Modul: Forme şi cauze ale violenţei în şcoală.

Perspectivă individuală, familială, şcolară, mass media

Module: Forms and causes of violence in schools Individual, family, school and mass media perspective

Introduction 1. Forms of violence in schools 2. Causes of violence in schools 3. The main personality features of pupils, which are relevant concerning violence in schools 4. The school—an entity which generates conflicts, negative climate and violence 5. Social and family environment. Risk factors in inducing violence into pupils

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invisible forms -2- .which is direct. of which the mass media seem by far the most important. In the specialized literature there are frequent analyses of the tendencies on forms of manifestation in contemporary schools. Perspectivă individuală. it is necessary to take into account the various perspectives on this phenomenon. to the pupil’s family or to the macro social influences. mainly concerning the responsibility of shaping the young generation. A series of factors—wide access to information. as it is one of the most important institutions of the society. legitimate and encouraged. conflicting opinions which have led to tensions between the school and the family. expressed by increasing the participation to decisions of local authorities. This is the general objective of this module. mass media Introduction A formation module dedicated to this theme is necessary.Modul: Forme şi cauze ale violenţei în şcoală. introducing the idea of school autonomy with regard to the educational offer. symbolical. conflicts between educational actors. parents. the causes and the risk factors. but also with the relationship between those responsible for making decisions and the teaching staff. but more than that. too. teacher. but also of social conflicts inherent to any macro social change. some of them being already noticed in Romanian schools. Thus. Thus. as the inquiry-study „ Violence in schools” revealed that this reality is very complex. whether we refer to the individual—pupil. there has been an increase in the number of phenomena of violence. In this context. In Romania. parent—. sometimes--. to more subtle. at an international level. the causes that lead to these manifestations are very diverse. we can notice: -the transition from physical violence-. school has been subject to a lot of changes since 1990. şcolară. the analysis of the various types of manifestation of violence. as violence had a multifactorial aetiology. visible. Not only does it have various forms of manifestation. the church and the civil society—have turned school into a space of major changes. familială. in order to better understand school violence.

is it legitimate to ask ourselves the question: what are the forms in which it appears? 1. şcolară. use of weapons. harassment.Modul: Forme şi cauze ale violenţei în şcoală. Forms of violence in schools The study/inquiry « Violence in schools » revealed the following forms of violence in Romanian schools: Violence among pupils:  The most common form /conflicts amongst pupils  It is a common phenomenon in schools  Less serious forms of violence are specific to school age  Pupils are violent because society as a whole is aggressive: the relationships models that children are subject to are violent in nature ( at home. gender. Perspectivă individuală. even in children’s shows)  Verbal violence is the most common form: arguments. though still not dramatic. offences. familială. scorn. If there is such thing as violence in the schools. consumption of drugs) -the diffusion of the phenomena of violence in the school building or in its vicinity. as girls and women adopt certain behaviours which were in the past specific to boys and men. to the types of relationships specific to the school environment and to certain desirable behavioural models. -the multiplication and diversification of the acts of violence upon teachers -an increase in the number of cases of serious violence in schools. cases which fall under the incidence of the law (murders. rapes. mass media referring to certain values which are promoted. in the present. conflicts. -the proliferation of violence in schools determined by differences in social status. but a tolerated behaviour  Physical violence is declared mostly by parents . in the number of female offenders. leading to a transgression of violence from the school to the public space. religious and ethnical differences -the increase . as well as the proliferation of violence amongst minor girls. not so much by teachers -3- . in the street. it appears as a “common “ manifestation. on television. threats.

inside the school building. during classes. physical aggression)  Parents have violent behaviour towards their own child or his/her peers Violence outside the school building  Manifests itself amongst pupils or are provoked by people around the school (former pupils. non-verbal aggression. pupils in other schools. threats with official complaints. robbery. inhabitants. expelling from class. verbal/non – verbal aggression. ignoring/not paying attention to the pupil .  Manifests itself in various forms. Violence of teachers towards pupils  Is a phenomenon which is present in schools. refusals. physical violence (slapping. subjective evaluation (injustice). they are verbally and none verbally aggressive (offences. during breaks. ear pulling) Violence of parents in the school building  Parents have inappropriate behaviour towards teachers ( yelling. ironies. but hard to recognise by teachers. offences. heated discussions. it takes place in the following order: between pupils who are in the same class. and between pupils from different grades Violence of pupils towards teachers  It exists. inadequate and obscene gestures) as well as serious violence (insults.Modul: Forme şi cauze ale violenţei în şcoală. youngsters belonging to gangs. insults. in the school building after classes are over and finally. most often they ignore the messages coming from teachers. mass media  Usually takes place in the following order: in the school vicinity. after classes. as: irony. behave in an inappropriate manner. physical aggression). sarcasm. familială.  As regards its frequency. hair pulling. strangers)  Can have various manifestations (theft. physical or sexual assault) -4- . ironical attitudes. but the actors’ opinions diverge  School counsellors are more willing to admit its existence than teachers or the schools ‘management. as they are the ones who offer counselling to pupils with such behaviour. according to its frequency. explicit scorn. Perspectivă individuală. şcolară. between pupils in different classes and same grade. beatings.  It manifests itself through behaviour which is inadequate for their status (they are absent from classes.

şcolară. the pupil. He talks only about money and having fun The pupil’s sister. shares her brother’s admiration for this boy and says this boy must be really “cool”. Perspectivă individuală. several people are involved. in which the daughter also takes part. The father cannot understand his children’s attitude and the reason why they both find this “tramp” so attractive. holding various roles: the parent (father). father. It is suggested that the roles should be played by 4 people in each group— pupil. The pupil tells his parents that his colleague was absent from school for a long time and everyone looks up to him. -how would you account for the agreement between brother and sister -what values and behaviour the colleague promotes -analyse the conflict of values between generations -5- . who blame him for this interest in his colleague and advise their son not to emulate him. the pupil and his colleague talk during the break. the pupil’s sister. an 8th grader. mass media EXERCISES AND GROUP ACTIVITIES Identify the forms of school violence.Modul: Forme şi cauze ale violenţei în şcoală. colleague. the respect of his peers as well as of the pupil in this case study. admiration. sister—in two sequences: in the first one. The situation is described starting from a real case A 9th grader comes home and tells his parents about a colleague he admires very much. This annoys his parents. familială. anticipating that the latter will eventually be in trouble. in a discussion between pupil and father. in the second sequence. using also the examples and case studies presented in the previous modules Role play In a situation that happened in a school. Debate -What would be the reasons why the colleague generates so much attention.

I said “Son. according to their options and then find synonyms. I did notice that he disliked being told off in public. mass media Case study A pupilles mother : I went to school when my son was in the 9th grade and his form teacher kept saying that my son is the most insolent and evil pupil in her class and beat up all pupils. but only two differing options will be chosen. there has to be something that can be done to make you behave. Discussions in the larger. how should it be expressed? Exercise Groups of 4-5 people are formed. a repertoire of significations will be written out. Finally. That is why I went into his classroom. The groups are asked to interpret and to give one or more meanings to the attribute “insolent”. The group will be asked to express opinions which support or contradict each option.Modul: Forme şi cauze ale violenţei în şcoală. Perspectivă individuală. Group discussion Identify the forms of violence in the above mentioned situation and the type of violence of the characters involved. şcolară. reunited group The whole group will participate. For each option of meaning a supporter will be chosen. Each group elects a representative. pulled him by the ears in front of all his classmates and told him I was moving him to a boarding school. Arguments for and against will be brought. Who should be involved? Whose responsibility is it? -6- . as I am already embarrassed whenever I come to the school”. familială. What power rapports can be identified in this situation---and what forms of power? What is your opinion on the strategy that the pupil’s mother adopted? Is it recommendable? Was it efficient? Did it have negative consequences on the boy’s attitude towards school and his colleagues? Is the parent’s strategy solving the situation a form of violence? What meaning to you attach to the word “threat”? Does it have various forms of manifestation? What is the difference—if any—between threat and information? Do children need authority and if so. He was so ashamed that he stopped all forms of violence towards his colleagues. so he should say good bye to all his classmates”. The representatives from each group will then draft a repertoire of significations specifying how many members of the group opted for each signification.

only they remain in the courtyard. discuss the parents’ opinions regarding their relationships with their children: what types of relationships have you met most often? -7- . but this is only my personal opinion. I was slapped so many times! It seems only fair to me that teachers should be allowed to hit them from time to time.calls them “senile” and boasts that he can fool them anytime. The children think that they actually go to school. A 6th grader was in Spain with his parents for 2 weeks and hasn’t gone to classes since he came back. familială. Children who do not like going to school come in a school courtyard: they do not go to school. So. Debate Identify the educational style suggested by a parent in the above mentioned situation. why shouldn’t I have the right to hit him? So. I give him a 7 in behavior and then he keeps on doing it. but just hang around in the courtyard or in the neighbourhood. Characterize the pupil’s behaviour. It’s no use threatening they will have a low grade in behaviour. Their parents have no idea they no longer go to school. telling them rude words He keeps making rude comments about other children. try to explain what might be the causes of his behaviour Identify the responsibilities and decide who should take on the task of educating this pupil Identify who should do something about this situation What forms of violence take place in this situation? Who are the actors? Who are the aggressors and who are the victims. or telling them that they have no right to beat up their children.Modul: Forme şi cauze ale violenţei în şcoală. as parents can do that at home: if he insults me as a teacher. he lives with his grandparents . Exercises Analyse the situation presented above. Case study A parent: As a pupil. I threaten to expel him from classes. where is he going to end up? I strongly believe that laws are not good. şcolară. mass media Case study Some cases of violence are generated by groups of children or youngsters who live in the school‘s vicinity.. By using your personal experience. Perspectivă individuală. He keeps telling his colleagues what it was like in Spain and picks up girls.

a cause of school violence? Can we talk about a violent pupil who manifests a tendency towards violence. by following an operationally convenient typology. poverty. able to facilitate the understanding of the complexity of the aetiology of the phenomenon of school violence. obviously referring to the family relationships. or the confusion of values. acceptable ones to the most serious ones. from the simplest. elaborate a typology of parents according to the strategy they adopt in the relationships with their children. EXERCISES AND GROUP ACTIVITIES 1. the mass media. the child’s personality.Modul: Forme şi cauze ale violenţei în şcoală. familială. even delinquency. legislative aspects. Causes of school violence One of the hypotheses of the study « Violence in schools » was that this phenomenon is generated by multiple causes and factors of influence whose effects are cumulated and they generate each other. the instability of the environment in which the child develops. Is the individual. lack of tolerance in various aspects of social life. Are there any similarities between the educational styles of teachers and those of parents? What is the best course of action in the situations in which your personal educational style is not compatible with that of the parents? 2. Perspectivă individuală. psychological and social characteristics. Specialized studies have outlined several risk factors regarding school violence. producing various forms of manifestation. with his biological. which often translates into action? -8- . mass media Are there any tensions / divergences between parents and teachers? How do you explain these disagreements and what is their consequence on the attitude of the pupils? What forms of violence does the parent refer to in the above mentioned case study? Using your didactic experience. şcolară. the trends and the values that are promoted. The objective of this module sequence is the identification of the risk factors.

When he didn’t like something or someone. He threatened to beat him up if he didn’t bring him the money. when i get angry. He thought that fighting solves any problem.I quickly lose my temper.000 lei the next day. He took it out by beating the boy up.i got really angry. I guess it’s a family trait.. he bore a grudge on someone because they said something unpleasant to him. and making the girl stumble and fall on the floor.. he asked him to bring him 10. Group discussions What strategy would you adopt in such a situation? How can the pupil’s behaviour be changed. taking into account the expressions used by the pupil: “family trait” “then I regret it” “I do not have cold blood”. if this was possible? Who is responsible for the violence manifested in this case? Are there limits of education? In what situations? How do you explain the colloquial expression “bad seed”? a. familială. he beat them up. I often react and then I regret it. “I quickly lose my temper” Associate these expressions with personality traits. . He beat up some girls only because he .I sometimes throw objects...” Exercise Identify the types and forms of violence in the above mentioned situation Define the pupil’s behaviour at school and at home Identify the cause/causes of his behaviour Give arguments for these causes.9 thought they had a friendly behaviour towards him only because they wanted him to give them sweets. spit towards her and threw the register out of the window.Modul: Forme şi cauze ale violenţei în şcoală. a classmate broke his pen and as a punishment. i even broke the tv screen once. Main features of character of pupils which are relevant in the case of school violence Case study A 6th grader admits that if a colleague makes him angry. I cannot say I have cold blood.. If someone cursed him. he takes revenge immediately. Once.. because I am very impulsive. I yelled at the teacher.. I shouldn’t be blaming others. Perspectivă individuală. Another time. mass media Case study A pupil used the following self characterization:”a hot blooded person. şcolară.. he started a fight.

pupils have different behaviour. şcolară. mass media Group discussion Analyse the behaviour of the pupil in the above mentioned study Identify the most common type of violence that this pupil uses in the relationships he had with his colleagues Identify the forms of violence presented in the situation above What strategy would you adopt if you had students like this in your class? What personality traits can such behaviour reveal? What behaviour have you noticed that the colleagues of such pupils have? What about their parents? In a class. Both during classes and during the breaks. familială.10 - . socializing methods. there are visible differences between pupils. please evaluate whether you are confronted with various actions of your pupils according to two variables. fretting Leaves the desk when he is not supposed to Runs. emotional particularities. the ability to concentrate/ focus impulsiveness and self control. determined by different personality traits: the ability to assimilate.Modul: Forme şi cauze ale violenţei în şcoală. the communication style. moves a lot when he is not supposed to Finds it hard to stand still when the game requires it Seems « pushed » by a certain force to do things. Perspectivă individuală. used for the school climate/tendency to express violence. Behaviour Symptoms Restless. to move around Talks a lot Interrupts and interferes in discussions and other children’s play Answers without listening to the whole question Lacks the patience to wait for his turn Rarely Sometimes Frequently Hyperactivity/impulsiveness . Exercise Starting from the above situations and using your didactic experience.

şcolară. often ignored by adults? What strategy would you adopt in order to communicate with the parents of a pupil who seems to display a devious.limits behaviour. Do you believe that in any class there are a small percentage of pupils with serious behavioural disorders. an “impossible” pupil? What knowledge should teachers possess in order to act properly in such a situation? . but if for each of these two types of behaviour --hyperactivity /impulsiveness and inattentiveness—we can notice the presence of six symptoms. then the pupil’s parents should be advised to see the school counsellor. Group discussion Identify the difference of perception between a pupil whose behaviour in terms of manifestation of violence is acceptable (even if he is a difficult pupil) and one whose behaviour makes you believe he needs professional help. mass media Does not pay attention to details and makes mistakes out of negligence when he does his homework or has other activities Difficulties of concentration even when he is playing Does not usually pay attention to what he is told Does not follow the instructions given and does Inattentiveness not fulfil his duties as a pupil Has difficulties organizing tasks and activities Rejects tasks that require prolonged mental effort(homework at home/at school) Loses things. in other words. off.11 - . Perspectivă individuală. or. familială. inadequate.the.Modul: Forme şi cauze ale violenţei în şcoală. never has what he needs Is often distracted by external stimuli Is forgetful These features generally combine.

Case study . increasing the potential for violence. Please evaluate each of these causes. Risk factors in inducing violence in pupils Group discussion and exercises We consider being family causes of pupils’ violent behaviour a series of factors from the social and family environment. Perspectivă individuală. domestic violence (rows. Formulate arguments for and against as well as reserves you might have regarding the above mentioned causes. Identify these factors in the case studies presented above. Find situations in which one factor associates with another. Causes Conflicts. Formulate arguments to understand the interaction between the various characteristics of the social and family environment. which you will find listed in the table below. mass media 3. şcolară. but it seems that some are more important than others. Surely all these factors play a part and influence each other. familială. beatings) Indifference.Modul: Forme şi cauze ale violenţei în şcoală. quite important and very important.12 - . child is not shown love Dipsomania (one or both parents) Parents’ low level of education Oversized family/many children Parent/s absent/working abroad Parent/s in jail Unimportant Quite important Very important Indicate which causes have been more frequent in your experience. Social and family environment. fights. using three evaluation ranks: unimportant. parents’ diminished interest in children Disorganised/single parent families Poverty/unemployment Lack of affection. negligence.

Can an overprotected child develop hostile/violent behaviour? . şcolară. to everyone’s amazement. who has everything a child can ever dream of: sweets. Both parents were very busy. with different attitudes towards the didactic style: authoritative style/democratic style. leaving a note which read. there are tensions between the parents. The child had no friends and was always busy with the programme his mother imposed on him.Characterise the educational style/values of the parents .13 - . What about the democratic style? What differences of attitudes does each style reflect? . The child’s parents are very rich and have very high ambitions for their child. what he felt and thought .Identify accusations of his behaviour . two cars. Group discussion Indicate what characterizes the authoritative style. The rest of the group observes the role play and then participates in the group discussion. The father said that the mother nagged the child and didn’t give him enough freedom. the child left home with his bicycle. Group discussion . a big courtyard. a high fence. using the distinction between autonomy/assertiveness and dependence/submission 4. The parents have a big house with a swimming pool. the father only came home late at night. because he hadn’t managed to go too far from home. and a computer. « I want to be a street child ». negative climate and violence Can the school in itself generate conflicts. and one of the two women also took care of the child. a negative educational climate and violence? Role play Two participants of the group play the role of two teachers. The parents hired two women to take care of the house: cleaning. alarm sensors and big dog. mass media A couple has an 11 year old son. cooking. However. familială.Identify the development needs of the child. The school—an entity which generates conflicts. One day. He was found quickly.Modul: Forme şi cauze ale violenţei în şcoală.Describe the psychological state of the child. regarding their educational styles. Perspectivă individuală. toys.

Define “ safe distance” between teachers and pupils . şcolară. The other one claims that the main enemy is the mass media. .Modul: Forme şi cauze ale violenţei în şcoală. There have been a lot of discussions in the staff room about age/experience as a variable of the class climate and the incidence of violence. family friends. Perspectivă individuală. especially since they stay at home alone for quite a long time. He says that the TV imposes success models and strengthens the children’s desire to become stars and to imitate.One of the parents claims that if the family doesn’t get involved in the child’s life.Can friendship between teachers and pupils have a positive impact on their relationship? .Build the profile of an “ideal teacher” and of an “ideal headmaster” . holidays. “strict”. Group discussion . “close”. . especially the television.Is there a conflict between generations at school level. this is a sure cause of educational failure. . He thinks it is better not to have a TV set in the house if 14 this is the only way to stop children from watching it all the time. between teachers or/and between pupils and teachers . familială. money and other subjects. while older teachers disagree. meet on a visit to some mutual friends. They discuss politics. Then the discussion focuses on children and their edication. Case study In a school there are young and old teachers. The social context in which the contemporary Romanian school functions Case study Two parents.Repeat the task considering a big age difference between pupils and teachers. prices. Young teachers complain that being young doesn’t offer any advantages. evaluating their degree of coexistence. mass media How the communication between teacher and pupil is expressed when two different didactic styles are used? Give arguments for and against the authoritative style and the democratic style What are the advantages and disadvantages of each educational style? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the interactive teaching method? Describe situations from your experience when you had to change your didactic style and explain why this was necessary.Associate the attributes “competent”.Bring arguments if there can be made generalizations about the influence of the age factor between children and adults. the weather.Identify the advantages /disadvantages that can be brought by teachers being closer in age to their students .

School violence cannot be autonomously approached. Perspectivă individuală. In order to understand violence in schools we must know the precise nature of this phenomenon—especially the interaction between person and situation—and only then understand it in the context of everyday life violence in contemporary society. peer pressure is much stronger than the school’s or family/parents’ authority. mass media Group discussion Indicate the advantages/dangers of television and bring arguments with examples from your own experience Define the positive/negative effects of television on children Think of strategies that can maximize the positive effects and minimize the negative ones How can adults control the children’s exposure to scenes of violence (viewing time and the type of the programme)? Debate Discuss and evaluate the following statements: -The violence of children is caused by the system and the society in which we are living -Children’s violence is a matter that concerns us all -In vain do we try to correct negative influences of the social environment. even though we can think of it as a distinct phenomenon of social violence. şcolară. .Modul: Forme şi cauze ale violenţei în şcoală. familială. the children’s entourage has become more influential.15 - . -Children are attracted to negative models because they cannot discern what is right and what is wrong and their critical thinking is not encouraged -All educational failures are a consequence of the crisis of values -Things are the same everywhere -Only in Romania can such things happen Conclusions The forms and causes of school violence are complex and hard to analyse. especially because of their variety. they still affect children -Adults (teachers included) are insufficiently motivated and involved in children’s education -The family has lost its importance.

16 - . mass media . Perspectivă individuală. şcolară. familială.Modul: Forme şi cauze ale violenţei în şcoală.

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