Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 1 MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior - 4 Credits Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks

) Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions. Q.1 Write a note on the managerial roles and skills. Managerial Roles To meet the many demands of performing their functions, managers assume multiple roles. A role is an organized set of behaviors. Henry Mintzberg (1973) has identified ten Sub roles common to the work of all managers. The ten roles are divided into three groups: interpersonal, informational, and decisional. According to Mintzberg (1973), managerial roles are as follows: 1. Informational roles 2. Decisional roles 3. Interpersonal roles 1. Informational roles: This involves the role of assimilating and disseminating information as and when required. Following are the main sub-roles, which managers often perform: a. Monitor-collecting information from organizations, both from inside and outside of the organization. b. Disseminator-communicating information to organizational members c. Spokesperson-representing the organization to outsiders 2. Decisional roles: It involves decision making. Again, this role can be subdivided in to the following: a. Entrepreneur-initiating new ideas to improve organizational performance b. Disturbance handlers-taking corrective action to cope with adverse situation c. Resource allocators-allocating human, physical, and monetary resources d. Negotiator - negotiating with trade unions, or any other stakeholders 3. Interpersonal roles : This role involves activities with people working in the organization. This is supportive role for informational and decisional roles. Interpersonal roles can be categorized under three subheadings: a. Figurehead-Ceremonial and symbolic role b. Leadership-leading organization in terms of recruiting, motivating etc. c. Liaison-liasoning with external bodies and public relations activities. Management Skills A manager's job is varied and complex. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities associated with being a manager. What type of skills does a manager need? Robert L. Katz (1974) found that managers needed three essential management skills i.Technical ii.Human iii.Conceptual

Technical skills: The ability is to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. All jobs require some specialized expertise, and many people develop their technical skills on the job. Vocational and on the job training programs can be used to develop this type of skill. Human Skill : This is the ability to work with, understand and motivate other people (both individually and a group). This requires sensitivity towards others issues and concerns. People, who are proficient in technical skill, but not with interpersonal skills, may face difficulty to manage their subordinates. To acquire the Human Skill, it is pertinent to recognize the feelings and sentiments of others, ability to motivate others even in adverse situation, and communicate own feelings to others in a positive and inspiring way. Conceptual Skill : This is an ability to critically analyze, diagnose a situation and forward a feasible solution. It requires creative thinking, generating options and choosing the best available option. A mark of a good leader is to be able to provide consistent motivation to his team encouraging them to attain excellence and quality in their performance. A good leader is always looking for ways to improve production and standards. Here are six management skills you can develop as a leader in working to create a quality effective team. This is an important aspect that often gets neglected due the demands on a leader's time and schedule. Observation and regular visits to the work environment are a priority and should be scheduled into the calendar. Observing employees at work, the procedures, interaction and work flow is foundational to implementing adjustments to improve results. To have credibility, a leader needs to be seen and be known to be up to date with what is happening in the work place. 1. Monitor Employee Performance Employee performance needs to be monitored in mutually accepted ways. Policies and procedures need to be clear. Conferencing should be on a regular basis and not just when there is a problem. Assessments and evaluations should not be merely all formality or viewed a necessary paperwork to be done and filed away. Individual and group conferencing should be undertaken not only to monitor performance, but with the expectation of on going professional development and support. There should be frequent encouragement and clear criteria for on going goals both for the group and individual. 2. Implementation of Professional Development Programs A good leader evaluates weaknesses and provides training and development strategies to strengthen the weaker skills in the team. 3. Demonstrates Working Knowledge and Expertise Good leadership comes from a place of strong knowledge and experience of the production and process leading to results. If a leader does not possess all the expertise and knowledge personally, then regular consultations with experts involved in the departments should be held. This is important in order to maintain an accurate and informed overall picture. 4. Good Decision Making Good leadership is characterized by the ability to make good decisions. A leader considers all the different factors before making a decision. Clear firm decisions, combined with the willingness and flexibility to adapt and adjust decisions when necessary, create confidence in the leadership.

and motivation (good reason) to want to adopt the behavior. .5. The behavior is reinforced. a good leader is also able to look towards the future. . Albert Bandura (1977)expanded on Rotter's idea. . then they will be more likely to engage in that behavior. Excellent leadership is always pro active rather than reactive. reproduction (ability to reproduce the behavior). and is related to social learning theories of Vygotsky and Lave. Q. In Social Learning and Clinical Psychology (1954). Social learning theory can also be seen in the TV and movie rating system that is used in the United States.role model behavior For the article on social learning theory in psychology and education see social cognitive theory.understanding of concepts. The zone of proximal development is used as a basis for early intervention programs such as Head Start. and not psychological factors alone. If one expects a positive outcome from a behavior. with positive outcomes. while desiring positive results or effects. Social learning theory is derived from the work of Albert Bandura which proposed that social learning occurred through four main stages of imitation: . and developed a learning theory. leading a person to repeat the behavior. While managing the present to ensure ongoing excellence in product and performance. and reinforcements Julian Rotter moved away from theories based on psychosis and behaviorism. The applications of social learning theory have been important in the history of education policies in the United States. Cognitive learning presumes that psychological factors are important for influencing how one behaves. People wish to avoid negative consequences. Behavioral learning assumes that people's environment (surroundings) cause people to behave in certain ways. Ability to Conduct and Evaluate Research Ongoing review and research is vital in order to keep on the cutting edge in business.2 Explain the social learning theory in detail. The rating system is designed to let all parents know what the programs that their children are watching contain.imitation of superiors. This social learning theory suggests that behavior is influenced by these environmental factors or stimulus.close contact. The ratings are based on age appropriate material to help parents decide if certain content is appropriate for their child . as well as earlier work by Miller & Dollard (1941). Rotter suggests that the effect of behavior has an impact on the motivation of people to engage in that specific behavior. By developing these six managerial skills builds a solid foundation for success. Social learning suggests a combination of environmental (social) and psychological factors influence behavior. imitating. Social learning theory outlines three requirements for people to learn and model behavior include attention: retention (remembering what one observed). It consists of three parts: observing. or thinks there is a high probability of a positive outcome. This theory incorporates aspects of behavioral and cognitive learning. Conducting and evaluating research is an important way of planning and being prepared for the future.

assertiveness. better academic performance will usually be forthcoming if ability levels are present. A tendency to show selfdiscipline. A student who has never taken a basic math class and does not understand the principles of addition and subtraction will not be able to understand algebra. act dutifully. consistent/cautious). FFM) of personality are five broad domains or dimensions of personality which are used to describe human personality. Appreciation for art. As students move through their education they learn skills in mathematics that they will build on throughout their scholastic careers. In contemporary psychology. Q. the "Big Five" factors (or Five Factor Model. Locus of Control is an important consideration when helping students in higher education environments perform better academically. extraversion includes such related qualities as gregariousness. warmth. excitement watch. planned rather than spontaneous behaviour. Guided participation is seen in schools across the United States and all around the world in language classes when the teacher says a phrase and asks the class to repeat the phrase. The Big five factors are openness. Portraitising is another technique that is used widely across the United States. curiosity. Beneath each factor. emotion. adventure. easy-going/careless). Most academic subjects take advantage of portraitising. and variety of experience. however the child may model the behaviors seen on TV. activity and positive emotions. The Big Five factors and their constituent traits can be summarized as: Openness – (inventive/curious vs. . a cluster of correlated specific traits are found. and neuroticism (common acronyms are OCEAN. More frequent successful academic performance will result as thoughts and belief in the need for personal effort toward the academic task is rewarded. which is sometimes called "intellect" rather than openness to experience. and aim for achievement. Conscientiousness – (efficient/organized vs. conscientiousness. the student usually incorporates the confidence that hard work often can be rewarded with positive academic outcomes. agreeableness. The neuroticism factor is sometimes referred by its low pole – "emotional stability".[1] The Five Factor Model is a descriptive model of personality. unusual ideas. Some disagreement remains about how to interpret the openness factor. Cassandra B. Guided participation is also seen with parents who are trying to teach their own children how to speak. or CANOE). extraversion. Some content may be harmful to children who do not have the cognitive ability to process certain content. The other part to guided participation is when the student goes home and practices on their own. The process of learning math is a portraitising technique because the knowledge builds on itself over time. psychologists have developed a number of theories to account for the Big Five. however mathematics is one of the best examples. For example. Whyte indicated in the 1970s and 1980s that by encouraging students to accept personal responsibility for their educational outcomes. As successful experiences increase in frequency.3 Explain the Big 5 model of personality. NEOAC.

people who register high in Openness are intellectually curious.M. exceptions may exist on individual personality profiles.These five over-arching domains have been found to contain and subsume most known personality traits and are assumed to represent the basic structure behind all personality traits. and thus each set of five factors has somewhat different names and definitions. depression.Cattell at the University of Illinois. and willing to try new . A tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others. At least four sets of researchers have worked independently for decades on this problem and have identified generally the same Big Five factors: Tupes & Cristal were first. Agreeableness – (friendly/compassionate vs. secure/confident). Digman advanced his five factor model of personality. which Goldberg extended to the highest level of organization (Goldberg. surgency. open to emotion. These researchers began by studying known personality traits and then factor-analyzing hundreds of measures of these traits (in self-report and questionnaire data. these traits are frequently presented as percentile scores. 1990). solitary/reserved). Mershon & Gorsuch. The five broad factors were discovered and defined by several independent sets of researchers (Digman. and the tendency to seek stimulation in the company of others. However. whereas an Extraversion rating in the 5th percentile indicates an exceptional need for solitude and quiet. or vulnerability. 1993). The initial model was advanced by Ernest Tupes and Raymond Christal in 1961. peer ratings. Neuroticism – (sensitive/nervous vs. all have been found to be highly inter-correlated and factor-analytically aligned.Paunonon & Ashton. Identifying the traits and structure of human personality has been one of the most fundamental goals in all of psychology. they are not nearly as powerful in predicting and explaining actual behavior as are the more numerous lower-level traits. These five factors provide a rich conceptual framework for integrating all the research findings and theory in personality psychology. 1992). empirical. The Big Five model is a comprehensive.Extraversion – (outgoing/energetic vs. anxiety. Energy. a Conscientiousness rating in the 80th percentile indicates a relatively strong sense of responsibility and orderliness. and Costa and McCrae at the National Institutes of Health. Many studies have confirmed that in predicting actual behavior the more numerous facet or primary level traits are far more effective (e. interested in art. A tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily. Because the Big Five traits are broad and comprehensive. Although these trait clusters are statistical aggregates. For example.but failed to reach an academic audience until the 1980s. data-driven research finding. and as the Global Factors of personality (Russell & Karol. The Big Five traits are also referred to as the "Five Factor Model" or FFM (Costa & McCrae. 2001 When scored for individual feedback. cold/unkind). followed by Goldberg at the Oregon Research Institute. J. 1988. positive emotions. In 1990. 1994). On average.These four sets of researchers used somewhat different methods in finding the five traits. and objective measures from experimental settings) in order to find the underlying factors of personality. such as anger.g.

Perception is our sensory experience of the world around us and involves both the recognition of environmental stimuli and action in response to these stimuli. we form more positive impressions of other. b) Moods: Moods can have a strong influence on the way we perceive someone. that interpretation is heavily influenced by personal characteristics of the individual perceiver. Through the perceptual process. in the case of lexical measures. A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes distort perception These factors can reside: i) In the perceiver ii) In the Object or target being perceived or iii) In the context of the situation in which the perception is made. We think differently when we are happy than we do when we are depressed. When an individual looks at a target and attempts to interpret what he or she stands for. a boss who is insecure perceives a sub ordinate's efforts to do an outstanding job as a threat to his or her own position. in an organizational context. we remember information that is consistent with our mood state better than information that is inconsistent with our mood state. may have a high overall Openness score and be interested in learning and exploring new cultures but have no great interest in art or poetry. X is interviewing candidates for a very important position in his organization . Personal insecurity can be translated into the perception that others are out to "get my job". When in a positive mood.4 What are the different factors influencing perception? Ans. The most frequently used measures of the Big Five comprise either items that are self-descriptive sentences or. . we gain information about properties and elements of the environment that are critical to our survival. c) Motives: Unsatisfied needs or motives stimulate individuals and may exert a strong influence on their perceptions. For example. This attitude with doubtless affect his perceptions of the female candidates he interviews. such as the 40-item balanced International English Big-Five Mini-Markers or a very brief (10 item) measure of the Big Five domains. When in a negative mood. regardless of the intention of the subordinates. Q. most of whom are male. For example. Mr. we tend to evaluate others unfavorably. In addition. Due to the length of sentence-based and some lexical measures. X may feel that women are not capable of holding their own in tough negotiations. short forms have been developed and validated for use in applied research settings where questionnaire space and respondent time are limited. Characteristics of the Perceiver: Several characteristics of the perceiver can affect perception.a position that requires negotiating contracts with suppliers. 1. The major characteristics of the perceiver influencing perception are: a) Attitudes: The perceiver’s attitudes affect perception. however. Mr.things. A particular individual. items that are single adjectives.

Characteristics of the Target: Characteristics in the target that is being observed can affect what is perceived. a negative self-concept can lead a perceiver to pick out negative traits in another person.5 Write a note on contemporary work cohort. The strength of the situational cues also affects social perception. such as height. has an influence on the perceiver's impression of the target. People who accept themselves are more likely to be able to see favorable aspects of other people. an individual's pattern of thinking. body movements. One's own characteristics affect the characteristics one is likely to see in other. In contrast. and that it may not reflect the individual's disposition. An individual with a positive self-concept tends to notice positive attributes in another person. Verbal Communication from targets also affects our perception of them. 3. Physical appearance pals a big role in our perception of others. Knowing oneself makes it easier to see others accurately. The research findings of the study conducted by Sheldon S Zalking and Timothy W Costello on some specific characteristics of the perceiver reveal i. more readily. For example. Characteristics of the Situation: The situation in which the interaction between the perceiver and the target takes place. Nonverbal communication conveys a great deal of information about the target. g) Expectations: Finally. weight. facial expressions. and appearance. . we assume that + i. e) Interest: The focus of our attention appears to be influenced by our interests. iv. the supervisor who has just been reprimanded by his boss for coming late is more likely to notice his colleagues coming late tomorrow than he did last week. and posture all in a attempt to form an impression of the target.d) Self .e individual's behaviours can be accounted for by the situation. f) Cognitive structure: Cognitive structure. Some situations provide strong cues as to appropriate behaviour. iii. These four characteristics greatly influence how a person perceives other than he environmental situation. In this situation. Some people have a tendency to perceive physical traits. Greater understanding of self allows us to have more accurate perceptions of others.Concept: Another factor that can affect social perception is the perceivers selfconcept. size and other attributes of a target shape the way we see it. Because our individual interests differ considerably. also affects perception. Q. 2. what one person notices in a situation can differ from what other perceive. The perceiver deciphers eye contact. sound. expectations can distort your perceptions in that you will see what you expect to see. Cognitive complexity allows a person to perceive multiple characteristics of another person rather than attending to just a few traits. ii. Motions. Extremely attractive or unattractive individuals are more likely to be noticed in a group than ordinary looking individuals. Accuracy in perceiving others is not a single skill.

and baby-boom competition • Distrusted authority. in which the unique value of different cohorts is that the U. two-career parents. and computers • Value flexibility. and achievement of job satisfaction • Family and relationships were important and enjoyed team-oriented work • Money was important. • Grew up in prosperous times. They cherished the following values: • Shaped by globalization. but would trade off for increased leisure time • Less willing to make personal sacrifices for employers than previous generations • Terminal values: true friendship. see nothing wrong with jobhopping • Seek financial success • Enjoy team work. but are highly self-reliant • Terminal values: freedom and comfortable life. MTV. the Beatles. have high expectation. happiness. Veterans – Workers who entered the workforce from the early 1940s through the early 1960s. AIDS.6 What are the special issues in motivation? Discuss Various groups of employees provide specific challenges in terms of motivation. Individual’s values differ. life options. The cohorts and the respective values have been listed below: 1. the civil rights and feminist movements. They exhibited the following value orientations: They were influenced by the Great Depression and World War II • Believed in hard work • Tended to be loyal to their employer • Terminal values: Comfortable life and family security 2. and pleasure 4. but gave a high emphasis on achievement and material success • Organizations who employed them were vehicles for their careers • Terminal values: sense of accomplishment and social recognition 3.Contemporary Work Cohort Robbins (2003) has proposed Contemporary Work Cohort. Q. Boomers – Employees who entered the workforce during the 1960s through the mid-1980s belonged to this category. and confident in their ability to succeed • Never-ending search for ideal job. Kennedy.S. workforce has been segmented by the era they entered the workforce. Their value orientations were: • Influenced heavily by John F. Some of them are explained below: . the Vietnam War. Xers – began to enter the workforce from the mid-1980s. Nexters – most recent entrants into the workforce. but tend to reflect the societal values of the period in which they grew up. believe in themselves.

providing them flexible leave possibilities to enable them to go home for extensive periods. and physical work settings. . iv) For employees coming from other states /countries. benefits. physically disabled and other diverse groups are not the same. you have got to understand and respond to this diversity. flexible work hours and job sharing for employees with family responsibilities. to reflect the employees' varied needs. etc. compensation plans. iii) Offering employees facilities like childcare. The needs of women. ii) Allowing employees who are going for further training to colleges to vary their work schedule. If you are going to maximize your employees' motivation. This can be done in the following ways: i) We should be ready to design work schedules..Motivating the Diversified Work Force: Not everyone is motivated by money.

Your emotional reaction is dependent upon how you interpret those physical reactions. Emotionality is associated with a range of psychological phenomena including temperament. neurological and cognitive. human emotion involves ". You begin to tremble and your heart begins to race. The Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion Another well-know physiological theory is the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion. the James-Lange theory of emotion suggests that emotions occur as a result of physiological reactions to events. Answer all the questions. expressive behaviors. resulting in a physiological reaction. Independently proposed by psychologist William James and physiologist Carl Lange. The James-Lange Theory of Emotion The James-Lange theory is one of the best-known examples of a physiological theory of emotion. For example. emotion is often defined as a complex state of feeling that results in physical and psychological changes that influence thought and behavior.. and then the individual must identify the reason behind this arousal in order to experience and label it as an emotion. Schachter-Singer Theory Also known as the two-factor theory of emotion. cognitive theories argue that thoughts and other mental activity play an essential role in the formation of emotions.physiological arousal.Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 1 MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior . therefore I am afraid"). suppose you are walking in the woods and you see a grizzly bear. According to this theory.4 Credits Assignment Set. Q. mood and motivation. More specifically. the Schachter-Singer Theory is an example of a cognitive theory of emotion. .. Meyers." Theories of Emotion: The major theories of motivation can be grouped into three main categories: physiological. According to author David G. Finally. The James-Lange theory proposes that you will interpret your physical reactions and conclude that you are frightened ("I am trembling. trembling and muscle tension simultaneously.1 Explain the theories of emotion. it is suggested that emotions result when the thalamus sends a message to the brain in response to a stimulus. In psychology. and conscious experience.2 (60 Marks) Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Physiological theories suggest that responses within the body are responsible for emotions. This theory suggests that the physiological arousal occurs first. personality. This theory states that we feel emotions and experience physiological reactions such as sweating. you see an external stimulus that leads to a physiological reaction. Neurological theories propose that activity within the brain leads to emotional responses.

Johnson and Johnson describe seven methods/processes that a team might use to make a decision. administrative decisions. Strengths Weaknesses . little time available to make decision. Strengths Weaknesses • Takes minimal time to make decision • Commonly used in organizations (so we are familiar with method) • No group interaction • Team may not understand decision or be unable to implement decision • High on assertiveness scale (see conflict • Low on cooperation scale (see conflict paper) paper) Appropriate Times for Method 1 • Simple. Method 2. (2) is a sound solution to the problem. and (4) addresses the team’s goal for the decision-making process.5 Each method. routine. Method 1.2 . The models below describe how we work to affect and manipulate the team decisionmaking process. team commitment required to implement the decision is low. Many types of decision making models can be studied and used by teams. understanding decision-making models so that the team can make the best decision is valuable. let the expert consider the issues. Decision by averaging individuals' opinions Process: Separately ask each team member his/her opinion and average the results. Decision made by authority without group discussion Process: The designated leader makes all decisions without consulting group members. Method 3. As a team. Individuals benefit from understanding decision models by becoming aware of how cognitive and affective biases can both positively and negatively impact how we work to influence our team on making a decision. as unbiased as possible. Understanding decision making models allows teams to make intentional choices about which model might be most appropriate for the various decisions that they confront. and let the expert make decisions. (3) is a decision based upon input.Q. from each team member. along with its strengths and weaknesses. The ―best decision‖ is described as a decision that (1) would not have been thought of by an individual alone. sometimes in productive ways and at times in detrimental ways for team decisions. is discussed below. Decision by expert Process: Select the expert from group. Discuss the techniques of decision making in groups. team commitment required to implement decision is low. clear choice for expert. Strengths Weaknesses • Useful when one person on the team has the overwhelming expertise • Unclear how to determine who the expert is (team members may have different opinions) • No group interaction • May become popularity issue or power issue Appropriate Times for Method 2 • Result is highly dependent on specific expertise. Being aware of our biases can limit any negative impact from our biases.

Decision made by authority after group discussion Process: The team creates ideas and has discussions. team members are not truly involved in the decision • Opinions of least and most knowledgeable members may cancel • Commitment to decision may not be strong • Unresolved conflict may exist or escalate • May damage future team effectiveness Appropriate Times for Method 3 • Time available for decision is limited. but the designated leader makes the final decision. and announces her/his decision. two or more members who constitute less than 50% of the team. Method 5. listens to discussion from the team. make the team’s decision Strengths Weaknesses • Method often used by executive committees • Can be railroading • Method can be used by temporary committees • Useful for large number of decisions and limited time • Some team perspective and discussion • May not have full team commitment to decision • May create an air of competition among team members • Still may not have commitment from team to . team participation is required.• Extreme opinions cancelled out • Error typically cancelled out • Group members consulted • Useful when it is difficult to get the team together to talk • Urgent decisions can be made • No group interaction. presents the issue. The designated leader calls a meeting. clear consensus on authority. Strengths Weaknesses • Team used more than methods 1–3 • Listening to the team increases the accuracy of the decision • Team is not part of decision • Team may compete for the leader’s attention • Team members may tell leader ―what he/she wants to hear‖ • Still may not have commitment from the team to the decision Appropriate Times for Method 4 • Available time allows team interaction but not agreement. Decision by minority Process: A minority of the team. but lengthy interaction is undesirable. team commitment required to implement the decision is low. team commitment required to implement decision is moderately low. Method 4.

the team is sufficiently skilled to reach a consensus. team commitment required to implement the decision is moderately low. clear choice of minority group. Decision by majority vote Process: This is the most commonly used method in the United States (not synonymous with best method).decision Appropriate Times for Method 5 • Limited time prevents convening entire team. or only. Decision by consensus Process: Collective decision arrived at through an effective and fair communication process (all team members spoke and listened. and all were valued). group consensus supporting voting process. Strengths Weaknesses • Useful when there is insufficient time to make decision by consensus • Taken for granted as the natural. team commitment required to implement decision is moderately high. Method 6. Method 7. Discuss the decision until 51% or more of the team members make the decision. the team commitment required to implement the decision is high. way for teams to make a decision • Useful when the complete team-member • Team is viewed as the ―winners and the commitment is unnecessary for implementing losers‖. Strengths Weaknesses • Most effective method of team decision making • All team members express their thoughts and feelings • Team members ―feel understood‖ • Active listening used (see communication paper) Appropriate Times for Method 7 • Time available allows a consensus to be reached. reduces the quality of decision a decision • Minority opinion not discussed and may not be valued • May have unresolved and unaddressed conflict • Full group interaction is not obtained Appropriate Times for Method 6 • Time constraints require decision. • Takes more time than methods 1–6 • Takes psychological energy and high degree of team-member skill (can be negative if individual team members not committed to the process) .

Stage 1: Potential opposition or incompatibility: The first step in the conflict process is the presence on conditions that create opportunities for conflict to rise.(1)Communications (2) Structure (3) Personal Variables. Because conflict is perceives does not mean that is personalized. then it is generally agreed that no conflict exists.Method 7 takes well-practiced communication skills by all team members. Method 7 (Decision by consensus) has positive long-standing results regarding team decision making. (3)Personal Variables: Certain personality types. The potential for conflicts tends to be greatest when group members are younger and when turnover is high. leadership styles. (2)Structure: The term structure is used. Methods for Decision Marking—Retrospective These seven methods/strategies for decision making all have strengths and challenges. jargon insufficient exchange of information and noise in communication channel are all antecedent conditions to conflict. Too much communication as well as too little communication can rely foundation for conflict. in this context to include variables such as size. These cause or create opportunities for conflict to rise. Q. (1)Communications: Different words connotations. Such Jurisdictional ambiguity increases inter group fighting for control or resources and territory.for example individuals who are highly authoritarian and dogmatic.. members/ goal compatibility. ‖ A may be aware that B and A are in serious disagreements but it may not make A tense or nations and it may have no effect whatsoever on A’s affection towards B‖ It is the felt level . These causes or sources of conflict have been condenses into three general categories . The conflict process can be seen as comprising five stages (1) potential opposition or incompatibility (2) Cognition and personalization (3) intentions (4) Behavior (5) Outcome. Stage 2: Cognition and personalization: conflict must be perceived by the parties to it whether or not conflict exists is a perception issue. The greater the ambiguity in defining where responsibility for action lies.lead to potential conflict.g. the greater the likelihood of conflict. reward systems and the degree of dependence between groups. For e. jurisdictional clarity. The size and specialization act as forces to stimulate conflict. Another reason for conflict is difference in value systems. . Review prior section on environments for decision making and other minidocuments on effective communication and conflict management. However. the greater the potential for conflict to emerge. degree of specialization in the tasks assigned to group members. If no one is aware of a conflict.3 Elaborate the different stages in process of conflict. Value differences are the best explanations of diverse issues such as prejudice disagreements over one’s contribution to the group and rewards one deserves. The larger the group and the more specialized its activities. Tenure and conflict have been found to be inversely related. repeatedly.

Stage2 is the place in the process where the parties decide what the conflict is about and emotions plays a major role in shaping perception. During the course of conflict. they might change because of reconceptualization or because of an emotional reaction to the behavior of other party. Stage 4: Behavior: This is a stage where conflict becomes visible. the intention o the parties are to solve the problem by clarifying differences rather than by accommodating various points of view. or dysfunctional in that it hinders group performance. The behavior stage includes the statements. 1) Competing: when one person seeks to satisfy his or her own interests regardless of the impact on the other parties to the conflict.five conflict handling intentions can be identified. Avoiding included trying to just ignore a conflict and avoiding others with whom you disagree. Using two dimensions cooperativeness (the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy the other party’s concerns)and assertiveness (the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy his or her own concerns). actions and reactions made by the conflicting parties. he is competing. tension or hostility. 2) Collaborating: A situation in which the parties to a conflict each desire to satisfy fully the concerns of all the parties. 5) Compromising: A situation in which each party to a conflict is wiling to give up something. Stage 5 Outcomes: The action reaction interplay between the conflicting parties result in consequences. Intentions provide general guidelines for parties in a conflict situation. These conflict behaviors are usually overt attempt to implement each party’s intentions. 4) Accommodating: The willingness of one partying a conflict top lace the opponent’s interest above his or her own. In collaborating. 3) Avoiding: a person may recognize that a conflict exists and want to withdraw from it or suppress it. Stage 3: Intentions: Intentions are decisions to act in a given way intentions intervene between people’s perception and emotions and their overt behavior. They define each party’s purpose. Conflict is constructive when it improves the quality of decisions simulates creativity and innovations encourages interest and curiosity among group members provides the medium through which problems can be aired and tensions released and fosters an environment of self evaluation and change. These outcomes may be functional in that the conflict results in an improvement in the group’s performance. . Yet people intention is not fixed.when individuals become emotionally involved that parties experience anxiety .

or scares you has the potential to activate the stress response and result in warning signs of stress. a founding father of stress research. frustrates. The stress response has served an adaptive function throughout human evolution and serves and makes you more focused and alert.exhaustion stage. Among the more undesirable consequences are a retarding of communication. described that these stressors can affect the body in a 3-stage reaction. or relationship difficulties are today's stress causes.stage of resistance . Frustrations at work.the third stage of the general adaptation syndrome. This can lead to exhaustion and even death . But you may be just living with an unhealthy amount of stress and in the resistance stage of the general adaptation syndrome. Hans Seyle. financial concerns. this can mean that you don’t get much downtime or rest. reductions in group cohesiveness and subordination of group goals to the primacy of infighting between members. These are known as the: . the lengthy commute.Conflict is dysfunctional when uncontrolled opposition breeds discontent. But today’s causes of stress are largely emotional.alarm phase . Q. Since chronic stress is deceptive and pervasive.4 Write a note on GAS ( General Adaptation Syndrome). Pretty much anything that annoys. These different stages of stress resistance explain how stress affects health. which acts to dissolve common ties and eventually leads to the destruction of the group. . Now you may feel that you are adapting to the higher and higher levels of stress.

Research suggests that if you can reframe the stressor as a challenge you can reduce cortisol levels. In this stage stress hormones are released into the bloodstream. and causes a number of other physical effects of stress.Now there are some advantages to stress – it can make you more focused and alert!But stress for too long without adequate rest or recuperation can be bad for you! Often we are not aware of the tremendous toll that our minds and body pay in the routine.Adrenaline increases muscle tension. known as the fight or flight response. chronic stress that occurs everyday.In the fight or flight response these stress hormones mobilize the body’s resources to fight or flee from the stressful situation. We discuss in more detail how cortisol and stress affect the body. .The alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome: In the alarm phase you enter a heightened psychological and physiological arousal. heart rate.

helping you to maintain motivation and discipline. It is important for you to visit your local doctor for a complete checkup. In the resistance stage your body is like a car idling along with it's RPM too high . burnout. resistance (or adaptation) continues until the person is no longer capable of resistance or the cause of stress passes.The body loses it resistance to fight stress and the body’s immune system that fights off disease and infection is weakened. eczema An increase in minor illnesses Feeling tired all the time Increased forgetfulness Difficulty making decisions A loss of a sense of humor Increased irritability or moodiness Negative thinking Poorer concentration Being constantly worried When looking at these stress symptoms please keep in mind that these symptoms could be due to other medical problems. you may simply be learning to live with an unhealthy stress level. whether effective or ineffective.This could also be known as the adaptation phase. or lapses in concentration. the body remains alert (at a lower level) but continues the normal functions.You may notice increasing irritability and frustration. or things just seem harder than they used to be. resistance can drop off and the activity returns to the point before the emergency.Stress has generally occurred for some time and at this point.burning too much energy and becoming inefficient. Things may be moving along smoothly for you. If the body is unable to turn the stress response off to rest and recuperate then irritability. But too much stress can result distress.This stage of the general adaptation syndrome is characterized by issues such as burnout and exhaustion. The exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome: It is at this point that exhaustion sets in. There are a number of relaxation techniques that you can do which activate the relaxation response.g. In the resistance stage. You may think that you are adapting quite well to the higher stress level.The resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome: In the resistance stage the mind and the body attempt to adapt to the cause of stress. . Stress can boost your concentration and focus. and fatigue are likely to occur. constipation Increased skin irritations e. The relaxation response counters the physical and emotional effects of stress. Each of us experience stress in different ways but some of the effects of stress include: Warning Signs of Stress Physical effects of stress        Emotional effects of stress        Feelings of nausea Feeling faint or sweaty Headaches or migraine Indigestion. In this stage. However.

boldly and directly stating what you want the prospect to do Appealing to Values. Influence effectiveness depends on a combination of factors including: choice of influence tactic. Today. emotions. But merely applying a tactic will not make you an effective influencer. Cialdini is the most-cited living Social Psychologist in the world. This research is based upon extensive observation of leading salespeople inside a wide variety of industries. It's about being able to move things forward. Influence is the process of changing someone's behavior. forcing or telling others what to do. Click here for my influence summary of them. or feelings Modeling or setting an example for others to follow Exchanging by giving something of value to the influencee in return for something you want Alliance Building. It's true for some people. inspiring cooperation by appealing to values. It's the ability to work everything at your disposal. scientists have been able to identify certain patterns of behavior and speech that increase the likelihood of someone saying yes to a request. find commonalities and build a connection Consulting by examining a problem and working with the influence towards a solution Stating. both verbal and non-verbal communication.However. Cialdini PhD. the power to influence comes naturally. without pushing.Q. Appealing to Friendship and asking friends for favors or assistance Socializing to establish rapport. . there's been research conducted over the past 30 years that indicates virtually anyone can apply the principles of influence to change the outcome of any personal interaction. to create the impact you want. There are ten common influence tactics that people can use ethically (some are more valid is sales than others): Legitimizing by referring to or using recognized authority Logical Persuading by using logic to persuade the influencee. Dr. By studying individuals in sales situations. For years many believed that the ability to influence was a character attribute some had it and others did not.5Discuss the power and influence tactics . your skill at using the tactic and your personal power. rather than letting things just happen. in this field. building an alliance of supporters who can help you influence others According to Robert B. there are 6 universal influence tactics.

Q. increased understanding and more considerable leadership. 6.6 Explain the characteristics of organization Development. organisational culture etc. The strategies of Organisational Development focus on enhancement of organization effectiveness and solving organisational problems. Organisational Development (OD) can be described as the systematic process to change the culture. 2. 7. 3. Organisational Development uses sensitivity training methods and lay emphasis on the significance of experiment based training. Organisational Development is an educational strategy that attempts to bring about a planned change. values. Organisational Development works as important mechanism that helps in impressing the organization and its employee through planned and established system. 5. The external change agents and internal organisation executives establish a collaborative relationship that involves mutual trust. system and behavior of organization. It includes structural and technological changes and focuses on working relationships of employees with the organisation. The external change agents are humanists and seek to establish a social and altruistic philosophy within an organisation. The characteristics of Organisational Development (OD) are as follows:1. It concentrates on people dimensions like norms. The required changes in the organisation are usually the result of some immediate problems but it is a long term approach covering three to five years. Organisational Development is the modern approach to management of change for human resources development. attitudes. It is process that helps in solving organizational problems and achieving organizational objectives. The goals that the change agent seeks to achieve through OD tend to reflect human approach and aims for better conflict resolution. relationships. 4. influence and jointly determined goals. . 8. Organisational Development relates to real organisational problems instead of hypothetical cases. Its change agents are almost external consultants outside of the organisation.

It is a dynamic process that involves considerable investment of money and time 11. . collection of data and evaluation of the situation 12. It works on open and adaptive system concepts and believes that organisational design and managerial performance are mutually interdependent. It is research based activity and aims at conducting surveys.9. It is used to describe variety of change programmes and intends to change the organisational philosophies. 10. attitudes and skills of people.

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