structure with
basis of one atom Na
+
ion and one Cl
-
ion in an alternate fashion as
shown in fig.

In this structure Cl
-
ions are situated at corners as well as at the
centers of the faces of cube. The Na
+
ions are situated exactly at the
midpoint of the axial length of the unit cell along each axis.
Thus NaCl crystal can be thought to be composed of two FCC sub
lattices. One of Cl
-
ion having the origin at (0, 0, 0) and the other of
Na
+
ion having the origin at
1
, 0, 0
2
| |
|
\ .
. In this NaCl structure each of
Na
+
is surrounded by 6 Cl
-
ions and vice versa. Therefore the co-
ordination number is 6 for each of the ions. The position of ions is
described by
Cl

: ( ) 0, 0, 0
1 1
, , 0
2 2
| |
|
\ .

1 1
, 0,
2 2
| |
|
\ .

1 1
0, ,
2 2
| |
|
\ .

Na
+
:
1 1 1
, ,
2 2 2
| |
|
\ .

1
0, 0,
2
| |
|
\ .

1
0, , 0
2
| |
|
\ .

1
, 0, 0
2
| |
|
\ .

Number of Na
+
ions per unit cell:-
Here we have two types of Na
+
ions
- Midpoint Na
+
ions and
- Body centered Na
+
ions
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In NaCl structure each Na
+
ion situated at the midpoint of the axial
length is shared by 4 unit cells. Similarly we have 12 midpoint Na
+

ions.
The number of midpoint ions per unit cell =
1
12 3
4
= ions
And each body centered Na
+
ion is shared by 8 corner of the unit
cell.
The number of body centered Na
+
ions =
1
8 1
8
= ion
Total number of Na
+
ions per unit cell = 3 + 1 = 4 ions.
Number of Cl
-
ions per unit cell:-
Here we have two types of Cl

ions
- Corner Cl

ions
- Face centered Cl

ions
Each corner Cl

ions is shared by 8 unit cell. Similarly we have 8


such corner atoms.
Number of corner Cl

ions per unit cell =


1
8 1
8
= ion
Each face centered Cl

ion is shared by 2 unit cell. Similarly we have


6 face centered Cl

ions.
Number of face centered Cl

ions per unit cell


1
6 3
2
= ions
Total number of Cl

ions per unit cell = 1 + 3 = 4.


Thus there are 4 Na
+
ions and 4Cl

ions per unit cell in a NaCl


crystal.
2.18 Zinc sulphide or zinc blende cubic structure:-
This structure identical to the diamond structure except that the two
interpenetrating sub lattices are occupied by two different elements.
Zinc sulphide structure results when Zn atoms are placed on one FCC
lattice and S atom on the other FCC lattice as shown in fig. In this
CRYSTAL STRUCTURES Engineering Physics

54

structure sulphur atoms occupy the FCC positions, and then Zn atoms
would occupy the sites on the body diagonal.

The co-ordinates of sulphur atoms are
( ) 0, 0, 0
1 1
0, ,
2 2
| |
|
\ .

1 1
, 0,
2 2
| |
|
\ .

1 1
, , 0
2 2
| |
|
\ .

And the co-ordinates of zinc atoms are

1 1 1
, ,
4 4 4
| |
|
\ .

1 3 3
, ,
4 4 4
| |
|
\ .

3 1 3
, ,
4 4 4
| |
|
\ .

3 3 1
, ,
4 4 4
| |
|
\ .

We can observe that each atom Zn or S on the body diagonal forms
four covalent bonds with the other type of atom. That is each Zn
atom is bounded to four S atoms and vice versa. The co-ordination
number, packing fraction and other parameters in this structure would
be same as in the case of diamond structure.

2.19 Cesium chloride structure:-
Cesium chloride is the chemical compound with the formula CsCl.
1. The bonding is typically ionic.
1. It is a colorless solid.
2. Cesium chloride can be prepared by the reaction of cesium
hydroxide (or) cesium carbonate with hydrochloric acid.

CRYSTAL STRUCTURES Engineering Physics

55

The space lattice is simple cubic. The basis has one Cs
+
ion at
( ) 0, 0, 0 and Cl

ions at
1 1 1
, ,
2 2 2
| |
|
\ .
. In this structure Cl

ions occupying the


8 corners of cube and at the centre we observe Cs
+
ions. Each Cs
+

ion is surrounded by 8Cl

ions, leading to a co-ordination number of


8. We can also construct a unit cell with Cs
+
ions at the 8 corners
of the cell and one Cl

ion at the centre of it. Cscl can be thought of


two interpenetrating simple cubic lattices where the corner of one unit
cell sits at the body center of the other.




One generally gets confused by looking CsCl structure and assumes it
to be of BCC type. This is not correct. In a BCC structure all the
lattice points i.e. eight corners and the one at centre are occupied by
same atom. In the above structure, corners are occupied by Cl

and
the centre is occupied by the Cs
+
ions or vice versa. Hence CsCl
belongs to a simple cubic lattice with basis as 2.