Bequeathed

St.

to

Mary
rev.

College Library

s

Very

M. E. James

1898-1958

v\.

OHN

M. KELLY

LIBRARY

Donated by

The Redemptorists of
the Toronto Province from the Library Collection of Holy Redeemer College, Windsor

University of
St.

Michael

s

College, Toronto

HOLY REDEEMER

LIBJMffV.

SELECTIONS

EARLY CHRISTIAN WRITERS

SELECTIONS
FROM

EARLY WRITERS
ILLUSTRATIVE OF

CHURCH HISTORY TO THE TIME OF CONSTANTINE

BY

HENRY MELVILL GWATKIN,
HON.
D.D.,

M.A.

DIXIE PROFESSOR OF ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

EDINBURGH

EonDon

MACMILLAN AND
:

CO., LTD.

NEW YORK THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
1897

HOLY REDEEMER LU*fov.
<P

FIRST EDITION,

1893
,

Reprinted with additions and corrections 1897

PREFACE
IT
is

hoped that the present volume
its

will

be found
of

within
original

limits

a

fairly

representative

selection

documents

for the use of students.

Attention

has been directed, not only to the general course of

New Testament Canon, and to the personal opinions of conspicuous writers. It has been thought best to give a translation for the
events, but to the history of the
benefit of such as are but

mean

scholars,

and

in this

second edition a few introductory notes are given. My best thanks are due to the Trustees of the
Lightfoot Fund, to Mr. Parker, of Oxford, and to Messrs. T. and T. Clark, of Edinburgh, for the use of translations mentioned below x also to Dr. Zahn, of
;

Erlangen, for the Latin text of the Canon Muratorianus, and to Professor Robinson for the Greek text of certain

passages of Origen

2
,

for

certain translations,

and

for

much
1

help

in

many
;

directions.

Translations marked L. are due to Lightfoot s Apostolic Fathers ; R. to Professor Robinson N.L. to the -Library of Nicene and Post-A icene

Fathers; A.N.L. to the Ante-Nicene Christian Library.
2

These are numbered XLVIII, XLIX, LI a, Li,

LII.

July, 1897.

CONTENTS
1.

THE NERONIAN PERSECUTION

.....
.

PAGE

Tacitus

a

2.

3. 4.

OPENING OF CLEMENT S LETTER TO THE CORINTHIANS Clement ofRome 2 THE NERONIAN PERSECUTION do. 4
. .

ARRANGEMENTS SETTLED BY THE APOSTLES
.

do.
.

6
10
12

4. THE PERSECUTION OF DOMITIAN
5.

.

Dio Cassius
Ignatius
do.

IGNATIUS ON EPISCOPACY IGNATIUS ON DOCETISM

6.
7.

is
12

THE CHRISTIANS
PLINY
S

IN

THE

WORLD

8. 9.

CHURCH ORDER OF THE DIDACH
THE NERONIAN PERSECUTION

....
.

.

Ep. ad Diognetum

Didache
Pliny

18

CORRESPONDENCE WITH TRAJAN

10.
11.

12.

OF THE CANONICAL EPISTLES OF THE CANON OF THE NEW TESTAMENT
PAPIAS

..... .....
.

.

.

26

Eusebius
do.
do.

30 32

.

.

.

34
38
44 44

13.
14.

do.
.

140.
15.

QUADRATUS ON OUR LORD S MlRACLES THE APOLOGY OF ARISTIDES .
.

.

do.

HEATHENISM THE WORK OF DEMONS
CHRISTIANITY BEFORE CHRIST

16.
17.

.....
. .

....
.

Vita

Barlaam
Justin
do.
do.

46
48

CHRISTIAN WORSHIP

50 56 56
58 60
62

18.
19.

THE JEWISH INTERPRETATION OF ISA. VH. 14 THE CHRISTIAN INTERPRETATION OF VARIOUS PASSAGES THE ENCRATITES
LETTER OF DIONYSIUS OF CORINTH TO THE ROMANS

do.
do.

iga.
20.

Eusebius
do.

si.

THE PERSECUTION AT LYONS AND VIENNE

.

do.

viii

Contents.

33.
23. 24.

FRAGMENT OF MURATORI ON THE CANON
ORIGIN OF THE GOSPELS

...
Eusebius
Hippolytus

PAGE

82
88

MONTANISM
LETTER OF IRENAEUS TO FLORINUS LETTER OF POLYCRATES TO VICTOR

25.
26. 27. 28.

.... ....
.

90
92
94 96 98
104

Eusebius
do.

MARCION

Irenaeus
do.
do.

THE ARGUMENT OF IRENAEUS FROM TRADITION

29. 30.

A

TRADITION OF THE ELDERS

PHILOSOPHY A PREPARATION FOR THE GOSPEL

31.
32.

THE TRUE GNOSTIC

FAITH AND KNOWLEDGE

...... .....
. .
. .
.

Clement of Al.
do. do.

106
106
108

33.
34. 35.

MISUSE OF SCRIPTURE BY HERETICS

do.

108

BAD EMPERORS THE ONLY PERSECUTORS
TESTIMONY OF THE SOUL
CHRISTIANS NOT DISLOYAL
.

Tertnllian
do. do.

no
112
114

.

.

36.
37.

NUMBERS OF THE CHRISTIANS
CHRISTIAN WORSHIP

38.

38a.
39.
40.

NON-SCRIPTURAL CUSTOMS

...... ....
.

.

.

.

do.

114

do.
do.
do.

116
118
118

PHILOSOPHY THE MOTHER OF HEKESY

.

.

41.
42.

THE ARGUMENT OF TERTULLIAN FROM TRADITION DISORDERLY WORSHIP OF HERETICS

THE ROMAN BISHOP S EDICT
THE MISDEEDS OF PRAXEAS
INFANT BAPTISM

43.
44.

INCONVENIENCES or A MIXED MARRIAGE

.... ....
.

...

do. do.
do. do.
do. do.

120
122
124
124

.

126
128
128

45. 46.
47.

MISDEEDS OF CALLISTUS

.

.

.

.

.

Hippolytus

ORIGEN

S

CONCEPTION OF EDUCATION

.

.

.

Eusebius

130
132

48. 49.
50.

THE LETTER AND THE SPIRIT THE ARGUMENT FROM OUR LORD

Origen
S

MIRACLES

51.
5Irt.

CELSUS ON THE LORD S RESURRECTION THE GOSPEL NOT SPECIALLY ADDRESSED TO FOOLS THE TRUE GROUND OF OLD TESTAMENT INSPIRATION.
.

...
.

.

.

do. do. do.

132
134
134

do.
do.

136

5l6.

52.

THE PARABOLIC ELEMENT IN SCRIPTURE NARRATIVES THE METHOD OF GOD S DEALING WITH SINNERS

138 140

do.

INTRODUCTORY NOTES.
CORNELIUS TACITUS
his
(b.

dr. 54) reached the consulship 97, wrote
later.

Annalcs dr.
I

115,

and died a few years

Extract

The
Nero

gives a heathen view of the Neronian persecution. standpoint is that of a Roman aristocrat, to whom the Chris

tians are detestable enough, but
to

who
them.

is

too intent on blackening

go

far out of his

way

for

Clement of Rome may have been a freedman of the T. Flavius Clemens consul 95, and put to death by his cousin Domitian. He wrote the letter of the Church of Rome to the Church of Corinth His so-called Second Epistle is a sermon preached (95 or 96)
perhaps at Corinth about half a century later. Extract II is the opening of the letter, with
Corinthian Church in
tian view of the
its

past prosperity.

its picture of the In Extract III is a Chris
it

Neronian persecution, and

records the execution

of the

two great apostles. Extract IV recites that the apostles made arrangements for the orderly government of the Churches, so that the Corinthians have done wrong in turning blameless presbyters
out of office.

Cassius Dio Cocceianus (b. 155: governed several provinces: second consulship 229) wrote a history of Rome to his own time in eighty books, of which the last twenty or so are preserved chiefly in the Epitome of Joannes Xiphilinus, a Byzantine writer of the
eleventh century. Extract IVa is our fullest account of Domitian
is

s

persecution.

It

from the evidence of the catacombs that Domitilla was a Christian and there cannot be very much doubt of the consuls Glabrio and Clement (91 and 95).
certain
:

Xll

Introductory Notes.
to the beasts by Trajan (98-117), Ignatius of Antioch was given The seven letters which fix the date more nearly.

but we cannot

seem proved genuine were written from Smyrna and Troas on

his

way

to the amphitheatre at

Rome.

Extracts

In Extract
Extract

V and VI V we see

VI

humanity.

most prominent topics. represent two of his the stress he lays on the bishop s office, in his earnest assertion of the reality of our Lord s his overwrought desire for It also glances at a third

martyrdom.

The
150.

It

Letter to Diognetus is by an unknown writer, perhaps 130is the most striking of Christian pamphlets before the de
;

Incarnatione of Athanasius

and

its

powerful language

is

a strong

contrast to the plainer style of Aristides

and

Justin.

points to

Extract VII begins with his famous picture of Christian life, then its contrast with heathenism, and ends with a difficult
is

passage where that contrast

appealed to

in

proof of Christianity.

The Didacht
date

Bishop Bryennius)

or Teaching of the Apostles (published in 1883 by Its is also the work of an unknown writer.
;

is uncertain ; possibly even in the first century : its place also possibly the mountains of Peraea. It represents a very early stage of Church government, before the rise of (monarchical) episcopacy. Extract VIII gives an account of Baptism (earliest mention of

affusion

peculiar form of the Lord s Prayer) and of the Lord s the evening). Then come stringent regulations for Supper apostles and prophets (not to stay too long, or to ask for money, or to eat of a special agape yet not to be tried presumptuously)
:

(still in

:

and

A prophet desiring to settle down is worthy of his meat. Then directions for Sunday worship (confession before Lord s Supper), and finally instructions to appoint worthy
for travelling Christians.

men

as bishops

and deacons.

C. Plinius Caecilius Secundus (62-113) reached the consulship 100, and in the year in was sent by Trajan on a special mission to
set in order the cities of Bithynia.

Extract IX shows his hesitation in dealing with the Christians. Obstinate offenders, of course, he puts to death but what was to be done with those who renounced their offence, or had long ago given
:

Introductory Notes.
it

xiii

up? Was it good policy to use indiscriminate severity? Trajan answers that convicted offenders must be punished, though they are not to be searched for, and that all suspected persons who renounce Christianity are to be set free.
Papias, bishop of Hierapolis in Phrygia (dr. 130), from the chapter of Eusebius here given.
is

chiefly

known

to us

It will

be noted

him for hrs Millenarianism, and probably does h im less than justice. Extract XIII begins with a statement of Irenaeus, that Papias
that Eusebius dislikes

was a disciple of

St.

John.

Against this Eusebius quotes Papias

preface, in which he seems to distinguish his own informant, the elder John, from the Evangelist. After mentioning sundry mar
vellous stories,
will

Gospels.

It

he gives the words of Papias about our two first be noted (interpreted, not interprets) that the
out of use in his time.

Hebrew Matthew was
story of the

Last of
of

all

comes the
15.

woman

taken in adultery, which
in illustration

may (Ewald) have
John
viii.

been the tradition told by Papias

Quadratus was one of the earliest Apologists, if he addressed his work to the Emperor Hadrian (117-138), as Eusebius states.
Extract

XIV is

the only fragment of

it

to be contrasting the lasting results of our

which remains. He seems Lord s miracles with the

passing effects produced by the magicians.
Aristides, the philosopher of Athens, is also said by Eusebius to have presented his Apology to Hadrian. The work was lost but when a Syriac translation was discovered (disc, and ed. by Mr.Rendel
:

its inscription pointed to Antoninus Pius (138-161). an adapted form was recognized by Professor Robinson in the Life of Barlaam and Joasaph, which (as originally pointed out by Prof. Max M tiller) is itself a Christian adaptation of a Buddhist romance. Found in the works of John of Damascus (dr. 730). Extract XlVa is a simple account of Christian life, which should

Harris, 1891),
in

The Greek

be compared with that of the writer to Diognetus.
Justin, the philosopher

and martyr

(b.

dr. 100 at Flavia Neapolis,

the ancient Shechem), owed his conversion to an old man he met on the seashore, perhaps at Ephesus. He continued to wear the

philosopher

s

cloak,

and taught as a philosopher

at

Rome, where

xiv

Introductory Notes.

he was put to death (163-167). The date of his First Apology is but the doubt seems to lie between 138 and difficult question dr. 150. Of his Dialogue with Trypho,&\\ that can be said is that a
;

it

was written
Extracts

later.

XV-XVII
his

and XVI we see

are from the First Apology. In Extracts XV view of heathenism, that though its errors and

persecutions are the work of demons, Christ the Reason is still the teacher even of heathens, as many as were willing to live with reason, like Socrates and others. They should be compared with Clement

(Extract

XXX)
s

and contrasted with Tertullian (Extract XXXIX).

XVII is in the full account given of Baptism, Supper, and of the Sunday morning service as it was held at Rome in his time. The allusion to Gospels will be noted
The
interest of Extract

of the

Lord

;

also the parallel with the

(Extract VIII). Extracts XVIII and XIX, from the Dialogue with Trypho,a.rz discussions of some of the chief Messianic prophecies which used
to

DidacM

be quoted against the Jews.

Dionysius was bishop of Corinth about 170. Eusebius gives us a general account of his numerous letters, and quotes the two passages here selected.
Extract

XX

is

from his answer to Soter, bishop of Rome, and

gives an interesting testimony to the early influence of the Church (not the bishop) of Rome, to the liturgical use of the Epistle of

Clement, and to the corruption by some of Scriptures which Dionysius plainly counts canonical. Extract X may be from the same letter, and is the earliest direct assertion of Peter s visit to

Rome.

That

of Caius, just before

it,

seems to be rather

later.

The Letter of the Churches of Lyons and Vienne gives an account of the persecution in Gaul in the days of Marcus Aurelius (177). Its simple words are best left to speak for themselves.
Attention
the

may be
district

called to a few points,

(i)

Intercourse between

frequency of Greek names. (2) Persecution partly from the mob, partly official, and includes the searching forbidden (Extract IX) by Trajan. (3) Blandina, a slavegirlone of Clement s TraiSiWm (Extract III).
:

Rhone

and the East

Introductory Notes.
The Fragment on the Canon published by Muratori commonly ascribed to a younger contemporary of Pius
so that
its

xv
in

1740

is

Rome, and may be

date will be dr. 170. It was written in as late as 200 or even later.

Rome, Greek, and at

of

It is given complete in Extract XXII, so that its fragmentary character will easily be seen, especially near the end.

Irenaeus
others

(b. in

who had

and

finally

Asia 120-130) was a disciple of Polycarp and of St. John. He settled for some time in Rome, succeeded Pothinus as bishop of Lyons in 177. His
seen

great work against the Gnostics

was
but

written in the next decade.

The

original

is

in great part lost

;

we have

it

complete in an old

Latin translation.
Extract

XIX a

(chiefly

from Irenaeus) gives his account of the

Extract XXIII sums up and gives his view of the Apocalypse (Domitianic date) and of some uncanonical books.
in particular. his account of the origin of the Gospels,

Encratites,

and of Tatian

a fragment of a letter to his old friend Florinus, opinions, and in it he tells us of his teacher Polycarp. Extract XXVII is his account of Marcion the
is

Extract

XXV

who had taken up Gnostic

:

Greek is partly preserved by Eusebius, H.E. iv. n. Extract XXVIII gives his argument from Tradition, which must be carefully dis It speaks also of the tinguished from Tertullian s. pre-eminence
of the

Roman

Extract

XXIX

is

Church, and gives a further account of Polycarp. a tradition of the Elders, which probably comes

from the Commentary of Papias.
Polycrates of Ephesus is hardly known to us except from this Extract XXVI, which is his answer to Victor of Rome dr. 196.
St.

He defends his Quartodeciman Easter by the example of and of the apostle Philip (compare Extract XIII).

John,

Titus Flavius Clemens (b. dr. 150) studied philosophy under sundry teachers before he came to rest in Christianity. He suc ceeded Pantaenus as head of the catechetical school at

but
find
to

left

him some years later in have been dead dr. 216.

Alexandria, the city (dr. 202) during the persecution of Severus. Cilicia or Cappadocia and he seems
;

We

Extract

XXX

gives his view of the double preparation of the

xvi

Introductory Notes.

the Jews by the law, the Gentiles by philosophy. XXXII show his relation to the Gnostics, and Extract XXXIII his conception of the ideal Christian character. opens out the whole question of the mode of interpreting Scripture, which the school of Alexandria did so much to clear up.

world for Christ
Extracts

XXXI

and

Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus

(b.

dr. 155 at Carthage)

was the son of a centurion, and practised as a lawyer. He was converted to Christianity before 197, and became presbyter at Carthage. Between 202 and 207 he joined the Montanists, and died as one of them dr. 225.
are taken from his Apology. a review of the persecutions, coloured by Chris tian unwillingness to believe that good emperors really did persecute. Extract is the rough sketch of his treatise de Testimonio

Extracts

XXXIV-XXXVIII
is

Extract

XXXIV

XXXV

animae naturaliter Christianae
its

the proof of Christianity from correspondence with the nature of man. In Extract XXXVI (compare Extract XXXVIII) the empire is presented as the re Extract straining power which delays the end of the world.

XXXVII

is his famous boast of the numbers of the Christians; which, however, he gives not as a proof of Christianity only as a reason for toleration. Extract XXXVIII is a general account of
;

the Christian assemblies like Justin s (Extract XVII), but specially contrasts them with the disorderly heathen clubs. Extract

XXXVI II a shows us the development of the
;

ceremonial of Baptism

since Justin s time the Lord s Supper (now in the morning and called sacramentuni) upon occasion including a commemoration of

the dead, and of martyrs on the day of their passion

(

birth

).

Prayer standing on Sundays and after Easter (as Canon 3 of Nicaea, Extract LXXIII). Care of common food, not the elements,

and constant sign

of the cross.

(XXXIX-XLI) are from his most and most mischievous book (Hort) de Praescriptionibiis. Extract XXXIX is to show that heretics deal with philosophical In Extract questions and borrow the answers of the philosophers. XL we have his argument from Tradition. As we cannot confute heretics by Scripture, we refuse to meet them on that ground, and
next three Extracts
plausible

The

Introductory Notes.
necessarily be

xvii

simply answer that Churches once founded by the apostles must still the possessors of the truth an argument as
for

good
a

Leo XIII as

it

ever was for Pope Victor.

Extract

XLI

is

satirical

account of the disorderly worship of heretics, probably

Marcionites.

Extract

XLII comments on

the

edict

trate) of Callistus (note ironical titles)

(as if he were a magis which offered pardon (on

penance) to some gross offenders, and (according to Montanists) made the Church a partaker of their sin. Extract XLI 1 1 is a vivid
picture of the
difficulties
is

of

Christian

life

in

heathen society.

another Montanist complaint, that Praxeas was not only unsound in the faith, but had persuaded the bishop of Rome (Victor or Zephyrinus) to revoke his sanction of Montanist
Extract
Tertullian gives his objections to prudential objections, for he has no idea of any apostolic command on the other side.

XLIV

prophecy.
infant

In Extract

XLV

Baptism

Hippolytus was a disciple of Irenaeus, and a bishop of what Eusebius did not know. According to some, he was bishop of Portus or of the foreigners in Portus ; but more likely he claimed to be bishop of Rome in opposition to Callistus. In 235 he was
city,

exiled to Sardinia,

great

and seems to have died there. Book I of his work Against all Heresies was ascribed to Origen, till the discovery in 1842 of Books I V-X in a MS. on Mount Athos. Extract XXIV gives his account of the Montanists and their pro Extract XLVI is a difficult passage, but its chief burden phetesses. is the change made by Callistus in Church law, by recognizing unequal marriages which the State did not.
Origenes Adamantius (b. 185 or 186) was the son of Christian parents at Alexandria. His father Leonides was put to death in the persecution of Severus (202), and Origen soon afterwards (aged 18) succeeded Clement as head of the catechetical school. There he
laboured with splendid success for nearly thirty years, till his ordina tion (231) in Palestine (with other causes) gave offence to Demetrius
of Alexandria.
there.

He was

tortured in the Decian persecution,

Origen betook himself to Caesarea, and laboured and died of the

effects dr. 254.

b

xviii

Introductory Notes.

Extract XLVII (from Eusebius) shows Origan s wide conception of a liberal education. Extract XLVII I gives some idea of his principle of interpretation, that every passage of Scripture has a
spiritual

in Extract

meaning, commonly more important than the literal and LI 1 1 we have the answer of Porphyry from the heathen
;

side, that allegorical interpretations are

a mere subterfuge.

Extracts

XLIX-LI

are taken from Origen s answer to Celsus. In Extract XLIX the heathen replies to our Lord s miracles, that they were done by magic and indeed the mediums and spiritualists of this
;

time were as

skilful as

our own.

evidence of our Lord

s resurrection quite in

Supernatural Religion. Extracts LI a the charge that the Gospel is only meant for fools. and Lib are intended to show the modern character of Origen s
opinions on the inspiration and interpretation of Scripture. Extract LII is given as a sample of Origen s width of view and tendency In Extract LIV we have his conclusions on the to Universalism.

L Celsus disputes the the style of Renan or In Extract LI comes Origen s answer to
In Extract

authorship of the Epistle to the Hebrews.
Extract

LIVa

sacrificed in the

is one of the certificates given to Christians who Decian persecution. It shows how systematic the

procedure was. Dionysius of Alexandria was a disciple of Origen. He succeeded Heracles in 232 as head of the catechetical school, and again (247-8)
as bishop.

He

went into hiding,

like Cyprian, in the persecution of

Decius (249-251), but in that of Valerian (257) escaped with exile. He returned (260) under Gallienus, and died in 265. We have only fragments of his works, mostly preserved by Eusebius.
Extract

LV

is

with Novatian.
of the Apocalypse

intended to give a general view of the controversy In Extract LXIII his discussion of the authorship
is

a piece of criticism unsurpassed in ancient times.
;

Carthage

Thascius Caecilius Cyprianus, b. dr. 200 teacher of rhetoric in converted by presbyter Caecilius very soon bishop of
;
; ;

Carthage (dr. 248)
secution (249-251)
;

went into hiding during the Decian per
his his

executed in that of Valerian (258).

Extract

LVI

states
is

doctrine that there

Cyprian s theory of the Church, and no salvation outside it. Extract LVI I gives

Introductory Notes.

xix

position against Novatus and against the confessors who misused Extract LVIII shows the their power of intercession for offenders.

method of appointing bishops, and glances

at

his parallel of the

In Extracts LIX Christian ministry with the Jewish priesthood. we have his position against Stephen of Rome, that heretical and

LX

or schismatical Baptism

is

worthless.

Extract

LXI

is

from Firmilian

He makes of Cappadocia, writing to Cyprian against Stephen. Note one of the first references to short work of Roman claims.
2 Peter.

Extract

LXII

is

Cyprian

s

report of Valerian s Edict.
s in

It

should be compared with Diocletian

Extract

LXVI.

Arnobius was a teacher of rhetoric at Sicca in Africa, and a when he wrote his Advers^^s Nationes, apparently during the persecution of Diocletian, which began in 303.
recent convert

may

LXVI I is from his discussion of our Lord s miracles, and be taken as a reply to the argument of Celsus (Extract XLIX) that they were works of magic.
Extract
ciple of Arnobius,

L. Caelius Firmianus Lactantius (b. dr. 260 in Africa) was a dis and became Professor of Rhetoric at Nicomedia

dr. 290, but had to lay down his office when the persecution broke out. He is said to have settled afterwards in Gaul, and become tutor to Constantine s son Crispus.

Extract LXVI 1 1 is from his chief work, the Divinae Institutiones, and gives his criticism of his predecessors, Minucius Felix, TertulThe other extracts are taken from his bitter lian, and Cyprian. pamphlet de Mortibus Persecutorum. Extract LXI X is a hostile and
unfair account of Diocletian s government.
edict of
in

Extract

LXX is

the

first

grudging toleration, issued by Galerius from his deathbed

liberal

the spring of 311, while Extract LXXI is part of the more Edict of Milan, issued by Constantine and Licinius about
312.

November,
Eusebius

(b. dr. 265) was presbyter and (from soon after 313) bishop of Caesarea in Palestine. The most learned man of his time. His Ecclesiastical History contains carefully selected quota

tions

from some

fifty

different authors.

wrote his Life of Constantine after the emperor
himself died 339.

At Nicene Council 325 s death in 337, and
;

xx

Introductory Notes.

We
of

cussed

have taken about twenty extracts from Eusebius, ai)d dis many of them already. There remain Extracts XI and XII together give us a fair view of the Canon
:

the

New

Testament as

acknowledged by Eusebius.
:

He

recognizes certain doubts about five Catholic Epistles, and himself otherwise it is the same as our own. leans against the Apocalypse

must be noted that Eusebius does not undertake In Extract XII to tell us of writers who used undisputed books. the word spurious refers not so much to the question of authorship
In Extract
it

XI

as to that of canonicity. Extract LXIV is the rescript of Gallienus (260-268) extending to Egypt the toleration he had already established in quieter parts of

the empire.

In Extract

LXV

is

the

first

application

to

an

emperor

to settle a

Church dispute

Aurelian

s test of

communion with

the bishops of Italy and

Rome.

orthodoxy is Extract LXVI

New lines of policy in the gives the first three edicts of Diocletian. demolition of the Churches and the burnings of the Scriptures
:

measures against the clergy since Maximin (235-238). Extract LXXII is the famous story of Constantine s cross, as told to Eusebius by the emperor himself. The event took place as he was marching against Maxentius in 312. Extract LXXIV is the letter of Eusebius to his people at Caesarea, in which he relates the proceedings of the Nicene Council, and tells them how he overcame his objections to the Creed. The heterodox passage in
special

brackets

is

omitted by Socrates.

of Nicaea issued twenty canons, of which Extract contains five in whole or part. Canon 6 (prefaced by a notorious Roman forgery) settles the affairs of Egypt. Canon 19 orders the rebaptism of the followers of Paul of

The Council

LXXII I

Samosata which the Church of Rome construed as implying that ordinary heretics were not to be baptized. Canon 3 deals with a gross scandal of the time. The interest of Canon 17 and Canon 20 is
:

their difference

to lend at interest,

from modern ideas. Canon 17 forbids the clergy and Canon 20 forbids the faithful to kneel in

prayer on Sundays or between Easter and Pentecost.

SELECTIONS
FROM

EARLY CHRISTIAN WRITERS

Selections

from

[Tacitus

I.

ERGO abolendo rumori Nero
tissimis poenis
adfecit,

subdidit reos et quaesi-

Christianos appellabat.

5

Tiberio imperitante per erat ; repressaque in praesens exitiabilis supplicio adfectus
superstitio

quos per flagitia invisos vulgus Auctor nominis eius Christus procuratorem Pentium Pilatum

rursum erumpebat, non modo per ludaeam, urbem etiam, quo cuncta originem eius mali, sed per undique atrocia aut pudenda confluunt celebranturque.
Igitur

primum

10

multitude ingens

inde indicio eorum correpti qui fatebantur, in crimine incendii quam baud perinde

Et pereuntibus addita odio humani generis convicti sunt. laniatu canum interirent ludibria, ut ferarum tergis contecti,
aut crucibus adfixi, aut flammandi, atque dies, in usum nocturni luminis urerentur.
15 ei
1

ubi defecisset

Hortos suos

spectaculo Nero

obtulerat et circense ludicrum edebat,

habitu aurigae permixtus plebi vel curricuio insistens. Unde quamquam adversus sontes et novissima exempla

meritos miseratio oriebatur,

tamquam non

utilitate

publica
xv. 44.

sed in saevitiam unius absumerentur.
TACITUS, Ann,

II.
20

Aia ray atyviSiovs KOU
TreTTOifjaOai irepi
1

7raAA?/AoL ? ye^o/iet ay

2
rj fj.lv

rS>v

t

jnftTovfjLtvwj

nap

adfixi,

Arnold.

aut flammandi, atque] adfixi sunt flammandi, utque Franklin a . . . was ; ytvo^vas CL ; yivopevas S.

A

Ann.xv.44-]

Early Christian Writers.

The Neronian Persecution

(Tacitus).
in his

So

to stifle the report,

Nero put

own

place as

culprits

and punished with every refinement of cruelty the

crimes.

men whom the common people hated for their secret They called them Christians. Christ, from whom the name was given, had been put to death in the reign of 5
Tiberius by the procurator Pontius Pilate, and the pes
tilent

began

checked for awhile. Afterwards it break out afresh, not only in Judaea, where the mischief first arose, but also at Rome, where all sorts of
superstition
to

murder and
fashionable.

filthy

and made then on their information a vast ; multitude was convicted not so much of arson as of hatred
for the

In the to confess
race.

shame meet together and become first place then some were seized

10

human

And

they were

not only put to

death, but put to death with insult, in that they were either 15 dressed up in the skins of beasts to perish by the worrying

of dogs or else put on crosses to be set on

fire,

and when

the daylight failed, to be burnt for use as lights by night.

Nero had thrown open his gardens for that spectacle, and was giving a circus exhibition, mingling with the people
in a jockey s dress, or driving a

20

chariot.

Hence com

miseration arose, though it was for men of the worst character and deserving of the severest punishment, on
the

ground that they were not destroyed

for the

good of
25

the state, but to satisfy the cruelty of an individual.

Opening of Clement s Letter

to the

Corinthians.

BY
that

reverses which are befalling us, brethren,

reason of the sudden and repeated calamities and we consider
tardy in giving heed to the B 2

we have been somewhat

Selections
V,

from

[ciem.Rom.

dyaTrrjToi,
eou,

e/cXe/cror?

row

TrpoacoTTa

TrpOTreTrj

dXXoTpias Kal ^eV^y roFy /zmpay KCU dvo&iov oTacrea)?, 6X(ya Kal avOdSrj virdpyjovTa els TOGOVTOV

Trjs re

^

dirovotas egeKavcrav,
5 Trdo-iv

wore TO

o-ep.vov

Kal

TrcpifiorjTois

Kal

dvOptoTrois

dgiaydTrrjTOv
TI$

6Vo/za

v^v

/zeyaXcoy
v/j.ds

fiXao-^rj/jLrjOfjvai.

yap

7rap7ri8rjprj(ras

Trpbs

Travdperov Kal fteftaiav vfJL&v TTL(TTLV OVK tSoKifj.ao ei \ Tr\v re adxppova Kal eTTieiKfj kv Xpicrrfp eva-tfteiav OVK Kal TO fJLeyaXoTrpeires Trjs e6avp.acrev } (f)i\oevtas
Tr\v
vp.$)v

10 rjOos

OVK eKrjpvgev
,

OVK efjiaKdpia-ev
Kal ToTs
TOIS

Kal TTJV TeXeiav Kal do-^aXfj yv&criv dirpoa-coTroXrjfnrTCtiS yap iravra eTroieiTe,
;

l

vofJiL/jLOLS

Tov

eov

f)yov/jLi>ois

vn&v Kal TL^V

7ropevo~0e, vnoTaa-ao^evoL KaQrjKOvcrav airovkTr)i>

povTes TOIS nap
15 0-e/j.va

veois re fieTpia Kal yvvai^iv re kv a//o)/za) Kal crep,vfi Kal ayvfi avveLSr)o-ei irdvTa eiriTeXelv Trapr^yyeXXere, o-Tepyovcras KaOrjKovTcos TOVS avSpas eavTcov eV re KavovL Trjs viTOTayfjs virap\ova-as ra Kara TOV OLKOV 0-efj.vcos olKovpyelv e^5ao-/cere, irdvv o-axfipovovo-as.

v^uv 7rpeo-(3vTepoi$

vow

eTrerpeVere

ra>

CLEMENS ROMANUS, Ad
III.
20

Cor.

i.

^4XX
eXdcofiev
rry?

iva
e-rrl

TO>V

dpxaicw

viroSeiyfjidTtov

TOVS eyyio-Ta yevo^evovs d6\rjTas

yeveds

r)/^i/

ra yevvala

vnoSetyfjiaTa.

&a

{fjXov Kal

<j>06vov

ol fieyio-TOL

Kal StKaioTaroi VTvXoi

eSia>xOrjo-av

Kal

ea>s

GavdTov

rj6Xrj(rai>.

XafB^ev

Trpo

o^OaX^v

fjfjLw

25

roi>y

ayaOovs diroaToXovr
eVa ovSe Svo

ITeVpoi/, 09

Sia tfXov dSiKov

oyx
OVTO>

dXXd

irXeiovas VTrrjveyKev novovs, Kal

papTvpfaas

eTTopevOr) els TOV o^eiXo^evov TOTTOV Trjs Sid tfXov Kal epiv IlavXos VTrofiovrjs (3pa(3eiov

Clem. Alex.

;

rots vd/zos

AC

;

in lege S.

Ad

cor.

i.]

Early Christian Writers.

5

matters of dispute that have arisen among you, dearly beloved, and to the detestable and unholy sedition, so alien and strange to the elect of God, which a few head strong and self-willed persons have kindled to such
a pitch of madness that your name, once revered and renowned and lovely in the sight of all men, hath been For who that had sojourned among you greatly reviled. did not approve your most virtuous and steadfast faith? Who did not admire your sober and forbearing piety in did not publish abroad your magnificent of hospitality? Who did not congratulate you on your perfect and sound knowledge ? For ye did all things without respect of persons, and ye walked after the ordinances of God, submitting yourselves to your rulers and rendering to the older men among you the
5

Christ?

Who

10

disposition

15

honour which is their due. On the young too ye enjoined modest and seemly thoughts and the women ye charged to perform all their duties in a blameless and seemly and
:

pure conscience, cherishing their own husbands, as is meet and ye taught them to keep in the rule of obedience, and to manage the affairs of their household in seemliness,
;

20

with

all

discretion.

L

-

The Neronian Persecution (Clement}.
from the examples of ancient days, let us champions who lived nearest to our time. Let us set before us the noble examples which belong to our generation. By reason of jealousy and envy the greatest and most righteous pillars of the Church were persecuted, and contended even unto death. Let us set before our eyes the good Apostles. There was Peter who by reason of unrighteous jealousy endured not one nor two but many labours, and thus having borne his testimony went
BUT,
to pass

come

to those

25

30

to his

and

strife

appointed place of glory. By reason of jealousy Paul by his example pointed out the prize of

Selections
tv,

from

[ciem. Rom.

eVra/cty

(Seoyta

Otis, Krjpvg

yv6/j.evo$ ev re

TO ycvvaiov rrjs Trtcrreooy Si8da$ oXov TOV KOO-JJ.OV Kal
5

0opeVay, QvyaStvQtis, Kal kv rfj Svaei, rfj dvaroXf) avrov /cXeoy eXa/Ser, SiKaiocrvvrjv

km

TO rep/za TTJS Svcrecof
OVTCOS drrrjX-

eXQw
Xdyr)

Kal papTVprjcras TOV Kocrfiov Kal
ro?y

kirl

T&V fiyovpevow,
TOV ayiov
dcrtcoy

e/y

TOTTOV

TOVTOLS
Opoio~6rj
10 /cat

avopdcriv

TroXtreuo ayLtet oty
otrt^ey TroXXaty

o~vvrj-

7roXi>

TrXfjQos

e/cXe/cra)^,

at/ctaty

/SacraVoty, 5ta
i]iiiv.
J
,

eyevovTO ev
t <5ey

^Xoy ?ra^oj/rey, Sta ^Xoy
(3e(3aiov
-

vTroSeiypa /caXXta-ro^

5ta>^(^etcrat

yvvaiK$, AavaKaTrjvTrjcrav
cra)/zart.

/cat

^dtp/cat

at/ctV/zara Seiva Kal dvocria TraOov&ai,

trl

TOV r^y

Trarreooy

Spo/iov
/

Kal

yepay yevvaiov at ao ^et

ety

ra>

7^^.

v, vi.

IV.
15
/y

npoSr/Xciw ovv

J]\LIV

ovTtov

TovTtov,

Kal

(3d6r] rr/y 6eias yvcno tcos, irdvTa Tdti 6 5eo-7r6r7/y eTnreXeiV e/ceXefo-ei/ 6(f)tiXofj,v oo-a

ra

Kaipovs TtTay/jLevovs
20 yiveo-Oai,

ray re 7rpoo-0opay
e//cry
?}

/cat

XeiTOvpyias
TTOU re /cat

7n//eXa)y eTTireXeru^ai /cat ou/c

ara/crcoy e/ceXefcre^

dXX

a>pfo-/zez/oiy

/caipofy /cat

wpaty
TTJ

^ta TLVODV eTriTeXtTo-QaL
ai)rof! fiovXijo-ei

^eXet, ai;roy

a>pio~ev

iv

do-tcoy

TraVra

yivo^va

UTreprara) kv tvSoKTJo-ei

25

ot ovv TOI$ 7rpoo~evTrpoo-StKTa ei rj r5 ^eX^/zart avrov" vreray/ze^oty /catpoty iroiovvTes ray 7rpoo-0opay avTcov TTpoo-SeKTOi re /cat /za/captot, roty yap ^ o/zt/zoty rou SCO-TTOTOV

dKoXov6ovvTS ov SiafjLaprdvovo-Lv Xetroi pyt at 5e5o/zei/at etVtV, /cat roty
.

r5 yap apxtepe
tpvo~iv t ^toy
coni.

o

1

Aavai Ses

ral

At>at]

ACS

;

i/edi/tSes irai8iffnai

Wordsworth.

vi.]

Early Christian Writers.

7

After that he had been seven times in bonds, had been driven into exile, had been stoned, had preached in the East and in the West, he won the noble
patient endurance.

renown which was the reward of his faith, having taught righteousness unto the whole world and having reached the farthest bounds of the West; and when he had borne his testimony before the rulers, so he departed from the world and went unto the holy place, having been found
a notable pattern of patient endurance. Unto these men of holy lives was gathered a vast multitude of the elect, who through many indignities and tortures, being the victims of jealousy, set a brave ex ample among ourselves. By reason of jealousy women being persecuted after they had suffered cruel and unholy insults as Danaids and Dircae, safely reached the goal in the race of faith, and received a noble reward, feeble

5

10

15

though they were in body.

L

-

Arrangements settled by the Apostles. FORASMUCH then as these things are manifest before hand, and we have searched into the depths of the Divine knowledge, we ought to do all things in order, as many as the Master hath commanded us to perform at their
appointed seasons.

20

Now

the offerings and ministrations

be performed with care, and not to be done rashly or in disorder, but at fixed times and seasons. And where and by whom He would have them performed, He Himself fixed by His supreme will that all things
to
:

He commanded

25

being done with piety according to His good pleasure might be acceptable to His will. They therefore that make their offerings at the appointed seasons are accept able and blessed for while they follow the institutions of 30 For unto the highthe Master they cannot go wrong.
:

priest

his

proper services have been assigned, and to
is

the priests their proper office

appointed, and upon the

Selections

from

[ciem. Rom.

Trpoo-rera/crai,

KOL Aeutraiy iSiai
rots XaiKoTs
a<SeA$ot ,

AaiVcoy

dv6pa>7ro$

irpoo~Tdyna<nv
ra>

SeSerai.

"E/caoroy

vfjLW,

kv

ISicp

TdypaTi

TeiTO)

&ea

w
ov

dyatifj

<rvvtir\<T(Li

vndpx^,

M

i>x

rrape/c-

5 fiaivcav

TOV &pLa^vov

TT/?

navTaov

Xeirovpy las avrov Kavova, kv dSeXQoi, Trpoo-fytpovrai Ovatai
KaKei Se OVK tv
"navrl

7Tp afJLapras KOL
aAA* ^ kv lepovcraXrjfJ.
i,

TOTTW

fJ.6i>y

d\\

tfJLTrpoarQtv

rov vaov npbs TO 6v(na(TTriTO TTpoa^po^vov Sia TOV a \eiTOVpy$)V. ot ovv irapa TO
Tl

Tfj$ (3oV\ijO~Ci)$

aVTOV TiOlOVVTtS
a5eA0oi,

OdvCLTOV TO TTp6a-TLp.OV

6/>are,

oW
6

TrAeio^oy

/car^^oo^Ty^e^

,

TOCTOVTO) /zaAAoi/ viroKtifjieda
fjfJLTv

Kiv8vv<p.

15

Ol
Irjo-ov

dTrocrToXoL

vrjyy\icr6r)(rai>

dnb TOV Kvpiov
TOV
KOil

Xpio-Tov,
6

Irjaovs

7TfJL(f)Or).

XplVTOS OVV

7TO

Xpia-ro? TOV @OV,

OLTTO

eov e^01

CLTfOCTTQ-

XOL

djrb TOV Xpio~Tov

K 6e\rj[j.aTOS

&ov.

kyivovTO ovv a/^06repa eura/cro)? TrapayyeXias ovv Aa/36i>res KCU

20 TrXrjpotyoprjOevTes

8ia TTJS dvaaTdo-ecas TOV
ra>

Kvpiov

rjfjicov

Irjcrov Xpio~Tov KOL TTio~T(*)6VTS kv

Aoyoo TOV

ov

fj,Ta TrXrjpotyopias nvev/jLaTos dyiov tgfjXQov, tvayyeXigojieVOL TTJV pao~iXetav TOV @eov jieXXeiv pxeo-6ai. /cara \a>pas

ovv KCU iroXeis
25 avTtov,

Krjpvo~o-ovTS

KaOiaTavov
e/y

ray

anap^a?
KOL
/car<Sy,

SoKLpdo-avTes Tn/eu/mri, KCU TOVTO ov StaKovovs T&V fjieXXovTonv 7TLo~TVLv.
e/c

r

CTTicr/coTrouy

yap

Srj

woXXcov
OVTCOS

\pova>v

eyey/oaTrro irepl eTTio-Koircov KOL
77
ypa<f)ij

SiaKovw
3

yap

trov Aeyei

KaTao~Trjo-<o

rouy eTncr/coTTovy aurcov kv SiKaioavvy Kal TOVS
aVTCOV kv 7TLO~Tl.

*******
dnoaToXoi
OTL
rjfj,S>v

Kal
Irjo-ov

ot

XpidTov

epty

e crrcu

eyvwo~av Sia TOV Kvpiov enl TOV oi/o/zaroy

Adcor.xi-xiii.j

Early Christian Writers.
proper ministrations are
s ordinances.
laid.

9
is

levites their

The layman

bound by the layman

Let each of you, brethren, in his own order give thanks unto God, maintaining a good conscience and not trans gressing the appointed rule of His service, but acting with
every place, brethren, are the continual daily sacrifices offered, or the freewill offerings,
all

5

seemliness.

Not

in

or the sin offerings and the trespass offerings, but in Jerusalem alone. And even there the offering is not made in every place, but before the sanctuary in the court of 10 the altar; and this too through the high-priest and the* aforesaid ministers, after that the victim to be offered hath been inspected for blemishes. They therefore who do any thing contrary to the seemly ordinance of His will

Ye see, brethren, in pro- 15 receive death as the penalty. portion as greater knowledge hath been vouchsafed unto
us,

so much the more are we exposed to danger. The Apostles received the Gospel for us from
;

the

Lord

Jesus Christ then Christ

Jesus Christ was sent forth from God. So is from God, and the Apostles are from 20 Both therefore came of the will of God in the Christ. appointed order. Having therefore received a charge, and having been fully assured through the resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ and confirmed in the word of God with full assurance of the Holy Ghost, they went forth 25 with the glad tidings that the kingdom of God should come. So preaching everywhere in country and town,
they appointed their

them by the

when they had proved be bishops and deacons unto them that should believe. And this they did in no new fashion ; for indeed it had been written concerning bishops and deacons from very ancient times ; for thus saith the scrip
first-fruits,

Spirit, to

30

ture in a certain place, I will appoint their bishops in righteousness and their deacons in faith.

our Apostles knew through our Lord Jesus Christ that there would be strife over the name of the bishop s

And

*******

35

10

Selections

from

[ciem. Rom.

eTnovcoTTTjy.

8ia TavTrjv ovv Trjv alrtav Trpoyv&criv

iXr]-

$6rey reXtiav KaTecrTrja-av TOVS trpoeiprjfjLevovs, Kal /zerai> 1 8e8a)Kao~Lv OTrcoy, kav KoifJLrjOwo-iv, 8LaSea)VTai eTTiftovrjv
5

erepoi <$e5o/a/za0yzeVoi dvSpts TTJV rovs ovv KaTavTaOtvTas VTT eKewcov

XeiTovpytav
rj
/zeraz>

avTa>v.

v^

trepans

eAXoy/ywa)i/ di/SpoHs, o-vvv8oKr](rd(TT]S rfjs tKK\r]crias 7rda-r]s }

Kal Xcirovpyrjcrai Tas
/j.Ta

dfj./j.7TTa)S TO)
770-1/^0)9

noifjivia)

TOV XpKrrov
/j.fj.ap-

Ta7reivo(ppoo-vvr]s

Kal

d(3avav(ra>$ }

rvpr]fj.vov$ re 7ro\\oT$ xpovois vrrb Trdvrtov,
10 SiKaicos VOJJLL^OIJL^V

TOVTOVS ov
d/j.ap/cat

aTro^aXXeaOat r^y Aeirofpy/ay.
rjjj.lv

ria

yap ov

p.LKpa

ecrrai,

ka.v

TQVS

a/ze/zTrrcoy

irpoo-tvtyKovTas
fiaKapioi
ol

ra

Scopa

rfjs

eTrio-KOTrfjs

diro-

TrpooSonroprjo-aisTcs TTpeo-fivrepoi,

15

eyKapTTOv Kal reXeiav eayjov rrjv dvdXvo~iv ev\af}ovvTai prj ri? avrovs f^erao-Tija-rj dnb TOV avrols TOTTOV. 6pa>fj.v yap OTL eviovs t /ze
KaXtoS
7ToXLTVOfjLl>OV$

ov

yap

K TT)S

a/ze/ZTTTO)?

aVTo
Ibid xl _
,

Xtirovpyias.

xlii>

xliv>

IV A.

Kdv
20

TO)

aur<S

e ret

dXXovs re TroXXot-y
y

/cat

rdi>

^Xaomoi/
yvvaiKa
exoi/ra,

KXrj^vTa

V7raTvoi>Ta

Kaiirtp dvttyiov oz/ra /cat

Kal avTTjv o-vyyevTJ tavrov $Xaov(av
/carecr^a^ei/ o AoynTiavos.
icaJ

Jo/zm XXaj/
r<Si/

a^eor^roy,
e^o/ceXXoj/rey
25
^ai/oi/,

?;y

tTTrivtyQrj 81 a/z0on/ ey/cXr;/za a XXoi ey ra lovSatw
tQrj

iroXXol
<5e

KaTeSiKaaOrjo-av,

Kal

ol

/ze^

aVerj

o/

raV

yow

ov(Tia>v

o-Tpij6rj(rav

8e

Aop.iTLX\a vTrtpapto-Orj povov ey IlavSaTtpiav. 8rj TXaftpitova TOV yuera rou Tpaiavov

TOV 8e

ra re aXXa Kal ota

OL

dpgavTa, noXXol Kal OTL

Dlo
1 Turner;
lrr /0/ )
"

CASSIUS>

"

"

A;

lwl 0/l

^

C;

super probatione

Ad

cor. xiiv.j

Early Christian Writers.

n

For this cause therefore, having received com office. plete foreknowledge, they appointed the aforesaid persons, and afterwards they provided a continuance, that if these
fall asleep, other approved men should succeed to Those therefore who were appointed 5 their ministration.

should

by them, or afterward by other men of repute with the consent of the whole Church, and have ministered unblameably to the flock of Christ in lowliness of mind, peacefully and with all modesty, and for long time have borne a good report with all these men we consider For it to be unjustly thrust out from their ministration. will be no light sin for us, if we thrust out those who have offered the gifts of the bishop s office unblameably and Blessed are those presbyters who have gone holily. before, seeing that their departure was fruitful and ripe for they have no fear lest any one should remove them from their appointed place. For we see that ye have dis placed certain persons, though they were living honour ably, from the ministration which had been respected by them blamelessly.
:

10

15

20

The Persecution of Domitian.

AND in the same year Domitian slew amongst many others Flavius Clemens in his consulship, though he was his cousin and had to wife his own kinswoman, Flavia
atheism
of Against them both was brought a charge this many others who made shipwreck 25 on Jewish customs were condemned, of whom some were to death, while others were at the least deprived of
Domitilla.
:

and on

put

their

property;

but

Domitilla

was only banished

to

Pandateria.

Glabrio, however,

who had been

consul with

Trajan, he also slew, partly on the
rest,

same charges as the 30 because he fought with beasts. and partly

12

Selections
V.
ITayrey

from

ra>

Irjaovs Xptorbs cTnaKOTrq) aKoXovQtlre, rofr aTrooroXoiy irartj Kal r -rrptcrftv-eptcp
r<S
a>y a>y

roi>y

rpe7recr0e TI
TrpacrartTO)

a>y

0eou

kvTO\r\v.
e/y

prjStls
TT)J>

x 60 / ^
3

rS>v

avriKovroov

KK\rj-

Kwr]

fiefiaia
T)

i>\api(TTia

rjyeiaOa)
fTTLTpe^T),
(770),

rj

VTTO

TOV

OV(TO.,

(D

O.V

O.VTOS

07TOV 07TOV

&V
OLV

6 eTTlPKOTTOS,

Kl

TO 7T\fj6oS
17

OHTTTep

y Xpicrroy
ecTTtv

I^o-ouy, e/ce?

x&pls TOV

eTTto KOTrov

10 iroitiv

d\\
,

o

CLV

Ka6o\iKrj KK\r](rLa. OVT paTTTifciv cure aya.TTT]v 6e e/ce^oy SoKt/jido-rj^ TOVTO Kal
ra>

OVK

t6v

tva acr0aXey

77

/cai (3e(3aia)v

irav o 7rpd(ro~eT.

IGNATIUS,

Ad Smyrn.

viii.

VI.
ovv, OTCLV v\uv xcopls
Tiy,

TOV

<

yet

oi/y

AavdS, TOV
re
>cai

Irjaov Xpio~Tov XaXf) K Maptas, oy

yvvr)6r),
15

tfyaytv

tintv,

aX^&o
Kal

TIovTtov

TltXaTov,
[r<5^J

d\r]6a)$

tcrTavptoOr]

/3Xe7roj/ra)^

kirovpavttov Kal eTTiyem)^ /ecu
f)yep6r)
OLTTO
vKpooi>,

oy

/cat

dXrjOas

eyei pai roy

avTov
roz)y

TOV TraTpbs

afoot),

Acara

ro

6fj.otQ)p.a

oy

>cai

77/zay

eyepe? 6 Trar^p avTov kv 20 Irjcrov, ov ^copls TO dXrjOivbi fjv OVK e^o/j.ei El Se, UXTTT^P ri^ey aOtoi o^rey, TOVTZCTTIV
az^ro) ourooy
.

TnoretWray

\kyova~Lv

TO
ri"

SOKGIV

irtTrovQtvai
TI Se

avTov,

avTol

o^rey

ro
;

8oKew

}

eya>

8e8fj.ai.

Kal

v^o/j.aL 6rjpLOfj.a\fjo-aL

Stopeav ovv aTroOvijcrKQ).

dpa ovv
VII.

KaTa-^revdo/JLai TOV

Kvptov.

Ibid, ix, x.

25

Xpio~Tiavol
KKpLfJ.VOl
T$>V

yap ovre
XoiTTOOV

yfj
ci<TlV

oure

(paovfj
.

OVTZ

Wtcri

8ia7TOV

dvOpGOTTWl

OVT

ydp

I8ia$

KaTQiKovviv OVT

^aXe/cra) Twl TraprjXXay-

Ad smyrn. vii.]

Early Christian Writers.
Ignatius on Episcopacy.

13

bishop whatsoever he shall approve, this God that everything which ye do
;

Do ye all follow your bishop, as Jesus Christ followed the Father, and the presbytery as the Apostles ; and to the deacons pay respect, as to God s commandment. Let no man do aught of things pertaining to the Church Let that be held a valid eucharist 5 apart from the bishop. which is under the bishop or one to whom he shall have committed it. Wheresoever the bishop shall appear, there let the people be ; even as where Jesus Christ may be, It is not lawful apart from there is the universal Church. either to baptize or to hold a love-feast ; but 10 the
is

well-pleasing also to

may be

sure and valid.

Ignatius on Docetism.
of the race of David, apart from Jesus Christ, who was who was the Son of Mary, who was truly born and ate 15 and drank, was truly persecuted under Pontius Pilate, was truly crucified and died in the sight of those in heaven and those on earth and those under the earth ; who more over was truly raised from the dead, His Father having raised Him, who in the like fashion will so raise us also 20

BE ye deaf

therefore,

when any man speaketh

to

you

who

His Father, I say, will raise us in believe on Him Christ Jesus, apart from whom we have not true Hie. But if it were as certain persons who are godless, that is unbelievers, say, that He suffered only in semblance,
being themselves mere semblance,

why am

I

in

And why
I

also die in vain.

do I desire Truly then

to fight
I lie

with wild beasts ? against the Lord.

bonds? So

25

The Christians in

the

World.

FOR

Christians are not distinguished from the rest of
30

mankind either in locality or in speech or in customs. For they dwell not somewhere in cities of their own, neither do they use some different language, nor practise

I4

Selections

from
da-Kovo-iv.

O

uct-

\pS>vrai

ovrt ftiov irapda^fJiov

ov pr]

kirtvoia

TOIOVT avroLS

nvl Kal QpovriSt iroXvirpayrfvw avQp&Trvv pdOrjpa ecmV eupTj/zeVo* ovSe Soyparos dv6pa>irtvov
,
o>9

ZVLOI. 7rpoo-Tdo~iv, toairtp
5

viSas re Kal (3ap(3dpovs
edfo-tv
Xoi7r<S

KaroiKovvTts Sk noXeis EXXrje/cacrro? tKXrjpwQr), Kal rots
ev

aKO\ov6ovi>Tes

re

ea-Qrirt

Kal

Kal o/ Kal TW /3%, Qavp.aarr}v fl K.aT &VT av iv wSciKWVTai TTapd8oov 0)9 7ToXlTia$. TTttTplSaS OIKOV(TIV ISiaS, dXX
Tr}i>

irdpOLKOL

10

fiT)^ova-i
coy

Trdi

Tw

oSy

iroXlrai,

Kal

TTOLV&
avrS>v

fei/or

iraa-a

far]

irarpfo
coy

kvnv

}

viro^kvovtnv Kal irdaa

irarpls

itvn.

yap.ov<TLv

vra^rey,

TtKvoyovovaiv dXX
Koivty TrapariaXX ov

ov piTTTovai
Otvrai,
J

rd

yti/vw/JLtva.
Koirf]v.

Tpdweav

dXX ov

tv aapKl Tvy^avovaiv ,
$iaTpi/3ov<nv,

5

Kara vapKa
v$>

{Sxriv.

knl yrjs

dXX

tv ovpa-

iroXiTevovTai.
idiots
ftiois

ntiOovTai rofy &pKr}jLtvois
VIKUXTI roi)y ^6//ouy.
8i(DKoi>Tai.

j/6/zoiy,

Kal

rofy

Kal VTTO irdvrtov

dyancoa-t Trdvras dyvoovvrai, Kal KaraKpi}

20

vovrac OavaTOVvrai, Kal gcooTroiovvrai. 7rT(o\evov(n Kal 7T\ovTiovo l TToXXouy TrdvToov v(TTpovvraL /cat ev Tracri
)

7TpLo~a vovo Lv.

drLfjiovvTaL,

Kal

ej>

raiy aTifiiais

Sod-

ovraL

^Xaa-^rjfjiovj/Tai.,

Kal

SiKaiovvraL.

XoiSopovvrai,
dya6o7roLovj

Kal
coy
25

v\oyov(TLv

vftpt^ovTa

Kal TifJiaHnv.

T$

KaKol Ko\dovTai
VTTO

//ei/oi.

lovSaicw
SitoKovrai

/coXa^6//e^ot yjaipov&iv coy {(COTTOLOVcoy dXXotyvXoi TroXffjLovvrai Kal VTTO

EXXrjvow
!^7rXcoy
eicrit/
ei/

Kal Tr\v alriav r^y e^dpas
iv.

eiT

oi /Jicrouj/rey
5*

OVK

fywo

tiTrelv,

oirep

tvrlv tv

crco/zari

^
Kara

Koa/j-O)

XpLo~TLavoi.
yueXco^
17

f.<nraprai

Kara

30

raw roO
ray roO
ou/c
ecrri

crco/zaroy

^rv^ri, Kal

~Kpi<jTiavol

Koa-fj-ov TroXety.

ot/cc*

yuey e^ rco

.crco/zari

5e

e/c

OIKOVVLV, OVK eV d/jarco fypovptlrai rco crco/zarf
>C

roO crc6//aroy /cat Xpio~Tiavol kv tCT 5e TOO KOCTfJLOV. dopaTOS f]
/ecu

Xpivriavol
cSe

yiva>-

35

VKovTai ply

ot/rey

ei/

rco

/cocr/ico

doparos

avrcoj/

17

.

5-7-]

Early Christian Writers.

15

an extraordinary kind of life. Nor again do they possess any invention discovered by any intelligence or study of ingenious men, nor are they masters of any human dogma as some are. But while they dwell in cities of Greeks and barbarians as the lot of each is cast, and follow the native 5 customs in dress and food and the other arrangements of life, yet the constitution of their own citizenship, which they set forth, is marvellous, and confessedly contradicts
expectation. They dwell in their own countries, but only as sojourners ; they bear their share in all things as citizens, and they endure all hardships as strangers. Every foreign country is a fatherland to them, and every fatherland is foreign. They marry like all other men and they beget children ; but they do not cast away their offspring. They have their meals in common, but not their wives. They find themselves in the flesh, and yet they live not after the flesh. Their existence is on earth, but their citizenship is in heaven. They obey the estab lished laws, and they surpass the laws in their own lives. They love all men, and they are persecuted by all. They are ignored, and yet they are condemned. They are put to death, and yet they are endued with life. They are in beggary, and yet they make many rich. They are in want of all things, and yet they abound in all things. They are dishonoured, and yet they are glorified in their dishonour. They are evil spoken of, and yet they are vindicated. They are reviled, and they bless ; they are insulted, and they respect. Doing good they are punished as evil doers being punished they rejoice, as if they were
;

10

15

20

25

thereby quickened by life. War is waged against them 30 as aliens by the Jews, and persecution is carried on against them by the Greeks, and yet those that hate them cannot tell the reason of their hostility. In a word, what the soul is in a body, this the Chris tians are in the world. The soul is spread through all 35 the members of the body, and Christians through the divers cities of the world. The soul hath its abode in the body, and yet it is not of the body. So Christians have their abode in the world, and yet they are not of the
world.

The

soul

which
:

body which

is visible

being in the world,

is invisible is guarded in the 40 so Christians are recognised as and yet their religion remaineth

1

6

Selections
pevci.
rrjv

from
r)

[Auct.

cre/3eia

fj-icrei

tyvyjiv

(rapg

KOI

7roXe/ze*

d8iKovfi.vrj

y

SIOTI rais f}8ovcus ArcoXuerat
Kocrfj-os
17

xpfja-Qai

Kal XpivTiavovs 6
raft
5

/jLiyfev

a&Kcw/zez oy,
TTJV

on

fiSovals

dvTiTdo~o~ovTai.
f

tyv)(r]

fjuo~ovo~av

dyafra adpKa Kal ra

fj.\rj

KCU

Xpicmavol rou?
p.\v
rj
ra>

ray ayaTrSxnv.
a-ffe^et 5e
aiJr^

ey/ce/cAeio-rat

"^v^rj

TO

o-co/za*

^a^

XpLariavol
auro? ^e
avvtyova-L

JAW

<uy

e^ (ppovpa

T
f)

/coayza),

TOV

Koarfiov.

aQdvaros

^fv^rj kv

6vr]T<>

(TKrjvcofjLan

KaroiKi

10 /ca?

Xpiariavol TrapoiKovaiv kv
7rpoa-8\6fjL^OL.

(frOaprois,

r^v kv ovpavois
O-ITLOLS

d<f>6ap<Tiav

KaKovpyovpevr)
Kal

Kal

TTOToTs

rj

^fv^r)

P\TIOVTCU
ov

Xpianavol Ko\a6fj.voi
e/y TocravTTrjv

Ka6

f)fjipai>

Tr\ovdovcri p.a\\ov.
TJV

avrovs

rdiv
15

e^ero 6 0eoy,

O^IJLLTOV

avTois TrapatTTJa-ao-Oai.

Ov yap
,

emyfiov,
QvY]Tr\v

coy

e07/^,

evprjfjia

TOVT

avrois irap-

ove

kirivoLav

(fivXaaGziv

ourooy

my ) ovSe

dvOptoirivtov

OLKovofJiiav

pvo-Trjpi

aAX
Kal
20

atroy aXTy^coy 6 iravTOKpartop Kal irav-

aoparoy

@eoy, auroy

arr

ovpav&v

rrjv

d\ij6iav Kal TOV \6yov TOV ayiov Kal direpLvorjTOv dvdpajTroty eviSpvo-e Kal tyKaTC<TTripit ra?y KapSiais avr&v, ov

KaOdnep dv
77

rty (tKao-eiev dvOpcairos, v7rr]peTr]v Tiva Tre/i^ay
77
Tf*>a

dyytXov ^ dp^ovTa
T>V

rcoz/
i/

Sie-rrovTav

ra

tirtytia

rj

TLva

TreTTio-Ttvpevtov

ray

oi^pai/ory
T>V

^ot/CTyo-eiy,

aXX
roz)y

25 auroj/

rov

T^VIT^V Kal
KTLo-v
co
t

Srjfj.iovpybv

oXtov,

<p

ovpavovs

r^

QdXao-o-av 18101$ opoty

c5 ra pvo-Tripia Tncrrcoy ?raj/ra (pvXdcraei TO, nap ov ra /icrpa rco/ rryy r^/ze/oay ^o/^coj/ [r^
<j>v\d<T<reiv,

Xioy]

co

TrtiOapxe i

(reXrjvrj

VVKTL

(paivii>

.

5-7.]

Early Christian Writers.

17

The flesh hateth the soul and wageth war invisible. with it, though it receiveth no wrong, because it is for bidden to indulge in pleasures ; so the world hateth
Christians, though it receiveth no wrong from them, because they set themselves against its pleasures. The
5

soul loveth the flesh which hateth

it,

and the members

:

so Christians love those that hate them. The soul is enclosed in the body, and yet itself holdeth the body together ; so Christians are kept in the world as in a prison-house, and yet they themselves hold the world

10

immortal dwelleth in a mortal tabernacle so Christians sojourn amidst perish able things, while they look for the imperishability which is in the heavens. The soul when hardly treated in the matter of meats and drinks is improved and so Christians
together.

The

soul
;

though

itself

;

15

when punished
is

increase

more and more

daily.

So

great

the office for which God hath appointed them, and which it is not lawful for them to decline. For it is no earthly discovery, as I said, which was committed to them, neither do they care to guard so carefully any mortal invention, nor have they entrusted to them the dispensation of human mysteries. But truly
the Almighty Creator of the Universe, the Invisible God Himself from heaven planted among men the truth and the holy teaching which surpasseth the wit of man, and
fixed
it

20

25

firmly in their hearts, not as

any man might

imagine, by sending (to mankind) a subaltern, or angel, or ruler, or one of those that direct the affairs of earth, or one of those who have been entrusted with the dispensa
tions in heaven, but the very Artificer

and Creator of the Universe Himself, by Whom He made the heavens, by Whom He enclosed the sea in its proper bounds, Whose mysteries all the elements faithfully observe from Whom [the sun] hath received even the measure of the courses of

30

the day to keep them,

Whom

the

moon obeys

as

He

bids 35

1

8

Selections
t

from
0-6X771/77^

[Auct.

TO.

o),
,

u>

irdvra

rfjs do~Tpa SiaTtraKTai Kal
r<3

SiatpiaTai
,

Kal VTTOTC-

5

Kal ra eV 777, ovpavol Kal ra eV ovpavol? yrj OdXaoraa Kal ra kv rfj OaXdaorr), rrvp, drip, a/^ucrcroy, ra ra kv ftdOfcri, ra er rft) fj.rav rovrov kv
v\lr(ri }

TT/>O?

avToi)$

dTT(rTi\i>.

dpd

ye,

coy

dvOp&TTtov
/cat

&v

ri9

Xoyio-aiTo,

vv

tnl rvpavviSi Kal d\\ ev 7riiKta
(Bao-iXca

06/Sa)

vlov
10
[aV$pa)7roj>]

eTre/z^rez/,

009 [/caf] irpavTrjTL (09 @eo^ tTre/j. ^rei
cl)9

,

009

7rpo9

dvOpa>7rov$

eVe/ir//-^,

(rco^coj/

0)9 irdOtov,

ov piagofjLtvos- (3ia
/CaXo)^,
7re/JL\lri
Ol)

yap ov

Trpoaeo-ri
>

7Tfji^lrV

O>9

5iO)/CO)^*

7T6/Z ^/

ei/

ft)9

ov Kpivtov.
TTJV
15

yap avrov Kpivovra, Kal

rk avrov
51

Trapowiav

(3aXXofj.ei>ovs

[o^X ^y ? ! TrapaQrjpiois, iva dpvrjo-GWTai rov Kvpiov, Kal fj,rj irXetoves KoXagovrai, TOO-OVTW x op?
o<ra>

UTroo Tija TaL

,....

aXXoi/9
e/oya,

;

raura

SvvafJLis

kvn

ravra dvOptoirov ov $o/ceF ra Seov ravra rf)S napovaias
AUCT.
^4f/

Diognetum, 5-7.

VIII.
20

TOV jSa?rrf(r/zaro9, ouro) ^arrTia-arc raura He/)? irdvra TrpotnrovTes /3a7rr/o-are e/9 ro ovopa TOV JTarpo9 /ca? roO T/ou ^at rou ayrof ITi/eu/iaro
5e

lav St
ti

fj.r]

6^779

i/5o)p

^o)i/,

/9

aXXo
Oepfito.
K(f>aXr)v

8

ov Svvao-aL
/IT)

kv tyvxpto,
e/cxeoj/

kv

kav $
dfj.<p6-

25

repa

e

x^,

e/9 rr)v
/cat

rpls

vScop
TT/OO

e/9
<5e

6Vo/za 7Tarpo9 /cat

T/ou

dy/bv IT^ei;^aro9.
/cat

rou ^a7Trtcr^aro9 TrpovrjcrTtva-dTO) 6 /SaTrr^ooi/ /cai ef rti/e9 aXXoi Svvavrai. TOV PaiTTL6iJLtvov 5u
Trpb fjLids
77

6 /3a7r-

3

^4i

AdDiogn.

5-7-]

Early Christian Writers.

ig

her shine by night, the stars obey as they follow the course of the moon, by all things are ordered and bounded and placed in subjection, the heavens and the things that are in the heavens, the earth and the things that are in the earth, the sea and the things that are in the sea, fire, air, abyss, the things that are in the heights, the things that are in the depths, the things that are between the two. Him He sent unto them. Was

Whom

Whom

5

He
lish

sent, think you, as any man might suppose, to estab a sovereignty, to inspire fear and terror? Not so. 10

But in gentleness [and] meekness has He sent Him, as a king might send his son who is a king. He sent Him, as sending God ; He sent Him, as [a man] unto men ; He sent Him, as Saviour, as using persuasion, not force for force is no attribute of God. He sent Him, as summoning, not as persecuting; He sent Him, as loving, not as
:

15

judging.
shall

For He will send Him in judgement, and who endure His presence ? [Dost thou not see] them thrown to wild beasts that so they may deny the Lord, and yet not overcome ? Dost thou not see that the more of them are punished, just so many others abound ?
.

.

.

20

These look not like the works of a man they are the power of God they are proofs of His presence.
; ;

L.

Church order of

the Didache.

BUT concerning
first

baptism, thus shall ye baptize. Having recited all these things, baptize in the name of the 25

Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit in living But if thou hast not living water, then (running) water. baptize in other water, and if thou art not able in cold, then in warm. But if thou hast neither, then pour water on the head thrice in the name of the Father and of the 30 Son and of the Holy Spirit. But before the baptism let

him

that baptizeth and him that is baptized fast, and any others also who are able ; and thou shalt order him that is baptized to fast a day or two before.

And

let

not your fastings be with the hypocrites, for c 2

35

20

Selections

from
Kal
Trefnrrrj
v/jiei?

vr](TTvov<n

yap Sevrepa
TfTpdSa
ol VTTOKplTai,

vaftftdrtov

Kal 7rapao~Kvrjv.

C09

dXX

C0y

K\V(Ty

fiySe 7rpoo~6 KvplOS V

Tco

56
7Tl

e>

evayyeXia avrov, ourcoy TTpocrfv^o-df ovpava, dyiao-OrJTa) TO ovopd
r<3

Jlarep

T^COI/
17

<rov,

\6eTa>

pcuriXeia

(rov, ytvrjOrJTCD

TO

6e\r]/jid arov

y^y* TOV dpTOV
defies

r]fjL(Ol>

TOV

kv ovpavfp KCU 7TlOVO~LOy So$ f)/jLW O YJfl.epOl
,

&S

KCU
TOIS
10 fjLOV }

fifuv

Trjv

ofaiXrjv
fjLrj

f)p,S>v

ft)?

KOL

rjfJLeT?

d(f>LfjLy

e/a-e^eyATTy? o0fXrai? f]pa)v, KOL dXXa pvcrai f)fj.a$ aTro TOV Trovrjpov
r)

ripcis e/y

7Tipao~eo~Tiv
77

OTL o~ov

8vva[JLis Kal

Soga

ts

TOV$ aloovas.

Tpls TfjS f]fj.pa?

15

7rpO(TV^0-6. 8k r^9 V)(apio-Tia$, OUTGO i>^apicrTrjo~aT irpS>TOv 7Tpl TOV TTOTTJplOV Ev^apLa-TOV/jLey (TOl, HaTp fl/AWls, V7Tp r^9 aym? dfjLtrtXov AavtlS TOV naiSos aov, ^9 eyj/d)picra9 r]fJLLv 8ia Irjaov TOV TraiSos crow o~ol J] 86a

OUTQ)

Ucpl

ei9
<ro,

roi>9

aifovas.

7Tpl Se TOV
vrrtp
Trj
crol
17

Uare/3

TJ/JL^,

yva>pio~as

r}fjuv

Sid

Irjaov TOV TraiSos o~ov
r\v

86a

20 et9

TOVS alcovas.
CTraj/a)

a>o-rrp

TTio fjLevoi

T&V

TOVTO TO KXdo-fia 8io~KOpKal o~vva^6ey eye^ero e^, opeow
KKXr]o-ia d-rro OTL (TOV
/9 roi)9
TO>V

OVTCO o-vya^OrJTO) orov
e/9 rr)t/ CTT)^

77

irtpdrtov 7779
77

(3ao~iXiai>

eor^

86ga Kal
fArjStls

17

8id Irjo-ov
25

XpLVTOV
7ro

aiQ)vas.

8e

0ayeroo
ipr)Kev

/zr;5

Trtera)

PaTTTio-OevTes
6

e/9

wopa
Mrj

r^9 tvyapurTias vn&v, dXX ol Kal yap irepl TOVTOV Kvpiov.
TO ayiov TOIS
o#ra>9

Kvpios
8e

8a>T

KVO~I.

Mera
30 a-ov }

TO

e/ZTrXr; 0-^77 vat

v\apio-Trjo~aT

Evxapio-TOv/tw
ov

a-oi,

/carecr/c77i/a)o-a9

ITare/o ayte, vnep TOV dytov wopaTos ei/ TQU9 Kal vnlp KapSiais
r^fjia>v f

njy
fliuv

yj/d)o-eco9

/cat

TT/crrecoy

/cai

dQavao-ias,
o~ol
T)

fjs

yva>pio~as

Sid

Irjcrov
a-v,

TOV naiSos o~ov

86ga eh
TO.

TOVS

a/a)i/a9.

8eo-iTOTa

wavTOKpaTop, %KTio~as

irdvTa

Aposi.7-i5.]

Early Christian Writers.
;

21

they fast on the second and the fifth day of the week but do ye keep your fast on the fourth and on the preparation Neither pray ye as the hypocrites, but as (the sixth) day. the Lord commanded in His Gospel, thus pray ye Our Father, which art in heaven, hallowed be Thy name Thy
:

;

5

kingdom come Thy will be done, as in heaven, so also on earth give us this day our daily bread and forgive us our debt, as we also forgive our debtors and lead us
;
;

;

;

not into temptation, but deliver us from the Evil One ; for Thine is the power and the glory for ever and ever. Three times in the day pray ye so.
But, as touching the eucharistic thanksgiving, give ye thanks thus. First, as regards the cup give Thee thanks, O our Father, for the holy vine of Thy son David, which Thou madest known unto us through Thy Son
:

10

We

15

Jesus ; Thine is the glory for ever and ever. Then as regards the broken bread give Thee thanks, O our
:

We

and knowledge which Thou didst make known unto us through Thy Son Jesus ; Thine is the glory for ever and ever. As this broken bread was scattered upon the mountains and being gathered together became one, so may Thy Church be gathered together from the ends of the earth into Thy kingdom for Thine is the glory and the power through Jesus Christ for ever and ever. But let no one eat or drink of this eucharistic thanksgiving, but they that have been baptized into the name of the Lord ; for concerning this also the Lord hath said Give not that which is holy to the dogs.
Father,
for

the

life

20

;

25

:

And
give

after

ye are

Thee thanks, Holy which Thou hast made to
for the

satisfied thus give Father, for
faith

ye thanks

:

We
30

Thy

holy name,

tabernacle in our hearts, and

knowledge and

hast
is

made known unto us through Thy Son Jesus

and immortality, which Thou Thine ;
Thou, Almighty Master, s sake, and didst
35

the glory for ever and ever.

didst create all things for

Thy name

23

Selections
TOV ovopaTos
o~ov

from
re Kal TTOTOV e&/cay
croi

j

Tpo(f>rjv

roFy

dv6pa>7TOi$

e/y

d-jToXavo-Lv

Iva

ev^a

Kal TTOTOV Kal e^apicra) TrvevfjLaTiKrjv Tpoffiv TraVrcoj/ Sia TOV TratSoy orov. TT/OO
5

Tovptv VOL
i
1

on

SVVCLTOS
777?

i

(TV*

(rot

fj

Kvpie,
TTCLVTOS

KK\r)(ria$

OLTTO

TTOvrjpov

pvtraaOai Kal T\i&o~aL avTrjv kv TTJ
T$>V

86ga aov

c/j

rods

TOV

(TOV,

Kal

<Tm>aov

avrty dirb
(rr}v

To-o~dpa>t/

di>/jLO>v,

Trjv
10 avTrj

dyiaa"0io~ay

e/y
O~TIV

TTJV
17

(3a<Ti\iav,
17

TJV

fjToi/jiao as

OTL

a-ov

Swapis Kal
i

86a

e/s

TOVS

al&vas.

\6eTOD ydpis
0e<3

Kal TrapeXOeTco
rty aytos

6

Acoa^oy ovroy.

too-awa T&
ft

AaveiS.

eo~TLj/
d/jLrjv.

Ti?

OVK

O~TI,

peTavoeiTto.

napav add.

^e
15

7rpo(j)Tf]Tats A

e7riT/)7rere
f\6a>v

Os av

ovv

fv^api(TTiv oora 6\ovo~iv. 8i8dr] u/zay TavTa TrdvTa TO, 7rpoiprj-

SegavOe avrov* tav 5e avToy 6 SiSdo-Kcov (TTpafah d\\r}v SiSaxrjv e/y ro KaTaXvaai, firj avTOv
aKOV(TT)T
/y

5e TO irpovOtlvai
coy

8iKaLoo^uvTf]v

Kal yvSxriv
T$>V

Kvpiov, Segao-Qe avTov
20 (TToXtov
ot/rcoy

Kvpiov.

Kal

TT

7roirjo-aT.

pofyriT&v Tray
euy
77

KaTa TO
5e

nepl S6yfj.a TOV
Se

tit

diro-

evayyeXiov
rr/ooy

aTrocrroXoy

ep\6/jLevo$

v/jias
fjLiav

^ex^rco
ai/
<Se

Kvpios
Kal

ov

/icvei

d

prf

rjfjiepav

\peta,

Tr]v

dXXrjv

r/oefy

Se

tav

peivy, ^vSoTrpoQrjTT)? ecrriV
25

px6fJ.vo$ $ 6 aTroVroAoy kav priSey Aa/i/Sa^erco e/ fj.rj apTov, ecoy ov avXio~6fj 8e Kal irdvTa dpyvpiov aiTy, ^vSonpo^riTrj^ ecm. XaXovvTa kv Trv^vfiaTL ov 7Tipdo-T ovSe Sia7rao~a

yap

dpapria
ov

a^e^o-eraf,
Tray
eai/

avTrj

8t

17

dfiapTia
30 Tn/eiJ/zan

OVK

dfaOrjo-eTai.

Se

6

XaXatv

kv

Kvpiov.

Trpo^TTjy kvriv, aAA dnb ovv rcoi/ rpOTrcot/
/cat

e^y

roi)y

Tpotrovs
6

yvcoo-Orjo-tTai

tytvSoopifcov

6

Trpo^TyrT/y.

/cat

Tray
7rpo</>rJTr]s

Apost.7-i5.]

Early Christian Writers.

23

men for enjoyment, that they render thanks to Thee but didst bestow upon us might spiritual food and drink and eternal life through Thy Son. Before all things we give Thee thanks that Thou Reart powerful ; Thine is the glory for ever and ever. member, Lord, Thy Church to deliver it from all evil and and gather it together from the to perfect it in Thy love four winds even the Church which has been sanctified
give food and drink unto
; ;

5

hast prepared for it for and the glory for ever and ever. May power Hosanna to grace come and may this world pass away. the God of David. If any man is holy, let him come ; if any man is not, let him repent. Maran Atha. Amen. But permit the prophets to offer thanksgiving as much
into
;

Thy kingdom which Thou
is

Thine

the

10

as they desire.

*5

Whosoever

therefore shall

; things that have been said teacher himself be perverted and teach a different doctrine to the destruction thereof, hear him not; but if to the

come and teach you all these but if the before, receive him

increase of righteousness and the knowledge of the Lord, 20 receive him as the Lord.

But concerning the apostles and prophets, so do ye Let every according to the ordinance of the Gospel. when he cometh to you, be received as the Lord apostle, but he shall not abide more than a single day, or if there be need, a second likewise ; but if he abide three days,
;

25

a false prophet. And when he departeth let the receive nothing save bread, until he findeth but if he ask money, he is a false prophet. And ; any prophet speaking in the Spirit ye shall not try neither discern for every sin shall be forgiven, but this sin shall not be forgiven. Yet not every one that speaketh in the Spirit is a prophet, but only if he have the ways of the

he

is

apostle shelter

30

;

Lord.

From

his

ways therefore the

false

the prophet shall be recognized.

And no

prophet and prophet when

35

24
Tpdtr^av

Selections

from
avrrjsel Se firjye,

h
i

irvevfjiaTi
eo*Tiv.

ov Qdyerai air
Tray

ijrv8o7rpo(f)rJTT)S

Se TrpotyrJTrjs
iroiet,

SiSda-Kow Tr\v

dXr}6ei.av

a SiSdaKei ov

^evSoTrpoQrJTris eariv.
dXrjOivos
TTOICDV

?ray

Se

TrpotyrJTrjs

SeSoKLfj.aa-fj.ei/os

els

5 fj.VGTrjpiov KOo~fiiKbv eKKXr}o~ias, firj

SiSdo~Kcai>

8e TTOIZLV 6o~a

auroy
rrjv

TTOLCI,

ov KpiOrfaeTai efi vptoV
a)o~avT(os

fj.era

Oeov yap

e^ei

Kpi<nv

yap

enoirjo-av Kal

ol

dp^ouoi npofioi

ffirai.
f)

os

8

av

eiTrrj

ev irvev /zarr

A 6y

dpyvpia
d\\cot>

Tpd
lids

Tiva, OVK aK.ovvtv6t avTov

10 vcrrepovi

Twi
Se
6

i7rr)

Sovvai, fj-qSels

eav Se irepl avTov Kpivera).

px6fj.vos

eneira Se
e^ere

8oKijj,do~ai

TS

ev wop-aTi Kvpiov Sf^O^ra) avrov yvtocreaOe. crvvecriv yap
el

8eiav KOI dpLarepdv.
o<rov

fiev

ep^ofj-evos, ftorjOeire avrti
15 vfids

8vi>ao-6e

TrapoSios eaTiv 6 ov [level Se trpbs

el p.r] Svo f] rpels rifj.epas, edv fj dvoLyK.it]. el Se OeXei irpbs vfj.ds KaOfja-Qai, re^vLrrjs &v, epyageo-Oa) Kal el Se OVK e%ei Te^vrjv y Kara TTJV (frayeTco.

vfimv
20

7rpoi>orjo~aTe y

7T<y

firj

dpybs
ovrct)

fie6
iroielv,

Xpio~Tiav6s.

el

S

ov OeXei

tvTiv Trpoo-e^ere dnb T&V TOIOVTC&V. lids Se irpo^rJTijs dXrjOivbs OeXow KaOrjaOai irpbs
agios
ea-Tiv
rfjs

vfj.ds

Tpo(pfjs

avrov.

cbo-aurcoy

SiSda-KaXos

dXrjOivos

ea-TLv

Tpotyrjs avTov.
25

agios Kal avros, &<nrep 6 epydrrjs, rrjs irdcray ovv dwap-^v yevvrj^drcov Xrjvov
re Kal irpoftdrtov Xaftcbi Sacreis rr\v avrol yap elviv ol dp^iepets
TrpofprjTT]^
rr]v

Kal a Acwoy,
dirapxfiv
vptov.

PQ$>V

Tols 7rpo(pr)Tais eav Se fir) e\r]Te
Trotfis,

edv

o-iTtav

aTrap^v

Xa(3a>v

Sore TOIS Trra^^ols. Sbs Kara rr\v

evToXrjv.
30 d-irapyf)v
ifiaTio-fiov

axravrcos Kepdfiiov oivov

fj

Xafiav Sbs TOIS npotyrJTais
Kal
86gr)
)

eXaiov dvotgas TTJV dpyvptov Se Kal

iravrbs KTrjfiaros
Sbs

Xa(3a)i>

&s av

o-oi

Kara

rrjv evroXrjv.

AposLi-i 5 .]

Early Christian Writers.

.

25

he ordereth a table in the Spirit shall eat of it ; otherwise he is a false prophet. And every prophet teaching the truth, if he doeth not what he teacheth, is a false prophet. And every prophet approved and found true, if he doeth ought as an outward mystery typical of the Church, and yet teacheth you not to do all that he himself doeth, shall not be judged before you he hath his judgement in the
;

5

presence of God ; for in like manner also did the prophets of old time. And whosoever shall say in the Spirit, Give me silver or anything else, ye shall not listen to him ; but if he tell you to give on behalf of others that are in want, let no man judge him.

10

But let every one that cometh in the name of the Lord be received ; and that when ye have tested him ye shall know him, for ye shall have understanding on the right

15

hand and on the

left.

If the

him, so far as ye are able ; But if he days, if it be necessary. wishes to settle with you, being a craftsman, let him work But if he has no craft, according 20 for and eat his bread. to your wisdom provide how he shall live as a Christian

a traveller, assist but he shall not stay with you
is

comer

more than two or three

among

is trafficking

If he will not do this, he you, but not in idleness. Christ. Beware of such men. upon
25

But every true prophet desiring to settle among you is worthy of his food. In like manner a true teacher is also worthy, like the workman, of his food. Every firstfruit then of the produce of the wine-vat and of the threshingfloor, of thy oxen and of thy sheep, thou shalt take and
give as the firstfruit to the prophets ; for they are your But if ye have not a prophet, give them to chief-priests.

3

the poor.

If thou

makest bread, take the

firstfruit

In like give according to the commandment. when thou openest a jar of wine or of oil, take the firstfruit

and manner,

and give to the prophets yea and of money and raiment and every possession take the firstfruit, as shall seem good to thee, and give according to the commandment.
;

35

2

<5

Selections

from
dprov
Tray
pr)

Kara
Kal

KVpiaKrjv
OTTO)?

e

vxapt-0"TTJo~aT
v/jLa>i>,

irpotopo\oyr)0-dptvoi

Kvptov avvayQwrts K\d(raT ra
17

TrapairT<*>-

fiara
exa>J

KaOapa

6vo~ta

vpa>v

y.

TT)I>

dp(f)L^o\iav
ecoy

pra

rou traipov avrov

avv

5

0Tco y/^^,
l

avrr)
TOTTO*

o5 8ia\\ayS)(riv, iva pr} KOtvtoOf) rj Ovaia Ev yap tvTLV 17 prjOticra vtrb Kvpiov
JJLOI

Kal xpova* irpoa-fyepeLv

Ova-lav

KaQapdv

OTL /Sao-fAeuy /zeya? dpi, Aeye* Kvpios, Kal TO ovopd pov

10

Oavpacrrov kv TOLS Wvta-i. ovv tavroTs XipoToi>rjo-aTe

ftrio-KOTrovs

Kal

SiaKovovs

diov$ TOV Kvpiov, avftpas
d\r)0i$ Kal
avrol rr]v \tirovpytav avTOvs pr) ovv i>7rpi8r)T
15
vp$>v
rS>v

Trpae?? Kal

dfaXapyvpovs Kal

SeSoKipao-fj.ei OVS

vptv yap \iTOVpyovo~i Kal Kal
7rpo<j>r]T$>v

avTol yap elcriv /zera rcov Trpo^rStv Kal 8i8ao~Kd\a)i>.

ot

Doctrina Apost. 7-15.

IX.

Plinius Traiano.

SOLLEMNE
te
referre.

meam
20

est mihi, domine, omnia de quibus dubito ad Quis enim potest melius vel cunctationem regere vel ignorantiam instruere ? Cognitionibus de
:

25

ideo nescio quid et quaChristianis interim numquam tenus aut puniri soleat aut quaeri. Nee mediocriter haesitavi, sitne aliquod discrimen aetatum, an quamlibet teneri nihil a robustioribus differant, detur paenitentiae venia, an ei qui omnino Christianus fuit desisse non prosit, nomen ipsum, si flagitiis careat, an flagitia cohaerentia nomini puniantur. Interim in iis qui ad me tamquam Christian! deferebantur hunc sum secutus modum. Interrogavi ipsos an essent Christiani : confitentes iterum
ac tertio interrogavi suppHcium minatus perseverantes duci iussi. Neque enim dubitabam, qualecumque esset
:

30

quod faterentur, pertinaciam certe et inflexibilem obstinationem debere puniri. Fuerunt alii similis amentiae, quos,

Apost.7-i5.]

Early Christian Writers.

27

And on the Lord s own day gather yourselves together and break bread and give thanks, first confessing your And let transgressions, that your sacrifice may be pure. no man, having his dispute with his fellow, join your assembly until they have been reconciled, that your sacrifice may not be defiled for this sacrifice it is that was spoken of by the Lord ; In every place and at every time offer Me a pure sacrifice for I am a great king, saith the Lord, and My name is wonderful among the nations. Appoint for yourselves therefore bishops and deacons worthy of the Lord, men who are meek and not lovers of money, and true and approved ; for unto you they also perform the service of the prophets and teachers. There fore despise them not ; for they are your honourable men L. along with prophets and teachers.
; ;

5

10

15

I am at a stand, or enlighten me if I am in ignorance ? In investigations of Christians I have never taken part ; hence I do not know what is the crime usually 20 punished or investigated, or what allowances are made.

me when

Trajan. Trajan. IT is my custom, lord emperor, to refer to you all questions whereof I am in doubt. Who can better guide

Pliny s Correspondence with

Pliny

to

So

I

have had no

little

uncertainty whether there

is

any

distinction of age, or whether the very weakest offenders are treated exactly like the stronger; whether pardon is given to those who repent, or whether nobody who has 25

ever been a Christian at all gains anything by having ceased to be such; whether punishment attaches to the mere name apart from secret crimes, or to the secret crimes connected with the name. Meantime this is the course I have taken with those who were accused before me as Christians. I asked at their own lips whether they were Christians, and if they confessed, I asked them a second and third time with threats of punishment. If they kept to it, I ordered them for execution; for I held no
question that whatever it was that they admitted, in any case obstinacy and unbending perversity deserve to be punished. There were others of the like insanity ; but as

3

35

28
quia cives

Selections

from
urbem remittendos.

Romani

erant, adnotavi in

Mox

diffundente se crimine ipso tractatu, ut fieri solet,
inciderunt.

plures species

Propositus est libellus sine auctore multorum nomina continens. Qui negabant esse
se Christianos aut fuisse,

5

larent et imagini tuae,

cum praeeunte me deos appelquam propter hoc iusseram cum
ac vino supplicarent,
nihil

simulacris

numinum

adferri, ture

praeterea male dicerent Christo, quorum

posse cogi

dicuntur qui sunt re vera Christiani, dimittendos esse
10 putavi.

Alii

ab indice nominati esse se Christianos dixerunt

et

mox

negaverunt; fuisse quidem, sed desisse, quidam

ante triennium,

quidam ante plures annos, non nemo Hi quoque omnes et imaginem tuam etiam ante viginti.

15 runt.

deorumque simulacra venerati sunt et Christo male dixeAdfirmabant autem hanc fuisse summam vel culpae
suae vel erroris, quod essent
soliti stato

die ante lucem

convenire carmenque Christo quasi deo dicere

secum

invicem seque
stringere, sed
20 mitterent,

Sacramento non

in

scelus

aliquod ob-

ne

furta,

ne

latrocinia,

ne adulteria comappellati

ne
:

fidem

fallerent,

ne

depositum
sibi

abnegarent
fuisse,

quibus

peractis

morem

discedendi

rursusque coeundi ad capiendum cibum, promiset

cuum tamen

innoxium

;

quod ipsum facere desisse post
credidi

edictum meum, quo secundum mandata tua hetaerias esse
25

vetueram.
ancillis,

Quo magis necessarium

ex duabus

quae ministrae dicebantur, quid esset veri et per tormenta quaerere. Nihil aliud inveni quam superstiIdeo dilata cognitione ad

tionem pravam immodicam.

Ep.x. 9 6.]

Early Christian Writers.

29

these were
to

Rome.

fact

citizens, I noted them down to be sent Before long, as is often the case, the mere that the charge was taken notice of made it commoner,

Roman

and several distinct cases arose. An unsigned paper was presented, which gave the names of many. As for those who said that they neither were nor ever had been Christians, I thought it right to let them go, since they
gods at my dictation, made sup with incense and wine to your statue, which I had ordered to be brought into court for the purpose together with the images of the gods, and moreover cursed Christ not one of which things (so it is said) those
recited a prayer to the
plication

5

10

who are really Christians can be made who were named by the informer said

to do.

Others
15

they were Christians and then denied it, explaining that they had been, but had ceased to be such, some three years ago, some a good many years, and a few as many as twenty. All
that

these too not only worshipped your statue and the images of the gods, but cursed Christ. They maintained, however, that the amount of their fault or error had been this, that 20 it was their habit on a fixed day to assemble before daylight

and sing by turns a hymn to Christ as a god and that they bound themselves with an oath, not for any crime, but not to commit theft or robbery or adultery, not to break their word, and not to deny a deposit when demanded. After this was done, their custom was to depart, and meet together again to take food, but ordinary and harmless food ; and even this (they said) they had given up doing after the issue of my edict, by which in accord ance with your commands I had forbidden the existence
;

25

3

of clubs.
to

On
out

this

find

from

considered it the more necessary two maid-servants who were called
I
:

deaconesses, and that by torments, how far this was true but I discovered nothing else than a wicked and arrogant superstition. I therefore adjourned the case and hastened

35

30

Selections
te decucurri.

from

[pimy

consulendum
consultatione,

Visa est enim mihi res digna

periclitantium numerum. Multi enim omnis aetatis, omnis ordinis, utriusque sexus Neque civietiam, vocantur in periculum et vocabuntur.

maxime propter

5 tates

tantum sed vicos etiam atque agros superstitionis
;

contagio pervagata est quae videtur sisti et corrigi Certe satis constat prope iam desolata templa posse. intermissa repeti coepisse celebrari et sacra sollemnia diu
istius
10

pastumque venire victimarum, cuius adhuc rarissimus Ex quo facile est opinari, quae emptor inveniebatur. turba hominum emendari possit, si sit paenitentiae locus.

Traianus Plinio.

15

Actum quern debuisti, mi Secunde, in excutiendis causis eorum qui Christiani ad te delati fuerant secutus es. Neque enim in universum aliquid quod quasi certam formam habeat constitui potest. Conquirendi non sunt si deferantur et arguantur, puniendi sunt, ita tamen ut qui
:

negaverit se Christianum esse idque re ipsa manifestum
fecerit, id est

supplicando dis nostris, quamvis suspectus

Sine praeteritum, veniam ex paenitentia impetret. ao auctore vero propositi libelli in nullo crimine locum habere
in

debent.

Nam

et

pessimi exempli nee nostri saeculi
PLINY, Epp.

est.

x. 96, 97.

X.
yovv oSroy 0eo//a)(oy *v ToFy /zaA/ora e?n ray Kara row diroa-ToXcw
(T0ayay.

JTauXoy
KOL

STJ

ovv

kir

avrfjs

PtoyLiTyy TTJV

JTer)oy

axraurcoy

EPP. x. 9 6, 97-]

Early Christian Writers.
The matter seemed
to

31
deli

to consult you.

me worth

beration, especially on account of the number of those in danger ; for many of all ages and every rank, and even of

both sexes are brought into present or future danger. contagion of that superstition has penetrated not the cities only, but the villages and country; yet it seems

The

6

At any rate it is possible to stop it and set it right. certain enough that the almost deserted temples begin
to be resorted to, that long disused ceremonies of religion are restored, and that fodder for victims finds a market, 10

whereas buyers till now were very few. From this it easily be supposed, what a multitude of men can be reclaimed, if there be a place of repentance.

may

Trajan

to

Pliny.

followed, my dear Secundus, the process you should have done in examining the cases of those who were accused to you as Christians, for indeed nothing can be laid down as a general law involving something like a definite rule of action. They are not to be sought out; but if they are accused and convicted, they must be

You have

15

punished yet on this condition, that whoso denies himself to be a Christian, and makes the fact plain by his action, that is, by worshipping our gods, shall obtain

20

pardon on his repentance, however suspicious his past conduct may be. Papers, however, which are presented unsigned ought not to be admitted in any charge, for they are a very bad example and unworthy of our time.

25

The Neronian Persecution (Eusebius).

way then declaring himself the first of God s chief enemies, [Nero] was stirred up to the slaughter of the Apostles. It is recorded then that Paul was beheaded
IN this
at

Rome

itself,

and that Peter likewise was crucified

in his 30

32
/car
fj

Selections
avrov tvropovvrai.

from

[Eusebms

Utrpov Kal IlavXov
KoifJLrjrrjpicDV

e/y

Kal Tna-rovrat ye rrjv icrropiav Sdvpo Kpartfo-ao-a eVi

rS>v

avroOi

Trpoo-prja-is.

ovSev

8

rjrrov

Kal
P<o-

CKKXr)o~iao-riKos dvrjp
5 fjiaiobv

Td ios

ovojj.a }

Kara Ztfyvplvov
Upo/cXo)
rfjs
s,

yeyoz/cby

tnicrKOTTOv

oy

$)

Kara avra

to

ravra nep T r) ra lepa (r/c^^/co/zara /carare^eirat, 07/cra/dnoa ToXcov e^oo 8eiai. ear Eycb Se TO, rpoTraia yap OtXrjo-flS aTreX^e^ 7ri TO^ BCLTIKCLVOV, 77 CTT? r^i/ o5o^ r^ flcrriav, evprjcreis ra rpoaraia ra)^ TCLVT SJV ISpvT>V

Kaipbv
eTr/ovcoTToy
15 ojjLiX&v,
a>5e

Aiovvo~io$

eyypa0coy

TTOoy Trapio~rr]o~LV

Tavra Kal

v^eis 8id rfjs rocravrrjs vovOeaias rrjv dirb

Iltrpov Kal IlavXov tpvreiav yevrjOelo-av Pcofiaicov re Kal Kal yap a Kal e/y rrjv KopivOitov o~vveKpdo~ar.
/z0a>

r)fj,rpav I6piv6ov <bvrvo~avr$ rjuds OLLOLCOS ^.SiScL^av 20 8e Kal e/y rrjv IraXiav 6/zocre SiSdgavres, kpaprv6{J,oia>S

prjo-av

Kara rbv avrov Kaipov.
EUSEBIUS, Hist.
Eccles.
ii.

25.

XL
ITerpou

p\v

ovv

ETTia-roXr]

Trporepa dvcofjLoXoyrjrai

ravry

^ Xeyo/ze^Ty avrov fj,ia 8e Kal oi rrdXai Trpecrftv-

25 o~vyypdfj.fj.ao~i.

repoi oby aj/a^0iXe/crco ev ro?y afy&v avraiv KaraKe^prjvrai rr/v 8k (f>epofj.evr)v avrov Sevrepav, OVK
ev8i.d6r]Kov
fj,v
/

Lvai

7rapeiXrj<pafj.v.

o/za>y

8e

TroXXois
ypa<f>a>v.

\prjo~ifjLos (j)ave io~a,

/zera roov dXXcov
7riKKXr}fj,va)v

o~7rov8do~6rj

ro ye
/car

fjLrjv

rcov

avrov Ilpd^tcov, Kal ro

avrov

wvofj.ao~ftevov
rrji>

EvayytXiov, ro re Xeyofievov
KaXovfifvrjv AiroKaXv^Lv, ov8

30

a^rou Kripvypa, Kal

H.E.ii.25.]

Early Christian Writers.
is

33

time

;

and the story

even now) of their names is also confirmed by an
name, who lived

confirmed by the attachment (usual to the cemeteries at Rome. It
ecclesiastical writer,

Gaius by
5

bishop of Rome. He in his written dialogue with Proclus, a champion of the Phrygian heresy, speaks thus of the places where the
in the time of Zephyrinus

holy corpses of the aforesaid Apostles are laid But I can show the trophies of the Apostles.
:

For

if

thou wilt go to the Vatican, or to the Ostian road, thou wilt find the trophies of those who founded this Church/

10

And that they were both martyred at the same time shown by Dionysius, the Bishop of Corinth, who writes
the

is

to

Romans
In this

thus

:

too joined together the plantings of Peter and Paul at Rome and For they both together in Corinth here planted Corinth.

way by such an admonition you

15

and both together in Italy taught us and taught alike and then were martyred at the same time. alike,
;

Of
OF

the

Canonical Epistles.

acknowledged

Peter then one Epistle, his so-called Former, is fully and of this even the ancient elders have 20 ;

made constant use in their writings as undisputed. But as for the current Second Epistle, we have understood that it is not canonical yet as it seemed useful to many,
:

was studied along with the other writings. The Acts, however, which bear his name, and the Gospel inscribed according to Peter/ and his so-called Preaching and socalled Apocalypse we know have not been handed down D
it

25

34
OXO>9

Selections
kv

from
ITCpa^Sofl va,
TLS

KaQoXlKOlS
yiiTyre
rS>v

LCTfJLV
fjfjLas

Sri

flT)T

dp^atdDv

KaO

e/c/cX^tnao-riKcte

cri/y-

ypafavs

rcay
8\
r?/9

e

avTcov (rvvt\pricraTO papTVpiais,

irpo-

ioToptas, TTpovpyov TroLrjo-ofiai vvv Ts vTroa-rjfjL^aadaL, Tivts rcov Kara y^povovs e
oTroiais
TLVOL
,

rat s

Ke-rjvraL T&V
KOL
TOLOVTCDV avrois eiprjrai.

re nep

T>V

evLarKcw
ftr]

KOI oora Trepl T&V
IJL\V

10

6vo/j.a6fMva Tlerpov, eTTio-roX^, KOL Trapa TOIS irdXai TOV Se IlavXov TrpoSrjXoi pois 6fj.o\oyov[JLivr]v, rocravrcc. OTI ye fj.rjv rwts rjOtTrjKOL (rafais at 8eKaT(T(rapS.
yvr}<riav
tyv<ov

d\\a

ra

KacrL rr]v Trpoy ^Efipaiovs, TT/OO? rrjs
toy 15
/J,T)

Paofiaicov

KK\rjcrias

IlavXov ovvav avT^v dvTiXeyevOai (f)TJ(ravTS, ov SIKCUOV dyvoeiv. KCLI ra Trtpl ravrr]? 8e ro?? irpb 17 /za)*
p.r]v

ovSe Kaipov TrapaOrjao/jLai. e/p?///era Kara Aeyo/ze^ay a^roC JT/)a|ei9 ei/ a^a/z0tXe/croiS eirel Se 6 auros* aTrocrroXoy, kv raft tirl reXei
rfjs TT/)O?

ra?

Pco/za/ouy,
(f>a(nv

fjLvrifjLrji

irtTroirjTai /^era

r<*>

dXXcw
<5i

20

Kal Epfjia, ov
fVreoz/ coy /cat
oi)/c

roro

inrdp^iv TO TOV Uoi/ie^oy fiifiXiov, ou9 TT/JO? /^e^ ri^o)^ aVrtXeXeKrai,
T&ir),
vcj)

az/

kv

6fj,oXoyov/j.i>ois

erepo)^

<5e

dvayKaio/ce/cptrat.
,

TCLTOV of? f^dXia-Ta Set

oroi)(eio)o-eo>9 el(rayo>ytKfjs,

o^ev
25 /cai

97$?7

/cat

e^

KKXr)(riais ia

^v

avTO

SeSrjfi.oo itviJLevoi

rwf TraXaiorarow 5e cruyypafyttov Ke^prjfjL^vovs Tivas raOra e/9 irapdaTacriv T&V re dvavKa,TiXr)(f)a. al fj.7] jrapa iravw
TO>V

Ibid.

iii. 3.

XII.

EvXoyov 8
30

kvTavQa yeyo/zeVou? dvaK(f)aXaidoo~ao~Oai
TTJS

ra9 8r)X(o6Laras

Kaivfjs AiaOrJKrjs

ypa0a?.

/cat

5^

H.E.ui. 3 .]
at

Early Christian Writers.

35

canonical books, because no ecclesiastical our own time, ever made general use of testimonies from them. But, as my history goes on, I shall do my diligence to signify along with the successions, who of the ecclesiastical writers from time to time used disputed books, and which of them they used,
all

among

writer, either of the ancients or of

5

and also what they have said concerning the canonical and acknowledged books, and all that they have said concern But so many are the writings ing those that are not such. that bear the name of Peter; and of them I recognize one single Epistle as genuine and acknowledged by the ancient elders. Of Paul the fourteen are manifest and clear. It is not indeed right to ignore the fact that some have rejected that to the Hebrews, saying that it is disputed by the Roman Church as not being Paul s but I will set out at suitable opportunities what has been said by our pre
;

10

15

however of Paul

decessors concerning this Epistle too. The so-called Acts I have not understood to be among the undisputed books. But whereas the same Apostle in the
the

final salutations of the Epistle to

Romans mentions

20

among

others Hernias, whose

is said to be, it ought to disputed by some, and on their account must not be set down among the acknowledged books, but by others it has

work the so-called Shepherd be known that this too has been

been judged indispensable for those who specially need elementary instruction. Hence, as we know, it has actually been read in public in churches, and I have found some even of the oldest writers using it. Let this serve to show those of the divine writings which are undisputed, and those which are not acknowledged by all.

25

30

Of the Canon

of the

New

Testament.
it

Now that we
sum up
tioned.

have reached

this point,

is

reasonable to

the writings of the

New
D 2

Testament already men

Well, then,

we must

set in the first place the holy

36
raKreov kv
o?y

Selections
TTpcorofy rr)v
17

from
EvayytXicw rerpaKrvv,
/zera

dyiav

rS>v

eVerai

rooV Updfcecov rcoV dTroo ToXoav ypafyrj.

8e ravrrjv, ray
rr)V (f)pofievr}v
5 KVpOOTfOV

IlavXov

ETTHTToXds, ah egfjs Icodvvov irporepav, Kal o/zcu coy rrjv Tltrpov
/caraXe/creo*>

ETTKTToXijy.

7Ti

TOVTOIS TCLKTeOV,
irepl
rjs

iy

(/KM/eir],

TTJV

AiroKaXv^-Lv

Icodwov,

ra 86avra

Kara

Kal ravra fj.V tv Kaipov K6rjcr6fjLeda. rS)v 8 di TtXeyo/JLevcdi yvcopifACov 8 ovv o/icoy
,

17

Xeyofievrj

IaKO>(3ov

0eperai Kal
f)

f)

lovSa,

ij

re

Uerpov
Tpirrj

10

Stvrepa ETTHTToXrj, Kal
Icodvvov,
iT

ovofjLagofjLevr)

Sevrepa Kal
eiT

TOV

vayyeXi(TTOv rvyxdvovvai,
KIVQ>.

Kal

TpOV
Kal

OfJLWVV/jLOV

kv

ToTs

VoOoiS
o

KaTaTTd^6(O
re
Aey6/zej>oy

rS>v

IlavXov JT/oaeooi/
Kal

^

ypatyrj,

X

5

Kal TTpoy rouroiy, rj noifJLrjv, ATroKaXv^ris Herpov. Kal rS*v airoaToXtov at 17 0epo/zerr; Bapvdfta tTTKrToXrj, Icodwov Airo17 AiSayjcui eri re, coy
t<f)i)v,

is, et (pavetr], r\v

n rey,

coy tyrjv,
rjSr)

roils

6/zoAoyoi>/zeVcuy.

aBeTovcnv, erepoi 5e 8 kv rouroty
<

Kal rb KaO *Ef$paiovs EvayytXiov AcareXef av, 2o E^paL(ov ol rov Xpiarov irapaB^d^voL ^aipovcri.
l

ravra

p.\v

irdvra

rS>v

dvTiXeyofjLevttu>

av

eir

Kal rovrcov

o/zcoy

rov KardXoyov

TTtTroirj/JLeSa,

ray re Kara

rr\v iKKXrjo-iaaTiKrjv 7rapd8oo~iv dXr)6eTs

Kal

dnXdcTTovs Kal
25

dva>/jLoXoyr]fj.va^ ypac/)d$, Kal ray aXXay rai/ray, OVK evSiaOrJKovs fj.v, dXXa Kal dvriXtyoTrapa
,

0/j.cos

8e
iv
,

irapa

TrXetcrrcup

rcov

KKXr)o-iao"7iKO)v

e/cSeVat

e^oifiev avrds re rauray, Kal
rcoi

ray ovofiart

r$>v

aTrocrroXcoi/ Trpoy

aiperiKaiv

Trpocfie-

pofjitvas, rjroL Ilerpov Kal @co/za Kal MarQta, rj Kai rivcov Trapa rovrouy aXXcor 30 euayyeXta Tre/ne^oi/cmy, coy
coy

AvSpeov Kal ladvvov Kal eiy, &v ov8ev ovSaftto? kv

rcov dXXcov

aTrocrroXcoi/

irpd-

(Tvyydari rvv Kara

ray

H.E.iii.a 5 .]

Early Christian Writers.

37

quaternion of the Gospels, which are followed by the writing of the Acts of the Apostles. After this we have to place on the list the Epistles of Paul ; and next to these we must

maintain the current Former Epistle of John, and likewise In addition to these we must set down, if 5 it do seem right, the Apocalypse of John ; but the opinions which have been held concerning this book we will set forth And these are counted as acknowledged. in due course. But of the disputed books, which are nevertheless familiar to most [writers], the so-called Epistle of James is current, 10 and that of Jude ; also the Second of Peter, and those called Second and Third of John, whether they be the work of the Evangelist, or possibly of some other John. Among
that of Peter.

the spurious we must set down the writing of the Acts of Paul, and the so-called Shepherd, and the Apocalypse 15 of Peter; and in addition to these the current Epistle of Barnabas, and the so-called Teachings of the Apostles,
I said, the Apocalypse of John if it seem though some, as I said, reject it, while others in clude it in the acknowledged books. Some moreover have also counted in this class the Gospel according to the Hebrews, which is in especial honour with those of the Hebrews who have received the Christ. Now all these have been obliged will belong to the disputed books. to include these also in our list notwithstanding [the doubts about them], distinguishing the writings which according to orthodox tradition are true and genuine and fully acknowledged, from the others outside their number, which are not canonical but disputed, yet recognized by most

and, moreover, as
;

good

20

We

25

orthodox

[writers], that

we might be

able to

mark these

3

books, and those put forward by the heretics in the name of the Apostles, whether as containing Gospels of Peter and Thomas and Matthias or also of others beside them, or as Acts of Andrew and John and the other Apostles

books of which no one of the succession of ecclesiastical

35

38

Selections
r:y

from
dvrjp
6
Tr^y
ety
ftvrjfj.r)!

KK\r)<ria(TTiK<i)v

dyaytlv
Trapa ro re yixa/jirj

Troppco

5e

TTOV

Kal

c/>poVecoy

rj6os TO d.TTOo ToXiKov

eVaXXdVrei ^apaKTrjp

TJ

Kal
5 rfjs

77

rcoV eV avTois

c/>epoyueVcoi/

d\rj6ovs 6p6oSoia$ dvSpwv dvairXda-fjLara rvyydvti, cra^co? ovS kv v66ois avra KararaKTeov, aAX
KOL Sva-o-tpfj
7rapaiTr)Toi>.

Trpoa/pecny, TrXeia-rov ocrov aTradovcra, OTL Srj
7rapicrTr)(riv
coy

aroTra

73^ ^
XIII.

2

,

Tov
10 rai,

5e
/cat

UaTTia

<Tvyypd^

a

eTTtyeypaTrrat,
*

yloy/co^ J5Tfpm/cco^
/z

rourco^ ^ai Elprjvaios coy

vVt,
[lev

coc^e Trcoy

Xeyco^

Tavra

Se KOL

Hajrias

o

Iwdvvov
eaurou

aKov(TTri$,

HoXvKapTrov

<5e

Iraipos yeyoi/coy, dp^alo s
TT;

dvrjp,
15

yypc0coy eTTiyuaprfpe?
<TTI

ei/

reraprTy

rco>

fiipXiow.
jfiTcu

yap

ai/rco Tre^-re {3i(3\ia cru^reray/uei/a.

6 /ie^ Elprivcuos
rS>v

ravra.

avros ye
Aoycoi/

//T)^ 6

HaTTias
[ilv

Kara, ro Trpooifj-iov
ov8afi.(i)$

avrov

aKpoar^v
/epcoi/

KOL

tavrov yevecrOaL

rS>v

aTrocrroXco^

5e ra 7rapeiXr;c/)ei/at 20 eKe/fOiy SiSdaKti SL yvcopificw

T7)y

TT/orecoy
Xe^ecoi/
rco>

?rapa

rcoi/

5>v

<prj(n

Oi;^

oKvricrto Se

voi Kal

oaa

Trore ?rapd

Trpecr/Sfre-

pcov /caXcoy ep.a6ov Kal /caXcoy tf

25

ra?y ep/i^i/efa/y, 5ia/3ejSaio ov yap rory ra TroXXa Xeyova-iv fyaipov cocrTrep o/ TroXXo/, aXXa roiy TaXrjOfj SiSavKova-iv, ovSk roly ray aXXorpf ay
et^roXay [Avrjuovtvovaiv,
rfi

dXXa

ro?y ray ?rapa roO

7Ti(TTL

SeSoftevas Kal
e/
cSe

an
/cat

avTfjs irapayivoiiZvas
7rapr)KoXov6r]K<*)$

Kvpiov r^y
rofy

dXrjOeias.

TTOU

rty

eX^ot,
Ti
rt @co//ay
7}

rouy
TL
77

rcoi/

TrpecrjSi/repcoi/

dvtKpivov

AvSpeas %
la^cojSoy

JTerpoy
ri

efyre^
r)

77

ri

^/XiTTTroy
r;

^

IcodVi/Tyy

Mar^aroy

rty

H.E.m.25.]

Early Christian Writers.
condescended
to

39
in his

[writers] ever

make any mention

Moreover, the character of their language differs greatly from the apostolic spirit, and the sentiment and purpose of their contents, which is in the highest degree discordant with true orthodoxy, plainly shows that they are
writings.

5

so that we must not count them even among the spurious books, but reject them as in every way monstrous and impious.
forgeries of heretics
;

Papias. FIVE books of Papias are extant, which bear the
Expositions of Oracles of the Lord.
also

title

makes

these Irenaeus 10 mention as the only works written by him, in the
:

Of

These things Papias, who was a hearer following words of John and a companion of Polycarp, an ancient worthy,
witnesseth in writing in the fourth of his books. For there are five books composed by him/ So far Irenaeus.
himself, in the preface to his discourses, cer tainly does not declare that he himself was a hearer and
15

Yet Papias

eye-witness of the holy Apostles, but he shows, by the language which he uses, that he received the matters of the faith from those who were their friends 20
:

not scruple also to give a place for you along with my interpretations to everything that I learnt carefully and remembered carefully in time past from the elders, guaranteeing its truth. For, unlike the many, I did not take pleasure in those who have so very much to say, but in those who teach the truth ; nor in those who relate
1 will

But

25

commandments, but in those [who record] such as were given from the Lord to the Faith, and are derived from the Truth itself. And again, on any occasion when a person came [in my way] who had been a follower of the Elders, I would inquire about the discourses of the elders what was said by Andrew, or by Peter, or by Philip, or by Thomas or James, or by John or Matthew or any other
foreign

30

4o
TO>V

Selections

from

TT

5

TOV KvptOV fJ-aOrfTCOV, d T AptCTTLODV KCU 6 TpO$ PVT epos ladvvrjs, ot TOV Kvpiov fj,a6rjTai, Xeyovcriv. pev K TWV ftipXian TOO-OVTOV fte c00eXe> VTTCov yap TO. Kal /j.vovo~r)s. Xdfj.(3avov, ovov ra napa gaxrrjs (fxovfjs TO aiov Sis KaTapL6fj.ovvTi "EvQa Kal 7ri(TTTJ(Tai
avrS>

TOV [JLtv npoTtpov JTerpoo KCU lobdvvov ovopa, KOL MarOa&n KCU TOIS XOITTOIS aTroaToXois o-u
$>v

IaK<(3a>

TOV e^ayyeXicrr^, TOV 8 tTtpov a.7roo~T6X(>v TOV Xoyov erepoij irapa TOV 8iao~Ti\a$ avTOv TOV ApivTicova, 10 dpiOfJ-bv KaTCLTdo-aei, 7rpOTaa$
o-a<pa>$

8r}\$)V

T$>V

T
o~acf)S>s

avTov 7rpeo~(3vTpov 6vo{j.d^i.
T?JV

coy

KOL 8ia TOVTCOV

d7ro8eiKvvo-6cu

laTOpiav

dXrjOrj

TO>V

8vo

Kara

Tr]v

15

K^pfjardaL eiprjKOTWVj 8vo re kv yeveaOai fj.vrjfJ.aTa Kal tKaTtpov ladvvov Ti vvv Xt e/Acoy yayo TOV ofy Kal dvayKaiov 7rpoo~e^iv TOV vovv
Ao~iav
6/j,o)vvfjLia.

8tVTpOV
8e
fifjiiv

}

(pepofj.vr)v

kBiXoi TOV TTp&TOV, TT)V klf OVOfjLaTOS \Lr\ Tl$ Icodvvov ATfOKaXv^nv ewpaKtvai. KOL 6 vvv 8r]XovfJLevo$ ITaTnay TOVS fJLev T&V diroo-ToXoiv
1

Aoyouy
20

Trapa

irapti\r]<ptvai }

TrapTjKoXovdrjKOTOov 6fj.oXoyi ApLo~Tia)vo$ 8t Kal TOV TrpeafivTepov ladv<f)r)o~i

TGOV

avToTs

vov avTTJKOOv lavTov yevtaOai. yovv 6vo/jLao~Tl TroXXaKis avT&v /jLvrj/jiovtvcras, kv Tots avTov o-vyypdfj.fiao-i
Ti6rjo~iv
/y

25

avT&v Kal 7rapa86o~is. Kal TavTa 8 rjfj.lv OVK TO d^prjcrTOv e/p??o-0co. *Aiov ^e raFy aTroSoOeicrais TOV Tlania (ficovals Trpoo--

Xe^ety tTtpas avTov, SL o&v TfapdSo^d Tiva laTopeT Kal dXXa, Gbo~av /f Tra/aa^ocrecoy e/y avTov k\66vTa. TO /j.v ovv /cara Trjv ^epdiroXiv $i\nnrov TOV drroo-ToXov
d\l/ai

dfia Tais

30 Xcorcu, coy 8e /cara TOVS

OvyaTpda-L SiaTptyai, 8id TWV TTpoaOev StSrjavTovs 6 IlaTrias yevopevos Sir}OavfjLaaiav
TO,

yrjaiv

TrapiXr)<j)vai

VTTO

TCOV

TOV $iXiTnrov

OvyaTepwv
dvda-Taa-Lv

fJLvrjfj.ovevi,

vvv

o~rjfjLicoTov.
/o-Topet,

vKpov yap
Kal av irdXiv

/car

avTov yeyovviav

H.E.iii.39.]

Early Christian Writers.

41

of the Lord s disciples, and what Aristion and the Elder John, the disciples of the Lord, say. For I did not think that I could get so much profit from the contents of books
as from the utterances of a living and abiding voice. Here it is worth while to observe that he twice enumer- 5 ates the name of John. The first he mentions in con

nexion with Peter and James and Matthew and the rest of
the Apostles, evidently meaning the Evangelist, but the other John he mentions after an interval and classes with

number of the Apostles, placing Aristion 10 So that before him, and he distinctly calls him an Elder. he hereby makes it quite evident that their statement is
others outside the
Asia,

say that there were two persons of that name in and that there are two tombs in Ephesus, each of which even now is called [the tomb] of John. And it is
true

who

15

important to notice this ; for it is probable that it was the second, if one will not admit that it was the first, who saw the Revelation which is ascribed by name to John. And Papias, of whom we are now speaking, confesses that

he had received the words of the Apostles from those who had followed them, but says that he was himself a hearer of Aristion and the Elder John. At all events he mentions them frequently by name, and besides records their tradi So much for these points which tions in his writings. I trust have not been uselessly adduced. It is worth while however to add to the words of Papias given above other passages from him, in which he records

20

25

some other wonderful events likewise, as having come down to him by tradition. That Philip the Apostle re
sided in Hierapolis with his daughters has been already 30 stated ; but how Papias, their contemporary, relates that

he had heard a marvellous Philip, must be noted here.

tale

from the daughters of

For he relates that in his time a man rose from the dead, and again he gives another

42

Selections

from
TOV eTTiKXrjOevTa

eTcpov irapdSo^ov Trepl
8ia

lovcrTOV

Bap-

o~a(3(3av yeyovos, CDS SrjXrjTrjpiov
/j.r)8ev

(pdppaKov e/nnorroy Kal

drjSes

rrjv

TOVTOV St TOV lovvTOV
5

TOV Kvpiov ydpiv v7ro{j.eivavTOS, TOV ^GOTrjpos dvdXrj^lnv fjLtTa TTjv
fj.Ta

TOVS

Upoi>s

aTToaToXovs

Mardia
kirl
f)
J

a-Tfjo~ai

re

Kal
Trjs
<5e

avT\ TOV npoSoTOV lovSa TOV avT&v dpi.6fj.ov,
TTQOS lo-TopcT

TOV KXrjpov

ypafyr)

Kal
o?
L7rav.

ecrTycrav 8vo,

T&V irpagecav Jcocr^0 TOV KaXov-

jj.vov
10

Bapaappav,

7TKXrj6r)

JToOoTos, Kal

MardiaV
d>aav

Kal 7rpo(Tvdfj,voL

Kal

dXXa

8e 6 avTos

e/c

7rapadoo-(os dypd<pov eh avTov iJKOVTa napaTeOeiTai, eva$ T Tivas TrapaftoXas TOV ^oorr)/ooy Kal 8i8ao~KaXias

avTov, Kat TLva Tivd (f)T]0~lV TO)V
15 a&fjLaTiKcos TTJS
v7roo~Tr)o~ofj.evr)S.

dXXa

kv o?s Kal fjLvOiKWTtpa. 0-0~6aL fJLeTCL TT)V K VKpO)V

Xpio~Tov }a(riXta$ em TavTij&l r^y yfjs a Kal qyovftat, ray d7roo~ToXiKas naptKkv viroSeiy^aa-i rrpbs

SegdfjLtvov 8Lr)yr)(Ti$ viroXafteTv, TO.
avT<ov

vvvecopaKOTa. cr<f)68pa ydp TOL o-fjLiKpbs TOV vovv, tocrav ZK TWV avTov Xoycav TKfj.y20 pdfjievov elnelvj avTov TrXrjv Kal TOIS p.eT
fjLvo~TLKco$ elprj/jLeva
a>v

fir]

<f>aivTai

TrAe/broiy

oaois

TCOV

KKXr)o~ia<TTiKa>v

Trjs

d/iotiay

avTto

S6r)$ TrapaiTLOS yeyove, Trjv dp^aLOTT]Ta TavSpbs TrpoftefiXrjfJievois, &o~irep ovv Elprjvaiw, Kal ei riy aXXoy ra
o/jLoia

(frpovcov

dva7T(j)rjvev.

Kal

d AAay

Se

Trj

eavTov

25

TOV TrpoaOev Apio-Tia>vo$ ypa<pfj Ta)V TOV ^Kvpiov Xoyow Sirjyijo eLS Kal TOV Icodvvov 7rapaS6o-i$ } ay TOVS (/)iXofj.a6eis dvara?y TrpoeKTeOei, ai/ay/ca/ooy vvv 7rpoo~drjaro/jLv
7rapaSiSo)o-Lv
t(f>

30

avTov (jxovais napaSoaiv, r)v Trepl MdpKov TOV TO evayyeXiov yeypatyoTOS tKTeOeiTai SLO, TOVTQW Kal TOVTO 6 TTpeafivTepos eAeye- Map/coy fa ep/J.r)vevTr)?

IltTpov

yevopevos,
ragci,

ova
L TTO

ffjivrjijiovevo-ev,

eypa^ev, ov

fjLtvToi

ra

TOV XpiaTov

fj

H.E.iii.39.]

Early Christian Writers.

43

wonderful story about Justus who was surnamed Barsabas, how that he drank a deadly poison, and yet, by the grace of the Lord, suffered no inconvenience. Of this Justus the Book of the Acts records that after the ascension of the Saviour the holy Apostles put him forward with Matthias,
for the [right] choice, in place of the traitor Judas, that should make their number complete. The

5

and prayed
passage
is

somewhat as follows
;

two, Joseph, called Barsabas,

and Matthias

and they

writer has recorded other

And they put forward who was surnamed Justus, The same prayed, and said/ notices as having come down to
:

I

Q

him from oral tradition, certain strange parables of the Saviour and teachings of His, and some other statements of a rather mythical character. Among which he says that there will be a period of some ten thousand years after the resurrection, and that the kingdom of Christ will be set up These ideas I suppose he in material form on this earth.
got through a misunderstanding of the apostolic accounts, not perceiving that the things recorded there in figures were spoken by them mystically. For he evidently was a man of very mean capacity, as one may say judging from his own statements yet it was owing to him that so many church fathers after him adopted a like opinion, urging in their own support the antiquity of the man, as for instance Irenaeus and whoever else they were who declared that
:

15

20

25

they held like views. Papias also gives in his own work other accounts of the words of the Lord on the authority of Aristion who has been mentioned above, and traditions of the Elder John. To these we refer the curious, and for our present purpose we will merely add to his words, 30 which have been quoted above, a tradition, which has been set forth through these sources concerning Mark who wrote the Gospel And the Elder said this also Mark, having become the
:
:

interpreter of Peter, wrote that he remembered, without

down

accurately everything 35

however recording in order what was either said or done by Christ. For neither did

44
17

Selections
OUT*

from
TOV Kvpiov, OVT
irapr)TTyOO?

TTpayQivTa.

yap

iJKOva-e

KOXOV0T)<TV

aVTto, VOTTtpOV
kiroLeiro

$,

CO?

tr\V

,

UcT/JO), 09

ray xpetas
<rvvTaiv

ray &5aavcaX/ay,
TTOiov/Aevos

aXX* 01^
cocrr

axnrep
oi/<5et/

TO>V

KvpiaKtov
oi/rcoy

5 fj/jiapT

Map/coy,

ma

Aoy/W,
coy

ypa^ay

dTTfjLi>r)fj.6vei>(ri

.

^oy

yap eTro^craro
rj

\nrtlv

Trpovoiav, TOV ^revcraa Oat TL kv avrois.
p.tv
r<

/jLrjSev

&v

rjKovo e irapa-

7Tpl Se TOV
10

ovv lo-ToprjTai Hair la nepl TOV MdpKov. MarOaiov TCLVT ei prjTai Mar^aroy yLtei/ ou^ E{3pai8i SiaXeKTO) ra \oyia avvtl

Tavra

trjistva-e

8 avTa

a>y

r\v

SvvaTos eVacrroy.

repay
15 aiy

r^y ladvvov irpoe/cre^eirai r^y JTerpou o/zoiiwy. 5e Ka2 d\\r]v IvTopiav Trepi yvvaiKos tnl TTO\\CUS dfj.apTiOLTTO

S

avrbs papTVpiais

7TicrroX^y /cat a?ro

5ia/3Ary^fV^y

e?rf

roi)

eva,yy\Lov Trepie^et.

Kvpiov, T)V TO /car Eftpaiovs *a2 raura 5 17^^ ai/ay/caiwy Trpoy
// /i/.
iii.

roty eKTeOeicrw eTTirer^p^cr^a).
39.

XIV.
Toil #e

rjv
20

ol

ra epya aet 6pa7revQevT$, ol dvavTdvTts

3W?7poy

ly/zai/

Trapfjv

dXrjOfj
01

yap
OVK
/cat

K vtKpw,
TOV

axfrQrfvav

povov

Qepairtvofjitvoi Kal

avKnd^voi, d\\d
povov

ae*

Trapoj/rey
/cat

o^e

cTriSrjjjLovvTos
e?ri

aAXa
/cd

.^W^poy,

aTraXXayei/roy, ^o-ai/

-^povov LKavov, cwcrre

e/y roz)y 17/zerlpouy

^povovs Tives

avT&v

a0i/coi/ro.
:

QUADRATUS

#/#.

iv. 3.

XIV A.
25

Imperatori Atheniensi.

Hadriano Caesari

et

Aristide philosopho

ovTOt

io~iv OL

VTrep TrdvTa
yivu>o-

rey TTJV

dXrjOeiav

K ov(n

ra eOvrj yap TOV

TTJS yij$ ti
<9eo*>,

KT i

H.E.iii.ag.]

Early Christian Writers.
;

45

he hear the Lord, nor did he follow Him but afterwards, I said, [attended] Peter, who adapted his instructions to the needs [of his hearers] but had no design of giving a connected account of the Lord s oracles. So then Mark made no mistake, while he thus wrote down some things as he remembered them for he made it his own care not to omit anything that he heard, or to set down any false
as
;

5

statement therein. Such then is the account given by Papias concerning Mark. But concerning Matthew, the following statement 10
is

the oracles in the Hebrew language, and each one interpreted them as he could. The same writer employed testimonies from the First And he Epistle of John, and likewise from that of Peter. has related another story about a woman accused of many sins before the Lord, which the Gospel according to the

made [by him So then Matthew composed
:
|

15

Hebrews

contains.

L.

Quadratus on our Lord s Miracles.

BUT our Saviour s works were always present, for they were true, even the men who were healed, who rose from the dead, who were seen not only while healed or rising, but always present, and that not only during the Saviour s stay on earth, but also after His departure they remained for a long time, so that some of them came down even to our own times.
The Apology of Aristides.
. Caesar Titus Hadrianus Antoninus, Worshipful and Clement, from Marcianus Aristides, philosopher of Athens \
.

20

25

.

And
1

these are they

who more

than

all

the nations of the
the Latin opposite

is

This mutilated inscription is given from the Syriac translated from the Armenian.

:

46
ra>v

Selections

from
T/o>

Kal SrjfjLiovpyov arrdvTtov kv Kal dXXov 6eov pari ayia),
"Eyjovcri

fjiovoyevel Kal

Hvtv-

7rXr)*>

rovrov ov a^ovrai.

5

ray eiroXay avrov rov JZvpiov Irjaov Xptcrrov KapStais Ke-^apay^vas, KOL Tavras cfrvXaTTOvai, KOL {corjv rov /zeAXoi/roy TrpovSoKtovres avdo-raa-iv
kv raTs
i>e/cp<wj>

Ov
,

p-oi^vovcriv, ov Tropvevovcrii
7Tt6v/.iov(n,

,

OVK

TO,

d\\6rpLa,

TifJ.)o~i

ov ^fvSofj.apTVTrarepa KOL

fj.r]-pa,

ov
to

SeXovaiv

Kal TCVS TrXrjaiov (fiiXovai, Si-Kaia Kptvovaiv, oaa avroTs yivtcrOaL ov Trotovai, TOVS ere/Dft)

dSiKovvTas

avTovs TrapaKaXovvL Kal
Kal emtLKeis,
Trda-rjs

7rpocr0iAery

avrovs

e/cri

drro 7rdo~r]s o~vvovo~ias

dvofjiov

Kal

dno

ov^
15

VTrepopcocrLv,
a<p6ov(t)$

dKaOapaias kyKpartvovrai, opfpavcv ov XvTrovaw 6 e^cov
^kvov
ka.v
coy
i

\^P av
TOO
/zr)

^ovrc

^TTL^oprjyeT

Scacriv, VTTO
krrl

crrkynv
dXrj3

tLcrdyovcri,

Kal ^aipovcnv

krr

avru>

dSeXcficp

yap Kara o~dpKa dStXchovs tavrovs Ka\ovo~iv dXXd Kara rfv^v^a. "Eroifj,oi tiaiv vnep Xpicrrov ray v/A^ay avrStv TrpotaQai rd yap rrpoardy^ara avrov
6ivcp

ov

d<r-

20

0aXcoy (f)vXdrrovcrii ocr/coy Kal ^i/ca/coy^cot/rey^/ca^coy Kvptos o c/6oy avrois 7rpoeo"Ta^e^ Kara Gv\apio~rovvrS
)

?

avrS>

rrdcrav copav kv rravrl

pput^an Kal
tvrlv
e/y

TTOTCO
r)

Kal rols

fjris
25

ovv avrrj "Ov-tos dyaOois. rovs ootvovras avrr]v

6Sbs rfjs d]
ala

rr]v

/3ao-iXem^, r^v eTrrjyyeXpevr]!/
hovo-rj ^cog.

napd Xpivrov
Vita

kv

rfi

yueX-

Barlaam

et Joasaph, p. 252.

XV.
Ti
ftrjSkv
Srj

ovv rovr
fjirjSe

dSiKtiv

dv tl rj E(jj 17/1001 A, rd dQea ravra Sogdgeiv, ov
;

e^era^ere,
30
Aa>f

dXX aXoyco

TrdOti Kal jjLdvriyi Sai/j.6vciw

av<f)

eXavv6jjt.vcL

aKpircos

KoXdere

//r)

(ppovrigovres

A P ol O

Early Christian Writers.

47

earth have found the truth, for they know God the maker and creator in His only Son and Holy Spirit, and other

god than

Him
the

mands of

For they have the com they worship not. Lord Himself, even Jesus Christ, written
and these they keep, looking for the resurand life of the age to come. They
fornication,
5

in their hearts,

rection of the dead

commit no adultery or
father

they bear no false

they honour and mother and love their neighbours, they judge righteously, and whatsoever things they would not have done to themselves they do not to another. They exhort them that do them wrong, and make them friendly to them
s goods,

witness, they covet not other

men

10

do good to their enemies, are meek and moderate, restrain themselves from all unlawful inter course and from all uncleanness, they despise not a widow, and an orphan they grieve not. He that hath giveth help
selves, they strive to

15

ungrudgingly to him that hath not. If they see a stranger, they bring him under their roof, and rejoice over him as
over a brother of their own, for they call not themselves brethren after the flesh, but after the spirit. They are
20

ready

to give

up

their lives for Christ, for they

keep His

commands firmly, living holily and righteously as the Lord God commanded them, giving thanks to Him every
hour
at all

meat and drink and

all

other good things.

Heathenism

the

work of demons.
25

does this mean ? In our case, though we profess do no man wrong and to reject these godless opinions, you do not examine charges, but are driven by unreason
to

WHAT

ing passion and the scourge of evil demons to punish us without investigation or consideration. For the truth

48

Selections

from
TO
TraXaibv
if

yap
L,
e7ri<f>av

TaXrjOes

eVet

SaifJtoves

etas 7ronjo-dfj.evoi, Kal

yvvaiKas

Kal
o>y

iraTSas SityOeipav Kal tyoprirpa

dv6pa>7roi$

KaTaTrXayfjvat
Kpivov,

TOVS
8eei

oi

Aoy<

ray yivo/j.va$
Kal
JJLTJ

5

OVK
fj.voi,

dXXd

vvvJipTTaviLtvoi

Salivas

tlvai

QavXovs, 6eov$
8k

eriOero.

ore
e/y

2 00 Kpdrrj y

Aoyoo

dXrjQei

Kal

ravra
10

dyeiv
Sid

rS>v

SaifJiovcov

fyavepov entipaTO (f)pw TOVS dvQptoTrovs, Kal avrol oi 8aifiOVS
rfj

Kal dir-

rS>v

yjOLLpovroDv
dcrefir)

aOeov Kal avrov
ov

Saifj-ovia.

KaKia dvOpwTTGov kvr\pyv]G av coy Aeyo^rey Kaiva e/cr0epeii> Kal ofioicos f^w TO avrb evepdiroKTetvai,
<>

yovvLv
15

Sid ^GOKparovs VTTO Xoyov rjXey^Or] Tavra, dXXd Kal kv (3ap(3dpOLS VTT avrov TOV Xoyov fiopcfHuOevTOS Kal dv6pa>7rov ytvofjitvov Kal

yap

[JLOVOV

ev

"EXXrja-L

Irja-ov

XpLo-rov

KXrjOevTO^,

w
ov

7Ttcr6evTes

77/zery

roi)y

ravra irpd^avras
<f>ap.tv,

daipovas IJLOVOV fj.rj 6p8ovs tlvai dXXd KaKovs Kal dvocriovs Saifjiovas, oi ovSe rots

20 dptTrjv TroOovaiv

dvQp&noLS rds 7T/oaay

oyLto/ay

^OV(TL. JUSTIN, Apol. i.

5.

XVI.
"Iva

St

fjLrj

rives
v(f>

d\oyi<rraivovrts

e/y
er>v

5e5i5ay/iera)j/

r}/j.coi

eiTTtovL,

irpo

dnorpOTT^v tKar

prjviov,
25

Kovra yeyewrJG-Qai rov Xpivrov Aeyeii/ ^/zay errt Kv8k a 0a/zei/ 8i8dai avrov varepov Se8i8a)(ei>aL
a>y

xpo^oiy enl Tlovriov IliXdrov, Kal eTn/caAcocaj/,
rr)v diropiav

d

Xva-co^da.

TOV

&ov
}

TOV Xpivrov

6vTa
30

Kal 7rpofjL7jvvo-afj.v Xoyov ov irav yevos Kal ot dvOpdoirtov /zeTeor^e.
e8i8d)(6r}fjLi
Xpi<rTiavoi

fivai

Aoyov

(3i<x>o-avTS

e/o-i,

KOLV dOeoi

A P oi.i.

5.]

Early Christian Writers.
It
is

49
old

shall be told.

because

evil

demons of

made

apparitions, and defiled women and corrupted boys, and showed to men such horrors that those were struck with

terror

who

did not judge by reason the acts performed,
5

but were carried
that these

away by fear, and in their ignorance demons called them gods, and ad dressed each of them by name according as each demon
were
evil

styled himself. But when Socrates essayed by true reason and examination to bring these things to the light and lead men away from the demons, then these same demons

10

by means of men who rejoiced in iniquity slay him as a godless and impious man, was introducing new divinities and the For they cause to be done in our case. Greeks alone were these things through

caused them to
saying that he

same
not

likewise

among

the
15

Socrates con-

dernned by reason, but among the barbarians also by the Reason himself taking shape and made man and called and at His persuasion we hold that the Jesus Christ demons who did these things are not only not good, but wicked and unholy demons, whose acts are not like even
;

20

those of

men who long

for virtue.

Christianity before Christ.

BUT that some may not in reply to our teachings un reasonably say that according to us Christ was born 150 years ago in the time of Cyrenius, and taught what we
assert
Pilate,

Him

to have taught at a later time under Pontius and so object that all men who lived before Him

25

were irresponsible, let us solve the difficulty in advance. We were taught that Christ is the firstborn of God, and we have already signified that He is the reason, in which
every race of men did share. Thus those who lived with 30 reason are Christians even if they were counted godless,

50
OLOV
ofJLOLoi
i>

Selections

from
Kal

"EXXrjo-i

/ze*>

Ha>Kpdrr)S

Hpa/cAefroy Kal

oi

Avavias Kal Agapias Kal MiaarjX Kal HXtas Kal dXXoi rroXXoi, &v rds Trpdgeis $ ra ovopara KaTaXtytiv paKpbv eivai
avTols, eV ftapftdpoLS Se

Afipad/j, Kal

5

kinaroi^voi TOLVVV irapaLrov^Oa.
Ibid.
i.

46.

XVII.
rpoiTov Se Kal dveOrJKafjiev eavTOvs TTOirjOevTts Sia rov XpioroO,

*Ov

ro>

eo>

KOLIVQ-

e^y^cro/ze^a,
TL

OTTO)?
rfj

/j,rj

rovro

Trapa\nrdvTS 56|o)/ze^ oL av 7Ti(r6a)(ri Kal
cov

irovrjptveiv
TTia-Tevcoaii/

kv

777770-6*.

dXrjOfj

ravra

TO,
v</j

8i8ao-K6/j.va Kal Aeyo/zez/a tLvai, Kal ftiovv oi/rcoy Qai VTrujyy&vTai, evyca-Qat re Kal alrelv vr](TTvTrapa rov Oeov 7rpor)fj,apTr)/j.i>a)v a&tcrLv SiSdT$>V

(TKOVTai,

77/ZCOI/

aVVV)(0/J,ei
vcfj

(CH

7TLTa ayovrai
15

r]p.S)v

i/6a

Kal (TVVVriaTtVQVTdOV aVTOL?. vScop COT/ , Kal rpoirov
dveyewrjdruj.ei
rS>v

dvayewija-tcos, ov Kal

77/^6??

avrol

,

dva-

ytvv&vTai

eir

of6/zaroy

yap rov Trarpbs

oXow Kal

SecnroTov Kal rov acorfjpos 77/^0)^ Irjcrov Xpio~rov Kal vdari rore \ovrpbv rroiovvrai. IIvVfj.aro$ ayiov rb kv Kal yap 6 Xpiarbs tiTrw *Av ov fj.r) /XT) dvaywr]6fjr
ra>

&ov

)

20

to~X6r]r

e/y

rr]v

(3acriXLai>

rS>v

ovpava>v.

on

SI

Kal

a^vvarov
/zet/ofy

e/?

ray

ftT/jrpas rtov re/coucrcoi/ rot)?

aVa| yc^co.

fj,(3fjvai }

fyavepbv
0a)ria-yu6y,

rcaviv

tvri.

.

.

KaXtTrai
TT)I/

Se

rovro rb \ovrpbv
ra>v

wy ^TL^O^V^V

Sidvoiav

ravra

[JiavOavovrtov.

Xovaai rbv TreTrei.cr/jivoi> Kal rouy Xeyo/ie^oyy dSeXQovs dyo^v, tv6a 0-vvrjyij.evoi ticri, KOLVCLS ei)x? noLf](ro^voi vntp re iavr&v Kal rov QcoricrQevros Kal dXXwv rravrayov nd^rcov tvrovas, oVcoy Kara^L(o6co/jLv ra dXrjQfj paQovrcs Kal 81 30 dyadol noXiravral Kal QvXaKes
25

H/zay

Se /zera TO oi/rcoy
etrl

o-vyKarare0ifjLi>oi>

e>ya)i/

rS>v

Apoi.i. 4 6.]

Early Christian Writers.

51

as of the

Greeks, Socrates, Heraclitus and others like them, and of the barbarians Abraham, Hananiah, Azariah, Mishael, Elijah, and many others, whose names and acts
decline to set
tell.

we

down

here,

knowing

that they

would be
5

long to

Christian Worship.

BUT I will explain how we also dedicated ourselves to God when we were made new through Christ, lest by passing it over I should seem in any way unfair in my explanation. As many as are persuaded and believe that
the things are true which are taught by us and said to be 10

and promise that they can live accordingly they are taught to pray and to ask of God with fasting forgive ness of their former sins, and we pray and fast together with them. Then they are brought by us to a place
true,

where there
even as
of

we

is water, and born again with a new birth For in the name ourselves were born again.

15

God the Father and Lord of the universe, and of our Saviour Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit do they then For Christ said, Except receive the washing in water. ye be born again, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven. But that it is impossible for those once born to enter into the wombs of their mothers is manifest to all. And this washing is called Enlightenment, because those who learn these things have their understanding
.

20

.

.

enlightened.

...
is

25

But after having thus washed him that and has given his assent, we bring him

persuaded

to

where the

brethren as they are called are gathered together, to make earnest prayers in common for ourselves and for the newly enlightened, and for all others everywhere, that 30 we may be counted worthy after we have learned the
truth,

by our works also to be found right livers and keepers of the commandments, that we may be saved with E 2

52

Selections

from
cra>$co//e*>.

vpt6fjvai, OTrcoy Trjv aldoviov

o-a>Tr)piav

dXXrjev^a>v.

Xouy
TTtTa
/ecu
5

(j)iXrjfj.aTL

d(nra6fjL@a
TCO

Travcrd^voi
TO)*

TGOV

7T/oo(T0epTat

TrpoeorcoTi
/cpa/iaroy,
TO>V

dStXcfiaiv

aproy
Xafioov

TTOT^pLov vSaros Kal aa/oi/ /ecu $6ai/ Harpl
ra>

Kal

o5roy

O\GOV 8ia rov o^o/zaroy roO

rou JT^euyuaro? roi) ayiov a^aTre/zTr (TTiav vTTtp TOV KaTr)ia>cr6ai TOVTCW nap avrov
T/oi5 /cat

TTL

TroitTrai

ov a-wreXeo-aj To? ra?

e^ay

/cat
:

r^
TO B
dfj.r]V

Tray 6 irapcbv
10

Xaoy
(jxtivfi

TTV(pr]f LL Xeyoor
J

AJJLTIV,

r^

EffpaiSi

TO

ykvoiro

(rrj^atvei.

v\apL(TTrj-

Xaoi5 o/ KaXovfjLvoL Trap
T<S^

o~avTO$ Se TOV TTyooecrrcoroy /ca? eTref^^/i^cra^roy Tra^roy roi) fjfJLW SiaKovoi 8i86ao~Lv e/caora)

TrapovTtov fJLTaXa(3tiv dirb TOV

V)(apio-T7]6ei>To$

dpTov

15

Kal O LVOV Kal vSaTos Kal ro?y ov Trapovaiv a7ro(f)povo~i. Kal 17 avTrj KaXetTai Trap i^iiv ^v^apLo-TLa, ^y d XXo) fJLTaO")(lV TO) 7TIO~TVOVTL dXrjOrj } f)
Tpo(f>r)
t6l>
0~Tll>

TO,

SeSiSayfjLeva

v<jj

rjfJiS>v

Kal Xovcra/jLtva) TO vnep

afiapTLOiv Kal e/y dvayevvr]criv XovTpov Kal oi/rcoy toy 6 X/oioroy TrapeScoKtv. ov yap coy KOIVOV
20

dpTov ovSe KOIVOV Tponov Sid Xoyof
6
O-COTTJP ?7//a)i/

7ro/j.a

raura

Xa^dvo^v, dXX
Irjo~ovs

ov

@ou

crapKOTTOLrjOels

Xpio~To$
f)fjia>v

^at o~dpKa Kal aTfia vncp v&TTipias
/cat

oi/rcoy

r^

5i

eux^? Xoyov TOV Trap

avTov

25

~Tri6io~ai Tpo(j)r}v } e^ ^y aTfia Kal o-ap/cey /cara eKeivov TOV o-apKOTroiqOevTOS /Zra/3oX^i/ TptfyovTai ol yap Irja-ov Kal o-dpKa Kal atpa tStSdyQ-niitv elvai. dnoo ToXoi kv roty yzvofjitvoi.? VTT avT&v air o \JLVT] \LOVZU rj/j,cc>i/,

(JLacnv,

a

KaXeiTai

vayyXia,

ovrcoy

7rape8a>Kav

eVre-

30

TaXBai avTois TOV Irjaovv, Xa(36i>Ta dpTov evxapia Trja avTa LTTW TOVTO 7TOLIT /y TT)V dvdfJLVr]0~LV flOV TOVTO 0~Tl TO
}

crco/za

fj.ov

Kal TO TTOT^piov
L7reiv

o/zo/coy

TOVTO

ear*

XaftovTa Kal atyd JJ.QV, Kal

V)(a-

fjLtTaSovvai.

oirtp Kal

kv TOIS TOV

MiBpa

A P oi.i.6 5 -6 7 .] Early Christian Writers.

53

when our prayers

salute each other with a kiss the eternal salvation. are ended. Afterwards is brought to the

We

president of the brethren bread and a cup of water and [mixed] wine, and he takes it and offers up praise and

glory to the Father of the universe through the name 5 of the Son and the Holy Spirit, and gives thanks at length, that we have received these favours from Him ;
at the end of his prayers and thanksgiving the whole people present responds, saying Amen. Now the word Amen in the Hebrew language signifies So be it. Then

and

10

has given thanks and all the people responded, the deacons as we call them allow every one of those present to partake of the bread and wine and water for which thanks have been given ; and for those absent
after the president

they take away a portion. And this food is called by us Eucharist, and it is not lawful for any man to partake of it but he who believes our teaching to be true, and has been washed with the washing which is for the forgiveness of sins and unto a new birth, and is so living as Christ commanded. For not as common bread and common drink do we receive
but like as Jesus Christ our Saviour being made through the word of God took both flesh and blood for our salvation, so also were we taught that the food for which thanks are given by the word of prayer that comes from him food by which blood and flesh by conversion are nourished, is both flesh and blood of that Jesus who was made flesh. For the Apostles in the memoirs which they composed, which are called Gospels, thus delivered that
these
flesh
;

15

20

25

command was given them that Jesus took bread gave thanks and said, This do in remembrance of this is my body; and that He likewise took the cup, after He had given thanks said, This is my blood,
gave of
it

and
me,

30

and and
35

commanding

only to them. Which the evil demons imitated, it to be done also in the mysteries of Mithras;

54
p/biy

Selections
iraptScoKav
OTL

from
ol
Trovripol

yivecrdai

fjn^crd^voL

Sat-

/zo^ey yap aproy KCU TroTf]piov vSaTOS TiQerai kv rcus TOV fJLVOVflVOV T\TaT$ fJLr klTl\Oy(UV TiV&V, r) tirtcTTacrQz SvvaaQe. 77 [jLaOeiv
5

.H/zefy

Se

fiTa ravra
KOL ol

\OITTOV

del TOVTODV

d\Xij\ovs
TTaCTL

dvafii/*vrj(rKOfj,i

^ovre^ TOIS Xenro/jLevois Tracriv
7TL
rS>v

7TlKOVpOVfJ.l

,

o?s 7rpoo-(j)p6fjLOa

KOL (J\}Vf.(T^V dXXrjXoiS aL. evXoyovpev TOV noirjTrjv
Ir)o~ov

T

Trdvrcov Sia

TOV Tlov avTov
10

XpiaTov KOL Sia U^eu/iaroy TOV
Xeyo/jLevr}

dyiov.
TToAef?
rj

KOL

T{J

TOV rjXiov

r]f^pa irdvTtov

KCLTO.

dypovs ^VOVTGDV tnl TO

KCU

TO,

d7rofjLi>r)fj.oi>v/j.aTa

avveXtvans ylvtTai, TCOV aTroaToXcw r) TO, avyypdp.ai>To

efra
15

TravaafJL^vov

TOV

dvayLv<x>o~KOVTO$

6

Tr/joecrrcby
/caXcoi/

Sia
TOV-

Xoyov
KCU
r)fj.a>v

TTJV vov6ea-tav

KCU TrpoKXrjaiv TTJS
/cat

TO>J>

V)(a$
TTJS

Tre/jLTTO/jLev.

a)?

ei)^(^9

apro? Trpocr^eperai KCU oivos KCU vScop,

20

KCU 6 Trpoeo-ra)? evicts o/zotooy KCU ev)(apicrTia$, ocrrj Svva/Jiis TO dfj.rjv dvaTTtfJ-TTti KCU 6 Aaoy 7TV<pr]fj.T \iyctiv avTq>, KCU
17

StdSocris KCtl

f)

fjLtTaXrj^lris

dnb T&V
Sia
TU>V

fKacTTO)

yivzTcu
01

KCU ToTs

ov

7rapovo~L

7TfJL7rTat.
7rpoaipe<nv

tVITOpOVVTeS

$

KCU

^OvXo/JLefOL
SiS&cri,

KCtTO,

e/caa-roy Tr]v

eavTov o (3ovXTcu

KOU TO

?5 o-uAAeyoyuei/oz/

napa
T

ra>

Trpoea-rcori aTrori^erai,

KCU CIVTOS

KCU ^pCtlS, KCU TOIS SlO. VOVOV r} SC 7TlKOVpL OpcfrctVOLS aXXrjv aiTiav Xenrofj.voi$, KCU TOLS tv 8ecr/j,oT$ oven, KOL
roty TrapeTrtSrJiJLois oven
Xptict
3 ovcri
KrjSefj.ooi

ei/oi?,

KCU aTrAwy Trdcn
TTJV

TOW

kv

yiv^TCU.

&

TOV f)Xiov
trrtiSr)

Koivrj

irdvTes Tr}v crvveXevcriv
fj

7roiovp.e6a,
Trji>

ecTTiv fifitpa, kv
KOCTfJiOV
TTJ

6

@eoy ro

7TO/77(7,

KCU
e/c

v\r]v I^CroCy XplCTTOS 6 f)fJ.TpO$
dvtcrTrj

CTKOTOS KCU

CTCOT^/O

avTfl

97/zepa

veKp$>v

rg

yap npb

Trjs

.i.

65-67.]

Early Christian Writers.

55

for that

bread and a cup of water are set forth with formulae in the ceremonial of initiation, you either know or can learn. But we afterwards henceforth continually put each other
certain

wealthy things, and those of us who that are in want, and we always remain together. help all And for all things that we eat we bless the Maker of all
in

mind of these

are

5

the Holy through His Son Jesus Christ, and through And on the so-called day of the Sun there is a
Spirit.

the country, and meeting of all of us who live in cities or the memoirs of the Apostles or the writings of the prophets are read, as long as time allows. Then when the reader

10

has ceased, the president gives by word of mouth his admonition and exhortation to follow these excellent Afterwards we all rise at once and offer prayers things. and as I said, when we have ceased to pray, bread is
;

15

likewise brought and wine and water, and the president and thanksgivings to the best of his offers up prayers Then with its Amen. power, and the people responds follows the distribution to each and the partaking of that

20

which thanks were given and to them that are absent a portion is sent by the hand of the deacons. Of those that are well to do and willing, every one gives what he will according to his own purpose, and the collection is and he it is that succours deposited with the president, and those that are in want through orphans and widows, sickness or any other cause, and those that are in bonds, that are sojourning, and in short he has and the
for
;

25

strangers Now we all hold our the care of all that are in need. common meeting on the day of the Sun, because it is the 30
first

the darkness and matter day, on which God changed of the world, and Jesus Christ our Saviour in His making on the same day rose from the dead. For on the day

56

Selections

from

KpOVLKTJS ko-TaVpa)(raV aVTOV KOL Tfl /JLtTO, TT)V KpOVLKTJV, avTov iJTLS COTIV f)\iov rjLtepa, (fravels rofy ttTroo-roXcny Kal ftaOyrats k8iSat raura, dVep e/y eTnovce^iv Kal v/ilv
ibid.
i.

61, 65-67.

XVIII.
5

77

OVK Kal 6 Tptyow aTrtKpivaro ypa(f>r] aXX TrapOevos kv yaarpl Xrl^eraL Kal re^ercu ISov f) vedvis kv yavrpl XrjijreTai Kal re^ercu VLQV^ Kal
*
vloi>,

H

TO,

^779

\onra
/y

coy

f^qs.
e/y

ecm

Se

77

ndaa

irpotyrjTeia

XeXeypevr)
10

EgeKiav,

ov Kal dTroStiKWTaL diro^avra

Kara

rr]v

kv Se roly TCOJ/ AeyoTrpo^r^iav TavTrjv. EXXijvow p.v6oi.s XeXe/crai OTL Ilp(rv$ e/c Aa-

,

avTTjv TOV Trap
v/Jitis

irapOevov ouarjs, kv ^pvcrov poptyfj ptvvavros kir avrols ALQS KaXovptvov, ytyivvriTai Kal

TO.

avra e^etWiy Xeyorrey
avQptoirov
e^

alStlcrQai

o^e/Xere, Kal

15 fJidXXov

y^vo^evov Xtyeiv TOV Irjcrovv TOVTOV, Kai, kdv dTroSeiKWTe d?To ypa<pcov OTL avTos kcrTLv 6 X/oicrroy, Sid TO kwoptos Kal reXecoy 7roXiTveo~6ai avTov KaTrj^iSxrQai TOV tKXeyfjvai e/y XpicrdvOp^TTODV
rS>v

TOV,
20 roFy

dXXd

fir]

reparoXoye^ roX^are,

orrcoy

jj,rJT

o/zo/coy

"EXXr)o~i

/jKopaiveiv eXeyx^cr^e.

JUSTIN, Dial. 67.

XIX.
yap
\ajj.fidvovTa cuWcrcrerai
;

coy

u/cV dvQp&Trov \eyrj Aavir]\ TOV irapaalcoviov
coy

Tr\v

{$ao~i\Lav,

OVK
L7TLV }

avTo

TOVTO

TO yap

vlov dvOp&Tfov
fJLrjvvei,

(f>aivo/jLvov

fikv
25 5e

Kal

yv6fivov avOp&irov

OVK

e

dv 6pair LVOV

(TTrep/zaroy

CLTrtlv

dvev

KKpayt
OTL

Kal TO XL&OV TOVTOV virdp^ovTa SrjXoT. yeip&v T^BevTa, kv i*vo-Tr)pL(p TO avTo TO yap dvev ^eipcav tiTTtTv avTov eKTTfj.fjo~6ai,

OVK ca-Tiv dvOpaTTLvov epyov,

dXXd

rr^y

(3ovXfjs

TOV

.

i.

65-67.]

Early Christian Writers.

57

before Saturn s they crucified Him ; and on the day after Saturn s, which is the day of the Sun, he appeared to His Apostles and disciples and taught them these things,

which we have offered

to

you

also for consideration.

The Jewish

interpretation of Isa.

vii. 14.
5

scripture has not Behold the virgin shall conceive and bear a son, but Behold the young woman shall conceive and bear a son, and the rest of it as you say. But the whole prophecy was spoken of
fulfilled

AND Trypho

answered, The

Hezekiah, and in him it is proved that the things were 10 according to this prophecy. But in the legends of those who are called Greeks we read that Perseus was born of Danae, who was a virgin, and on whom he who is by them called Zeus came down in the form of a shower of gold and you ought to be ashamed of telling the same tale as they, and should rather say that this Jesus was 15 a man born of men, and, if you prove from the Scriptures that he is the Christ, that he was counted worthy of being chosen for the Christ because he lived a perfect But do not venture to tell life and according to the law. romancing tales, lest you be convicted of making fools of 20 yourselves like the Greeks.
;

The Christian interpretation of various passages. WHEN Daniel says As a son of man * of him who re
ceives the everlasting kingdom, is he not hinting this very For the words, As a son of man, show that he thing ?

seemed and became a man, but declare
born of human seed.

And

in that
,

that he was not he speaks of him as

25

a stone cut without hands 2 he proclaims the same in a mystery, for the words Cut out without hands signify
1

Dan.

vii. 13.

2

Dan.

ii

34.

58

Selections
avrov
IlaTpbs

from
rS>v

[Justin

oX&v 0eou.
r/y

Kal TO
;

Hvaiav

<j)dvaC

Trjv

yeveav

avrov

8i.7)yrjo-Tai

dvK8irjyr)TOi
dvOpcoTTOS

iyovra TO yeVoy avrov eSrjXov ovSels yap,
e

&v

dv&ptoTTtov, dvtKSLijyrjTOv
eiTrcfv

e^ef ro yeyoy.
TT]V

5 Kal TO TOV
f

Mcoa-ea

ir\vvelv

avrov
rj8r)

(TToXrjv

avTOv kv a LfjLa,TL a-TaQvXfjs, ofy, o Kal

TroXXaKts rrpos

Lv

;

OTL a?fj.a

fiw e^eut avTov

7rpO/j,rjvvei

)

dXX OVK
OVK

t

av6p<X>7TG)V

OV TpOTTOV TO TJJS d/JLTT^XoV

Ol^LCL

10 TTOS

eyevvrja-ev,

dXX

6

@eoy.
CLTT&IS,

Kal

ffcra

fiovXfjs ayyeXoj/
i\6a>v,

avrov

ovyl

TQVT<>V^

8i8do~KaXov
yLceyaAa

avrov

ytyevfjaOai
6

*A yap
TOVS
15

epeftovXevTO

IlaTrjp
avru>

eis

re

irdvras

tvapto-Tovs

yvonvov$
TOVS
77

Kal
rr\s

yevrjo o/jLei ovs
ffovXfjs

dvOp&TTOvs,
d/jtotos

Kal

aTrovravras

avrov

dvQpatTTOvs

ayyeAoi/y, OVTOS

JJLOVOS a7ra/)a/caXu7rra)y

Ibid. 76.

XIX A.
TOVTO vvv egevpeOr)
ravrr]v

nap

avrols,
rr\v

Tanavov TWOS
oy

tlo-evtyKavTOS

@Xaa-(/)r) fjiiav

20 Iovo~rivov aKpoaTTjS yeyo^coy,

e0

oo~ov [ik

yve roiovrov, //era $e TTJV ZKCLVOV

^ eKKXrjvias,
coy

airman Si8ao~KdXov 7rap6els Kal Siaiptpow r&v XOLTTCOV, ISiov \apaKTrjpa

Dial. 76.]

Early Christian Writers.
not a work of men, but of

59

that

it is

God
?

the Father of the
Isaiah said,
plain proof

universe,

who produces

him.

Again, when
1

Who

shall declare his generation

it

was a

that he

had a generation which could not be declared, for none who is a man from men has a generation that cannot
be declared.

5

And

in that

Moses says
2
,

that

he washes his

raiment in the blood of the grape
that
I

is

not this the thing

have often told you he prophesied obscurely,

how

he signified aforetime that he had blood, but not of men, even as
it

was not man but God
Again, when
,

that brought forth the 10

blood of the wine ?
of mighty counsel
3

Isaiah called

did he not foretell that

him Angel he would be
?

the teacher of the things which he taught

when he came

For he alone taught openly the mighty works which the Father had counselled with regard to all men who ever
were or
those
shall

15

be well-pleasing to him, and with regard to

who

rebelled against his counsel, as well
viii.

men

as

angels, saying [Matt.

n,

12].

The Encratites.

AND

this is a recent discovery

of theirs, one Tatian

being the chief introducer of the blasphemy.

He was

20

a hearer of Justin, and as long as he continued with him put forth no such doctrine
:

but after Justin s martyrdom

he

left

the church, being lifted up with the reputation of
Isa.
liii.

1

8.

2

Gen.

xlix.

n.

3

Isa. ix. 6,

LXX.

60

Selections

from

TOIS

dnb OvaXtvTLvov pvOoXoyrjaas, ydpov re (pQopav Kal
Kal %aTopvtv(p dvayo-

Tfopvetav TrapaTrXrjo icDS MapKioovi
TT\
<5e

TOV ASafj.

o-coTrjpia Trap
JJL\V

lavTov

Tr]v
. .

aiTio.

tav

TTOir)O diJ.i OS.

TavTa

6

Elprjvaios

O

ye TTporepoy
TLva
Kal

avTa>v

dp-^rjybs
olft

Tarm^oy
T&V

crvvdfaidv

o~vvay<>yr]V

OVK

oVooy

evayyzXLCDV
o

ovv&eis, TO

"

Aid Tcra dpa)i

TOVTO Trpoa GWo/j.acrti

Kal

Tfapd Tivw

earer* vvv (ptptTai.
EUSEBIUS, Hist. Ecdes.
iv.

29.

XX.
10

ETL TOV Aiovvo- iov Kal

"Trpoy

Pft>/-tcuouy"

7ri(TToXr)

^y

ov$ei>

olov TO Kal TrapaOeaOai Xe^eiy, SL

Siv

TO

ytte;

TOV

15

Eg

dp)(r)$

ydp

vyCiv

e6os

ecrrt

rouro,

Tra^ra?

(Jitv

Troi/ciXcoy

eue/oyere^, eK/cAr/cr/cuy re TroXXats raty

Trtvtav dvatyv^ovTas, tv /zeraAXofy ^e a

c

etyoSicov,

TcaTpoTrapdSoTOv
6
01)

edos

P(OfjLaicov

Pcoftafoi

Siav^S>v

0fXarro^rey,
eTTicr/coTToy

IJLOVOV

SLaTeTTJprjKev

6

fiaKapios

IcoTrjp,

dXXa Kal

tirr]vriKv, ^Tn^oprjya)^ pJkv

Tr\v SiaTrepTrofjLtvrjv

Sa-^riXeiav TTJV e/y rouy ayiovs, Xoyoiy

iv2 9-]

Early Christian Writers.

61

a teacher, and puffed up with the idea that he was better

So he formed a peculiar school of his own, inventing some invisible aeons like the Valentinians, and
than others.

Marcion and Saturninus declaring marriage to be corruption and fornication, though his argument for the
like

5

salvation of

Adam was

his

own/

So

far Irenaeus.

.

.

.

Their former leader, however, Tatian, put together some

how
book

or other a kind of combination and collection of the

Gospels, to which he gave the
is still

name

of Diatessaron, which
10

used in some quarters.

Letter of Dionysius of Corinth to the

Romans.

MOREOVER
to the

there

is

current an
to Soter

Epistle of Dionysius

Romans, addressed
is

who was then
it

bishop.

But there

nothing

like

quoting from

words

in

which

he approves the custom of the Romans which was kept up
till

the persecution of our

own
this

time, writing

thus,

For
in

15

you have from the beginning
divers

custom of doing good

ways

to all the brethren,
all

and sending supplies
in

to

many churches in
the poverty of
in the

the

cities,

one place refreshing

them

that need, in another helping brethren
20

mines with the supplies which you have sent from

the beginning, maintaining like

Romans

the traditional

custom of the Romans, which your worthy bishop Soter
has not only kept up but increased, helping the saints with
the abundant supply he sends from time to time, and with

62
B\

Selections
[taKapiois

from
coy

TOVS aviovra^

dSeXfavs,

TtKva

Trarrjp

Ev
5
7Ti

avTrj Se ravrrj Kal rrjs

jjLe/jLvrjTai

eTnaToXT/y,
KKXr)<ria$

SrjXcov

.KA^ei/roy dvtKaBtv e

TT/ooy

KoplvQlQVS dp^aiov eOovs
Xe-

rfjs

Tr]v

avdyvaviv avrfjs TTOidaBaL.
fjfjitpav
rjv

yeL yovv

Trjv
ev
10
fj

0-rjfJ.epov

ovv KvpiaKr]V ayiav
vfj.au/

avkyv<&iLtv

TTJV eTTfcrroX^
coy

e^o/zet/

Siriydyo^v^ att rrore

dvayivtoa-Kovres vov6tTtl(T6ai, Sia KXrmtvros ypa(f>et(rai
.

KOL rr]v nporepav r}[uv
coy

"ETI

<5e

6

avrbs KOL
}

trepl

T&V ISiwv

tiri<JTo\$>v

ravra
ot

yap
eypa^jra.
:

KOL Tavras
ct

TOV SiafioXov diroo-ToXoi fifa-

5 VLGDV

yeyt/jLLKav,

/zei/

e^af/oowrey,

a

<5e

Trpocrri^et/rey.

Kal T&V KvpiaTifey tTripepXrjvTai ypa(pa>v, OTrore KOL paStovpyfjo-ai ra?y ov roiavTais 7n/5ej3oi;Xev/cao-i.
o?y

ro ouai Ktirai.

ou Bav^aa-rov

dpa

el

KG>V

EUSEBIUS, ZTw/.

Eccles. iv. 23.

XXI.
O/
20 oovXoL
ej/

Bievvr) Kal AovySovvcp r^y

Xpio-Tov, rots Kara rr]v

TaXXtas TrapoiKovvrts Aviav Kal $pvytav rr]v

avrrjv TTJS aTroXurpcocrecoy rj^lv iricmv Kal eXiriSa tyovaiv

a#eX0o?y, clprjvrj Kal ydpis Kal Soga Kal XplCTTOV Irj(TOV TOV KvplOV flfJL&V.

dnb &eov

Jlar/ooy

To

fj.ev

ovv /zeye^oy
rS>v
t6i>S>v

r^y tv6de
roi)y
CTT

^Xn/recoy,
opyrji>,

Kal Kal

rrjv

25 TOcravTTjv

e/y

ayiovs

ocra

OL

paKapioi ^apri pey,
OVTZ
/zr/*/

iKavoi,

ypa(f)fj

7TpLXr]<p()f)i

a/cpi^ey OL$ Tyyuer? ai Svvarov.

yap
ijSrj

<rOevei

hto-Krjtyev 6 dvTiKtifjLevos, TrpooLfiLago/zeXXoucra*>

TT^V ac^ecoy
Traz/rco^

30 /cat

&a

SifjXQ^v^

rrapovaiav avrov TOVS eavToi) Kal TrpokQifav
ecrecr^ai

H.E.iv.23.]

Early Christian Writers.

63

the brethren

blessed words exhorting, as a loving father his children, who come up to Rome. In this same Epistle
s
first

he also mentions Clement

showing that from the
before the Church.

Epistle to the Corinthians, of ancient custom it was read

He
in
it

says,

we kept holy

;

and

we read your

To-day being the Lord s day letter, from the read

5

ing of which we shall always be able to obtain admonition, as from the former one written to us through Clement. Again, the same writer speaks of his own epistles as

having been falsified, in these words, For when the brethren asked me to write letters, I wrote them; and these the apostles of the devil have filled with tares, taking
is

10

away some things and adding others. For them the Woe reserved. So it is no marvel if some have endeavoured
even the dominical scriptures, when they have
15

to falsify

plotted also against writings of another sort.

The Persecution at Lyons and Vienne.

THE
who

servants of Christ residing at Vienne and Lyons,

throughout Asia and Phrygia, hold the same faith and hope of redemption, peace and grace and glory from God the Father and Christ 20
Jesus our Lord.

in Gaul, to the brethren

The greatness of the tribulation in this region, and the fury of the heathen against the saints, and the sufferings of the blessed witnesses, we cannot recount accurately, nor indeed could they possibly be recorded. For with all 25 his might the adversary fell upon us, giving us a fore taste of his unbridled He activity at his future coming.
endeavoured
in every

manner

to practise

and exercise his

64 Kara
LKitov

Selections
TO>V

from
eov,

SovXav rod

wore

fj,rj

\iovov

Kal (3aXavia)v Kal dyopas ei pytoOai, dXXd Kal TO KaOoXov (fiaLvecrdai rjfj-cov TLVCL avToTs a7Tiprjo~6ai ev OTTOLO)
SrJTTore
5

TOTTO).

dvTto-TpaTrjyei

STJ

77

x^P

L

^

TOV

tov, Kal

eppvero, avrLTraptTaa-ve SI iovf, 8vvap.evovs Sta rfjs vTro/JLovfjs Trd&av TOV TTOvijpov els eavToi>s XKV(raL ot Kal 6fj.6(T evco
ao-^ez/er?

TOVS p\v

Trav tlSos oveiSio-fjiov Kal
10 oVrcoy tTnSeiKvviJLtvoi,

KoXdcreoo?

dvx6fj.ei>oi,

Kal ra TroXXa oXtya r)yov/j.evoi ttnrevSov Trpoy Xpi&Tov,

on
fjikv

OVK dgia ra 7raOrjfj.ara TOV vvv

Kaipov, Trpo? Kal ^ay.
o-coprjSbi

rrjv

jJLtXXovvav

86av
OLTTO

aTTOKaXvcfrOfjvai

e/y

TTpS>Tov

ra

TOV

fyXov TvavSrj^l

irXrjyds,
15

Kal
Trpoy

eTrf/SoTyo-ei?, Kal Kal o-vp/tovs, Kal Siap-frayd?, Kal XiQav /3oXa?, oo~a o-uy/cXeiVeiy, Kal -rrdvO TrXr/Qei co?

7TL(/)p6fj.va

yewaicos

t7re/*ej>oj/,

f)ypia>/j.i>ct)

t)(6povs

Kal

avayQkvrts
Oovs
20 e/y

e/9 Tr\v

7rpo<rTr)K6T(0i>

Trj?

Kal 8rj yii>eo~6ai. TOV ^LXidp^ov Kal T&V TroAecoy e^ovcricov, eirl iravTos TOV TrXrjTroXtfjiLOvs
(friXti

dyopav
Kal
rTyy

viro re

dvaKpiQtvTts
eipKTrjv
(5e

TTJV

eoos

o^oXoyrja-avT^, o-vveKXcio~6r)a-ai> TOV 777^61/09 Trapovaias.
/JLT-

7TiTa
nda-rj

7rl

TOV f)yfj.6va
7}/za?
TU>V

d^Oei

TOoif
avTa>v,

KCLKZLVOV
E-rr-

777

777)09

co/zor7iri

^po^^vov, OutTTios
dydnrj^
(ov

dyaOos, i$ CK TOV @ov Kal
25

dStXfy&v,
irX^o-iov
f]

7rXrjpa)fj.a

TTJS TTyooy

TOV

Kxcopr]Ka>s,

Kal
OVTtt

7rl

TOO-OVTOV

fjKpl(3(OTO

7ToXlTia,

CO?

KCLlTTCp

VOV

crvvegLo-ovo-Oai TTJ

TOV 7rp(r(3vTpov Za^apiov /jLapTvpta
kv ndo-ais rcu? evToXais Kal
8iKaia>fj.ao-i

TrtiroptVTO

yovv

<

3

Kal ndo-r) T fj Trpoy TOV irX^iov ov jroXvv XtiTovpyta aoKvos, {fjXov Ka L v T$ ex* TrvevpaTi ) TOIOVTOS Srj TLS TTJV OVTCO Katf rjpwv dXoyo)9 yivoptvrjv Kpiviv OVK e/Saorao-ci/, dXX* virtpyyavaKKal rjgiov Kal avroy TTio-e, dKovaOfjvai
"

TOV Kvpiov a//e//7rroy/

"*

(*<

<x>v

d7roXoyov/j.evo$

vnep T&V dScXt/wv,

OTI prjfev

aBeov

fjLrjSe

dac^es taTiv kv

H. E.V.I.]

Early Christian Writers.

65

servants against the servants of God, not only shutting us out from houses and baths and markets, but forbidding

be seen in any place whatever. But the led the conflict against him, and delivered the weak, and set them as firm pillars, able through 5 patience to endure all the wrath of the Evil One. And

any of us

to

grace of

God

they joined battle with him, undergoing

all

kinds of shame
little,

and injury ; and regarding

their great sufferings as

the they hastened to Christ, manifesting truly that sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed to

10

us-ward/ First of all, they endured nobly the injuries heaped upon them by the populace clamours and blows and draggings and robberies and stonings and imprison ments, and all things which an infuriated mob delight in inflicting on enemies and adversaries. Then being
;

15

of the

taken to the forum by the chiliarch and the authorities city, they were examined in the presence of the
20

whole multitude, and having confessed, they were im prisoned until the arrival of the governor. When, afterwards, they were brought before him, and he treated us
with the utmost cruelty, Vettius Epagathus, one of the brethren, and a man filled with love for God and his

neighbour, interfered.

His

life

was so consistent

that,
25

although young, he had obtained a reputation equal to that of the elder Zacharias for he walked in all the
:

commandments and ordinances of the Lord blameless/ and was untiring in every good work for his neighbour, zealous for God and fervent in spirit. Such being his
character, he could not endure the unreasonable

judgement

30

with indignation, and asked to be permitted to testify in behalf of his brethren, that there is among us nothing ungodly or impious. But those
against us, but
filled

was

66
8e

Selections
rS>v

from

rrepl

TO

fifjfta

KaTaporj&dvTtov avrov, (KOL

yap

rjv errtin/ftoy,)

OVTOOS

VTT

avTov

Kal rov f]yep.6vos /j.rj SiKaias TrpOTaOio~T]s
L

avavyo \JLZVQV rrjs a^coo eooy, aXXa
XpLdTiaVOS, TOV

flOVOV TOVTO 7rv6o[JLVOV,
5 8e \afJLTTpordrrj

Kal aVTOS

LT)

Qwvfj 6}io\oyricravTOS, dveXij^Orj Kal avrb
rS>v

e/y

TOV K\fjpov

papTvpcw,
5e

Trapa/cX^roy

Xpia-Tiav$>vs

UapdKXrjrov kv eaura), ir\elov rov Za\apiov. o Sia rov T^y heS^aro, i>8oKrio-as vnep rfjs rcov a
e-^cov

rov

TO

10 ctTToXoy/ay

Kal rrjv iavrov Otlvai

^TV^JJV.
dKO\ov6a>v

rjv

eo~n yvrjcrios
OTTOV

XpLarov
eroifjiOL

fjLa6rjri]9,
Srj

yap TW

av
i

virdyr].

evrtvOev

Kai

eyivovro

SitKplvovro ol XOLTTOL, Kal ot Kal Tr/oooTo/zapTf/oey.

a

7rdo~r]S

15 fj,aprvpia$.

roi,

Kal

m

7Tpo6vfj.ta$ dverrXrjpovv rrjv opoXoyiav rfjs kfyaivovro Se Kal ol dveroifjLOL Kal dyvfivao~-

da-Qtveis, aywi/oy fj-tyaXou rovov evtyKeTv
S>v

JJ.T)

Svvdpevoi. Kal peydXrjv
rjpiv,

Kal t^trptovav XvTrrjv Kal nevOos

a>y

<5e/ca

rov

dpiOpov

OL

dptrp-qrov

evtTroirjo-av

Kal rr]v 7rpo6vfj.iav rcov XOLTTOJV rcov firj o~vvetXrj/j.fj.e20 v(0v tvfKotyav, o? Kairrep rrdvra ra dtiva Trdcr^ovre^, 6 yucwy
o-v/nrapfjo-av

Tofy

pdprvo-i
/zeyaXcoy

Kal

OVK aTreXe/Tro^To avr&v.
Sia TO dSr]\ov
$o(3ovTLVO,

rore

Sr]

ol rrdvrts

eTrTorj6r]fj.v,

T^y

o/zoXoy^ay,

ov

Tay

TTL(f>pofj.vas

/coXacreiy

pevoi,

dXXa TO TeXoy
TOV
e/c

a0op<Sz/Ty,

Kal TO dnorrea-elv
eKaa-rrjv

25 6\6\oTey.

a-vv^Xa^dvovro ^VTOL KaQ
rcov Svo

rjfj.epav

ol dgioi,

Xeyfjvai

KLva)v dvarrXr]poi)vT$ dpiO/iov, COO-TC cri/XKKXyo~icov rrdvras Toz)y cnrovSatovs,

Kal

SL

a>v

fj.dXi.o-Ta avvtLo-TiJKei

ra ivQdSe.
ru>v

0-vveXap.^dkir^l

VOVTO

8e

Kal

eOviKOL

Tives

oixtrai

r]fj.erpcov )

30 8r)fj.oo-ia
ot

KXvo~v

6 fjyfj.cbv dvaftrtio-Oai rrdvTas ly/zay
f

vovs

Kal Kar tveSpav rov ^aravd ay To^y dyiovs tftXeTrov

(pofirjOevres

Tay

fiacrd-

COTCDV

em

irdo-yovTas,

T&V vrpari-

TOVTO 7rapopfj.d)VTQ)v avrovs, KareTJrevo-avTo

H.E.V.I.]

Early Christian Writers.

67

about the judgement-seat cried out against him ; for he was a man of distinction ; and the governor refused to grant his just request, and merely asked if he also were a Christian. And he, confessing this with a loud voice,

was himself taken
called

into the order of the witnesses, being

5

of the Christians, but having the Advocate in himself, the Spirit more abundantly than Zacharias. He showed this by the fullness of his love,
the advocate

being well pleased even to lay down his life in defence of the brethren. For he was and is a true disciple of Christ, 10
following the Lamb whithersoever he goeth.* Then the others were divided, and the protomartyrs
readily

came forward, who

finished their confession with

all

eagerness. But some appeared unprepared and untrained, weak as yet, and unable to endure so great a conflict.

15

About ten of these proved abortions, causing us great grief and sorrow beyond measure, and impairing the zeal of the others who had not yet been seized, but who,
though suffering
stantly with
all

kinds of

affliction,

continued con
forsake them. 20

the witnesses and

did

not

Then
as

of us feared greatly on account of uncertainty to their confession ; not because we dreaded the
all

sufferings to be endured, but because

we looked

to the

some of them might fall away. But those who were worthy were seized day by day, filling 25 up their number, so that all the zealous persons, and those through whom especially our affairs had been estab lished, were collected together out of the two churches. And some of our heathen servants also were seized, as the governor had publicly commanded that all of us should 3
end,

and were

afraid that

be sought

out. These, being ensnared by Satan, and fearing for themselves the tortures which they beheld the saints endure, and being also urged on by the soldiers,

F 2

68

Selections

from
p&is, Kal
firjSe

vt(TTia Stiirva, Kal OiSaroSetovs

ocra fir/re

XaXeiv
TOLOVTO

firJTt voelv 0e/uy

fjftiv,

dXXa

Trio-Teveiv

ef TL

TTOOTTOTe

TTapOL

dvOp&TTOLS

eyeVerO.
e/y

TOVTObV
coo-re

$e

0?7/ucr$eVra>j>

irdvTes

dirt6r]pL<*)6r](Tai>

r}LLas,

Kal

5 ei rii/6?

Aco?

ro TTportpov SL OLKeiorrj-a t[JLTpiaoi>, rore Kal Sieirpiovro KaO \a\7raii>oi> OTL f\V(TeTaL Se TO VTTO TOV KvptOV lpr]fJ.l
r]^S>v.
T]\L<>V
Ol>,

Kaipos, kv a? Tray 6 7TpO(T(f)pLV TO) 0(0.
10 tgrjyrjo-ea)?
TlfJ.OV/J.]/OV

airoKTftvas

v/zay

86gi \arpelav
VTTpdvG>
TTttO"^?

kvTOivQa \OLTTOV
/coXao-eiy
8l

vrttfjitvov

oi

ayioi.

ndprvpts,

</)i\o-

TOV ^aTOLVCi Kal
8e

ZKtlVtoV prjOfjVCLL

TL

T(>V

fveaKiT^ev

17

opyr)
e/?

Tfava

Kal

6\\ov Kal
15

r}jfji6vo^

Kal

<TTpana)Ta)V

^c.yKTOv Sid-

KOVOV

OLTTO

I$ivvr]S, Kal e/y
dycovicrTrii
,

dXXa ytvvalov
T<>

Kal e/y

Mdrovpov v0(f ATTaXov
"

yevi,

(TTvXov Kal eSpatcDfia

voTa, Kal e/y

BXavSwav,

ra Tfapa
20

dv6pa>Trois

ZvTavOa del ycyo^y eirtSti^tv 6 Xpfcrroy OTL evreXfj Kal dtLSfj Kal fvKaTatypovrjTa
T$>V

SL

QaLvoLLtva /zeyaA^y
Tr^v ?r/3oy
fjir)

KaTa^LOVTai napa @e ^o^y^ Sia avTov dydirr)i Trjv eV SvvdfJLeL 8eiKvvLLtvr]v, Kal
)

eV

ei SeL
K.avyj>

\itvT\v .

f)fj.a>v

yap irdvTW
rjv

Kal rryy (rapKLvrjs SeaiTOLvrjs aur^y, ^riy
LtapTvpcov
25

Xoyiav

dyavicrTpLa, ayamcocrT/y firj SvvrjcreTaL Trapprjo LacracrOaL Sia TO
fjLia
17

SeSLOTWv, Kal avTr) ovSt Trjv OLLO-

T>V

acr^e^ey TOV
SvvaLiecos,
TCOLVTI

crco/zaroy,

BXav&lva

rocraurTyy

tnXrjpcoQr]

Kal napediji aL roz)y /cara &a5o)(ay
Oo
avToi>$

(3a(ravL{ovTas avTrjv

dnb

e co^ti/^y ecoy

eVvrepay, Kai

30

oLioXoyovvTas OTL vevLKrji/TaL, Lir]o tv e^o^rey noLricrovo~Lv avTrj, Kal 6avLidtiv tnl
ra>

Trjif,

TravTos TOV (rco/zaroy vrepieppcoyoro?
Liaprvptlv,
OTL

/cat
,

ef

e?<5oy

r\v

?rpoy

ro

tayaytlv

Tr}i>

^v^-nv^

ov\

OTL

ye

H.

E.V.I.]

Early Christian Writers.

69

accused us falsely of Thyestean banquets and Oedipodean intercourse, and of deeds which are not only unlawful for us to speak of or to think, but which we cannot believe

were ever done by men.

When

these accusations were
5

reported, all the people raged like wild beasts against us, so that even if any had before been moderate on account of
friendship, they were now exceedingly furious and gnashed their teeth against us. And that which was spoken by our

Lord was
killeth

fulfilled

:

The

time will come

you

will think that

he doeth God service/

when whosoever Then
beyond

10

finally the

holy witnesses

endured

sufferings

Satan striving earnestly that some of the slanders might be uttered by them also.
description,

But the whole wrath of the populace, and governor, and soldiers was aroused exceedingly against Sanctus, the deacon from Vienne, and Maturus, a late convert, yet a noble combatant, and against Attalus, a native of Pergamos, where he had always been a pillar and foundation, and Blandina, through whom Christ showed that things which appear mean and obscure and despicable to men are with God of great glory, through love toward Him manifested in power, and not boasting in appearance. For while we all trembled, and her earthly mistress, who was herself also one of the witnesses, feared that on account of the weakness of her body, she would be unable to make bold confession, Blandina was filled with such power that the men were weary and faint who were torturing her by turns from morning till evening in every manner, so that they acknowledged that they were con quered, and could do nothing more to her. And they were astonished at her endurance, as her entire body was mangled and broken and they testified that one of these forms of torture was sufficient to destroy life, not to speak
;

15

20

25

3

70
roiavTa
d6XrjTT]S
\r)\lri.s

Selections
Kal
Tocravra.
kv
rfj

from
f)

aXX*

paKapta
Kal
rjv

o>y

yevvcuos

di>veagv

6/zoXoytV
Kat,

avrrjs dvd-

KCU avdiravo is Kal dvaXyrjcrLa TCOV

crvfj-ftaivovToov,
f][juv

rb Xeyeiv

on

XpiaTiavrj

fiju,

Trap

ovSev

5 (fravXov yivera.it

O

Se

2dyKTOS Kal avrbs
ra? e^

UTrepjSejSXTy/iei/o)?
dv0pa>7r<>v

KCU vnep

avOpcoTTOv 7rdo~a$

aiKias

TT]V

rb fjLeyeOos
10
JJLr)

r$>v

(Sacrdvcov aKovcreo Oat TI Trap

avrov

TG>V

StOVTtoV,

TOO-aVTfl VTTOaTdo-l

dvTLTTCLptTd^aTO aVTOLS,
/i^re

cocrre /jLrjSt

TroAeooy
TT/OOS

o6ev

TO iSiov KaTenrelv ovopa, fj.rJT e^i/ou?, i SovXos tf eXeu^e/)oy tir) rjv, fjirJTe
}

d\\a
Kal

TrdvTa

TO,

eTTpct)Ta>/JLva
e/yLti.

00)^,
15

XpLVTiavos
ei,

dirtKpLvaTO TOVTO Kal avrl

TTJ

PcDfiaiKfj

oj/6/zaro?,

dvTl TToXecoy, Kal avrl yevovs, Kal avrl iravTos eTraXX^Xooy

aXXr;^ Se (fxavrjv OVK ffKovaav avToD TO, Wvrj. SOK&V o Bi(3\idSa 8e TLva rj pvrj fj.evo&i rjSr) Kal 8ia jSXao-0?;T$>V

fiias

KaTaKplvai, rjyev
Trepl
TTJ
fjfj.a)i
}

kirl

KoXacriv,

dvayKafav
coy

iTTiv TO.
77

20

dOea
SI

toy

tvQpav&TOv
dvevrj^e,

rjSrj

Kal avavSpov.

kv

o-ry06/3Xo)o-ei

Kai,

av

tiTrtiv^

K
TTJS

/3a^eoy

VTTVOV

dveypriyop-rja-tv,

VTrofjiVTjo-Oeiora

Sia

irpoa-Katpov Ti/juopias Trjv ai&viov kv yttvvfl KoXaa-iv, Kal e kvavrias avrtiTTt ro?y (3\ao-(f)r)fj.oLS, ^(rao-a, ITcoy av
25 TraiSta
<f>dyoiv

(frayeiv
C

t6v

;

oi TOLOVTOL^ ofy ^77^6 dXoyoov {axov Kal dirb TovSe Xpio~Tiavr]v tavTrj
. .

a?fj.a

Xoyet, Kal KXrjpa r&v fiaprvpcov Trpocreretf?/. . 8e fjtaKapLos Uo^eii/oy, 6 TTJV SiaKOviav rr^y (TK-OTT^y kv AovySovixp TreTrta-TtVftei os, virep TO, k 30 err; TVJS r)\iKias yeyoi/c6y, Kal Trdvv acr^ei/r)y rco
ra>

O

em-

yuoXty

fj,v

e/j,TrvO)v

Sia

TTJV

TTpOKLfj.evr]v

daOeveiav, VTTO 8e Trpo6vfiia$ 8ta TTV fKLjLvrv T7y jiaTVias CTrivji

Ka

H.E.V.I.]
of so

Early Christian Writers.
like a

71

woman,

But the blessed so great sufferings. noble athlete, renewed her strength in her confession ; and her comfort and recreation and relief from the pain of her sufferings was in exclaiming, I am a Christian, and there is nothing vile done by us/

many and

5

endured marvellously and superWhile the all the outrages which he suffered. humanly wicked men hoped, by the continuance and severity of his tooires to wring something from him which he ought not to say, he girded himself against them with such firmness that he would not even tell his name, or the nation or city tc which he belonged, or whether he was bond or free, but answered in the Roman tongue to all their questions,
But

Sanctus also

10

I

am

a Christian/

He

confessed this instead of

name
15

and

city and race and everything besides, and the people heard from him no other word. But the devil, thinking that he had already consumed Biblias, who was one of those who had denied Christ, desiring to increase her condemnation through the utter
.
.

.

ance of blasphemy, brought her again to the torture, to compel her, as already feeble and weak, to report impious But she recovered herself under things concerning us. the suffering, and as if awaking from a deep sleep, and reminded by the present anguish of the eternal punish

20

ment

in hell, she contradicted the blasphemers.

How/

25

could those eat children who do not think it lawful to taste the blood even of irrational animals? And thenceforward she confessed herself a Christian, and was given a place in the order of the witnesses. . The blessed Pothinus, who had been entrusted with 30 the bishopric of Lyons, was dragged to the judgement-seat.

she said,

.

.

He was more than ninety years of age, and very infirm, scarcely indeed able to breathe because of physical weak ness ; but he was strengthened by spiritual zeal through
his earnest desire for

martyrdom.

Though

his

body was

35

72
7Tt

Selections
TO

from
(TCOpaTOS

(3fjfJ.a

0-VpTO

}

TOV

fJikv

Kal

VTCO

TOV

KCU VTTO TTJS VOCTOV XtXv/jLtVOV, TfJpOVpevrjS $ TTJS 8y kv avT<p, wo, Si* avTfjs Xpto-Tos 6pia/jL(3evo~r). VTTO T&V O-TpaTlODTOHS tTTl TO ^fj/jLa KOp.IV 6 15, TTapaTTEfJ.5 TTQVTtoV

aVTOV TtoV

TToXlTlKQ)!

G^OVCTltoV,
jroiovfjiei
Ctii
,

KOL TTCLVTOS TOV
co?

TrXrjflovs,

7ri(3orjo~i$ TravToias

avTov

oi/ro?

TOV Xpio~Tov, aneSiSov Trjv Se vTfb TOV i7ye//6i/oy, r/y

Ka\r}i>

papTVpiav. az/era^o/zeroy
6

eirj

XpLo~Tiava>v

@oy,

^9^,

Eav
10 Kal

779

a^ioy, yt/cucrT//
7ra(T)(

tvTevOtv

Srj
JJL\V

a^ej&oy
TTJV

tcrvpe-o,

TroiKiXas
Troo-lv

Tr\T}yds,

T&V

o-vvtyyvs
rj

Kal

kvvftpi^ovTtov

ircu>TOio)$,

fj.r]Se

aiSov fJLevoav avTov, T&V 8t fiaKpav, o y^era ^eF/oay e/cacrros

Tr\rj/j.fji\ii>

15 e/y

OLVTOV ao~eXyeiay
eKSiKrjo-eLv.
,

Kal avtfttiv, ef riy aTro\ei(j)Qdr) r^y Kal yap TOVS 0eoz)y tavT&v &QVTQ
Kal
yuoyiy

OVTO)S
iji

k^TfvttoV
.

tpptfprj
. .

e/y

Trji>

Kal fjLTa Svo 17/zepay dTre-^fv^ev.
7rai>

Mera raOra
T^y

/cat

XOLTTOV /y e^oy SiypeiTo TO. ^?) K SiatyopGov yap ^po^fid^68ov avTcov. iravTOUOV dv6$>v eVa 7rAe|ai/rey crTtfyavov, TrpocrTIaTpL ^XP^ 7^^ ro ^S yevvatovs a^A^ray,
ra>

vnofjitivavTas
Fi/

dyoova Kal /zeyaAcoy

viK.r\<TavTa<$,

roi

ovv
25

MdTovpos
T>

/zeya^ r^y d(p6apo~ia$ vTttpavov. Kal 6 2ay/croy /cat 77 BXavSiva Kal
TO,

6

fjikv

"A-na-

Aoy ffyovTO
KOIVOV

errl

Orjpia

e/y

TO

5^/uoo-ior,

/cai

e/y

TO

Kal
TO>

6

nv

Mdirovpos Kal

6

^ay/CToy ai/^iy Siyeo-av eV
a>y

a/z0i^eaT/oco 5ta Traa-Tyy /coAao-ecoy, n^Seis oAcoy ?rpo5ia TrAeioj/coi/ ^5?y KXripw paXXov 81
a>y

TOV

dyava

fyovT*?,

TOV dvTLTraXov, Kal nepl TOV avTov o~T(j>dvov ndXiv Tay SiegoSovs virtfapov
T$>V

Tay

e/ceto-e

e/^io-^e^ay,

Kf

T0i)y

aVo

TCOJ/

H.E.V.I.]

Early Christian Writers.
old age and disease, his
life

73

worn out by

was preserved

that Christ might triumph in it. he was brought by the soldiers to the tribunal, accompanied by the civil

When

magistrates and a multitude who shouted against him in every manner as if he were Christ himself, he bore noble

5

Being asked by the governor, Who was the God of the Christians, he replied, If thou art worthy, thou shalt know/ Then he was dragged away harshly, and Those near him struck him received blows of every kind. with their hands and feet, regardless of his age ; and those
witness.

10

hurled at him whatever they could seize ; all of them thinking that they would be guilty of great
at a distance

wickedness and impiety
Scarcely able to
after

For thus they thought
two days.
these
. .

any possible abuse were omitted. to avenge their own deities. he was cast into prison and died breathe,
if
.

15

After

things,

finally,

their

martyrdoms

were

For plaiting a crown of various divided into every form. colours and of all kinds of flowers, they presented it to It was proper therefore that the noble 20 the Father.
athletes,

having endured a manifold

strife,

and conquered

grandly, should receive the crown, great and incorruptible.

Maturus, therefore, and Sanctus and Blandina, and Attalus were led to the amphitheatre to be exposed to the wild beasts, and to give to the heathen public a spectacle of cruelty, a day for fighting with wild beasts being

25

Both appointed on account of our people. Maturus and Sanctus passed again through every torment in the amphitheatre, as if they had suffered nothing before,
specially

or rather, as
in

if,

having already conquered their antagonist

3

many contests, they were now striving for the crown itself. They endured again the. customary running of the
gauntlet and the violence of the wild beasts, and everyC

4

>..-*.

B

M

v. at

74
vs,

Selections
Kal
TrdvB

from
6
8fjfj.os
TTCLCTL

ova fiaivopevos
Kal
e7re/ceAei5o*>ro,

dXXoi
TTJV

fTreftoav

kirl

aiSrjpav,

k<$

V(f)6pL.
^

Trjyavifofieva TO. oxo/iara Kvio-arjS avTovs ot 8 ovS OVTCOS tXrjyov, d\X eri Kal paXXov
r\<s

k^naivovTO, fiovXofjievoi viKrja-ai rriv kKtivciov \Jiroiiovr\v. Kal ovS a)? napa ZdyKTOv trepov TL elcrriKovGav, Trap
z/

OLTT

a/ox*7 y

i6i<TTo

Alyeii/

r^y

ofioXoyias

$<&VT\V.

OVTOL

[Ji\v

ovv, Si

dya>i

o$ ficydXov eTrnroX

avT&v

Tfjs

10 tKivr)s,

^VXTJ^, rovo-yarov krvOrfa-av, Sia rfjs dvrl Trdarjs rfjs kv TOI? iLovoprS>

avTol 6ajj,a y^vo^voi

H Se BXavSiva

KOODOO.
Kpt/jLao-Qeio-a irpovKciro ftopa
rj

eirl

vXov

-rS>v

clo-paXXofjLevw

Orjpiw

Kal 8ia
rrjs
.

TOV (3X7rcr6ai

a-Tavpov

0-^jifj.arL Kptp.aiJ.tvri, SLCL

evrovov
,

ai)TS>v

kv TO) dywvi

Kal 7019

ZgcoOev ocptiaXpois Sia

7-779

avTwv Eo-ravpcopevov, i va 7reio~7) TOVS nio-Tevovras ay avrov, OTL ?ray 6 VTrep r^y Xpio~Tov 56^y
TraOcbv TTJV
20 Kal firjSevbs
coj/roy Oeov. t^ei /xera TOV atyautvov Tore TCOV Orjpivv avr^y, KaOaipeOtlva dnb TOV ndXiv /y gvXov,
/y

dStX(pfj$ TOV VTrep

Koivcoviav

del

25

Kal do-Oevrjs Kal evKaTaQpovijTos, ptyav Kal a/caraya>VLVTOV deXrjrfv Xpio-Tbv evStSvfteitr), Sia TroXXvv KXrjpcov tK^Laaaa-a TOV dvTiKtiptvov, Kal St TOV dyS>vos
a(f)6apo~ia$ v
o~T"\lfa/jivr)

dvtXrjQdrj TTJV clpKTrjv, iva Sia TrXeiovcov yv/jLvaa/j-dTWV viKrjo-ao-a plv (TKoXiw dTrapaiTrjTov Troirjo-rj rfv KaTaSLKrjv, TrpoTptyrjTai Se roi)y a^A0oz)y 7) piKpa

dXXov

dya>va

Trjpov/j.tvrj,

T$>

6(/>L

r^y

o~T(bavov.
aiT?]6els VTTO TOV

O

<5e

3o

6 xAou,

^rraAoy (Kal yfy fy

Kal avTos yueyaAay
oi/o/zao-roy,)
eireiSr]
7>,

ha

TO

tiHrvvtiSrjTOv,

ero^oy tlo-fjXOcv dya>vi(TTr)S yvrjai^ kv TTJ Xpio-Tiavf}

K al del fidpTvs tytyovei nap d^L ytyv^vaa^vo^ Kal nepiaxfab KVKXv TOV d dXrjOtias.

H.E.V.I.]

Early Christian Writers.

75

thing which the furious people called for or desired, and at last, the iron chair in which their bodies being roasted,

tormented them with the fumes.

And

not with this did

the persecutors cease, but were yet more mad against them, determined to overcome their patience. But even thus they did not hear a word from Sanctus except the

5

he had uttered from the beginning. life had continued for a long time through the great conflict, were at last sacrificed, having been made throughout that day a spectacle to the world,
confession which

These, then, after their

ic

in place of the usual variety of combats.

But Blandina was suspended on a stake, and exposed be devoured by the wild beasts who should attack her. And because she appeared as if hanging on a cross, and
to

because of her earnest prayers, she inspired the combatants with great zeal. For they looked on her in her conflict, and beheld with their outward eyes, in the form of their
sister,

15

Him who was
who

persuade those

believe on

crucified for them, that Him, that every

He

might one who

suffers for the glory of Christ has fellowship always with 20 the living God. As none of the wild beasts at that time touched her, she was taken down from the stake, and cast

again into prison.

contest, that, being victorious in

She was preserved thus for another more conflicts, she might
25

make

the punishment of the crooked serpent irrevocable ; and, though small and weak and despised, yet clothed with Christ the mighty and conquering Athlete, she might arouse the zeal of the brethren, and, having overcome the

adversary

many

times might receive, through her conflict,
3

the crown incorruptible. But Attalus was called for loudly by the people, because he was a person of distinction. He entered the contest

readily on account of a good conscience and his genuine practice in Christian discipline, and as he had always been a witness for the truth among us. He was led around the 35

76

Selections
avTov npodyovTQS ev

from
co

OVTOS
(?(f)68pa
/JLCLIOS

to-Tiv

MrraXoy
CTT*

6

Xpicmai/oy,

kyiypairro Kal TOV

(T^ptycovTOS

CLVTW, fiaOcbv 6 rjye/JLtov
jJLeTO,

on

Pa>-

tdTlV,

K\V(TV
l>

OLVTOV dfaXrj(/)&fjvai

Kal TtoV
TO)

5

\Oi7TMV TCOV
C

Tfl

ttpKTf) OVTWV,
rr\v

7Tpl

3)l>

7r(rTei\

Katvapi, KOL 7rpi/jti

airofyaviv rrjv air

Kivov.

O

Se 8ia/ji(TOV Kaipbs OVK

dpybs avrois ovSe a/cap7roy

ey/Wro, aXXa

Sib

rfjs

vTrofjLovfjs

avT&v TO
T$>V

a/ze

Sia yap eXeos dv(paivTO XpivTov. 10 TTOLOVVTO ra vtKpd, KOL /zapri pey rots /JLTJ pdpTva-iv KOI eveyivero TroXXrj \(x,pa rfj TrapOwa* QVTQ.
ovs
SL
cos

vtKpovs e|erpa)o-e, TOVTOVS ^coi/ra? d

tKCLVtov

yap
KOL

ol TrXeiovs

rcov

rjpv-rjfJLevto

KOI

dvKVl(TKOVTO

KCU

dvtfoTTVpOVVTO,
rjSrj

KCU

15 o/zoXoyelj/,

^cot/rey

KOLL

reroi/oo/zej/ot

TO)

ftrjfjiaTi,

tyyXvKaiv OVTOS
r

TOV TOV fitv
eirl

OdvaTOv

TOV

fj.rj ftovXofjLevov, ptTdvoiav \pr)(T@eov, iva KOL ndXiv 7repa)Tr)6a)(nv VTTO TOV eTrio-re/Xayro? yap TOV Kaiaapos rouy p*v

8e TTJV

20

dTroTVfjLTrai/KrOfjvai,

el

8e

TIV$

dpvoivTO,
(ecrri

TOVTOVS
8e avTrj
e/y

CLTCO-

XvOfjvai, TTJS
di>0pa)7ro$

evOdSe Travrjyvpecos,
irai

noXv-

fK

Tcw

t6v$>v

(rvvp)(ofjievQ)v

avTrjv,)

dpxo/j.tvrjs

<rvveo~Tdvai,

dvijyev

em

TO

pfjjjLa

OtaTpifov
Sib Kal

TOVS paKapiovs,
25 TrdXiv dviJTafc,

Kal

e/z7ro/z7reva)i/
fj.ev

roi? o^Xoij.

Kal 6Vot

eSoKovv TroXiTtiav

kvyj]K.kvai, TOVTCOV dntTe/jLve

ray /ce^aXay,

roL>y

Pw/jLaicw 8e XOLTTOVS

7re^7Tv e/y Orjpia.

E8odgTO
dpvr)o-afjLvoL$,

8e yueyaXcoy o Xpt(rroy tirl roty Trporepor rore Trapa TTJV T&V kftv&v virovoiav

30 6fjLoXoyova-L.

diroXvBrja-ofjLevoL.
T<OV

Kal yap iSia OVTOL dvrjTagovTO, coy SfjQtv Kal dfjioXoyovvTts TrpocrtTiOevTO TCO
K\r}p&//^cSe

papTvptov

tptivav

81
ea>,

ol

TTCOTTOTC

TTibrecoy,

aicr6r)<riv

H.E.V.I.]

Early Christian Writers.

77

was written

amphitheatre, a tablet being carried before him on which This is Attalus the in the Latin language and the people were filled with indignation Christian/ But when the governor learned that he was against him.

a Roman, he commanded him to be taken back with the 5 rest of those who were in prison concerning whom he had written to Caesar, and whose answer he was awaiting. But the intervening time was not wasted nor fruitless to them ; for by their patience the measureless compassion For through their continued 10 of Christ was manifested.
the dead were made alive, and the witnesses showed favour to those who had failed to witness. And the virgin mother had much joy in receiving alive those
life

whom

influence

she had brought forth as dead. For through their many who had denied were restored, and rebegotten, and rekindled with life, and learned to confess.

15

And being made alive and strengthened, they went to the judgement-seat to be again interrogated by the governor ; God, who desires not the death of a sinner, but mercifully For invites to repentance, treating them with kindness. Caesar commanded that they should be put to death, but that any who might deny should be set free. Therefore, at the beginning of the public festival which took place there, and which was attended by crowds of men from all nations, the governor brought the blessed ones to the judgement-seat, to make of them a show and spectacle for
the multitude.

20

25

Wherefore also he examined them again, and beheaded those who appeared to possess Roman citizenship, but he sent the others to the wild beasts. And Christ was glorified greatly in those who had

30

formerly denied him, for, contrary to the expectation of For they were examined by the heathen, they confessed. themselves, as about to be set free ; but confessing, they were added to the order of the witnesses. But some continued without, who had never possessed a trace of 35 faith, nor any apprehension of the wedding- garment, nor

78
evvoiav
dvao~Tpo(f)rjs

Selections

from
dXXa Kal
T*)Z>

c/>6/3oy

&eov

cr^oi/rey,

Sta Trjs
KK\rjo ia
rty,

686v, /SAacr^T/ LtovvTes oi 8e \onrol TTOLVTZS Trj ol viol rfjs aTTCoAef ay.
Trpoo eTtOrjo-av
5
$pi>g
S>v

avT&v

TOVTZVTLV

Kal dveTa^oLLtvoav^

AXeav8p6s
yi/coo-roy

LLV TO ytvos, larpbs 8e TTJV
kv rats
SLO,

tTria-Trjftrjv,

TroAAofr

ereo-ii/
TTOLCTL

FaXXiaLS SiaTpfyas, Kal
Trpoy

cr^Sbv

rrjv

TOV

Qeov
Kal

ayaTrrjv

Kal

Trapprjviav

TOV

Xoyov
ai>Toi>s

(r\v

yap

OVK
/3^/zari,

a/zoi/ooy

^ayo/cr/zaro?), Trapeo-ra)?
10

r<3

Kal ve

now
oi

Trpbs TTJV
(3fjfjLa

6p.oXoyiav, fyavepos T\V TOIS
(LSivtov.

ecrrTy/cocri

ro

tcxnrep

dyavaKTrjaavTes 5e
coy

6)(Xoi enl rco rou? irpoTtpov

rjpvr)fjii>ovs

ytiv,

KarefSoria-av

TOV

AXedv8pov,
TOV Se
<f>rjo-ai

tKewov
(

avOis opoXoTOVTO

TTOiovvTos.
15

Kal

iTTio-TTJcravTOS
etr],

TOV ^ye/zoroy Kal ai/eraTos OTI

aavTos avTov,

OO~TIS

Xpio-Tiavos,

tv opyfj ytvopevos, KaTeKpivev avTov Trpbs Oqpia
eTriovo-r)

Kal Ty

tla-fjXOe
TO)

/zera

Kal TOV

ATTaXov.

Kal

yap Kal

TOV

"ATTaXov

o)(Xa)
oi

irdXiv Trpoy OrjpLa.
20 TO)
dfjL(j)L6edTp(p

^api^6fjL^os 6 f]yefta)i> e^ec?cu/ce Kal Sia irdvTtov SitXQovTts T&V kv
^vprjfj,ei/(ov

Trpbs

Ko\aariv

opydvoov, Kal

p-tyivTov viroiJLeLvavTts avTOt TOV p.\v

dyaiva, TovvyaTov eTvOrja-av Kal
/j.rJT

AXe^dvSpov

crTtvd^avTos

yuTire
TQ>

ypv^avTos
ea).

TL

6 Acoy,

aAAa

/cara KapStav 6p,L\ovvTOS
tirl

d Se

"ATTaXos

OTTOTC

7779
rj

(nSrjpas

7rTe6rj

25

KaOtSpas Kal
Kvto-o-a
(/XOvfj,

TrepitKaitTO,
t(f>r]

fjvtKa

dirb

TOV
TTJ
)

ai/e^epero,

irpos

TO TrXfjOo?

I8ov
rj/jieis

}

vpels

TOVTO kvTIV dvOptoTTOVS dLLV 8k OVT dv6pa>7rovs eo-6io[JLtv ) ovO*
eTrepcorco/ze^oy

7TOlttT

erepoi/ TL

TTovripov

Trpdo-a-ofiev.
<C

8e

TL

306

eoy, direKpLQr],

O

ovopa e%L
TO>V

@eoy 6Vo/za OVK e^ei
TTJ ecr^ccr??

coy dV^pcoTroy.

Eirl

Trao-L 8e
ri

TOVTOLS

XOLTTOV fjLLtpa

LLOVO-

fiaxiw,

E\av8tva Tcd\Lv
coy

TTaiSapiov

e/crKO/ztjfTO /zera Kal HQVTLK.QV Treyre/ccu&Ka erco^. ot Kal

H. E.V.I.]

Early Christian Writers.
but,

79
as sons of

an understanding of the fear of God;
perdition, they

But

all

blasphemed the Way through their apostasy. the others were added to the Church. While

these were being examined, a certain Alexander, a Phry

gian by birth, and physician by profession, resided in Gaul for many years, and was well
all

who had known to

5

on account of his love to God and boldness of speech (for he was not without a share of apostolic grace), standing before the judgement-seat, and by signs encouraging them
appeared to those standing by as if in travail. 10 But the people being enraged because those who formerly denied now confessed, cried out against Alexander as if he were the cause of this. Then the governor summoned him and inquired who he was. And when he answered
to confess,

that he

was a

Christian, being very angry

he condemned

15

him

to the wild beasts.

along with Attalus. For had ordered Attalus again to the wild beasts.

the next day he entered to please the people, the governor

And on

And

they

were tortured

in the

amphitheatre with

all

the instruments

contrived for that purpose, and having endured a very 20 great conflict, were at last sacrificed. Alexander neither groaned nor murmured in any manner, but communed in
his heart with God.

iron seat,

But when Attalus was placed in the and the fumes arose from his burning body, he

said to the people in the

Roman

language

:

Lo

!

this 25

which ye do is devouring men; but we do not devour men ; nor do any other wicked thing/ And being asked, what name God has, he replied, God has not a name as

man

has.
30

all these, on the last day of the contests, Blandina was again brought in, with Ponticus, a boy about fifteen years old. They had been brought every day to witness

After

8o

Selections

from
r&v \onrmv KoXao-iv, Kal elSooXcw avT&v. KCU. Sid

ticrrjyovTO rrpbs TO pXeTreiv rrjv

T)vayKdovro
TO
fjLfjLi>eiv

ofjivvvai

Kara

TO>V

v<TTa6a>s

Kal
o>y

Trpbs avTovs TO TrX^oy,

/trJTe

eov6evelv avTovs, rjyptcoOrj TTJV fjXiKiav TOV TraiSbs
Trpo? TTOLVTOL
Trda-rjs

5 oiKTeipai,
TO,

fJLrJTe

TO yvvaiov

al8e<r6f]vai.

Se

Suva irapefiaXXov
SvvdjJLtvoL

ai>Tov$
y

Kal Sta

kv

KVKXa>

KoXdo-ecvs, tTraXXrjXcos

dvayKaovTS
6
[Jikv

oyuoVca,

dXXa
ori

TOVTO 7rpdat
a>y

ydp FLovTiKos VTTO T^J
TO,

Trap(opfj.r]ij.ei>o$,

Kal

Wvr]
TO

/?Xe7reiz/

10

Kii>rj

r\v

7TpOTpe7rofjLi>r]

Kal

o-T7)pLgov<ra

avrov,
7rz/ef}/za.

KoXa(ni>

yevvaias

v-rronttvas, aTreo co/ce

fiaKapia
evyi>r]$

BXavSiva

TrdvTatv

kvyaTt],

KaQdirep
viKrjtyopov?
TT/OO-

TrapopfjLrjo-acra
TT/OOS
rS>v

ra

rtKva Kal

Tre/z^acra
15

TOV Bao-iXea,

dvafj.erpov}j.^vr]

KOI avrr)

Trdvra ra

TratoW

dyGwio-fjiara, ecnrevSe TT/ooy avrovs
rfj
e6<Sa>,

Xaipovaa Kal dyaXXico^rj enl
Sciirvov
KtKXrjfievrj,

coy

e/y

VV^LK.QV

dXXa

firj

TTpoy

Orjpta

(3e(3Xr)fjLei>r).

Kal p.ra rds ftdvriyas, pera ra 6r]pia, fitra TO rrjyavov, Taffvxarov e/y yvpyaOov (3Xr)0i<Ta, ravpv 20 Kal iKav&s dva(3Xr]6i(ra ?rpoy TOI; /ji
gd>ov,

tri

rS)i>

vviLftaivQVTtov

tyovva Sid

rrjv tXrriSa

Kal

CT

r&v

TT^rrLcrrev^voDv Kal 6p.iXiav Trpoy
r>v

Xpivrov,

rv6rj Kal
TTCO-

avrr),

TTOTe Trap
25
fj

Kal avr&v opoXoyovvrw kQva>v on fjLrjSt avrois yvvr) roiavra Kal roaavra tTradev.
01;^
oi/Tcoy

^4XX

Kopov
co/ioT^y.

eXa///3a*>ei>

avr&v

17

pavia Kal
dypia
efxe,

7r/3oy T0i)y

aytovs

VTTO

ydp dypiov

Orjpos

Kal ftdpfiapa

dXXrjv

lSiai>

avrw.
30

w exw
avTw
TOV

Kal dpyj]v enl ToFy vtofjLaaLv eXa/zjSdrei/ 17 v(3pis TO ydp vtviKr\v6ai avrov? OVK tSvavTrei, Sid TO
(f>vXa

Trapa^O^ra SvcnravarQ)?

dvQpuirivov ernXoyio-fjioi

,

rr]v 6pyr)v

KaOdnep
e/y

Orjpiov,
i7/zay
(t

fidXXov de Kal e^eVaei/ Kal TOV i^ye/zoyoy Kal
dSiKcos
^

8r)fj,ov

TO

o/jioiov

a $

ypa^

irXripvOfj,

Q

at/o/zoy

H. E.V.I.]

Early Christian Writers.

81

the sufferings of the others, and had been pressed to swear by the idols. But because they remained steadfast and despised them, the multitude became furious, so that they had no compassion for the youth of the boy nor respect for the sex of the woman. Therefore they exposed them to all the terrible sufferings and took them through the entire round of torture, repeatedly urging them to swear, but being unable to effect this ; for Ponticus, encouraged by his sister so that even the heathen could see that she was confirming and strengthening him, having nobly endured every torture, gave up the ghost. But the

5

10

blessed Blandina, last of all, having, as a noble mother, encouraged her children and sent them before her victorious to the King, endured herself all their conflicts and hastened
after them, glad and rejoicing in her departure as if called 15 to a marriage-supper, rather than cast to wild beasts.

And,

roasting-seat,

after the scourging, after the wild beasts, after the she was finally enclosed in a net, and
20

bull. And having been tossed about by the animal, but feeling none of the things which were happening to her, on account of her hope and firm hold upon what had been entrusted to her, and her

thrown before a

And the Christ, she also was sacrificed. heathen themselves confessed that never among them had a woman endured so many and such terrible tortures.
communion with
But not even thus was their madness and cruelty toward the saints satisfied. For, incited by the Wild Beast, wild and barbarous tribes were not easily appeased, and their violence found another peculiar opportunity in the dead
bodies.

25

For, through their lack of manly reason, the fact had been conquered did not put them to shame, but rather the more enkindled their wrath as that of a wild beast, and aroused alike the hatred of governor
that they

3

and people
be
fulfilled

to treat
:

us unjustly
is

;

that the Scripture might

He

that

lawless, let

him be lawless

still,

35

82

Selections

from

Kal yap TOVS eVT, KOL 6 SiKaios SiKaicoOrJTO) erf/ aTTOTmyeVray kv rf} dpKrfj napefiaXXov KVO~LV eTn/zeAcoy
}

napa<f)vXdo~o-ovTes

u0
5

quant.
roiJ

vvKToop Kal peOrj/jLepav, Kal rore 77 7Tyoo0eVrey ra re

/z?)
rcoj>

Kr)8ev6fi riy

Qrjpicw,
nrj

rd
8e

re

irvpbs

Xtfyava,

irfj

p.lv

ecnrapayfjieva,

ray

KeaXas

<rvv

avr&v axraurcoy ara^oyy nap^vXarrov /zera
em/jieXeias fjfiLepais
a-v^vais.
kit

Kal ol
avrois,

//ei/

Kal
10

eftpvyov TOVS

oSbvras

fa-

rowre? riva Trepio-aoTepav
o/

K8tKr](n^

8e

ej/eyeAa)i/

Kal
tireT<x>Oaov,

nap avrw XafStlv /zeyaAiWre? a/za ra
r^i/

iSo)Xa

avT&v,
ot

Kal
8e

e/ceu/oi?

TrpocraTrrot/re?
>cai

TL^ptav.
TraQelv
15 ai)ra)i/, /cat

eTTie^ecrrepot,
d>Vt$i{ov

/cara

TTOO-W

<5o/cowrey,

iroXv
r)

Aeyo^rey,

IToG d

ri avrovs

&VT}<TW

QprjaKtia, T)V Kal irpo rfj*

tavruv tfoovTO
Tt]v

^v X fj?

;

Kal ra i&v

an IKIVUV

Toiav-

tTX e

rr]v

noiKiXiav, nwOti, Sia

ra
TO

8e

Ka6

rj yg.
,

afce

y^p

^
coy

^

^ay

kv

/zeya Aw
crcu/zara

SvvavBai

ra

ovre

dpytpia

eirtiOev,

ovre

(rvvepdXXcro Xiravtia

^iv

npbs

tSvo-vnei,

rcavrl 8e

rponcp naperrjpow,
Ta</>fj9.

/zeya TL

KtpSavovvrts
Ibid. v.l.

d

XXII.

Fragmentum Muratorianum.
quibus tamen interfuit et ita posuit tertio euangelii librum secundo lucan
25

lucas iste medicus post ascensum XPi cum eo paulus quasi ut iuris studiosum

EO

secundum adsumsisset numeni suo ex opinione conscribset drirh tamen nee ipse uidit in carne et ide prout asequi potuit ita et ad natiuitate iohannis dicere
incipet

H. E.V.I.]

Early Christian Writers.

83

is righteous, let him be righteous still. For they cast to the dogs those who had died of suffocation in the prison, carefully guarding them by night and day, lest any one should be buried by us. And they exposed the remains left by the wild beasts and by fire, mangled and

and he that

5

and placed the heads of the others by their bodies, and guarded them in like manner from burial by a watch of soldiers for many days. And some raged and gnashed their teeth against them, desiring to execute more severe vengeance upon them ; but others laughed and mocked at them, magnifying their own idols, and imputed to them the punishment of the Christians. Even the more reasonable, and those who had seemed to sympathize somewhat, reproached them often, saying, Where is their God, and what has their religion, which they have chosen rather than life, profited them? So various was their conduct toward us but we were in deep affliction because we could not bury the bodies. For neither did night avail us for this purpose, nor did money persuade, nor entreaty move to compassion but they kept watch in every way, as if the prevention of the burial would be of some great
charred,
; ;

10

15

20

advantage to them.
A.N.
L.

Fragment of Muratori on

the

Canon.
set

....
down.

but at

some he was

present, and so he

them

The third book of the Gospel, was compiled in his own name
physician,

that according to Luke, 25 in order by Luke the

him

when after Christ s ascension Paul had taken be with him like a student of law. Yet neither did he see the Lord in the flesh ; and he too, as he was
to
*.

able to ascertain [events, so set them down] began his story from the birth of John.
1
1.

So he

30

8 ita

-i-

posuit ita e coni. Lightfoot.

G2

84

Selections

from
ex decipolis
10

quarti euangeliorum iohannis

cohortantibus condescipulis et eps suis dixit conieiunate mihi odie triduo et quid
5

cuique fuerit reuelatum alterutrum nobis ennarremus eadem nocte reue

latum andreae ex apostolis lit recognis centibus cuntis iohannis suo nomine cuncta discriberet et ideo licit uaria sin
culis
10

15

euangeliorum libris principia doceantur nihil tamen differt creden tium fidei cum uno ac principal! spu de
20

15

omnibus omnia de natiui de passione de resurrectione de conuersatione cum decipulis suis ac de gemino eius aduentu
clarata sint in
tate

primo in humilitate dispectus quod fo it secundum pre potestate regali clarum quod foturum est quid ergo mirum si iohannes tarn constanter
.

.

.

25

20

sincula etia in epistulis suis proferam dicens in semeipsu quae uidimus oculis
nostris et auribus audiuimus et

manus

30

25

nostrae palpauerunt haec scripsimus uobis sic enim non solum uisurem sed et auditorem sed et scriptore omnium mirabiliu dm per ordi

nem
le

sub uno

profetetur acta aute omniu apostolorum libro scribta sunt lucas obtime theofi

35

30

comprindit quia sub praesentia eius sincula gerebantur sicuti et semote passione petri euidenter declarat sed et profectione pauli ab ur be ad spania proficiscentis epistulae autem
pauli quae a

quo loco uel qua ex causa directe

40

sint uolentibus intellegere ipse declarant 35

primu omnium corintheis scysmae heresis in terdicens deinceps b callaetis circumcisione

on the canon.]

Early Christian Writers.

85

The

of the disciples.

fourth of the Gospels [was written by] John, one When exhorted by his fellow-disciples

and bishops, he said, Fast with me this day for three and what may be revealed to any of us, let us days relate it to one another/ The same night it was revealed
;

5

Andrew, one of the apostles, that John was to write things in his own name, and they were all to certify.
to

all

And therefore, though various elements are taught in the several books of the Gospels, yet it makes no difference to the faith of believers, since by one guiding Spirit all
things are declared in all of them concerning the Nativity, the Passion, the Resurrection, the conversation with his

10

and his two comings, the first in lowliness and contempt, which has come to pass, the second glorious with royal power, which is to come.
disciples

15

What

marvel therefore

if

John so

firmly sets forth each

statement in his Epistle too, saying of himself, What we have seen with our eyes and heard with our ears and our

hands have handled, these things we have written to you ? For so he declares himself not an eyewitness and a hearer only, but a writer of all the marvels of the Lord in order. The Acts however of all the Apostles are written in
one book.

20

Luke puts it shortly to the most excellent that the several things were done in his own Theophilus, presence, as he also plainly shows by leaving out the 25
passion of Peter, and also the departure of Paul from

town on

journey to Spain. however of Paul themselves make plain to those who wish to understand it, what epistles were
his

The

Epistles

sent by him, and from

what place and

for

what cause.

30

wrote at some length first of all to the Corinthians, forbidding schisms and heresies ; next to the Galatians,

He

86

Selections

from
et

romanis aute ordine scripturarum sed
principium earum
.

.

.

esse

XPm

intimans

45

prolexius scripsit de quibus sincolis neces se est ad nobis desputari cum ipse beatus
5

apostolus paulus sequens prodecessoris sui iohannis ordinS non nisi nomenatT sempte
ecclesiis scribat

ordine

tali

a corenthios

5o

TO

prima ad efesius seconda ad philippinses ter tia ad colosensis quarta ad calatas quin ta ad tensaolenecinsis sexta ad romanos
septima uerum corintheis et thesaolecen
sibus licet pro correbtione iteretur

una

55

tamen per
15

omnem orbem
licet

terrae ecclesia

deffusa esse denoscitur et iohannis

em

in a

pocalebsy
et at titu

septe eccleseis scribat
dicit

tamen omnibus

veru ad filemonem una
60

to et

ad tymothetf duas pro affec dilectione in honore tamen eclesiae ca
et

una

tholice in ordinatione eclesiastice
20

discepline scificate sunt fertur etiam ad

laudecenses alia ad alexandrines pauli no fincte ad heresem marcionis et alia plu ra quae in catholicam eclesiam recepi non

mine

65

25

enim cum melle misceri non con sane iude et superscrictio iohannis duas in catholica habentur et sapi entia ab amicis salomonis in honore
potest
fel

cruit epistola

ipsius

70

pe tri tantum recipimus quam quidam ex nos tris legi in eclesia nolunt pastorem uero nuperrim e temporibus nostris in urbe

scripta apocalapse etiam iohanis et

roma hernia conscripsit sedente cathe tra urbis romae aecclesiae pio eps fratre

75

on the canon.]

Early Christian Writers.

87

forbidding circumcision ; then to the Romans, impressing on them the plan of the Scriptures, and also that Christ is the first principle of them, concerning which severally it is [not] necessary for us to discuss, since the blessed

Apostle Paul himself, following the order of his predecessor John, writes only by name to seven churches in the fol lowing order to the Corinthians a first, to the Ephesians

5

a second, to the Philippians a third, to the Colossians a fourth, to the Galatians a fifth, to the Thessalonians a sixth, to the Romans a seventh ; whereas, although for 10

the sake of admonition there

is

a second to the Corinthians

Church is recognized as being spread over the entire world. For John too in the Apocalypse, though he writes to seven churches, yet speaks to all. Howbeit to Philemon one, to Titus one, and to Timothy two were put in writing from personal inclination and attachment, to be in honour however with the Catholic Church for the ordering of the ecclesiastical
to the Thessalonians, yet one

and

15

mode of life. There is current also one to the Laodicenes, another to the Alexandrians, [both] forged in Paul s name to suit the heresy of Marcion, and several others, which cannot be received into the Catholic Church for it is not
;

20

fitting that gall

be mixed with honey.
25

the

The Epistle of Jude no doubt, and the couple bearing name of John, are accepted in the Catholic [Church] and the Wisdom written by the friends of Solomon in his honour. The Apocalypse also of John, and of Peter [one Epistle, which] only we receive [there is also a second]
; * ;

which some of our friends will not have read in the Church. But the Shepherd was written quite lately in our times by Hernias, while his brother Pius, the bishop, was sitting in the chair of the church of the city of Rome
;

30

1.

72 as restored in Greek

by Zahn
ijv

:

Tlerpov

\kmai-o\i)

pia, fy~\

/JLOVTJV

rivfs K.T.\.

83

Selections

from

eius et ideo legi eum quide oportet se pu plicare vero in eclesia populo neque inter profetas completum numero neque inter
5

apostolos in fine temporum potest arsinoi autem seu ualentini uel mitiadis [?] nihil in totum recipemus qui etiam nouu

80

runt una

psalmorum librum marcioni conscripse cum basilide assianom catafry
constitutorem.

cum

XXIII.
10

O

p.kv 8rj

MarOaio?

kv rols

"Eft

patois

rfj

ISia

avT&v

Kal ypaffiv e^j/ey/ce*/ EvayyeXtov, TOV Tlerpov Kal TOV IlavXov kv Pco/j-rj vayyeXio/j.ev(ov Kal 0e/ze6\aXe/cro>

XiovvTCov

TTJV

KK\r](riai>.

yuera

8k

MdpKos
15 TUTTO

6 paOrjTrjs Kal tpprjvevTrjs Iltrpov Kal
Krjpvao-ofj.ti

T^V TOVTCOV tgoSov, avrbs ra
r)fj.iv
J

Ilerpov

a
kv

yypd(pa>$

7rapa8eScoK
e/cea/ou

Kai

AovKas

Se

6

aKoXovOos IlavXov TO
(3i(3Xia>

VTT

Kr-

pvaaopevov

EvayyeXiov

^are^ero.

6 fj.a&r]T7]S TOV TO Kvptov, 6 Kal avTov dvaTTea-w, Kal avTos ee&o/ce TO EvayyeXiov, kv

M

20
E<peo-(p

TTjs

Aa-tas SicLTpiftav.

TavTa p\v ovv
irpoojiXtoQivTi
irepl
TTJS

h

TpiTv
ei

TTJS

fLprj^rjs
kv St
TTJS
ra>

[Eiprjvaicp]

prjTai.

Ivdvvov

AiroKaXv^etos, Kal
OVTO)

TOV
25

TOVTWV
Satois

8k oi/ro)? ^OVTCOV, Kal kv

navi

8k

roFy

<nrov-

Kal

Kl/J.ei/OV,

dp^atois dvTiypd(poi$ Kal [JLapTVpOVVTOOV aVT&V

TOV

dpi6[jLov

TOVTOV

KLV(i)V TtoV

K.O.T

Q^LV
T>V

TOV ladwrjv iapaKOTtov, Kal TOV Xoyov 8t8do-KOVTOS r}/J.d$ OTL o dpiOnos TOV ovofjiaTos TOV Orjpiov Kara Trjv

Kal

VTroKaTa{3as irepl TOV avTov
d7TOKll>8vi

<p>do~Ki

FT ii fie QVV OVK

VO/J,tV

7Tpl TOV OVOftaTOS TOV

on the canon.]

Early Christian Writers.

89

and therefore it ought indeed to be read, but it cannot to the end of time be publicly read in the Church to the people, either among the prophets, who are complete in
number, or among the Apostles. * But of Valentinus the Arsinoite and his friends we 2 also composed a long receive nothing at all who have new book of Psalms; together with Basilides and the
;

5

Asiatic founder of the Montanists.

Origin of

the Gospels.

published his Gospel among the Hebrews in language, while Peter and Paul were preaching and founding the church in Rome. After their decease Mark, the disciple and interpreter of Peter, also trans

MATTHEW
own

their

10

mitted to us in writing those things which Peter had in preached; and Luke, the attendant of Paul, recorded
a book the Gospel which Paul had declared. Afterwards 15 John, the disciple of the Lord, who also reclined on his bosom, published the Gospel, while staying at Ephesus in
Asia.
third book of his [Irenaeus] states these things in the In the fifth book he speaks as

above-mentioned work.

20

follows of the Apocalypse of John, and the name of Antichrist
:

number of the

these things are so, and this number is found in all the approved and ancient copies, and those who saw John face to face confirm it, and reason teaches us that the

As

25

number

of the

name

calculation

among

of the beast, according to the mode of the Greeks, appears in its letters
:

And

farther

We
1
1.

on he says concerning the same are not bold enough to speak confidently
=TOU
Se

81

3

1.

83 marcioni = fMKpov Zahn.

Apaivotrov OvaXtisrivov

KO.I

90

Selections

from
eet

yap AvTi^ptcrrov d-rro^aivo^voL /3e/3cua)TiK<?. vvv Kaipv Kr]pvTTo-0ai Tovvofjia avToi), SL dva<pavSov Kivov av fpp^Orj TOV Kal TTJV a7roKa\vyrLv ecopa/coroy*
ra>

ovSe
5

yap

irpo rroXXov

r^y

17/zerepay

\povov i&pdOr], dXXd a-^eSbi^ errl reXa r^y AoptTiavov ye^eay, ?rpoy
rS>

Tavra Kal
Xco/jLtva).
<TTO\f)S,

irepl

r^y ^Tro/caAttyecoy
5e
/cai

lo-Toprjrai

ra>

/jLe/jLvrjTaL

rTyy

Itodvvov Trpcor^y

papTvpia
L,

10 /ecu TT^y

avrfjs TrXeicrTa e/a-0epa)i/, d/zo/coy 5e 01) \ibvov Se olStv., dXXa Kal Ilerpov Trporepay.
rrjv

w
7ri(TTV(rov OTL

TOV IToi/ze^oy ypatyrjv, Xeya)^
?$
77 ypa^r) rj Xeyovcra, Tlpwrov iravToov karlv 6 @eo$, 6 ra irdvra Kriaas Kal

e??re^

ra
15

ttfs.

Kal

prjToTs Se TKTIV

e/c

r^y ^oXo/zcoroy
<5e

2o<pta$

K)(pr]Tai

liovovovyl (f)do-KO)V vias, dcpOapaia 8e
fj.vr]fjLOVv/jLdT(ov
<5e

opacriy

Seov

TrtpuroirjTiKr) d(f)6ap-

eyyvs elvai
a7ro<rToXiKov

TroieT
rii/oy

@ov.

Kal

diro-

rovvofJLa
20

(TLdOTrfj

Trape&o/ce,

[jivrjfj.oi

7rpea-{3vTpov, ov euci, e^rjyrjcreis re avrou

Oeiaw ypafy&v TrapariBtTai. rupoy Kal lyvariov p.vr)jj.r]v

eri

Kal

lovcrrivov rov

fj.dp-

TTtTroLrjrai,

naprvpiais avOis

Kal diro rS)v TOVTOIS
Se 6 avTos

ypa(pei>Ta>v

/ce^p^/xei/oy.

K TGOV

MapKiwos

avyypafjLfjLdr

V
ai>T(p

l8t(O

O"JTOv8d(T/jLaTL.

EUSEBIUS, Hist. Eccles.

y. 8.

XXIV.
25

5e Araf avTol a/per^corepoi "jErepot fyixnv, ^p^yey TO ye^oy, 7rpoXr;0^e^Tey UTTO yvvaicmv rjTrdrrjvTai, Ilpia KiXXrjs rfi/oy /cat MagifjLiXXrjs KaXov/jLevcov, ay vofJLifov(nv tv ravrais rb irapdK\r]Tov
}

r^

Xeyoj/rey, 30
a>y

/cat^

rij/a Trpo

avr$)i>

Movravov

d/io/coy

8odovcriv

H.E.V.S.]

Early Christian Writers.

91

name of Antichrist. For if it were necessary that his name should be declared clearly at the present time, it would have been announced by him who saw the revelation.
For it was seen, not long ago, but almost in our generation, toward the end of the reign of Domitian/
These things concerning the Apocalypse are
writer referred
stated
5

by the

to. He also mentions the first Epistle of John, taking many proofs from it, and likewise the first Epistle of Peter. And he not only knows, but also receives,

10 the Shepherd, writing as follows Well did the Scripture speak, saying, "First of all believe that God is one, who has created and completed
:

all

things,"

&c.

uses almost the precise words of the Wisdom of Solomon, saying, the vision of God produces immorHe God. tality, but immortality renders us near to

And he

15

mentions also the memoirs of a certain apostolic presbyter, whose name he passes by in silence, and gives his exposi And he refers to Justin tions of the sacred Scriptures. the Martyr, and to Ignatius, using quotations also from
their writings. Moreover, he promises to refute from his own writings, in a special work.

20

Marcion

Montanism.

BUT

there are others

who

are themselves in nature

heretical [than the Quartodecimans].

more These are Phry
25

gians by birth, and have been deceived through having been overcome by womenkind, called a certain Priscilla

and Maximilla,

whom

that the Comforter Spirit dwelt in

they hold for prophetesses, saying them ; and they like

wise glorify one Montanus before them as a prophet. So having endless books of these people they go astray, 30

92
TO,

Selections
VTT

from
KptvavTes,
fJ.rJT

fjLrjTf

avT&v

XeXaXrj/jLtva Aoyco

TOIS KptvaL SvvafJievois irpoareyovTts, dXX a/cpfrcoy Trj Trpbs avTOvs TTiVrei irpocrtpepovTai, irXtiov TL SL* avT&v <aV/coj/rey
[d>y]

ptfjLaOrjKevai

fj

e/c

vopov

Kal

irpo(pr)T(ov

Kal T&V
^dpLo-fia

5

evayyeXi&v.

VTrep

Se

aTrocrroAoi/y

Kal

irdv

TO, yuvaia Sogdgovaiv, coy ToXpav nXeTov TL XpLaOVTOL TOV kv TOVTOIS XeyeLv TLvas avTcov yeyovevai. oXcov @tbv Kal TrdvTo&v KTLCTTTJV o/zo/ooy TOV [lev Trarepa oo~a TO evayyeXcov nepl TOV Trj KKXr]o~ia ofioXoyovon Kal

TavTa

TO>V

10

XpiaTov

fjLapTvpti, Kaiviovo~i Se

vr]o~TLa$ Kal eopray Kal
TO>V

VTTO yvvauov pa(f>avo<payia$ (j)do~KovTS Tivls Se avTcov Trj NorjTiavwv alpeo~i SeSiSdyOaL. o~vvTL6[jLvoi TOV UaTtpa avTov eivai TOV Tlbv Xeyovo L Kal
TO>V

rjpo(j)ayias Kal

)

TOVTOV VTTO yVo~Lv Kal jrdBos Kal OdvaTOV eXrjXvOtvai. HIPPOLYTUS, Ref. Omn. Haer. viii. 19.

XXV.
15

TavTa ra
O~TL
Trj

^oy/zara,

QXcopTve,
TOLVTGL

iva
7re0ei<T/ze^a>y

OVK ZVTIV vyiovs

yva>fJir)S

ra SoypaTa
d&eftfiav TrepifidX-

KKXrjo~ia y

e/y

Tr)v /J.yio~Tr)v

XovTa TOVS
ol e^o) r?;y

7rL0ofjievov$ avTols

raura ra SoypaTa ovSe

20 Trore

raura ra 56y/zara
(re

KKXrja-ia$ alptTiKol er6A/z7/crai/ dirofyfivavOai ol irpo f)fj.)v 7rpo~(3vTpoi, ol
o~vfj,(f>oiTrjo-avT$,

Kal TOIS aTToa-roAoiy
elSov

ov trapeScoKav

o~oi.

kv Trj /carco Acrta irapa IIoXvyap /capTTco, Aa/ZTTyOwy TrpaTTOVTa kv rg ftao-iXiKfj avXfj, Kal
Trafy ert cov
iripa>fjLvov

v8oKifjLLv Trap

aurco.

25 SiafjLvrjfjLoveva) TCOV

eVay^oy yivopevcov.
"^fv^fj
<

fjiaXXov yap TO, rore al yap K
a>o~T

fia6r](ris arvvav^ovcrai Trj

kvovvrcuL avTrj,

SvvaO-OaL

Ka6^6jJLVOf 6 fj-aKapLos IIoXvKapTros, Kal ray npooSovs avTov Kal ray Kal TOV xapaKTrjpa TOV fiiov, Kal Tr\v TOV ?,

LTTLV Kal TOV TOTTOV kv

R. o. H.

viii.

19.]

Early Christian Writers.

93

neither judging their statements by reason, nor heeding those that are able to judge, but behave without judge ment in the faith they give them, saying that through them they have learned something more than from the

Law and
these

the Prophets and the Gospels.

But they

glorify

5

womenkind above Apostles and every gift, so that some of them presume to say that there was something more in them than in Christ. These confess God the
Father of the universe and creator of

Church, and

all

that the

Christ, but invent

new

all things like the witnesses concerning Gospel fasts and feasts and meals of dry

10

food and meals of radishes, saying that they were taught them by the womenkind. And some of them agree with
the

the heresy of the Noetians in saying that the Father is same with the Son, and that this One became subject to birth and suffering and death.

15

Letter of Irenaeus to Florinus.
opinions, Florinus, that I may speak without harshness, are not of sound judgement ; these opinions are

THESE

not in harmony with the Church, but involve those adopt ing them in the greatest impiety; these opinions even the heretics outside the pale of the Church have never ventured to broach ; these opinions the elders before us, who also were disciples of the Apostles, did not hand down to thee. For I saw thee, when I was still a boy, in Lower Asia in company with Polycarp, while thou wast faring

20

25

prosperously in the royal court, and endeavouring to stand well with him. For I distinctly remember the incidents of that time better than events of recent occurrence ; for the lessons received in childhood, growing with the growth of the soul, become identified with it; so that I can describe the 30 very place in which the blessed Polycarp used to sit when he discoursed, and his goings out and his comings in, and his manner of life, and his personal appearance, and the

94
erco/taroy

Selections
IBtav,

from
7rofefro

KCU

ray 6\aXeety ay

Trpoy ro
coy

Kal
,

Trjv

Kara
/*era

Ia>dvvov

crvvavavTpoffiv
rcoV

KCU

TTJV

rco>

Xonr&v
roz)y

eco/ja/corcoz/
avT$>v,

5

TOV Kvpiov Kal coy aTre/zp^yuoVeue 7T6/)f TOV Kvpiov Tiva rjv a Trap
TCO>

Xoyouy

Kal

e/ce/Va)j>

a/c^/coeij /cat

8vvdp.t(Dv avrov, Kal nepl
avroTTTcctv
rfjs

fafjs

r^y <5i5acrKaXray, coy TOV Aoyov 7rapeiX7/0cby

d

aTrTyyyeXXe TraVra (Tvjjupwva raFy ypa<hcu$. Kal rore &a ro eXeoy rot; @eou ro err* e/zoi yeyo^oy
TJKOVOI>,

V7rofj.vr]ijiaTi6/jLi>o$

avTa OVK

e/z^
yi/T/cr/coy

KapSia

Kal

aa

5ia

r^
TL

X^P iv TOV
TOLOVTOV

ai)ra

dvafiapvKu>jj.aL

Kal

SvvafJLa

paa-Qai tp.TTpocr6ev TOV Qeov,

on

i

e/f^oy
15

6

/za/capioy

/cai

aTrooroXj/cdy

7rpeo~(3vTepos,
/cai

ava-

/cpa^ay az/ /cai e/i0/3a^ay ra cora aurou, afro) eiTrco^ c /2 /caXe ee, e/y oi Duy
yue

ro o-vvrjOes

Kaipovs TTrjprjKa$
ei/

iva TOVTGW ai/exco/zai/ 7T0ei;yei ai/ /cai roi/ roTroi/ eVrcoy rcoi/ roiourcoi/ aKrjKOi Xoycoz/. /ca0e^6/zei>oy ^
e/c

a

/ca2

rco^

e7ncrroXco>

cSe

ai)ro;

coi/

CTreo-reiXej/

^rot

rafy

^o yefrz/icoo-aiy

0coV

rio-f,

tirivT^pL&v avTas, f) root/ a5eXvovOtT&v avTOv? Kal 7rpor/>e7r6/zej>oy,
e/ocX^crmiy,
EUSEBIUS,

^i ^.

Ecdes.

v. 20.

XXVI.
jj,rJT

d^aLpov^voL.

Kal

25

^Icr/ai/

/ieycXa
e|

o-roi

X era

KCKOipriTai,

yap icara a nva aVaoTTj

r^

17/zepa
y

r^y 7rapoucr/ay roC
rS>v

Kvp iov,

h

y ep^tTai //era
rouy dyiovs,

6^77

ovpav&v, Kal dvao-Trjo-ei

Trai/ray

$i\nnrov

SaSeKa

aTrocrroXcoi/, 8y

/cexro^rat er ^epa-

TroXei,

30 /ecu

T)

8vo ^uyarepey ai)rou yeyqpaKvlai irapQivoijcai eVepa ai)rou OvyaTrjp kv Ayicp nvev/taTi TroXi-

H.E.v.20.]

Early Christian Writers.

95

would describe

discourses which he held before the people, and how he his intercourse with John and with the rest
the Lord, and

who had seen
words.

how he would

relate their

And whatsoever

things he had heard from

them
5

about the Lord, and about his miracles, and about his teaching, Polycarp, as having received them from eye witnesses of the life of the Word, would relate altogether
in
I

used

accordance with the Scriptures. To these discourses to listen at the time with attention by God s mercy
10
;

which was bestowed upon me, noting them down not on paper, but in my heart ; and by the grace of God I And I can constantly ruminate upon them faithfully. testify in the sight of God, that if the blessed and Apostolic elder had heard anything of this kind, he would have and stopped his ears, and said after his wont, good God, for what times hast Thou kept me, that I should endure such things? and would even have fled from the place where he was sitting or standing when he heard such words. And indeed, this can be shown
cried out,

15

O

from his

letters

which he wrote either
their

to the

neighbouring

20

Churches

for

confirmation,

or to certain of the
L.

brethren for their warning and exhortation.
Letter of Polycrates to Victor.

WE observe
away.

For

in

the exact day ; neither adding, nor taking Asia also great lights have fallen asleep,

which

when he
up
all

shall rise again on the shall come with glory

day of the Lord s coming, from heaven, and shall raise and his two daugh

25

the saints.

Among

these are Philip, one of the twelve
;

Apostles,
ters

who

fell

asleep in Hierapolis

who grew

old in virginity, and his other daughter

who

96
kv

Selections

from
eTi

E(/)eo-co

dvairaveTai

Se Kal

*j

6 knl ro o~Trj6o$ TOV JZvpiov dva7recrcov } oy

eyevrjOr]

teptvs

TO rreTaXov TrefiopeKcos, Kal fj.dpTvs Kal SiSdo~KaXo$" ouroy kv eTi Se Kal IIoXvKapTros kv KeKoi/jirjTai. Ecptecrcp
5

^fjivpvrf

Kal

e7rio~K07ro$

Kal fidpTVS

Kal

@pao~ea$ Kal

e7ricrK07ro$
fj.r)Tai.

Kal ftdpTV$

TL Se Set

dno Evp.evias, o? kv ^p,vpvrj KeKoiXeyeiv ^dyapiv 7rio~K07rov Kal fj.dpTupa
KeKoifjLrjTai
;

o? kv

AaoSiKeia
Kal

eri

Se Kal

MeXiTcwa TOV evvovyov, TOV
dirb
TGOV

IlaTreipiov TOV kv Ayico

TrdvTa TroXiTevo-dpevov
Trjv

o? KeiTaL kv 2dpSeo~i
rj

dvao~Trj(reTai.

ovpav&v eTnaKOTrijv, kv OVTOL ndvTes eTrjprjcrav Trjv
K.GLTOL

eK

rjfj.e-

pav r^y
15

Teo-o-apeo-KaiSeKdTrjs TOV Tlavyjz

ro evay-

yeXiov, fiijSev irapeKpaivovTes,

dXXd

KOLTOL

TOV Kavova r^y

ma-Teas aKoXov6ovvTe$.
TOOV
vfj.S>v

ZTL Se Kayo* 6 yui/cporeyooy irdv-

IIoXvKpdTrjs,

KaTa

TrapdSoa-iv TCOV

avyyev&v

pov

y

ofy Kal TraprjKoXovOrjcrd TKTIV
JJLOV kirio-Korroi,

avTcov eVra

o-vyyeveis

eyob Se oySoos
fiov,

fj.ev rjvav Kal TrdvTOTe rr]v

rjfiepav rjyayov ot

*o(fyrjv
Kvp(a> y

eya)

oTav 6 Xaoy rjpvve Trjv ovv, dScXQot, egrJKovTa nevTe criy exan/ kv
avyyeveis
av^j3e/3Xr]Kct)$

Kal

rofy

ano

r^y

OLKovuevr]?

aSeXcfiois,

Kal irdaav aytav ypafflv SieXrjXvOws ov TTTV-

pofiai kirl rofy KaTanXrjo O o/j.evo^. ot elprJKao-i, ireiOapxetv Set @eo) fidXXov

yap
rj

e/j.ov

^e^oi/ey

dv6pa>7rois!

Ibid. v. 24.

XXVII.
25

KepSav
Xafl&v Kal
KXrjpov

Se rty diro TCOV nepl TOV Sipcova ray kv Trj P^rj kirl 7n<V?<ray

d^oppd?

Tylvov, evvaTov

dno TCOV dnovToXcov r^y emcrKomKfjs SiaSoxfjs e\ovTos, eSt Sage TOV VTTO TOV vopov Kal irpo^Tcov KeKrj-

pvypevov Qeov,

^

elvai Trarepa TOV

Kvptov

^ficov

Irjcrov

H.E.v.24.]

Early Christian Writers.
the

97
and,

lived

in

Holy

Spirit

and

rests

at

Ephesus;

moreover, John, who was both a martyr and a teacher, who leaned upon the bosom of the Lord, and became a priest wearing the sacerdotal plate. He fell at
asleep

Smyrna, who was a bishop and martyr; and Thraseas, bishop and martyr from Eumenia, who fell asleep in Smyrna. Why need I men tion the bishop and martyr Sagaris who fell asleep in
Ephesus.
Polycarp too
in

And

5

who

Laodicea, or the blessed Papirius, or Melito the eunuch, lived altogether in the Holy Spirit, and who lies in 10
awaiting the visitation from heaven, when he from the dead? All these observed the four

Sardis,

shall rise

teenth day for the passover according to the Gospel, deviating in no respect, but following the rule of faith.

And

I

also, Polycrates, the least of

to the tradition

of

my

relatives,

you all, do according some of whom I have
relatives

15

closely followed.

For seven of my

were bishops,
there

and

I

am

the eighth.

And my

relatives always observed

the day

when

the people put

away

the leaven.

I,

fore, brethren,

who have

lived sixty-five years in the Lord, 20

and have met with the brethren throughout the world, and have gone through every holy scripture, am not affrighted by terrifying words. For those greater than I have said

We ought
ONE

to

obey God rather than men/

Marcion.
Cerdon, who had
taken his principles from the
25

school of Simon, and stayed in Rome in the time of Hyginus, who held the ninth place of the episcopal suc cession from the Apostles he taught that the God preached

by the law and prophets

is

not the Father of our Lord

98
Xpio~Tov.
dvoLi

Selections
TOV

from
TOV
8\

JAW

yap

yv<e>pitar6ai,

dyvcoTa

KOL rov p.tv SIKCILOV, TOV 81 dyadbv v-rrdp^Lv.

5

Aia8ediJLevos 8\ avrov MapKiav 6 TIovTiKos, r)vrjo~ TO 8i8ao-Ka\tlov, dmjpvQpiao-fJLevGos fiXacrcpr) pcov eum qui a lege et prophetis annuntiatus est Deus ; malorum factorem et bellorum concupiscentem et inconstantem quoque sententia et contrarium sibi ipsum dicens. lesum autem ab eo Patre, qui est super mundi fabricatorem Deum,

10

venientem in ludaeam temporibus Pontii Pilati praesidis, qui fuit procurator Tiberii Caesaris, in hominis forma manifestatum his, qui in ludaea erant, dissolventem prophetas
fecit,

et

legem

et

omnia opera eius
dicit.

Dei, qui

mundum

15

Et super haec id quod est secundum Lucam evangelium circumcidens et omnia, quae sunt de generatione Domini conscripta, auferens, et de doctrina sermonum Domini multa auferens, in quibus manifestissime conditorem huius universitatis suum Patrem confitens Dominus conscriptus est ; semet

quern et Cosmocratorem

ipsum esse veraciorem, quam sunt
sed particulam evangelii tradens
apostoli
eis.

hi,

qui evangelium

20 tradiderunt, apostoli, suasit discipulis suis,

non evangelium, Similiter autem et

auferens quaecunque manifeste dicta sunt ab apostolo de eo Deo, qui mundum fecit, quoniam hie Pater Domini nostri lesu Christi, et
epistolas
abscidit,
25

Pauli

quaecunque ex propheticis memorans apostolus docuit, praenuntiantibus adventum Domini.
IRENAEUS, Adv. Haer.
i.

37.

XXVIII.
TRADITIONEM itaque apostolorum
in toto

mundo mani-

festatam, in omni ecclesia adest respicere omnibus qui vera velint videre; et habemus annumerare eos, qui ab soapostolis instituti sunt episcopi in ecclesiis, et succes-

Adv. Haer.

i.

2 7 .]

Early Christian Writers.

99

Jesus Christ ; for the former is known, but the latter un known, and the former is by nature righteous, but the other good. And Marcion of Pontus succeeding him

developed the school, blaspheming shamelessly him who is proclaimed as God by the law and the prophets calling
;

5

him a maker of evils and a lover of wars, unsettled of purpose also, and inconsistent with himself. [He said] however that Jesus coming from the Father, who is above
the God who made the world, into Judaea in the times of the governor Pontius Pilate, procurator of Tiberius Caesar, was manifested in the form of a man to those that were in
10

Judaea, destroying the prophets and the law, and all the works of the God who made the world, whom he also calls

Cosmocrator \ Besides this, by mutilating the Gospel which is according to Luke, and removing all that refers to the generation of the Lord, and removing many pas sages of the teaching of the Lord s discourses, in which
the Lord is recorded as very plainly confessing the framer of this universe to be his own Father, Marcion has per

15

suaded his disciples that he is himself truer than those Apostles who delivered the Gospel ; so he delivers to them not the Gospel, but a part of the Gospel. But likewise he has cut down also the Epistles of the Apostle Paul, re

20

moving
the

all

that is plainly said

by the Apostle concerning
25

the world, that he is the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ ; and all that the Apostle taught by quotation from the prophetical writings which foretold the

God

that

made

coming of the Lord.

The Argument of Irenaeus from Tradition.
tradition therefore of the Apostles, manifested in is a thing which all who wish to see facts 30 can clearly perceive in every Church ; and we are able to

THE

the entire world,

count up those

who were by
1

the Apostles appointed

E P h.

vi. 12.

H 2

100
sores

Selections

from

[Irenaeus

nos, qui nihil tale docuerunt neque Etenim si recondita his deliratur. cognoverunt, quale ab seorsim et latenter ab mysteria scissent apostoli, quae his vel maxime traderent ea reliquis perfectos docebant, Valde enim ecclesias committebant. 5 quibus etiam ipsas in omnibus eos volebant et

eorum usque ad

perfectos
esse,

quos

et

irreprehensibiles successores relinquebant,
;

suum ipsorum

locum magisterii tradentes
fieret
10

quibus emendate agentibus

magna

utilitas, lapsis

autem summa calamitas.

Sed quoniam valde longum est in hoc tali volumine omnium ecclesiarum enumerare successiones; maximae et antiquissimae et omnibus cognitae, a gloriosissimis Petro et Paulo Romae fundatae et conduobus
apostolis
stitutae

ecclesiae,

earn,

quam habet ab

apostolis tradi-

15 tionem, et

annuntiatam hominibus fidem, per successiones ad nos indicantes, conepiscoporum pervenientem usque fundimus omnes eos, qui quoquo modo, vel per sibiplacentiam, vel

vanam

et gloriam, vel per caecitatem

malam

20

sententiam, praeterquam ecclesiam propter potentiorem principalitatem necesse est omnem eonvenire ecclesiam, hoc est, eos qui sunt undique
fideles,

oportet colligunt.

Ad

hanc enim

in qua semper ab his, qui sunt undique, conservata est ea quae est ab apostolis traditio. ol @[j.Xi(X)cravT$ ovv KOL OLKoSofi^cravTe^

XtiTOvpyiav kvtyjtipicrav.
rat? Trpo? Tifiodeov

TOVTOV

TOV Aivov IlavXos kv

7rio~ToXai$ /ze/zvrjrcu.
fjitTa

5m5e^erai
TOTTCO
?

oe

avTov

AveyKXrjTOS.

TOVTOV

S\

TpiTCp

CCTTO

TQ)V CLTrOtTToXdOV TTjV

TTLO~K07TrjV

KXrjpOVTOLL ElXf] fJiTf]

O KOLL

30

e

copaica)?
319,

Tovs //a/cap^ou?
TL

dTro&ToXovs

KCU au/z/Je/SX^/ca)?
aTTOCTToXoov KCU
%TI

KOL

HvavXov TO

KrjpvyfjLa TCOV
Xa>v,

irapdSocriv irpb

6(/)6aXfJLa>v

ov povos

yap

Adv.Haer.iii.3-]

Early Christian Writers.

101

bishops in the Churches, and the series of their successors our own time, who neither taught nor knew anything resembling these men s dotage. For if the Apostles had known hidden mysteries which they used to teach the
to

and without the knowledge of the rest, them to those especially to whom they were also committing the Churches themselves. For they desired them to be very perfect and blameless in all things, whom they were also leaving as their successors, delivering over to them their own proper seat of government for if these should act rightly, great advantage would result, but if they fell away, the most disastrous calamity. But since it would be very long in such a volume as this
perfect apart from they would deliver
;

5

10

count up the series of bishops in all the Churches, we confound all those who in any way, whether through self-pleasing or vain glory, or through blindness and evil opinion meet for worship otherwise than they ought by pointing out the tradition (which it has from the Apostles) of the most great and ancient and universally-known Church, founded and established at Rome by the two most glorious Apostles Peter and Paul and also the faith de clared to men, which comes down to our own time through the successions of bishops. For unto this Church, on account of its more powerful lead, every Church, meaning the faithful who are from everywhere, must needs resort; since in it that tradition which is from the Apostles has been preserved by those who are from everywhere. The blessed Apostles having founded and established
to
;

15

20

25

the Church, entrusted the office of the episcopate to Linus. Paul speaks of this Linus in his Epistles to Timothy. 30 Anencletus succeeded him, and after Anencletus, in the third place from the Apostles, Clement received the epis He had seen and conversed with the blessed copate.
Apostles, and their preaching
ears,

was
still

still

sounding in his

and

their tradition

was

before his eyes.

Nor

35

102

Selections

from
aTrooToXo)*/

[Irenaeus

TroXXol vTTeXtirrovTO Tore a7ro
kirl

T&v

TOVTOV OVV TOV KXrjfJ,VTO$ (TTd(Ta)S OVK 6XiyT]$
yevofjLevr)$

Kopiv6q>

a5eX0oFy,

CTrecrraXei/

rj

kv

5

eKKXrjaia iKavcoTaTTjv ypaffiv TOL? KopivQiois, e/y flprjvrjv KOL avaveovaa rr]v TTLCTTLV <TVfJipi.f:$dovo-a avTovs,

Kal

TJV

j/ea>oTf

OLTTO

T$>V

aTrocrroXo)^ TrapaSocriv

Tov

Se

KXrmevTa

TOVTOV SiaSe^eTat EvdpeaTOS Kal TOV
iff

Evdpo~Tov
diroo-ToXcov
10

AXegavSpos

ourooy
fjLtTa

e/croy

airo

T>V

KaQiorarcu Hvoroy.

5e TOVTOV TeXea--

^<56^0)y epapTvprjo-ev eireiTa Tyivos, LTa 0opoy, oy Kal ov AvlKr}TO$. IIios Sia8eafJLevov TOV AVLKTJTOJ/ fteO

^cor^/ooy,
TO>V

vvv

ScoSeKaTO)
KaT"^L

TOTTQ)

TOV r^y

7rio~K07rfjs
Tfl
TO>V

OLTTO

dTTOGToXaV
Kal
ev
Trj Trj

KXfjpOV

EXv6epO$.
rj

aVTTJ
a?ro-

Taget,,
15

avTrj Sida^fj [Si.a8o\fj],

re airo

aToXa>i/

KKXrjo~La 7rapdSoo~L$ Kal

TO r^y dXrjQeia?

Kypvypa

KarriVTr)Kev e/y

^ay.

Kal
/y,

JToXtf/capTToy 5e ov JJLOVOV VTTO aTrocrroXa)*/ fj.aOr)TV-

Kal vvvavavj panels TroXXoiy roiy TOV XpLo~Tov ecoaXXa Kal vno d7roo~ToXa)v KaTao~Ta6els e^y TTJV 20 Affiav, kv Ty kv 2fjLvpvrj eKKXrjo-ia, eTrfV/coTroy^ o^ Kal
,

rjfiLf (DpaKafjLv kv TTJ rjfjL&v rjXiKia Trapepeive, Kal Trdvv yrypaXeoy, evSogcos Kal
7Tp<*>TT)

(eTTiTToXv

yap

ftapTvprjaa?,

ef)XOe

TOV

fttov)

Kal Trapa TWV
25 7rapaSiSo&o~iv }

aTroo-ToXav
fj.6va

e/za^er,
eo~Tlv

raura a Kal
dXf]6rj.

^Tn^aveaTaTa SiSdgas dei, a
17

eKKXrjarta

a Kal TOVTOLS at KaTa TTJV

fiapTvpovcri

Acrlav

e/ocXT/cmu

Tracrai,

Kal

ot

fttXP L vvv haSeSeyfjievoi TOV

IIoXvKapTrov, 7roXX3 dioovTa TricrTOTepov Kal fieflaiOTepov dXr)6eias /jidpTVpa OvaXtvTivov Kal MapKicwos, Kal TOJV Xonraiv KaKoyvco30 ftovwv.

oy Kal
CLTCO

kirl

AviKiJTOV

eTn&j/z^cray

Trj

^Pa^rj^
/y

TroXXouy

TCOV TrpoeLprjfjLevcov aiptTiKcov kirka Tpt fyev

TTJV eKKXrjo-iav

TOV @eov } fiiav Kal povrjv TavTrjv dXyQeiav
drroa-ToXav TraptiXijcftevai, Trjv viro Trj?

Kijpvgas VTTO

T>V

Adv.Haer.iii.3.]

Early Christian Writers.

103

was he alone

many who had been taught by the In the times of Clement, a serious Apostles yet survived. dissension having arisen among the brethren in Corinth,
in this, for

the Church of

Rome

sent a most powerful letter to the
5

their Corinthians, reconciling them in peace, renewing doctrine lately received from faith, and proclaiming the

the Apostles.

Evarestus succeeded Clement, and Alexander Evarestus.

Then Xystus, the sixth from the Apostles, was appointed. After him Telesphorus, who suffered martyrdom gloriously; then Hyginus ; then Pius ; and after him Anicetus ; Soter
succeeded Anicetus; and now, in the twelfth place from In the Apostles, Eleutherus holds the office of bishop.

10

same order and succession the tradition in the Church and the preaching of the truth has descended from the
the

15

Apostles unto us.

But Polycarp also was not only instructed by Apostles, and familiar with many that had seen Christ, but was also by Apostles in Asia bishop of the Church

appointed too saw him in our early youth ; for 20 of Smyrna. he lived a long time, and died, when a very old man,

We

a glorious and most illustrious martyr s death, having had learned from the always taught the things which he also hands down, and which Apostles, which the Church
alone are true.
testify,

To

these things

all

the Asiatic Churches
to the present time, a much more trust

25

as do also those who,

have succeeded Polycarp, than Valentinus worthy and certain witness of the truth the evil-minded. He was also and Marcion and the rest of in Rome in the time of Anicetus and caused many to turn
to the Church of away from the above-mentioned heretics that he had received from the Apostles God, proclaiming this one and only system of truth which has been trans-

down who was

30

104

Selections
TrapaSeSofievrjv.

from
Kal
elcrlv
/jLaOrjrrj?,

[Irenaeus

ol

avrov,

on ladwrjs,

6

rov Kvpiov
i8a>v

kv rfj E(po-co

Tropevdels Xovo~ao~0at, Kal rov ftaXavttov fir] Xovo~d
5 fir}

e<ra>

KripwOo
eTreiTroV

fj.i>o$ }

d\\

Kal TO f$a\avelov
rfjs d\r)6eias

crvpTrto-rj,

evSov

oVro?

rov

)(6pov.
e/y
,

MapKL&vi
TOKOV
10

TTore

O^LV

Kal avrbs 8e 6 IIoXvKapiros eXOoi/Ti Kal
CCVTO>

E7nyiva>o~Kis fjfjias

dirfKpWr}
roa-avrr^v

ETTLyivtoo~K<>

TOV
Kal
ol

rov

2arava.

ol
,

dnoo-roXoi

paOrjral

ea^ov evXdpciai Xoyov KOLixoveTv rwi Trapa^apao-croT/rcov
rS>v

avrStv

Trpbs rb /tySe

/JLe^pi

rr\v dXijOeiav

Kal TlavXos AiperiKov avQptorfov //era fiiav Kal Stvrepav vovBeo-tav rrapairov, elSais on ^eo-rpanrat
coy
</)r)o-i>

6 roiouroy, Kal
15 eTriaroXr]

d^aprdvi &v avroKaraKpiros.
)

tart 8e

IIoXvKdpTrov Trpo?
e fj$

^iXiTTTTTyo-iou?

yeypa/jLftevr}

iKavardrr],

Kal rov ^apaKrrjpa rijs irtorecos avrov
<f>povrt-

Kal rb Krjpvyfia rrjs dXrjQeias ol ftovXofitvoi Kal
rfjs

iavr&v

o-oorrjpias

Svvavrai paOelv.
Ibid.
iii.

3

.

XXIX.
f

/2y ol
ej/rey

7rp<r(3vTpoi

Aeyoucn, rore
SiarpLflfjs,

/cat ol

IJL\V

Karagi-

rfjs

kv

ovpava

Kio-

y&prio-ovo-iv,
ol 8e

ol

Se

rfjs

rov napaSeio-ov rpvtyfjs diroXavo-ova-iv,
TroXecoj

rr]V Xa/j.7rp6rrjra rfjs

KaOegovo-w rravrayov yap
ol

6

Sarrjp opaOrjo-erai, [Kal] Ka8oos a^ioi evovrai
tlvai $

opw^re?
rS>v

avrov.
25

rr\v 8iao~roXr)v ravrr)v rfjs OiKrjo-ttos
ra>v

ra

Karbv Kaprrofyopovvrw Kal
&i>

ra

^Kovra

Kal

rS>v

ra rpidKovra-

ol

fa

e/y

rovs ovpavovs

.m

3 .]

Early Christian Writers.

105

mitted by the Church. And there are those that heard from him that John, the disciple of the Lord, going to bathe in Ephesus and seeing Cerinthus within, ran out of
the bath-house without bathing, crying,

Let us

flee, lest
5

even the bath-house
the truth,
is

fall,

because Cerinthus, the enemy of

within/

And

once met him and
I

Polycarp himself, when Marcion Knowest thou us ? replied, said,

know

the first-born of Satan/

Such caution did the
10

Apostles and their disciples exercise that they might not even converse with any of those who perverted the truth
;

as Paul also said,

A man

that
;

is

a heretic, after the

first

and second admonition, reject knowing that he that is such is subverted, and sinneth, being condemned of himself.

There

is

also a very powerful epistle of Polycarp written

to the Philippians,

from which those that wish

to

do

so, 15

and that are concerned for their own salvation,

may

learn

the character of his faith and the preaching of the truth.
A. N. L.

A
As

Tradition of the Elders.

the Elders say, then also shall they which have
in

been deemed worthy of the abode

heaven go

thither,

while others shall enjoy the delight of paradise, and others 20 in every again shall possess the brightness of the city ; for
shall place the Saviour shall be seen, according as they

be worthy

who

see Him.

They say moreover

that this is

the distinction between the habitation of them that bring
forth a hundred-fold,

and them that bring forth
;

sixty-fold, 25

and them

that bring forth thirty-fold

of

whom

the

first

106
ot 8e

Selections
eV

from

[Irenaeus

ol 8e rr\v irapaSeio-a SLaTpfyovo-iv, Kal 8ia rovro e/pT/KeVca rov Kvpiov, rroXiv KaroiKrjo-ovariv ra rrdvra eV rcuy rov Trarpoy fj.ov fiovas elvai TroXXay.
croj/rca,
r<2

yap rov
5 Tra/oe^ei.

eovt

oy

TOIS

iraai

rr\v

appo^ova-av

OLK^O-LV

Ibid. v. 36.

XXX.
*Hv
fjLev

ovv

irpo

rfjs

rov

Kvpiov

Trapovvtas
vvvl Se

e/y

EXXrjaiv avayKaia

(pi\oo-o(j)ia )

XP 7

?"

?rpoy Qeoo-epeLav yiverai, TrpoiraiSeia TIS ovcra rols 6 Trovy a7ro5e/ea)y /capTroi/yne^oty, on rr}v irio-riv 8i 10 (TOV ov firj Trpoo-Ko^rr]^ krrl rr\v irpovoiav ra
(/)rjo~li>

KaXa avafytpovros, kdv re ^EXXrjviKa rj kdv re ^erepa. rfavrtov [L\v yap amoy rcoi/ KaXwv 6 @eoy, aXXa rwv fj.ev Kara Trporjyov/jLevov r^y re 5ia^?J/c7/y r^y TraXcaay Kal rrjs veas r&v Se Kar 7raKoXovdr)fjLa coy rf?y 0iXocro0/ay.
a>y

y

15

ra^a
77

5e ^ai Trpo^yot^eVcoy

rols"

EX\7]o~Lv eSoOrj Tore rrplv
"

ro^ Kvpiov /caXecrai /cai roty EXXrjvay krcaiSaytoyei t roi)y *Ef$patovs yap Kal avrr) ro E\\ir}viKov coy 6
*>6yuoy

e/y

Xpicrrov. 7rp07rapao-Kvdei roivvv

TTOLovo-a
20
17

rj 0iXocro0fa rrpooBorov vrro Xpio~rov reXefou/ze^oz/. /ua /zer ovv
. . .

r^y a\7]6e(as 6869, aXX

e/y

avrrjv

KaOdnep
Strom.

e/y

devaov

TTorapbv tKpeovo-L ra

peWpa dXXa dXXoOev.
\.

CLEMENS ALEXANDRINUS,

5, p.

331.

XXXI.
*O roivvv fj-trpioTraOrjoras ra Trpcora Kal e/y fjLXrijo~a$ avrj(ras re e/y tvTrouav yvcoo~riKrj$ r
/crayyeXoy yuer e^rau^a, 0coreii/oy $e
25 Xdpircov 5i
^c)?/

/cat

coy

6

Kara

rr)v

et)epyecrtaj>

crTreu^ei rfj yj/cocret
/JLOV^V.

rg

dyaTrrjs

eov

krrl rrjv

ayiav

Ibid. vi. 13, p. 792.

Adv.Haer.v.

3 6.]

Early Christian Writers.

107

up into the heavens, and the second shall dwell in paradise, and the third shall inhabit the city; and that therefore our Lord has said, In my Father s abode are many mansions; for all things are of God,
shall be taken

Who giveth to

all

their appropriate dwelling.

L.

5

Philosophy a preparation for the Gospel.

PHILOSOPHY then before the coming of the Lord was necessary to the Greeks for righteousness, but now it is profitable for piety, seeing that it is a sort of training for those who by means of demonstration have the enjoyment of faith, for thy foot shall not stumble, says he, if thou refer good things to providence, whether they be Greek or Christian. For God is the cause of all good things, but of some primarily, as of the old and new covenants, and of others indirectly, as of philosophy. Peradventure also it was given primarily to the Greeks in times before the Lord called also the Greeks; for this was a school master to the Greek world as the law was to the Hebrews to bring them unto Christ. Philosophy therefore is
a preparation, making ready the way for him who is The way then of truth is being perfected by Christ. one but into it as into a never-failing river flow the streams from all sides.
.
.

10

15

.

20

;

The true

Gnostic.

HE then who has first moderated his passions and trained himself for impassibility, and developed to the beneficence of gnostic perfection, is here equal to the
Luminous already, and like the sun shining in angels. the exercise of beneficence, he speeds by righteous know ledge through the love of God to the holy mansion.

25

io8

Selections

from

[ciem.Ai ex

.

XXXII.
IT
\L\V

QVV TTtcmy
yvSxiis,
17

O>9

0~Vl>TO/Jl6s

0TiJ>,

cllT*lV t
T>V

T&V

K.O.T-

yycocriy Se d7r68eiis
/cat

Sid Tn crrecoy

ev(ov icr^vpa

/3e/3caoy Sia rfjs KVpiaKijs 81rfj 7Ti(rTi

7roiKoSofj,ovfjLti>r]

cis

TO aptTdiTTtoTOv
KCLL
t6vS>v

5

KOL
IJLOL

per
SoKti
7TL(7TLv )
17

7TL(7TrJiJ.T]$
7rpa>Tr)

KaTaXrjTTTLKbv TrapaTre/jLTTOvo-a.
f)

TIS tlvaL /zera/SoA?) aoorripios
TrpoeTTrov,

e^

e/y

coy

Sevrepa

<Se

77

e/c

Tr/o-reoo?
rjSr)

e/y

yv&viv
TO
(f)L\a>

8e e/y dydir^v TrepaLov/jLevr) evQej/Se
yLV(DO KO[JL^.v(>
rjSr)

(f)i\oi>

10

rd\a
tivai.

yLvaxiKov rco 6 TOLOVTOS tvOtvSe
/jLtra

irapio-rrjcrLv.

KCU

yovv

rr]v
kirl

trpoXapow %i TO iVayyeXoy kv crapK.1 TtXtvTaiav vTrepoyj]V del
TO KptlTTOv /zera^aAAco^ e/y TT]V KvpiaKrjv oVrcoy Sia r^y ay/iay

Kara TO TrpoarJKOv
avXrjv

krrl

Tr)v

eTreiyerat ILQVT\V, eo-6/zez/oy, coy ciirciv, 0coy ecrroy
15 /caf /zet/o^ di 8ui>s t TfavTt]
7rdi>Tco$

arpeTrro^.
7<5^.

vii. 10, p.

865.

XXXIII.
ol
01)

ray

a//oecreiy /zeriovrey
coy

rcAe/cu? ov5e

TO

croo/za

TTP&TOV fjikv ov irdcrais, /cat TO v0oy T^y npo<pr]Tia$
e/y

20

v7rayopVi, d\\ e^Aeyo/zet/oi Ta a/z0i^36Acoy e/yo^/zei/a Tay iWay (jLtTayovcri Sogas, oA/yay arTropdSrjv ov TO cr^/za^o/zei/oj/ aV CLVT&V ,

aAA

i

a7roc/e^oi T
prjTois
TO,

eei

ev

yap

v

ofy Trpoa-tytpovTai
JJ.OVOLS

tvpois av CLVTOVS coy ToFy
a-rj/jLaivofj.ei

Trpoo~avtyovo~i

25 TO^Tey,

oy^

coy

XeyovTat

yivaxTKOvTes

a vnaXXaTQV& coy ^X Llf
vii. 1 6, p.

e/cAoyaFy.
/</.

891.

strom. vii. io.]

Early Christian Writers.

109

Faith

and Knowledge.

FAITH is then, so to speak, a compendious knowledge of the essentials ; and knowledge is the strong and sure demonstration of what is received by faith, built upon
faith

s teaching, conveying [the soul] on to unchangeableness, and scientific comprehension. And, in

by the Lord

5

view, the first saving change is that from heathenism to faith, as I said before ; and the second, that from faith to knowledge. And the latter terminating in love, here in this

my

life

introduces as friend to friend, that which knows to

And, perchance, such an one has condition of being equal to the At any rate, after the highest excellence in the angels. the better, he hastens to the flesh, changing always duly to the holy Hebdomad to the Lord s ancestral
that

which

is

known.
the

io

already attained

hall,

through

own mansion;

to be, so to say, a light, steady, and conin every part immutable. tinuing eternally, entirely and

15

Misuse of Scripture by

Heretics.

who follow heresies venture to avail of the prophetic Scriptures ; in the first place themselves and then they they will not make use of all the Scriptures, will not quote them entire, nor as the body and texture of

AND

if

those also

20

the prophecy prescribe.
sions, they

But, selecting ambiguous expres

wrest them to their own opinions, gathering a few expressions here and there ; not looking to the sense, but making use of the mere diction. For in almost all the
attend to the quotations they make, you will find that they while they alter the meanings; neither words alone, knowing how they are spoken, nor using the quotations
25

they do bring according to their natural meaning.

no

Selections

from

XXXIV.
UT
nisi

erat decretum,

de origine aliquid retractemus eiusmodi legum, vetus ne qui deus ab imperatore consecraretur,
Scit

a senatu probatus.

M. Aemilius de deo suo
quod apud
Nisi homini
propitius

Alburno.
5

Facit et hoc ad caussam nostram,
arbitratu divinitas pensitatur.
erit;

vos de

humano

deus placuerit, deus non
esse debebit.

homo iam deo

Tiberius ergo, cuius tempore
introivit,

nomen
sibi

Chris-

tianum in saeculum
Palaestina,
10 detulit
tus,

annuntiatum

ex Syria

quod illic veritatem illius divinitatis revelaverat, ad senatum cum praerogativa suffragii sui. Sena;

quia non ipse probaverat, respuit

Caesar in sententia

mansit, comminatus periculum accusatoribus Christiano-

rum.

Consulite

commentaries vestros
in

;

illic

reperietis

primum Neronem
15

hanc sectam cum maxime

Romae

orientem Caesariano gladio ferocisse.

Sed

tali

dedicatore
scit ilium,

damnationis nostrae etiam gloriamur.
intelligere potest,

Qui enim

non

nisi

grande aliquod bonum a Nerone

damnatum.
crudelitate;
aorestitutis

Tentaverat et Domitianus, portio Neronis de sed qua et homo, facile coeptum repressit,

etiam quos relegaverat.

Tales semper nobis
ipsi

insecutores, iniusti, impii, turpes, quos et
consuestis, et a quibus

damnare
estis.

damnatos restituere

soliti

Ceterum de

tot

exinde principibus, usque ad hodiernum

25

divinum humanumque sapientibus, edite aliquem debellatorem Christianorum. At nos e contrario edimus protectorem,
si

litterae

M.

Aurelii

gravissimi imperatoris

Apoi.s.1

Early Christian Writers.

in

Bad Emperors
To

the only Persecutors.
sort.

say something of the origin of laws of that

There was an old decree, that no god should be con secrated by any general without the approval of the Senate. M. Aemilius found it out with his god Alburnus. This too helps our case, that with you divinity depends on human judgement. Unless a god pleases men, he shall
pitious to his

5

not be a god at all man will positively have to be pro Tiberius then, in whose time the god. Christian name came into the world, referred to the Senate

news which had reached himself from Palestine of the 10 events which had revealed the truth of Christ s divinity, with the recommendation of his own vote in favour of it.
the
it had not itself approved. and threatened punishment to the accusers of Christians. Consult your own records. There you will find that Nero was the first who raged with the imperial sword against our sect, just when it was coming into notice at Rome. But we are proud indeed of having such a man to inaugurate our condemnation for any one who knows him can understand that what Nero condemned cannot but have been something very Domitian tried it too, another Nero for good indeed. cruelty but as having some humanity too, he soon stopped his effort, and even restored those whom he had exiled.

The Senate
Caesar held

refused, because

to his opinion,

15

;

20

;

Our persecutors are always men of this sort, unrighteous, impious and shameful men whose memory even you are used to brand with infamy, whose judicial victims it is your custom to restore. However, out of all the emperors from that time to the present who have tasted of divine and human wisdom, name a single one as an antagonist of Christians Nay, we, on the contrary, name one as a protector, if you will call for the letter of the grave and
;
!

25

30

reverend emperor M. Aurelius, in which he bears witness

1 1

2

Selections

from
sitim Christianorum

requirantur, quibus illam

Germanicam

forte militum precationibus impetrato imbri discussarn contestatur.

Qui

sicut

non palam ab eiusmodi hominibus

poenam
5

dimovit, ita alio

modo palam

dispersit,

adiecta

etiam accusatoribus damnatione, et quidem tetriore. Quales ergo leges istae, quas adversus nos soli exsequuntur
impii, iniusti, turpes, truces, vani, dementes ? quas Traianus ex parte frustratus est vetando inquiri Christianorum
;

quas nullus Hadrianus,
10 explorator,

nullus

quamquam curiositatum omnium Vespasianus, quamquam ludaeorum
Verus
impressit.

debellator, nullus Pius, nullus

TERTULLIAN,

Apol.

5.

XXXV.
VULTIS ex operibus ipsius
tinemur,
tot ac talibus,

quibus con-

quibus

sustinemur,
vultis
licet

quibus
15

exterremur,

quibus oblectamur, etiam ex animae ipsius testimonio
carcere corporis pressa, licet
licet

comprobemus?
institutionibus

Quae

pravis circumscripta,

libidinibus

ac

concupiscentiis evigorata, licet falsis diis exancillata,

cum

20

ex crapula, ut ex somno, ut ex aliqua sanitatem suam patitur, deum nominat, hoc solo nomine, quia deus magnus, deus proprio dei veri
resipiscit, ut

tamen

valetudine, et

:

bonus, et quod deus dederit, omnium vox est. quoque contestatur ilium, deus videt, et deo
et

ludicem

commendo,

deus mini reddet.
!

O

testimonium animae naturaliter

25

Christianae Denique pronuntians haec, non ad CapitoHum, sed ad coelum respicit. Novit enim sedem dei vivi ;

ab

illo,

et

inde descendit.

Ibid

I

Apoi.5.]

Early Christian Writers.

113

that the great drought in Germany was removed by a shower of rain obtained by the prayers of Christians who chanced to be serving in the army. As on one side he

did not openly free such men from the penalties of law, so on the other he openly made these of none effect, imposing also a sentence, and that a severer one, on their accusers. What sort of laws then are these, which are put in force

5

against us only by the impious, the unrighteous, the shameful, the savage, the senseless, the demented laws which Trajan partly defeated by forbidding Christians to 10

be sought out, which neither a Hadrian, though so curi ous a student of every novelty, nor a Vespasian, conqueror
of the Jews as he was, nor a Pius, nor a Verus ever

enforced?

Testimony of

the Soul.

WILL you have our proof from his works in all their 15 magnitude and number, which contain or sustain us, which delight us or again dismay us ; or will you have it from the witness of the soul itself? Though it be shut up in the prison of the body, though it be limited by evil customs, though it be enervated by lusts and longings, though it be 20 a slave to false gods, yet when it comes to itself as after a debauch or after sleep or after a sickness, and feels its proper health, it makes mention of God, and by that name God is great/ only, for it is peculiar to the true God. God is good/ which may God grant/ are all men s 25
words.
It

appeals also to

Him

as judge

God

sees/

I

testimony of the soul by nature Christian Finally, in using these words, it looks up not to the Capitol but to heaven, for it
!

commend

to

Him/ and God

will

repay me/

O

recognizes the throne of the living God.

From Him

it is,

30

and thence came down.
i

Selections

from

XXXVI.
EST
et alia

maior necessitas nobis orandi pro impera-

toribus, etiam pro omni statu imperil rebusque

Romanis

qui vim maximam universo orbi imminentem, ipsamque clausulam seculi acerbitates horrendas comminantem Ro5

mani imperii commeatu scimus
experiri, ea

retardari.

Ita

quae nolumus
diuturnitati

dum precamur
et

differri,

Romanae

favemus.
ita

Sed

iuramus, sicut

per salutem eorum, quae est

non per genios Caesarum augustior omnibus geniis.
et

Nescitis genios
10

daemonas

dici,

inde diminutiva voce

daemonia

?

Nos iudicium

del suspicimus in imperatoribus

qui gentibus illos praefecit.
Ibid. 32.

XXXVII.
HESTERNI sumus
et vestra

omnia implevimus, urbes,
sola vobis reliquimus

insulas, castella, municipia, conciliabula, castra ipsa, tribus,

decurias, palatium, senatum,
J5

forum

;

templa.

Cui bello non idonei, non prompti fuissemus,

etiam impares copiis, qui tarn libenter trucidamur, si non apud istam disciplinam magis occidi liceret, quam occidere? Potuimus et inermes, nee rebelles sed tantummodo dis;

cordes, solius divortii invidia adversus vos dimicasse.
20

Si

enim tanta vis hominum
nationem vestram

in

aliquem orbis remoti sinum
utique domi-

abrupissemus a vobis, suffudisset pudore
tot

qualiumcunque amissio civium, imo
Ibid. 37.

etiam et ipsa destitutione punisset.

Apoi.32.]

Early Christian Writers.
Christians not disloyal.

115

are under another and a greater need of praying good estate of the knowing as we do that a mighty shock impending over the entire world and the end of the age itself with the fearful calamities it threatens
for the emperors, and further for the Empire and the interests of Rome,

WE

5

are delayed by the respite which the Roman Empire gives. Thus when we pray for those things to be put off which we do not wish ourselves to experience, we are in favour of the long endurance of Rome. even as

Furthermore,

not swear by the genii of the Caesars, so we do swear 10 by their health, which is more august than all the genii. Do you not know that the genii are called daemones, and thence by the diminutive word daemonia ? in the

we do

We

emperors look up to the judgement of God, who has them over the nations.

set
I5

WE
senate,

are

Numbers of the Christians. men of yesterday yet we have
;

filled all

your

places of resort cities, lodging-houses, villages, markets, even the camp, tribes, town-councils,

towns,
palace,
20

forum ; we have left you nothing but your temples. For what war should not we have been fit and ready,

though with unequal forces, who are so willing to be slaughtered, if according to our teaching it were not better to be killed than to kill ? We could have fought against you even without arms, yet without rebellion, simply by the civil discord of an unfriendly separation. For if such a force of men as we had broken off from you to some far
corner of the world, your empire would undoubtedly have been put to shame by the loss of so many citizens of whatever sort, or rather actual bankruptcy would have

25

been your punishment.
I

3o

2

n6

Selections

from

XXXVIII.
CORPUS sumus de conscientia religionis et Coimus in coetum unitate et spei foedere.
gationem,
ut ad

disciplinae
et

congre-

ambiamus.

Haec

deum, quasi vis deo grata

manu
est.

facta,

precationibus Oramus etiam pro

5 imperatoribus, pro ministeriis

eorum ac potestatibus, pro statu saeculi, pro rerum quiete, pro mora finis. Cogimur ad litterarum divinarum commemorationem, si quid praecogit

sentium temporum qualitas aut praemonere Certe fidem sanctis vocibus recognoscere.
10

aut

pascimus,

spem erigimus, fiduciam
nihilominus

figimus, disciplinam

inculcationibus

densamus

;

praeceptorum ibidem etiam

et exhortationes, castigationes et censura divina. iudicatur magno cum pondere, ut apud certos de dei con-

Nam

spectu,

summumque
ut a

futuri iudicii

praeiudicium
et

est, si

quis

15 ita deliquerit,

communicatione orationis

conventus

omnis sancti commercii relegetur. Praesident probati quique seniores, honorem istum non pretio sed testimonio
et

Etiam adepti; neque enim pretio ulla res dei constat. si quod arcae genus est, non de honoraria summa, quasi
20

redemptae religionis congregatur modicam unusquisque stipem menstrua die, vel quum velit, et si modo velit et si
;

modo

possit,

apponit

confert.

Haec

nam nemo compellitur, sed sponte Nam inde quasi deposita pietatis sunt.
:

non epulis nee
25 satur,

potaculis,

nee ingratis voratrinis dispen-

sed egenis alendis humandisque, et pueris ac puellis re ac parentibus destitutis, iamque domesticis senibus,
item naufragis, et
vel in custodiis,
si

qui in metallis, et

si

qui in insulis,

dumtaxat ex causa dei sectae, alumni
Ibid. 39.

confessionis suae fiunt.

Apoi.39-]

Early Christian Writers.
Christian Worship.

117

WE

are

made

a body by

common

religious feeling, unity

of discipline, and the bond of hope. come together in a meeting and assembly, that we may as it were form a troop, and so in prayer to God beset Him with our suppli cations. This violence is well-pleasing to God. pray

We

We

5

also for emperors, for their ministers and for them that are in power, for the welfare of the world, for peace

meet together for the reading of the divine writings, if the character of the times compels us in any way to forewarning or reminder. 10 However that may be, with the holy words we nourish
therein, for the delay of the end.

We

our
less

faith, lift

up our hope, confirm our confidence, and no
the precepts.
15

make strong our discipline by impressing

At these meetings we have also exhortations, rebukes, and a Divine censorship. For judgement also is executed

with much gravity, as before men who are sure that they are in the sight of God ; and it is a notable foretaste of judgement to come if a man has so sinned as to be banished from the communion of our prayer and meeting and all holy intercourse. Our presidents are the approved elders, obtain- 20 ing that honour not for a price, but by attested character ; for indeed the things of God are not sold for a price. Even if there is a sort of common fund, it is not made up of money paid in fees, as for a worship by contract. Each of us puts in a trifle on the monthly day, or when he 25
pleases

no man

These

if he pleases, and only if he is able, for obliged, but contributes of his own free will. are as it were deposits of piety ; for it is not paid
;

but only

is

out thence for feasts and drinkings and thankless eatinghouses, but for feeding and burying the needy, for boys and 30 girls deprived of means and parents, for old folk now con fined to the house also for them that are shipwrecked, for any who are in the mines, and for any who in the islands or in the prisons, if only it be for the cause of God s people,
:

become the nurslings of

their

own

confession.

35

n8

Selections

from

XXXVIII A.
DENIQUE ut a baptismate ingrediar, aquam adituri, ibidem, sed et aliquanto prius in ecclesia sub antistitis manu contestamur, nos renuntiare diabolo et pompae et
5

Dehinc ter mergitamur amplius aliquid respondentes quam dominus in evangelic determinavit. Inde suscepti, lactis et mellis concordiam praegustamus \ exque ea die lavacro quotidiano per totam hebdomadem abstinemus. Eucharistiae sacramentum, et in
angelis eius.
victus et

tempore omnibus mandatum a domino, etiam antelucanis

10 coetibus,

nee de aliorum manu quam praesidentium sumiOblationes pro defunctis, pro natalitiis, annua die facimus. Die dominico ieiunium nefas ducimus vel geni-

mus.

15

adorare. Eadem immunitate a die Paschae in Pentecosten usque gaudemus. Calicis aut panis etiam nostri aliquid decuti in terram anxie patimur.
culis

20

atque promotum, ad omnem ad vestitum et calceatum, ad lavacra, ad mensas, ad lumina, ad cubilia, ad sedilia, quaecunque nos conversatio exercet, frontem crucis signaculo terimus. Harum et aliarum ejusmodi disciplinarum si

Ad omnem progressum
et exitum,

aditum

legem

expostules scripturarum, nullam invenies; traditio tibi praetendetur auctrix, consuetude confirmatrix, et fides
observatrix.
ID.

De Corona Mil.

3, 4.

XXXIX.
25

IPSAE denique haereses a philosophia subornantur. Inde aeones et formae, nescio quae, et trinitas hominis
:

apud Valentinum: Platonicus fuerat. Inde Marcionis deus melior de tranquillitate a Stoicis venerat. Et uti anima interire dicatur, ab Epicureis observatur; et ut carnis restitutio negetur, de una omnium philosophorum schola
1

Apol.

9.

Non

prius discumbitur,

quam

oratio

ad deum praegustetur.

De

cor. Mil. a, 4.]

Early Christian Writers.
Non-scriptural Customs.

119

[FOR customs not prescribed in Scripture, Before we enter by usage] I will begin with baptism. and the water we make our protest, both on the spot a little before in the church and under the bishops hand that we renounce the devil, his pomp and hiss Thereupon we are thrice immersed, making angels. in a somewhat longer answer than the Lord prescribed Thence we are received (by sponsors), and the Gospel. and from taste first of all a mixture of milk and honey
;

but sanctioned

that

bath for a. whole day we abstain from our daily The sacrament also of Thanksgiving, which the week. Lord delivered at a meal time and to all of us, we receive of none in meetings before daybreak, but from the hand we but our presidents. On the proper day of the year make our offerings for the dead and for the birthdays
(of martyrs). fast or to worship

10

15

On

day we count it unlawful to on our knees and in the same privilege
the

Lord

s

;

we

from Easter Day till Pentecost. Of this cup, and of this bread of ours, we are careful that none be aye, At every step and advance, in all cast on the ground. our going out and coming in, when we dress and put on our shoes, at the bath and at the table, when we light our take a seat, in every action of our lamps, or go to bed, or our forehead with the cross. For these lives, we sign and the like observances, if you ask for the Scripture You will be told, for you to read. rule, there is none Tradition has originated, Custom has sanctioned, Loyalty
rejoice

20

25

observes them.

R

Philosophy the Mother of Heresy.

FINALLY the heresies themselves are equipped by philo the I know not what sophy. Thence came the aeons, infinite forms, and the trinity of man taught by Valentmus he had been a Platonist. Thence came Marcion s better god, the better for his tranquillity he had come from the Stoics.
:

;^o

:

The

statement that the soul dies is a note taken from the the restoration of the flesh Epicureans, and the denial of is assumed from the entire school of all the philosophers.

35

*

20
et ubi

Selections
materia

from

sumitur;
clitus

cum deo

ciplina est;

et ubi aliquid

aequatur, Zenonis disde igneo deo allegatur, Herahaereticos
et
:

intervenit.

Eaedem materiae apud
iidem
retractatus

philosophos volutantur;
5

implicantur

quare ? et unde homo, et quomodo ? et quod proxime Valentinus proposuit unde deus ? scilicet de enthymesi et ectromate. de
et
:
ID>

unde malum,

Praescr

^

XL.
(APOSTOLUS prohibet) haereticum post unam correptionem convenire, non post Adeo interdisputationem.
10 dixit

disputationem

.

.

.

quoniam

nihil proficiat congressio

scripturarum, nisi plane aut stomachi quis ineat eversionem aut cerebri
. .

.

15

competat fides ipsa cujus sint scripturae, a quo, per quos et quando, et quibus sit tradita disciplina, qua fiunt Christiani.
.

Ergo non ad scripturas provocandum solum disputandum est, quibus

est.

.

.

.

Nunc

Christus Jesus undecim nationes statim igitur apostoli
.
.

.

.

.

.

jussit ire et
.

docere

.

.

.

.

.

ecclesias

apud

unamquamque
2ofidei
et

civitatem condiderunt, a quibus traducem semina doctrinae ceterae exinde ecclesiae

mutuatae
fiant.

sunt

et

quotidie
et

mutuantur,
apostolicae

ut

ecclesiae

Ac per hoc

ipsae

ut

soboles apostolicarum ecclesiarum.

deputabuntur Omne genus ad

originem
2 .s

suam censeatur necesse
una
est ilia

tantae ecclesiae

omnes. Sic omnes primae et omnes apostolicae, dum una omnes probant unitate communicatio pacis et appellatio fraternitatis et

est. Itaque tot ac ab apostolis prima, ex qua

contesseratio

non

hospitalitatis,

quae iura
traditio.

alia ratio regit,

quam eiusdem sacramenti una

De Praescr.

7 .]

Early Christian Writers
is

121

Where
Zeno
it
;

matter

made equal

to
in.

God,

it

is

the teaching of

have the same sub jects repeatedly discussed by heretics and philosophers
is

and where anything Heraclitus who comes

is

stated about a

We

god

of fire,

with the same complicated reconsiderations.
evil,

Whence
and
is

is 5

and why? Whence is man, and how? very latest problem of Valentinus whence From enthymesis and ectroma, no doubt.

the

God?

The Argument of Tertullian from Tradition.
IT is after a single rebuke, not after a discussion, that the Apostle forbids us to converse with a heretic. Discus- 10 sion then he has forbidden for (amongst other reasons) a debate over Scripture plainly does no good, unless it be to disturb either temper or brains. Therefore we must not appeal to Scripture. The only question we just now have to discuss is, With whom is that very 15
. .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

which Scripture belongs ? From whom, through whom, when and to whom was the rule delivered by which men become Christians ? Christ Jesus commanded the Eleven to go and
faith to
.
.

.

straightway therefore the Aposfounded in the several cities Churches from which the rest have thenceforth borrowed and daily borrow the shoot of faith and seeds of teaching, in and it is from order that they may become Churches this fact that they too will be counted Apostolic, as the Every kind of thing offspring of Apostolic Churches. must be estimated by reference back to its origin. There fore the Churches, whatever their size or number, form but the single primitive Church which comes from the Apostles, and its offspring are they all. Thus they are all primitive and all Apostolic, since they are all approved together by their union in the communion of peace, the title of brotherhood, and the interchange of hospitality rights which are governed by no other rule than the single Here then we enter tradition of the same mystery in all.
teach the nations
.

.

.

.

20

ties

.

.

;

25

30

35

i22

Selections

from

Hinc igitur dirigimus praescriptionem, si dominus lesus Christus apostolos misit ad praedicandum, alios non esse recipiendos praedicatores, quam quos Christus instituit.
5

... Si haec ita sunt, constat proinde omnem doctrinam, quae cum illis ecclesiis apostolicis, matricibus et originalibus fidei, conspiret, veritati

deputandam,

id sine dubio

tenentem, quod Christus a deo accepit; reliquam vero omnem doctrinam de mendacio praeiudicandam, quae sapiat contra veritatem
10

ecclesiae ab apostolis, apostoli a Christo,

ecclesiarum et apostolorum et Christi et dei.
Ibid. 16-21.

XLI.

NON omittam

ipsius

etiam conversationis

haereticae

descriptionem, quam futilis, quam terrena, quam humana sit, sine gravitate, sine auctoritate, sine disciplina, ut fidei

15

suae congruens. Inprimis quis catechumenus, quis fidelis, incertum est ; pariter adeunt, pariter audiunt, pariter orant,
etiam ethnici,
margaritas,
si

supervenerint

;

sanctum canibus
cuius

et porcis

licet

non

veras, iactabunt.
disciplinae,

Simplicitatem volunt

esse prostrationem

penes

nos curam

lenocinium vocant.
20 miscent.

Pacem quoque passim cum omnibus
illis,

Nihil enim interest

licet

diversa tractantibus,

dum

ad unius veritatis expugnationem conspirent. Omnes scientiam pollicentur. Ante sunt perfecti catechumeni,

quam
25

edocti.

Ipsae mulieres haereticae,

quam procaces

!

quae audeant docere, contendere, exorcismos agere, curationes repromittere, forsitan et tingere. Ordinationes
collocant,

eorum temperariae, leves, inconstantes. Nunc neophytos nunc saeculo obstrictos, nunc apostatas nostros,

De

Praescr,.16-21.]

Early Christian Writers.
if

123

our demurrer, that

the

Lord Christ Jesus sent Apostles

to preach, other than those not to be received as preachers.

whom

...

Christ appointed ought If these things be so,
5

it is in the same way plain that all teaching which agrees with those Apostolic Churches which are the wombs and be ascribed to the truth, such origins of the faith must doubtless containing that which the Churches teaching received from the Apostles, the Apostles from Christ, and Christ from God, whereas all other teaching must be sum tenor is opposed to the marily set down as false, since its and Apostles, and Christ and God. truth of the Churches

10

Disorderly Worship of Heretics.

the heretics

WILL not leave out a description of the conduct also of how empty it is, how earthly, how merely human, without sobriety, without impressiveness, without
I

discipline

as suits their faith.
all

In the

first place,

who

is 15

catechumen and who

faithful, is doubtful.

They

all

come

pray alike heathens too, if they come holy they will cast to the dogs, and their pearls (though they are but shams) to the swine. They will have it that simplicity means the destruction of it with us they call pandering. discipline, and the care of for Peace, too, they mix up at random with all comers

up

alike,
in.

all

hear,

That which

is

20

;

with

all

their differences of thinking they care for nothing
25

so long as they are agreed on assailing the one single Truth. They all promise knowledge. The catechumens are perfect before they are fully taught. The very women of the heretics how pert they are! For they have the

impudence
to

to teach to wrangle, to perform exorcisms, undertake healings, possibly even to baptize. Their Sometimes ordinations are random, capricious, unsettled. some they appoint novices, sometimes secular officials, times renegades oi ours, in order to bind them by vain-

30

134

Selections

from

Nusut gloria eos obligent, quia veritate non possunt. quam facilius proficitur, quam in castris rebellium, ubi

ipsum esse
5

illic,

promereri

est.

Itaque alius hodie epi-

scopus, eras alius ; hodie diaconus, qui eras lector ; hodie presbyter, qui eras laicus ; nam et laicis sacerdotalia

munera iniungunt.
Ibid. 41.

XLII.
AUDIO etiam edictum esse propositum,
torium.
et quidem perempMaximus, episcopus episcomoechiae et fornicationis delicta

Pontifex
edicit:

scilicet

porum
10

Ego

et

poenitentia functis dimitto.
poterit
ista ?
:

O

edictum, cui adscribi non
liberalitas

Bonum

factum

!

Et ubi proponetur

Ibidem, opinor, in ipsis libidinum ianuis, sub ipsis libidinum titulis. Illic eiusmodi poenitentia promulganda
est,

ubi delinquentia ipsa versabitur.

Illic

legenda

est

15 venia,

quo cum spe eius

intrabitur.

Sed hoc
ID.

in ecclesia

legitur, et in ecclesia pronuntiatur, et virgo est.

De

Pudicit.

\

.

XLIII.

RECENSEAMUS nunc
fidei

cetera pericula et vulnera, ut dixi,

ab apostolo provisa non carnis tantum verum etiam
. .
.

ipsius spiritus molestissima.
20

Domino

certe

non

potest

pro disciplina satisfacere, habens in latere diaboli servum, procuratorem domini sui ad impedienda fidelium studia et
officia
:

ut

si static
;

facienda

est,

maritus de die condicat

ad balneas

si

ieiunia
;

observanda sunt, maritus eadem die

convivium exerceat

si

procedendum

erit,

nunquam magis

DC Praescr.
glory, for

4 i.]

Early Christian Writers.

125

by truth they cannot. Nowhere is promotion camp of rebels, where the mere fact of being there is a merit. Thus one man is bishop to-day, another to-morrow he is deacon to-day who to-morrow is reader, and he is presbyter to-day who to-morrow is lay- 5 man for even on laymen they impose priestly functions.
easier than in the
:

;

The
I

Roman

Bishop s Edict.

HEAR

a decisive one.

also that an edict has been issued, and that The sovereign Pontiff forsooth, the
10

I/ says he, to bishop of bishops puts forth his edict. them that have done penitence remit the sins of both

adultery

and

fornication.

What
!

an

edict

it

is,

to

which we cannot
that gracious
I

suppose

add Well done And where shall message be posted up ? On the very spot, on the very door-posts of lust, beneath the
15

There ought penitence advertisements themselves of lust. of that sort to be published, where the offence itself shall dwell. There ought the pardon to be read, where men enter But this in the Church it is read, and in the hope of it.
in the

Church pronounced, and

she

is

a virgin

!

Inconveniences of a mixed Marriage.
the other dangers and wounds, as 20 of faith foreseen by the Apostle as not to the flesh only, but likewise even to the spirit very grievous. Without doubt she cannot satisfy the Lord according to discipline, when she has at her side a servant of the devil, an agent of his lord to hinder the works and duties of 25
I

LET us now recount

said,

.

.

.

believers

;

so that
first

if

there

is

a meeting to attend, her

thing in the morning makes her an for the baths ; if there are fasts to be ob appointment served, her husband that same day gives a dinner ; if she has to go out [on charitable errands], never is household

husband the

3

126

Selections

from

[Tertulllan

familiae occupatio obveniat.

Quis enim sinat coniugem

suam visitandorum fratrum

gratia vicatim aliena et

quidem

pauperiora quaeque tuguria circuire ? quis nocturnis convocationibus, si ita oportuerit, a latere suo adimi libenter
5

feret ? quis denique sollemnibus Paschae abnoctantem securus sustinebit ? quis ad convivium dominicum illud

quod infamant sine sua suspicione dimittet? quis in carcerem ad osculanda vincula martyris reptare patietur?

lam vero
10

alicui fratrum

sanctorum pedibus offerre ? de desiderare, in mente habere ? si

ad osculum convenire? aquam cibo, de poculo invadere,
et

peregre frater adveniat,
si

quod

in aliena

domo hospitium?
.

cui

horreum, proma praeclusa sunt.

.

.

largiendum erit, Moratur dei ancilla

15

cum laboribus alienis, et inter illos omnibus honoribus daemonum, omnibus sollemnibus regum, incipiente anno,
mense, nidore thuris agitabitur. Et procedet de ianua laureata et lucernata, ut de novo consistorio
incipiente

libidinum publicarum

;

discumbet

cum

marito in

sodalitiis,

saepe
ao

in popinis

;

et ministrabit
;

nonnunquam
et

iniquis, solita

quondam

sanctis ministrare

non hinc praeiudicium
observans,
ID.

damnationis
iudicatura 1 ?

suae

agnoscet,

eos

quos
ii.

erat

Ad

Uxorem,

3-6.

XLIV.

NAM
25

iste

Romae, homo

primus ex Asia hoc genus perversitatis intulit et alias inquietus, insuper de iactatione

martyrii inflatus ob solum et simplex et breve carceris

taedium, quando, etsi corpus
1

suum
vi. 2.

tradidisset

exurendum,

i

Cor.

AdUx.ii.3-6.]

Early Christian Writers.
For who would
other
let

127
his wife

business more in the way.

go

houses, and indeed to all the poorer cottages, for the sake of visiting will willingly allow her to be taken the brethren ?

round from

street to street to

men

s

Who

from his side for nocturnal meetings, if her duty be so ? Who in short will bear without anxiety her absence all night for the ceremonial of Easter ? Who will let her go without suspicion of his own to that Lord s Supper which they defame ? Who will suffer her to creep into a prison to kiss a martyr s bonds ? or indeed to meet one of the brethren for the kiss ? to offer water for the feet of the saints ? to seize [for them] from her food or from her cup, If a brother on to long for them, to keep them in mind ? a journey come, what welcome is there for him in an alien house ? If there is a case for liberality, the granary and
the larder are shut up.
.

5

10

15

.

.

The handmaid

of

God

dwells

with alien labours, and amongst them she will be per secuted with the odour of incense at all the festivals of demons, all the ceremonials of kings, the beginning of the She will come forth year, the beginning of the month. too from a laurelled gateway hung with lanterns as from

20

some new abode of public
husband
and

lusts.

She

will dine

with her

in clubs, often in taverns, and sometimes she will minister to the unjust, who was used to minister to saints ;
will she not recognize in this a sentence that carries her damnation, as she attends on those whom she was to
25

judge hereafter

?

FOR Praxeas

Rome this

The Misdeeds of Praxeas. it was who first imported from Asia to kind of perversity a man in other ways unquiet,
30

and moreover puffed up with pride of confessorship merely on the strength of a short annoyance of imprisonment without further hardship; whereas even though he had given his body to be burned, he would have gained

128

Selections

from
non habens, cuius charis

nihil profecisset, dilectionem dei

mata quoque expugnavit. Nam idem tune episcopum Romanum agnoscentem iam prophetias Montani, Priscae, Maximillae, et ex ea agnitione pacem ecclesiis Asiae et
5

Phrygiae inferentem,

falsa

de

ipsis prophetis et ecclesiis

eorum adseverando et praecessorum eius auctoritates defendendo coegit et literas pacis revocare iam emissas et
a proposito recipiendorum charismatum concessare.
Ita.

duo negotia
10

diaboli Praxeas

Romae

procuravit, propheet

tiam expulit et haeresim

intulit,

paracletum fugavit
ID.

patrem

crucifixit.

Adv. Prax.

i.

XLV.
ITAQUE pro cuiusque personae conditione ac
tione, etiam aetate, cunctatio

disposi-

baptismi utilior

est,

praecipue

J

5

tamen circa parvulos. Quid enim necesse est, sponsores etiam periculo ingeri, qui et ipsi per mortalitatem destituere promissiones suas possunt et proventu malae indolis falli ?
Ait quidem dominus
:

Nolite

illos
;

Veniant ergo,
20

dum

adolescunt

quo veniant docentur; fiant nosse potuerint. Quid festinat innocens aetas ad remissionem peccatorum ? Cautius agetur in secularibus, ut cui
substantia terrena non creditur; divina credatur.
ID.

me venire. dum discunt, dum Christiani, quum Christum
prohibere ad
veniant,

De

Baptismo, 18.

XLVI.
Toiavra
6 76779
ToXfjLijo-as

a-vveo-rijcraTO

8i8ao-Ka\iov

Kara

r??? e/c/cXr/cr/a? ovro)?

SiSdgas. Kal

7r/o<Sro?

ra

TT/JO?

Adv. Prax.

i.]

Early Christian Writers.

129

nothing by it, not having the love of God, whose gifts too he has fought against. For he it was again, who when the then

Rome was ready to recognize the prophecies of Montanus, Prisca and Maximilla, and in consequence of that recognition to give his peace to the Churches of Asia 5 and Phrygia he by making false statements about the prophets themselves and their Churches, and by urging the
bishop of
authority of the bishop s predecessors, obliged him to recall the letters of peace he had already sent out, and to give up his purpose of acknowledging the gifts. Thus 10

Praxeas managed two of the devil s businesses in Rome he drove out prophecy and brought in heresy ; he put to flight the Comforter and crucified the Father. Infant Baptism.

:

THEREFORE according
and even age of each
is

to the circumstances

and temper
15

the delay of baptism more profitFor in the case of little children. able, yet especially where is the need of involving sponsors also in danger ? too through mortality may fail to perform their

They

promises, not to

or

evil disposition.

may be deceived by the growth of an The Lord says, indeed, Forbid them
Let them come then when they are them come when they have learned, when

20

come unto me.
;

grown up

let

they are taught where they are coming ; let them become Christians when they are able to know Christ. Why does an age which is innocent hasten to the remission of sins ?

25

There will be more caution used in worldly matters, so that one who is not trusted with earthly substance is
trusted with divine.

Misdeeds of

Callistus.

THE

this kind,

impostor had the impudence to adopt opinions of setting up a school against the Church, and

30

K

130

Selections

from
eVe^cr/cre,
.
.

ray fjSova? roFy Trdcriv VTT avTov
Stiv

dvQpa>7roi$

o~uy\copeTv

d(f)Lt(r6ai

dpapTias.
i

.

ovros e8oyfj.d-

Ticrtv OTTO)? e/ eTTicrKOTTOS ajjidpTOL TI,
fj.rj

Kal ?rpdy Odvarov,

KaTaTiOecrOai.

enl

5

Kal

7rp(r(3vTpoi
e/y

Kal

SiaKovoi
e/

TOVTOV ijp^avTO Kal 8iyajj.oi
<Se

KaOto-raa-OaL
yafiotr] )

KXrjpovs*

Kai r:y
K\rjpa>

kv

K\ 77/00)
et

d>v

fjieveiv
.

rov TOIOVTOV kv

ro>

coy fir]

fjftap-

rrjKOTa.

.

.

Kal

yap Kal yvvaiiv

eTrerpe^ei/,

avavSpoi,

Lev Kal fjXiKia
10 {3ovXoivTo
oz/

ye CKKaioivro ava^ia, rj tavrtov a^iav /zr) KaQaLptiv Sia TO vofiiftcos ya/jLrjOfji/ai^ \t-v eVa

ar

alprjo-covrai crvyKoirov, erre Oi/cerr/i/j eire t
v6/j.<t)

Kal TOVTOV Kpivciv CLVT\ dvSpos fir) Kal TOVTOLS TOIS TO\fjLr)jjLao~iv

M

eavToi>$

ot

d

ILZVQI
15

Ka6o\iKT}v

KK\r)(riav

diroKaXt

r^es" VOIJLLOVTS ev TrpaTTeiv awTpfyovaLv avToTs. TOVTOV Trpaxra)? reroA/i^rai SevTepov avTots /3a7r-noy*a.

HIPPOLYTUS, Ref. Omn.

ffaer. ix. 12.

XLVII.

Sr

TOVTCO Kal *A/ji(3p6o~io$ TO, Trjs
?rpoy 777? VTTO
coy

OvaXevTivov
<f>pov$>v

a//?ecra)?,

flpiyevovs
ai/

^e/as eXey^^e/y, KCU
20

I TTO

0a)ro

Sidvotav, rco rr^y

KK.\ri(na<TTLKr}s

Xoyco

/cat

aXXoi

cSe

opOoSogias nXtiovs T&V diro naiSeLas,

Trjs

Treipav Trjs kv rcuy /e/oory Xoyoiy iKavoTrjTOS Tai/Spbs re rcoz/ fjLvpioi Se T&V a/peri/ccoi/,
c/>tXocr60ft>i>

25 fid\i(TTa

kirifyavtov

efxo^,
Trpoy

?rpoy

ro?y

OVK oXiyoi, Sta (Ti7ov8r}$ aurco fatois Kal TO, Trjs tgcoOev
clo-fjye

TT/JOCT-

(f>i\oo-o(/)ias

avTov

7rai5euo/zej/oi.
Aca2
e?ri

re

yap

oo-ouy

ei)c/>ucoy

ecopa
/cat

ra

c/>iX6cro0a

yua^ry/zara,

yeco/ze-

dpiOfirjTiKrjv Kal

ra aXXa TrpoTraiStvpaTa napa-

R. o. H.

ix.

is.]

Early Christian Writers.

131

teaching accordingly ; and he was the first who found out the device of yielding to men in their sensual pleasures by

saying that
it

was who
it

though

deposed. married men to be appointed to clerical office as bishops, elders and deacons ; and if one married who was in the clergy, such a one remained in the clergy as if he had not sinned [quoting Rom. xiv. 4, Matt. xiii. 29, and the clean and unclean in the ark]. For he even allowed women, if
their age, or did not

by him. ... He a bishop committed a sin, were a sin unto death, he ought not to be In his time began twice married and thrice
all

men had
it

their sins forgiven
if

laid

down, that

5

10

they were unmarried and inflamed with love unworthy of wish to forfeit their rank for the sake of a legal marriage, to have one whomsoever they chose for a companion, whether he were slave or free, and 15 though not legally married to him to count him for a husband. And on the strength of these audacious doings the shameless fellows endeavour to call themselves a Catholic Church ; and some thinking they are faring well agree with them. In his time a second baptism was first 20
. . .

impudently attempted by them.

Origeris conception of education.
time Ambrose, who held the heresy of Valentinus, was convinced by Origen s presentation of the truth, and, as if his mind were illumined by light, he accepted the orthodox doctrine of the Church. other
this

ABOUT

Many

25

drawn by the lame of Origen, which resounded everywhere, came to him to make trial
of his
skill in

lovers of learning also,

sacred literature.

And

a great

many heretics
30

and not a few of the most distinguished philosophers studied under him diligently, receiving instruction from him not only in divine things, but also in secular philo sophy. For when he perceived that any persons had
superior intelligence he instructed them also in philo sophic studies in geometry, arithmetic and other pre-

K 2

132
efy

Selections
re

from

SiSovs,

Trpoaya)*/, Kal
7

rots a/peo-ei? ray irapd irapa rovrois a-vyypdfj.fj.ara Sir)yovfj.vo$, re Kal Oecoptov e/y e/cacrra, wore yueyai/ V7rofj,vr]fj.arig6fj.ev6s

ray

TO,

/cat

Trap

avTols

"EXXrjvi

QiXocrofyov
r<z/

rov dvSpa

Krjpvrkirl

5 Tto-Qai.

TToAXoi/y

5e

/ecu

ISicoriKCOTepcoi

kvr\y^v

TO.

to-ecrOai fyda-Ktov eyKVKXia ypa/z/^ara, ov fiiKpav avTois ^e/coi/ rooz/ KLV(ov eTTLTrjSeioTrjTa e/y ef oQtv fj.d\L(TTa KOL iais re Kal irapaarKtvrjv.

r^

ypa0a>i>

Lav

rj"/rj(raTO
a(TKr]<nv.

TTJV

Trepl

ra

Ko&fJLiKa Kal
vi. 18.

EUSEBIUS, Hist. Eccks.

XLVIII.
ovv
fjLi>

(rvvto T rjKev

K 17 ypa07) Kal avrrj olovel rov pXtirofjLtvov, -^i;^^? $e r?)? ei/ aurw
T/y,

vrjs

Kal KaraAa/z/Saj/o/zei
(TKLCLV

/cai TT^ei/yLtaroy roi)

Kara
eTTi-

ra VTToSdyfJiara Kal
15

r&v eTrovpaviW
rfj

Ka\a-dfJLvoL rov TTOL-qaavra
t

ypa(pfj
17 //co^,

<ra)/za

0epe, Kal

crayia

JJLZV

TO?? ?rpo

rots
altoviov Kal

ei>

rco

fjL\Xovri

alS)VL

ra tTrovpdvia Kal ^XXovaiv dXr]6iva rov vofiov, epef^Tycrco/ze^ ov TO ypa/z/za dXXa rr]V 20 t 8e OLOL re to-peir, dvafir]-^rv^v 7rl rov rrapovros
r\Ktiv tTrl

Kal enl rb Tri/eu^a, Kara rov Xoyov rbv Trepl rwv
ORIGEN, In Lev. Horn, v

(Philocalia,

i,

adfin.}.

XLIX.
Egfjs 8e rovrois 6 JBTeXcroy U7ri56/z^o? ra VTTO rov I7)<rov ytyevrjfjLtva fttydXa, Trepl &v oXiya diro TroXXwv dXrjOfj eiprJKafjLw Trpo&TTOLeTrai
(yvy^copeiv
rj

25

eivai,

oaa

irepl

OtpaTreiwv, % a^ao-racreooy,

Trepi

dprow

H.E.vLis.]

Early Christian Writers.
and then advanced
to the

133

paratory studies
the philosophers

systems of

and explained their writings. And he made observations and comments upon each of them, so that he became celebrated as a great philosopher even among
the Greeks themselves.
less learned
in the

And he instructed many of the common school studies, saying that

5

these would be no small help to them in the study and understanding of the Divine Scriptures. On this account

he considered

it

especially necessary for himself to

be
"

skilled in secular

and philosophic learning.

The Letter and

the Spirit.

SINCE then Scripture itself also consists as it were of a visible body, and of the soul in it that is perceived and understood, and of the spirit which is according to the patterns and shadow of the heavenly things come, let us

body and soul and came before us, a soul for us, spirit, a body for them and a spirit for them that in the age to come shall inherit life eternal, and shall attain to the heavenly and true things
call

on

Him who made

for Scripture

J

5

that

of the law; and so letter but the soul.

let

And

us for the present search not the if we are able, we shall ascend

20

also to the spirit, in our account of the sacrifices

whereof

we have

just read.

The Argument from our Lords Miracles.
IN the next place Celsus, suspecting that we shall put forward the mighty works of Jesus, of which we have to grant that they already spoken very slightly, professes be true all that is recorded of healings, or of a may

25

i34
oXiycw
roz)y
6p"^fdvT(ov

Selections

from
}

7roXXoz)y dvayeypaTTTai,
17

d(f)

TroXXa KaraXeXefTrrat,
fj.a6r]Ta$

ova aXXa oferai
Kal
7ri(f)p

IcrroprjKevaL,

Tri(TTV(TcofjLv
5

zivaL

CTOL

TCLv?

clpyacr/jLeva?

KCU

ei)0ea>y

KOLvoTTOitl

avra

irpbs

ra epya
kv

rcov

yorJTCov, coy
L TTO
ra>v

VTriayvov-

Oavfiao-iooTepa, KOL Trpoy
7riT\ovfj.i>a,
o(Bo\a>v

ra

paOovro^v dnb
KCU
aTTO(j)Vcrun>T(>v y

fjLecrais

dyopaTs

diroSofj-tvoH

ra

cre/i^a

/jLa6rj/j.ara,

dirb dvOptotrwv
10 KCU

e^eXauro^ra)^,

KCU

vocrovs

fjp&tov dvaKaXovvTtov, Seinvd re TroXfreX^, KCU KCU 7re///zara 3 KCU otya ra OVK ovra TpaTreas, KCU KwovvTtov OVK d\r}6a)$ ovra aXXa

^u^a?

a>9

^<Sa

ga>a,

fyavTacrtas tyaivop-eva roiavra.

KOLL

t/f

fyrjcriv

Ap

e?rd

ravra
15

TTOLOVCTIV

tKelvoi^
;

Serjcrei

f)/j.as

avTovs

fjye icrOai.

vlovs

tlvai

Oeov

^ Xe^reoi/ aura KOL K.GLK.0^ Oil \IQVODV

\

JD

L.

Tfc TOVTO elSe

;

yt>j/^

Trapoicrrpoy, coy

/caf
c/>are,

ef rty

r^y aur^y yoTyremy, Tyroi Kara o^etpco^ay, ^ /cara rTyr avrov fiovXrjcrLv Sogy
rcoi/ e/c

aXXoy

rii/a

20

(fiavTacrioaOek, Strep 8r) pvpioLS crv/j,(3J3r)KV 77, 6Vep [iSXXov, eKTrXfjgai TOVS XOLTTOVS Trj repareta ravrrj OeXrjcras, Kal Sia rov TOLOVTOV ^vcrfj.aTO$ d(j)OpfjLriv aXXoty dyvprais

/^.

ii.

55-

LI.
Kal TO
25

IJLOVOVS

rjXiOiovs Kal

dyewef? Kal

ai/aio-^rofy Kal dvSpaTroSa Kal yvvaia Kal naiSdpia irtiQtiv eOeXeiv rouy 5^acr/coi/ray rov Otlov \6yov Kal TOVTOVS IL\V yap KaXti 6 Xoyoy, iva avrovs
/SeXrtoocr?/

Early Christian Writers.
resurrection, or of the
left

135

many who fed on a few loaves and fragments, and all the rest of the stories many in telling which he thinks the disciples were romancing and adds, Well, suppose we believe that you really did them/ Then straightway he puts them on a level with
of them
the

5

works of the jugglers, on the ground that their pro fessions are still more marvellous, and with the perform ances of those who have learned from the Egyptians, who sell their venerated arts for a few pence in the open market from men, and puff away place, and cast out demons and exhibit costly diseases, and call up souls of heroes, dinners with tables and cakes and dainties non-existent, and set in motion as living animals lifeless things which Then he says, have only the appearance of animals. Since the jugglers do these things, must we needs think
them sons of God, or of wicked wretches ?
shall

10

15

we

say that these are practices

Celsus on the

Lord s

Resurrection.

saw this? A frantic woman, as you say, and some other in the same imposture, either dreaming it through some personal peculiarity, or by a

WHO

possibly

2o

wandering imagination shaping it according to his own has happened in so many cases will, which is just what what is more likely, desiring to scare the rest with this or, this sort to give an opening quackery, and by a falsehood of
;

to other impostors.

25

The Gospel not

to Fools. specially addressed

THAT

again

is false,

that

it is

only simpletons and low

people, children/
to

and womenkind, and word desire whom For though the word does call these, that persuade. and
stupid,

and

slaves,

the teachers of the Divine

136
Kal

Selections

from
8ia(f>poi>Ta$

roy
LT

TroXXco

TOVT&V

TTaVTCDV dvOp&TTtoV 6 XptO-TOS, KOL JJ.d\lO~TO. TTKTTtoV,
IT

aVVtT&V

Kal aiT\OV(TTep(*)V.

Ibid. in. 49.

LI
A-rroSeLKvvvTes
5

A.
tTriTO/jLfj

81

o>y

kv

Trtpl

TTJS

avTOV Xoyois QeoTrvtiKTTOVs tivai ray (rvva7ro8tiKvvp,GV Kal TO, KarayyiXXovra nepl avTov ypatyds
Irjaov, Koi
^pu>jjLvoL

TOIS 7Tpl

TTJV

ttri-

O.VTOV

ypd^fiara Kal SiSaaKaXiav
tgovvias
tlprjiitva,

fJL^ra

TracrT/y

Kal
10 aTro
rail/

Kal

8ia

TOVTO

r^jy

tOv&v
TOV

e/cAoy^y

KtKparrjKOTa.

AtKriov
Kal
TO

6e

OTL

TO

T<>V

TTpo^rjTiKan

\6ycw
vojj-ov,

tj/Oeov,

irvtv-

paTiKov
Ir)o~ov.

(rrouy
15

7Ti8r]fj.rjo~avTos \ap.^rv hapyrj yap 7rapa5y/zara 7Tpl TOV etVai ray TraXatay ypa<pd$ Trpb Trjs

Mco&eoos

TOV XpLo-TOV Trapaa-Trja-aL ov irdvv SvvaTov r\v aXX 17 Irjo-ov 7ri8r)/j,ia Swafievovs VTroTTTevtcrOai TOV vo^iov Kal
TOVS
irpo(priTas
coy

ov

Oeia

e/y

rou/z^ai/ey
6
cSe

rjyayev

a>y

oupavia) ^dpiTi ai/ayey/aa/z/zej/a.
7rpoo~o^fjs
20

/zer

e7ri//eXe/ ay

Kal

tvTvyydvobv roly irpofyrjTLKots Xoyojy, TraOobv e^ avTov TOV dvayivtocrKtiv lyvos vdovo~Laar/jLov, Si Trdcrvei 7rio~6rjo~Tai OVK dvQp&TTtov eivai crfyypa/z/zara TOVS TTZTTLS>v

0-Ttv/j.tvovs
rco

rjpw elvai Oeov Xoyouy.
VO/JLQ),

Kal TO tvvirdpyov Be
eva7roKKpvfjifjLi>ov,

Ikfcocrecoy
TTJ

KaXvjj-fjiaTL

Irjo-ov
dya6S>v

7r<.8r)ijLia,

TrepiaiptOti/TOS TOV KaXv/j./y

25 /^aroy,

^a?

root/

/cara (3pa)(y

yv&viv tpyopevtov,
iv.

TO ypd^pa.
ORIGEN,
Z?<?

Princifiis,

6 = Philoc. p. 12.

LI
Tt y

B.

yow

i/oui/

e^ooi/

o/^crerat npcoTrjv Kal SevTepav Kal
T)\LOV ye-

TpiTrjv rjfjLepav, ecnrtpav re ffaf TrpcoLav, \oopl$

c

.

ceisum

iii.

49-]

Early Christian Writers.

137

it also calls those who are the Christ is the Saviour ol all men, and specially of such as believe, whether prudent or simple.

may make them better, yet much better than these, since
it

The true ground of Old Testament Inspiration.
IN this our Demonstration in briet of the divinity of and in our use of the words of the Prophets con cerning Him, we are making simultaneous demonstration of the inspiration of those scriptures which prophesy about Him, and proving the literature which proclaims His coming to be an utterance of full power and authority, which for that reason has laid firm hold of the elect of the Gentiles. Indeed, we may say that the inspired character of the prophetic writings and the spirituality of the law of Moses shone out when Jesus came. Clear proofs of the well be given inspiration of the Old Testament could not Till then the law and the before the Christ had come. not being truly prophets were open to a suspicion of divine it was the coming of Jesus that set them in a plain He Who the grace of heaven. light as records made by with diligent attention reads the words of the prophets will from his very reading experience a trace and vestige
:

5

Jesus,

10

15

20

of inspiration in himself, and this personal experience will convince him that those are no compilations of men, which we are firmly persuaded are the words of God. The light, in the Mosaic law, though too, that was always there covered with a vail, shone out simultaneously with the coming of Jesus, when the vail was taken away and the good things came little by little into view, those good letter. things whose shadow was found in the
R.

25

The Parabolic Element in Scripture Narratives.

WHAT
a
first,

intelligent

person would fancy, for instance, that

30

second, and third day, evening and morning, took

138

Selections

from

[

ri s en

yovevai Kal (reXrjvrjs Kal do-Ttpcw \ TTJV 8e olovel Kal xcoph ovpavov ; TIS & oi/rcoy ^Xi &oy coy olr)6fjvai debv 7T(j)VTVKvai napdSeiTpoirov dv0pa>7rov yecopyou TOV
crov
5

kv

EStfjL

Kara oVaroXay, Kal

vXov ^co^y kv avra
St.a
T$>V

7TTTOir]KVai OpOLTQV KOL
KO>V

CtlCrOlJTOV, COCTT6

(TCOfiaTl-

oSovT&v yeva-dntvov rov Kapnov TO
ird\t,v

fjv

avaXaupdvw
,

Kal

KaXov Kal

irovrjpov /zere^ef^ TLVGL Trapa TO fj,-

jjiacrfjcrOai

TO dnb TovSe TOV
8ei\ivov
kv

v\ov \a\L^avo^vov
TO)

eav

8e
10

Kal

^eoy TO

napaSeiaco

Xey^rcu, Kal 6 ASafJL VTTO TO v\ov KpVTTTe&Oai Tiva irepl TOV avTa TpoTTiKws Sia
Kal
fivaTrjpia.

OVK
SOKOVO-TJS

ov

croo/zartKcoy

yeye^^^e^Tyy,
e^ep^o/ze^oy

p.r]vvLv

nva

d\\a Kal Kdiv
(ra0a>y

OLTTO

TOV
15

$ov
avTOV.

ro?y

eTTicrr^cracri

(fraivtTai

npoa-toTrov KLVZIV TOV

kvruyyavQVTa
air

r]Ttiv Trpoo-corrov
TrXe/ico

Otov Kal

e^p^aOai
/JLT]

Tiva

Kal TL Set

Xeyei^, rcor

Trdvv dfi-

fiXtcov fjivpia oo~a
ypafJLfJL^va fJLev
a>y

TOtavTa Swap-tvav crvvayaytiv, dvayeyeyovoTa, ov yeyevrjjjiwa 8e Kara TTJV
TO,

Xeiv
20

,

aXXa Kal
TOV
Koa/jiov

tvayytXia Se TOV avTOV etSovs
e/y

TOCHS

Xoycw

TrtTrXrjpooTaL

vtyrjXbv opoy TOV Irjaovv dvae/ce^e^ avT<p 8tiy TOV 8ia(36Xov, lv
Tr\v

ray /SacriXe/ay Kal
yur;

S6av

avTcov.

TIS

yap OVK av
25 StrjOevTL

TO>V

Trapepycoy dvayivoocrKoi Ttov TO,
olofjLevaw
rco

ToiavTa

KaTayu>a>o-Koi

TO>V

r^y

a-ap/coy

vtyovs virtp TOV KaTavoT]6f)vai 8vvao~6aL TO, repco Kal viroK^t^va, ttopdvQai TTJV Uepo-cov Kal Kal Iv8S>v Kal IXapdvaioov paviXstav, Kal coy 8odoi>Tai

Trapa aVflpooVoty oi /SacriXeuoi/rey J TrapaTrXrjo iGos 8e TOVroiy Kal aXXa /ivpia airo evayytXttov wcari TOV 30 aKpipovvTa Trjpfjarai, virlp TOV vvyKaTaQtaOai o-vvvfyaiTO>V

Tats Kara ro prjTov yeyevrjfjievais lo-TOpiais erepa
ID.

De

Principiis,

iv.

id = Philoc. p. 24.

DePrin.iv.i6.]

Early Christian Writers.
and
?

139

place without sun, moon,
call
it,

stars

;

without even a heaven

Who would

and the first, as we be so childish

a human suppose that God after the manner of a garden in Eden towards the east, and gardener planted made therein a tree, visible and sensible, so that one could
as
to

5

of its fruit get the power of living by the bodily eating with the teeth ; or again, could partake of good and evil If God tree ? feeding on what came from that other

is said to walk at eventide in the garden, and Adam to hide himself under the tree, I fancy that no one will question that these statements are figurative, declaring not mysterious truths by the means of a seeming history,

by

10

one that took place in a bodily form. And Cain s going forth from the presence of God, as is plain and clear to attentive minds, stirs the reader to look for the meaning of the presence of God, and of any one s going forth from What need of more, when all but the dullest eyes can it. are recorded gather innumerable instances, in which things

15

as having happened which did not take place in the literal sense ? Nay, even the Gospels are full of sayings of the 20 same class as when the devil takes Jesus up into a high
:

of the mountain, to show him from thence the kingdoms of them. Who but a careless whole world and the glory reader of such words would fail to condemn those who
think that by the eye of flesh, which needed a height 25 to bring into view what lay far down beneath, the kingdoms

of Persians, and Scythians, and Indians, and Parthians, were seen, and the glory men give to their rulers ? Count
less

observe, to

cases such as this the accurate reader is able to make him agree that with the histories which 30 are interwoven which did literally took place other things not actually happen.

140

Selections

from

LII.

OVKOVV
OVK

eyKaTa\L7TTaL

Oeta

Kpi<ri

6

e

aKpodvfjLi kiri TLvas
aAoycoy,

TO>V

dp.apTav6vTa>v

6
TTJV

aAA

coy

avToTs

<TVVOIO~OVTOS

coy

7T/>dy

ddavaaiav
5

rfjs

^f

X*? 9

Ka * Tov

a7rei/ooj>

al&va TOV
tirl

/JLTJ

ra^v

vvvepyriOrivai e/s (TWTrjpiav,
Ofjvai
(JL^ra

d\\a

ftpdSiov

ravrrjv a^~

TO TreipaOfjvat

TroXXcoi/

K.CLK&V.
)

axnrep

yap

TWO, Kal larpoi Swdftevoi rd^iov idcracr6ai, orav eyKeKpvfj,fjitvov lov VTTOVO$)(TIV virdp^iv irepi ra crco/zara, TO kvavrtov
rco

idaaaQai epydgovTai,
TTOLOVl>T$

SLO.

TO IdaOai (3ov\o~0ai
KpClTTOV

a<r0aAe

10

VTtpOV TOVTO
\pbv(>

fjyOVfJLtVOl
r<3

TrapaKaTaa-^eiv TWO, kv 0Aey/ia/Vefz/ TOV (3(3aLOTpoi avTov Tr)v vyttav dTTo\af$iv,
ikv paxrai

SoKtlv vcrTtpov 8e avaftvvai Kal

15

Kaipov yeveo~6ai Tr]v Ta^VTepav IOLVIV TOV OLVTQV Tpoirov Kal 6 @eoy, yLi oxrKcav TO, Kpvfaa Trjs KapSlas Kal npoTO,
l

8td

kv

KpV7TTo>

7riTp7Ti egaOev (IV^CLIVQVT(>V e0eA^6/zeroy ro KaKov, VTTtp TOV KaOdpaL TOV 8i d/jLtXciav TO,
/*eAAoj>ra,
T>V

Sid Trjs /jLaKpo6v/j.ia$

(nrepfjiaTa
20

r^y dpapTias /ce^ oopr) KOT a, iva e/y t t\66vTa avTa -ny /iecray, el Kal eirl irXelov kv
SvvrjQfj

yeyevrjTai, vvTtpov
TTJV

KaOapo-iov

KaKiav dvaaTOL^ia)6^vat.

Tvyvv TOV @eoy yap oiKovo/JLet ray
eiVea/ TrevTrjKOVTaeTiav

^^ay
T^y
25

ofy

coy

TTyooy

T^V 0/)
coy
7r/?oy

tvOdSe

^co^y,

aAA*

dfyQapTov
(rvyyevfj,
rj

yap

fyva-iv

TreiroirjKe

TOV dirkpavTov alS>va TTJV voepdv Kal avT&
tnl

Kal OVK

aTro/cAaercu

cocrTrep

r^y kvTavOa

XoyiKr) ^jfv^r] Trjs Oepaiicias.
ID.

De

Principiis, Hi. 13.

DePrin.iii.i3.]

Early Christian Writers.

141

The Method of God s dealing with Sinners.

HE

therefore that
is

is left is left

to the divine

judgement

;

and God

not long-suffering towards certain sinners,

a view to unreasonably, but with intent to profit them, with the immortality of the soul and the unending age, that but led to it they be not quickly brought into salvation, more slowly, after they have had trial of many evils. For

5

even as physicians (though able to heal a man more when they suspect that there is hidden poison
quickly),

the body, do the reverse of healing, and 10 this they do because they wish to heal the more surely ; man for a long time in counting it better to keep a

anywhere

in

inflammation and sickness that he

may

the

more

certainly

recover his health, than that he should seem to gain fall back again, so strength more quickly and afterward
that the quicker healing is but for a time ; in the same 15 God also, knowing the secret things of the heart and

way

come, through His long-suffering means of outside events permits [sins], peradventure by the evil that is in secret, for the sake of drawing together him who by reason of carelessness has received

foreknowing the things

to

cleansing the seeds of

20

end that when they have come to a man may spue them out, and even if he have the surface been deep in wickednesses, may afterward be able to obtain For God after his wickedness and be renewed.
sin, to the

cleansing

the fifty years of life on earth, disposes souls not as for say as for the unending age ; for He has made the intel but nature incorruptible and akin to Himself, and the
ligent

25

rational soul is not shut out from cure as in this present
life.

Selections

from

LIII.
Tfjs

$

fjiO)(Or]pia$

TCOV

lovSa iKtov
Kal

ypa(j)S>v

OVK diro-

<rety

erpaTrovTO
)

oVfy/cAooorouy

aVap/zocrrouy
virtp rcav

roFy

yeypa^/*j 0y OVK dnoXoyiav
5

/zaAAoi>

oQveiw,

alnapaSo^rjv Sz KOL iiraivov rols OLKCIOLS napa Mcovaei \y6/j,eva zlvai yap ra
</>pov(ras.
<f)ai>p$)S

KOL

tTriOtidaavTts

ious,

Sid

re rov

^(T7T^cr/zaTa TrXrjprj rvtyov TO KPLTIKOV rfjs
a>9

EUSEBIUS, Hist. Eccks.

vi. 19.

LIV.
10
"En

Trpbs TOVTOIS nepl
/?
avTr)i>

kv rals
"OTI

6p.i\tais

r^? Tr/ody Eppatovs ravra ^iaXa/

6 xapaKTrjp TTJ? Xe^ecoy TTJS Trpoy
\6ya>

15

7ria-TO\fj$ OVK %i TO kv TOV aTToa-roAof, oyuoAoyTyo-ai/roy iavTov ISicoTrjv tlvai TO) TOVTO~TI TTJ (ppdcrti, dXXa ecrr^V rj A6ya>/ 7Tio~ToXr)

yypa/j.fj.vr)$

Trjs

Ae^eooy *EXXr)viK(OTepa,

Tray 6

<ppda-(w

SiaQopas dpoXoyrjo-cu av.
Trjs

eTnora/zeyoy TrdXiv re av

OTI

TO,

vorjjj.aTa

tTTicrToXfjs

Bavfjidaid

eon, KOL ov
Kal
TTJ

8tvTpa T&V
20 TOVTO

d7roo-ToXiKG)i>

o/jLoXoyov/jLevcov ypapfjidTcw,

av

o-vfttyrjaai

tlvai

dXrjOes Tray

6

Trpocre^cov

dvayixoaei Trj dTroa-ToXiKy. TOVTOLS /Ji0 erepa 7n0eyoei Xeycov
Eya>

&

d7ro(f)aiv6fj.i>o$

tLTroip
17

HdTa TOV
25

drroa-ToXov tarty,

&v, OTI TO, fjikv vorj^e 0pacriy Kal ^ (rwflecriy
a)cr7repe2

Tij/oy ra aTrocrroA^a, /cai o-XoAioypa^^o-ai/roy rti/oy ra dprujLtva virb TOV 1 TLS OVV KKXr)0-ia %l TaVTTjV T7)V fTTlO-ToX^y Aov, aur?; evSoKi/jLtiTO) Kal tirl TOVTO>. ov

diro^rjfiovevo-avTos

O>y

yap

//cg

o/

H.E.vi.i 9 .j

Early Christian Writers.
to

143

Porphyry s Objections

Allegorical Interpretations.

SOME

persons, desiring to find a solution of the baseness

of the Jewish Scriptures rather than abandon them, have had recourse to interpretations inconsistent and incon gruous with the words written, which explanations instead of supplying a defence of the foreigners, contain rather

5

approval

of themselves. For they boast that the plain words of Moses are enigmas, and regard them as oracles full of hidden mysteries; and having bewildered the mental judgement by their folly, they foist interpretations on them. r
praise

and

Origen on

the

Authorship of the Hebrews.

the Epistle to

IN addition Origen makes the following statements in

regard to the Epistle to the

Hebrews

in

his Homilies

upon it That the verbal
:

Hebrews," is

who

To the style of the epistle entitled not rude like the language of the Apostle, acknowledged himself "rude in speech," that is, in
"

15

expression

;

but that

its

diction is purer Greek,

any one

who has

phraseology will acknowledge. Moreover, that the thoughts of the epistle are admirable, and not inferior to the acknowledged Apostolic writings, any one who carefully examines
the Apostolic text will admit.

the

power

to discern differences of

20

Farther on he adds
If
I

:

I should say that the thoughts are those of the Apostle, but the diction and phraseology are those of some one who remembered the Apostolic

gave

my

opinion,

25

teachings, and wrote said by his teacher.
this epistle is

at his leisure what had been Therefore if any Church holds that by Paul, let it be commended for this. For

down

144
<yy

Selections
TIavXov

from
@o?
oWtv.
Ae-

avrr]
[tkv dXrjdes laropia, VTTO TIV&V
eTTiV/fOTroy
<5e,

6
f)

y/oa^ay
Se
ety

TTJV
?7/*ay

tinvToXriv, TO

(pOdaaa-a
6
,

IL\V

6Vt

KXrjftrjs

yeyoyiiej oy

Poo/^a/co^

T^ ema ToXrji

VTTO

Ttvtov

6 rt

AOVKCCS

6

TO tvayyeXiov KOI ray Ilpd^eis.

m&

^\

^

LIVA.
fy
eTTf

1

raw

6vaiQ)i>

yprj

<0(fjir]$}

A\(dv8pov)

Nrja-ov

Trapa

Nrjcov

eoy

Lo^3 oz^A(^)
Geois Siere

o0put 8t(if) Kal del
Ovcov TOIS

Ae(ra
15

Aca:

vvv

iirl

na

povviv

vfjitiv

Kara

ra

7rpocrTera[y/ze] i/a 6vcra Kal

l^iriov]

or

e[o-7Ttcra]

yu?;!/

/cat

af<

[u/zay]

20

p ...

Qvovra Mva25

....
"

...

VQOVOS

(Tea^rju^LcofjLaL ?]

La

Pa

LOV Mea-a-iov

"O

30
ketS

the

NS

(

^

indicate

contractions

;

clams

[

]

supply defects in

H.E.vi. 25 .j

Early Christian Writers.
the ancients handed
epistle,
it

145

not without reason have
as

down

Paul

s.

But who wrote the
statement of some

in

truth

God

knows.
is

The

who have gone

before us
epistle,
5

that Clement, bishop of the
of others that
it.

Romans, wrote the

and

Luke, the author of the Gospel and
N. L.

the Acts, wrote

A
To

Libellus of the Decian Persecution.

the officers in charge of the sacrifices of the village
Isle,

of Alexander s

from Aurelius Diogenes, the son of
Isle,
I

Satabus, of the village of Alexander s

aged about

72,

with a scar on his right eyebrow.
ficed to the

have always

sacri- 10

gods; and now
I

commands, and tasted of the victims ; and
Fare ye
I, I,

ing to the

in your presence, accord have sacrificed and made a libation
I

desire

you

to subscribe.

well.
I5

Aurelius Diogenes, have delivered this ...

Mys[ ...

the son of.

1
.

.Jnon

,

[saw him]

sacrificing,

and have subscribed
In the
first

year of Imperator Caesar Caius Messius

Quintus

Trajanus

Decius

Pius

Felix

Augustus,

on
20

Epiphi 2 (=June 26, 250).

1

The

parts in cla^s will

show the

sort oi matter

which must have

occupied the space.

L

I4 6

Selections

from

LV.

Noovanava
fyavTi
Tr)i>

yap eAoycoy aireyQavontQa, SiaKor&v dSeXcp&v eh d eKKXycriav, Kat
iJ.lv
Tii>a$

eov Kal ftXao-cprjptas tXKvaavTt, Kat 7Tpl TOV Kal TOV \tav dvoo-icoTdTrjv ni(TKVK\ri(Tai>Ti,
5

Si

Kvpiov
7rl

fjfj.cov

Irjcrovv

Xpiarov

co? dvrjXtfj

irda-t

Se TOVTOIS TO \ovTpov

aQtrovvn TO ayiov, Kal

Kal 6p.o\oyiav dvarptTrovTi, TO Tr\v re irpo avrov irtarTiv
T6

Uvtvpa TO ayiQV
^
Kal

e

avT&v,

d

Kai ri?

?jv

tXnls TOV
Tra^reXo)?
Ibid. vii. 8.

irapaiJLtivai
10

C7rave\6eti>

npbs

OLVTOVS,

QvyaStvovTi.

LVI.

QUAM
maxime

unitatem tenere firmiter et vindicare debemns,
episcopi qui in ecclesia praesidemus, ut episco-

patum quoque ipsum unum atque indivisum probemus.

Nemo
15

fraternitatem mendacio

fallat,

nemo fidem

veritatis
est,
est,

Episcopatus unus perfida prevaricatione corrumpat. Ecclesia una cuius a singulis in solidum pars tenetur.

quae

in

multitudinem latius increment

fecunditatis exet

tenditur,

quomodo
fonte

solis multi radii

sed lumen unum,

rami arboris multi sed robur
20 et

unum

tenaci radice fundatum,
licet

cum de

uno

rivi

plurimi defluunt, numerositas

diffusa videatur exundantis copiae largitate, unitas

tamen

servatur in origine.

.

.

.

Qui

reliquit ecclesiam Christi

alienus est, profanus est, hostis est.

25

Habere non potest Si potuit ecclesiam non habet matrem. patrem qui evadere quisquis extra arcam Noe fuit, et qui extra eccle

Deum
siam

fuerit evadit.

CYPRIAN, De Cath. Eccks. Unitaie,

5.

H.E.vii.8.]

Early Christian Writers.

147

Dionysins of Alexandria on Novatian.

FOR we
divided
the

hate Novatian with good reason, in that he Church and led some of the brethren into

impieties and blasphemies doctrine concerning God,

and introduced a most unholy and slanders our most com
5

passionate Lord Jesus Christ as merciless. In addition to all this he rejects the holy washing, and overthrows the faith and confession which go before it, and utterly banishes from them the Holy Spirit, if there were any hope at all
that

he would remain with them or return

to them.

The Unity of the Church. AND this unity we ought firmly to hold and assert, especially those of us that are bishops who preside in the
Church, that

10

we may
:

one and undivided.

by a falsehood let truth by perfidious prevarication. The episcopate is one, each part of which is held by each one for the whole. The Church also is one, which is spread abroad far and wide into a multitude by an increase of fruitfulness. As there are many rays of the sun, but one light; and many branches of a tree, but one strength based in its tenacious root; and since from one spring flow many streams, although the multiplicity seems diffused in the liberality ol an overflowing abundance, yet the unity is still pre served in the source. ... He who has left the Church of Christ is an alien, a profane person, an enemy. He cannot have God for his Father who has not the Church for his mother. If he could escape who was outside the ark of Noah, then he too will escape who was outside
the Church.
A. N. L.

also prove the episcopate itself to be Let no one deceive the brotherhood no one corrupt the faithfulness of the

15

20

25

L 2

I4 8

Selections

from

LVII.

CYPRIANVS

PRESBYTERIS ET DIACONIBVS

ROMAE
actus

S. CONSISTENTIBVS FRATRIBVS

FACTIS ad vos
noster expositus

litteris,

fratres

carissimi, quibus

et

disciplinae
est,

ac
aliud

diligentiae

quantu-

laecumque

ratio

declarata

accessit

quod nee

,

frater noster Lucianus et ipsum calidus et virtute de confessoribus, fide quidem ipse unus dominica lectione fundatus, robustus sed bene minus se auctorem conatus est inperite, iam pridem

latere vos debuit.

Nam

quaedam

constituent ut

manu

eius scripti

libelli

I0

nomine Pauli darentur, cum Mappalicus memor, verecundus, legis ac disciplinae
evangelium
litteras fecerit,

gregatim multis martyr cautus et
nullas

contra

sed tantum domestica pietate

commotus
daverit

fuerant matri et sorori suae quae lapsae
dari,

man-

pacem
in

adhuc

carcere

Saturninus quoque post tormenta litteras constitutus nullas eiusmodi

isemiserit.

Lucianus vero non tantum

Paulo

adhuc

in

carcere posito

nomine

eius

libellos

manu sua
ab

scriptos

et post eius passim dedit, sed

excessum eadem facere sub
illo

eius

nomine perseveravit, dicens hoc sibi mandatum et nesciens domino magis quam
obtemperandum. perpessi nomine
Aureli
libelli

esse

conservo

,o

quoque

adulescentis tormenta

multi dati sunt eiusdem Luciani

manu

scripti,

quod

litteras ille

non

nosset.
feci

Cui

rei ut

aliquantum possit obsisti, sub epistola priore transmisi, quibus
25

litteras

ad eos

quas ad vos petere et suadere

non

destiti ut

dominicae legis

et evangelii ratio teneretur.

Ep.2 7 .]

Early Christian Writers.

149

On

Church

Discipline.

CYPRIAN to the presbyters and deacons abiding at Rome, his brethren, greeting. After the letters that
I wrote to you, beloved brethren, in which what I had done was explained, and an account was given of my dis cipline and diligence, such as it is, there came another matter which, any more than the others, ought not to be concealed from you. For our brother Lucian, who himself also is one of the confessors, earnest indeed in faith, and robust in virtue, but little established in the reading of the Lord s

5

word,

has attempted

certain

things in a

foolish

way,

10

having

some time made himself the cause that certificates written by his hand were given indiscriminately to many persons in the name of Paulus ; whereas Mappafor
licus the martyr, cautious and modest, mindful of the law and discipline, wrote no letters contrary to the Gospel, but 15

now

only, moved with domestic affection for his mother and sister, who had fallen, commanded peace to be given to them.

Saturninus, moreover, after his torture, still remaining in no letters of this kind. But Lucian, not while Paulus was still in prison, gave everywhere in only
prison, sent out
his

20

with his own hand, but even after his decease persisted in doing the same things under his name, saying that this had been commanded him by Paulus, ignorant that he must obey the Lord rather than his fellow-servant. In the name also of Aurelius, a young
certificates written

name

25

the torture, many certificates were given, written by the hand of the same Lucian, because Aurelius did not know how to write himself.

man who had undergone

In order, in some measure, to put a stop to this practice, letters to them, which I have sent to you under 30 the enclosure of the former letter, in which I did not cease to ask and persuade them that consideration might be had for the law of the Lord and the Gospel. But after I sent
I

wrote

I5 o

Selections

from

5

moderatius aliquid et temperantius Postquas litteras quasi confessorum nomine Lucianus epi.fieret, universorum fidei et timor stolam scripsit, qua paene omne vinculum sanctitas et firmitas dei et mandatum domini et evangelii enim omnium nomine universes eos solveretur.
Scripsit

pacem
misi

dedisse et hanc

formam per me

aliis

episcopis

innotescere velle,

cuius epistolae exemplum ad vos transID. Ep. 27.

LVIII.

PROPTER quod [Num.
10

xvi. 26] plebs

obsequens prae-

ceptis dominicis

et

Deum metuens

a peccatore praeposito

se ad sacrilegi sacerdotis sacrificia separare se debet, nee
miscere, quando ipsa

maxime habeat potestatem

vel

eli-

recusandi. Quod et gendi dignos sacerdotes vel indignos ut saceripsum videmus et divina auctoritate descendere,
15

dos plebe praesente sub omnium oculis deligatur et dignus testimonio conprobetur, atque idoneus publico iudicio ac
sicut in

xx. 25, 26].

Numeris Dominus Moysi praecipit dicens [Num. Coram omni synagoga iubet Deus constitui

20

sacersacerdotem, id est instruit et ostendit ordinationes adsistentis conscientia fieri dotales non nisi sub populi

oportere,

malorum plebe praesente vel detegantur crimina vel bonorum merita praedicentur et sit ordinatio
ut
iusta et legitima

quae omnium suffragio

et iudicio fuerit

examinata.
25

traditione Propter quod diligenter de observatione servandum est et tedivina et apostolica
.

.

.

nendum quod apud nos quoque

et

fere

per provincias

Ep.ay.]

Early Christian Writers.
them, as
if

151

something were being done more the same Lucian wrote a letter ; in the name of all the confessors, in which well nigh every bond of faith, and fear of God, and the Lord s command, and the sacredness and fixity of the Gospel were dissolved. For he wrote in the name ot all, that they had all given peace, and that he wished that this decree should be communicated through me to the other bishops, of which letter I have transmitted a copy to you.

my

letters to

moderate and temperate

5

A. N. L.

Appointment of Bishops. which account [Num. xvi. 26] a people obedient to the Lord s precepts, and fearing God, ought to separate themselves from a sinful prelate, and not to associate

ON

i

themselves with the sacrifices of a sacrilegious priest 1 , especially since they themselves have the power either of choosing worthy priests, or of rejecting unworthy ones. Which very thing, too, we observe to come from divine authority, that the priest should be chosen in the presence of the people under the eyes of all, and should be approved

15

worthy and suitable by public judgement and testimony ; as in the book of Numbers the Lord commanded Moses,
saying [Num. xx. 25, 26]. God commands a priest to be appointed in the presence of all the assembly; that is, He instructs and shows that the ordination of priests ought not to be solemnized except with the knowledge of the people standing near, that in the presence of the people either the crimes of the wicked may be disclosed, or the

20

25

may be declared, and the ordination, have been examined by the suffrage and For judgement of all, may be just and legitimate. which reason you must diligently observe and keep the practice delivered from divine tradition and Apostolic observance, which is also maintained among us, and
merits of the good
shall

which

.

.

.

30

almost throughout
1
i.

all

the provinces
:

;

that for the proper

e.

bishop

as always in Cyprian.

152

Selections

from

[c yP rian

universas tenetur, ut ad ordinationes rite celebrandas ad earn plebem cui praepositus ordinatur episcopi eiusdem
et episcopus deliprovinciae proximi quique conveniant vitam plenissime gatur plebe praesente, quae singulorum novit et uniuscuiusque actum de eius conversatione per-

5

spexit.

ID. Ep. 67.

LIX.

10

QUOD si aliquis illud opponit ut dicat eandem Novatianum legem tenere quam catholica ecclesia teneat, eodem symbolo quo et nos baptizare, eundem nosse deum patrem, eundem filium Christum, eundem spiritum sanc tum, ac propter hoc usurpare eum potestatem baptizandi
posse quod videatur interrogatione baptismi a nobis non discrepare sciat quisque hoc opponendum putat primum non esse unam nobis et schismaticis symboli legem neque eandem interrogationem. Nam cum dicunt, Credis in
:

*5

remissionem peccatorum et vitam aeternam per sanctam ecclesiam, mentiuntur interrogatione, quando non habeant Tune deinde voce sua ipsi confitentur remis ecclesiam. sionem peccatorum non dari nisi per sanctam ecclesiam
20

posse,

quam non habentes ostendunt

remitti

illic

peccata

non posse.

ID. Ep. 69.

LX.
NESCIO qua etenim praesumptione ducuntur quidam de collegis nostris ut putent eos qui apud haereticos tincti sunt, quando ad nos venerint, baptizari non oportere, eo
25

quod unum scilicet in una est et esse est, quia Nam cum duo baptisma praeter ecclesiam non potest. baptismata esse non possint, si haeretici vere baptizant,
quod dicant unum baptisma esse
ecclesia
:

catholica

ecclesia

E P .6 7 .]

Early Christian Writers.
all

153

celebration of ordinations

the neighbouring bishops of

the

same province should assemble with that people for which a prelate is ordained and the bishop should be
;

presence of the people, who have most fully known the life of each one, and have looked into the doings of each one as respects his habitual conduct.

chosen

in the

5

A. N. L.

Schismatical Baptism worthless.

BUT if any one says by way of objection that Novatian holds the same law as the Catholic Church holds, baptizes with the same creed as ourselves, and recognizes the same God as Father, the same Christ as Son, and the same
he can take to him self the power of baptizing, because he seems not to differ from ourselves in his baptismal questioning whoso

10

Holy

Spirit

;

and

that for this reason

thinks this a good objection, let him know first that we and the schismatics have neither one law of the creed nor the same questioning, for when they say, Dost thou believe in the forgiveness of sins and life eternal through the Holy Church ? they lie in their questioning, because Then, again, with their own voice they have no Church.

15

they themselves confess that forgiveness of sins is not given except through the Holy Church ; and, as they have not this, they show that with them sins cannot be
forgiven.

20

Heretical Baptism invalid.

FOR

I

know

are led to think that

not by what argument some of our colleagues when those come to us who have been

25

dipped by heretics, they ought not to be baptized, on the ground as they say that there is one baptism ; which one of course is in the Catholic Church, for the Church is one, and baptism there is none outside the Church. For since there cannot be two baptisms, then if heretics in truth 30

x<

54

Selections
. .

from

[c yP rian

nos autem dicimus eos qui inde habent baptisma Neque veniunt non rebaptizari apud nos sed baptizari. ubi nihil est, sed veniunt ad illic enim
ipsi
.

accipiunt

aliquid
est.

nos ut hie accipiant ubi
5 et

et gratia et veritas

omnis

est,

quia
71.

gratia et veritas

una

ID.

Ep.

LXI.
Eos autem qui Romae sunt non ea in omnibus observare quae sint ab origine tradita et frustra apostolorum auctoritatem praetendere scire quis etiam inde potest, circa multa alia quod circa celebrandos dies Paschae et rei sacramenta videat esse apud illos aliquas divinae
diversitates

10

nee observari
observantur,

illic

Hierosolymis

omnia aequaliter quae secundum quod in ceteris

quoque plurimis provinciis multa pro locorum et hominum diversitate variantur, nee tamen propter hoc ab ecclesiae
15

catholicae

pace atque unitate aliquando discessum

est.

Quod nunc Stephanus ausus est facere rumpens adversus vos pacem, quam semper antecessores eius vobiscum amore et honore mutuo custodierunt, adhuc etiam infamans Petrum et Paulum beatos apostolos, quasi hoc
20 ipsi tradiderint, qui in epistolis suis sunt et ut eos evitemus monuerunt.

haereticos execrati

Unde

apparet tradi-

tionem hanc
defendit.

humanam

baptisma quod non

esse quae haereticos asserit et nisi solius ecclesiae est eos habere
ID.

Ep.

75.

LXII.
CYPRIANVS SVCCESSO FRATRI
25

S.

.

.

.

... Quae autem sunt in vero ita se habent, rescripsisse Valerianum ad senatum ut episcopi et presbyteri et

Ep.7i.]

Early Christian Writers.
.

155

however baptize, it is they who have the baptism. say that those who come thence are not rebaptized with us but baptized, for indeed they receive not anything there where nothing is, but come to us that they may here
.
.

We

receive
is

where there is all grace and truth, since there but one grace and truth.
Firmiliatfs Letter to Cyprian.

5

BUT

that they
all

who

are at

Rome

things in

cases which are handed

do not observe those down from the begin
;

any ning, and vainly allege the authority of Apostles one may know even from the fact, that concerning the celebration of Easter, and concerning many other sacra ments of divine matters, he may see that there are some diversities among them, and that all things are not observed among them alike, which are observed at Jerusalem, just

10

as in very many other provinces also many things are 15 varied because of the difference of the places and peoples. And yet on this account there is no departure at all from and unity of the Catholic Church, such as the

peace

Stephen has now dared to make; breaking the peace have always kept with against you, which his predecessors in mutual love and honour, even herein defaming you Peter and Paul the blessed Apostles, as if the very men
delivered this
that
this

20

who
to

in

their

epistles

execrated heretics,

and warned us

it appears maintains heretics, and asserts that they have baptism, which belongs to the

avoid

them.

Whence

tradition is of

men which

25

Church

alone.

A. N. i,

The Edict of Valerian.
CYPRIAN
truth concerning
to his brother Successus, greeting. ... But the them is as follows, that Valerian had
3

sent a rescript to the Senate, to the effect that bishops and

!56

Selections

from

[c yP rian

diaooni in continent! animadvertantur, senatores vero et
egregii
viri et equites Romani dignitate amissa etiam bonis spolientur et si ademptis facultatibus Christiani matronae [esse] perseveraverint, capita quoque multentur, Caesariani autem ademptis bonis in exilium relegentur, vel prius confessi fuerant vel nunc confessi

5

quicumque

fuerint confiscentur et vincti in Caesarianas possessiones
descripti mittantur.
ID: Ep. 80.

LXIII.

Kal
i

drrb

TO>V

vorj paTtov

5e,

Kal drrb

T>V

prjfjidTCDV

Kal

rfjs

(rvvTa^tcos avroiiv, e/Korcoy

ereyoo? ouro? Trap

tKtivov

v7rovor)6rj<rTai.

vvvadovo-i p\v
7ri<rTO\r],

yap d\\rj\oi$ TO
T
17

vayfJL\V

yeXlOV
faa-iv,

KOI

f)

OfJLOlCDS

dp\OVTaL.

TO

Ev

dpxfj
l

r\v

6
6

Xoyoy
Xoyoy

Se,

*O

rjv air

TO

peis

(frrja-i,

Kal

aap

eyei/ero,

KOI

e

15 vccxrev

kv rjiuv, Kal

tQeaa-dptOa TTJV
7rar/)6y
17

S6av
Se
TO,

avTov, S

o)?

/zoi/oyei/oOy

Trapa

avra
TOIS
6<f)QaX-

O
7Tpl TOV Xoyou
20

a/o/Koa/je*/, o
,

iaopaKa^v
^
S>

Kal al

X

^]^ v

ty

r]Xd(/)r]o-ai>,

rryy ^CD^?*

Kal

f)

^o>^

e<j)avepa)6r].

Tavra
eSr/-

yap 7rpoavaKpovTai
Xcocre

5iarei^6/zej/oy,
cra/o/a

coy

kv TO??

e^?

npbs TOVS

*

OVK kv

fydcrKOVTas

eXrjXvOevai
0)pd-

TOV

KvplOV

KafJLev

Kal 0-Vvfj^fV 7Ti//Xw9, c Kal O fJLapTvpoOfjLv, Kal aTrayytXXofjitv vjuv T7]V
Sib
TI

foyv

TTJV

altoviov,

Ti? rjv TT/OO? TOV Trarepa, Kal

e(pav<:pa>0r]

25 rjfjLLv

o ecopaKafjiev Kal aKrjKoafJLtv,

dnayyeXXo/jLev vfuv.

e^erai avTov, Kal TCOV TrpoOeaecov OVK d(f)i(TTaTai, Sia Se avT&v KeQaXaicov Kal ovofjiaTcov TrdvTa
T>V

&V TLVa

fJLV

fjfjLtTs

ffVVTOfjLWS

VTTOfjLV ^a OfjL^V.

6

EP.SO.]

Early Christian Writers.

157

presbyters and deacons should immediately be punished ; but that senators, and men of importance, and Roman knights, should lose their dignity, and moreover be de

prived of their property; and if, when their means were taken away, they should persist in being Christians, then they should also lose their heads ; that matrons should be

5

deprived of their property, and sent into banishment ; but that people of Caesar s household, whoever of them had either confessed before, or should now confess, should have their property confiscated, and should be sent in 10
chains by assignment to Caesar s estates.

Dionysius of Alexandria on the authorship of the
Apocalypse.
the thoughts too, and from the words and their arrangement, this writer may reasonably be supposed
different

AND from

from the other.

For the Gospel and the Epistle
15

agree together, and begin in like manner. The one says, In the beginning was the Word ; the other, That which was from the beginning. The one says, And the Word became flesh, and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, glory as of an only-begotten from the Father ; the other the same a little varied, That which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we beheld, and our hands handled, of the Word of life, and the life was

20

he makes his prelude and stead he makes plain in what follows, against those who say That the Lord has not come in flesh wherefore also he carefully adds, And that which we have seen we testify, and we declare unto you the eternal life which was with the Father and was manifested to us that He which we have seen and heard declare we unto you. is consistent with himself, and does not depart from his purposes, but goes through all things under the same heads and names, of which we will shortly mention some.
manifested.

For

this

fastly maintains, as

:

25

:

3

158

Selections

from
l

)(<?

tvTvyydvav
TroXv
(

evp^cret
0a>y,

kv

e/carepo)

iroXXrjv

<&r]vl

TO

dTroTpoTrrjv TOV
Trjv

CTKOTOVS,
TTJV
TO>V

<

TT\V

dXrjOeiav, TTJV

ydpw,

yapdv,

vdpKa

/cat

TO af/ta TOV Kvpiov,
5 Trjv

TTJV Kpiaiv, Trjv d(f)0~iv

dpapTLoiv,

Trpbs

17/tay

dyaTrrjv TOV Oeov, Tr}v

TTpoy

aXXT^Xovy

^ttay

ayaTTTyy

e^roX^r,

toy

Tracray

SeT

(f>vXdo~o~iv

Tay

tvToXds

XpioTov, f} TOV @eou,

6 eXeyxoy TOV Koo~fj.ov, TOV SiaftoXov, TOV dvTiTOV dyiov JT^eu/taroy, 17 vloQea-ia

7rayyeXta
5t

77

oXou

c

Trtitrrty

rjp.a>v

dTraiTOVfjLtvr),

6

loITaT^p

/cat

6

Ytoy
eva

rravTa^ov
/cat

/cat

oXcoy

5ta

irdvTtov

XapaKTrjpigovTas,

TOI/

avTOV
Xpa>Ta

cruvopav

TOV

TC

fvayyeXiov
5e

/cat
/cat

T^y
^ei/?;

CTrta ToX^y

Trpo/cetrat.

aX//^re
coy

Trapa Taura

97

aTro/caXu-v/rty,
fjLrjSevl

yLTvta>o~a

TOVTCOV

o")(86v,

15 CiVety,

yL7;5e

<rvXXaftr]V

irpbs

avTa

KOLVTJV

^ovo~a
CTrto-roX^
)

dXX
T^y
Tryy

Tiva
e
7rto"ToX7yy

ovSe

ivvoiav

OVTC

fj

xcr

((

yap TO

euayyeXtoi/
TCDV

OVT

17

aTTo/caXui^ty

IlavXov Sid

7rio~ToXcov

TL /cat Trept TCOI/ aTro/caXv^eooi/ aurou,

ay

oi)/c

auray.
8ia<j)0pdv

Tt

<5e

/cat

5ta T7}y

0pao"ect)y

TT)V

eVrt
?rpoy

re/c/tT/pacr^at
TT)I>

TOU

evayyeXiov

/cat

T^y
01)

7rtaToX^y

aVo/caXf^t^.
EXXrjvcov

Ta

/xei/

fjiovov aTTTatVTCoy KOLTO, Trjv

(jxovrii>,

yap aXXa

/cat

25

XoytcoraTa raty Xe^ea-t, TOty o-fXXoyto-/zory, TaFy o~vvTd^o~L TroXXov ye Stl ftdpftapov Tiva T^y epfjLrjveias yeypaTTTat.
<f)66yyov }

rj

o~oXoLKLo~fjLov 9

tf

oXcoy
<&?

t5ta)rtcr/zor
eot/ce, TOI/

et

yap fx ei/
T
T?yy

,

TOU Kvpiov, TOV TC T^y
<pdVea>y.

rourco 5e dTroKaXv^jnv ftev

H.E.vii. 25.]

Early Christian Writers.

159

He
the

that reads carefully will find in either
life,

much mention of
;

the light, the turning

away of darkness

and con

tinually the truth, the grace, the joy, the flesh and the blood

of the Lord, the judgement, the forgiveness of sins, the love of

God

for us, the

command
the

to us to love

one another, the

5

need of keeping

all

the world, of the devil

commandments, the conviction of and of Antichrist, the promise of the
the
faith

Holy
Son.
is

Spirit,

the adoption of God,

which

is

throughout required of us, everywhere the Father and the
In short,
if

we mark them by

all

their characters,

it

10

plain to see that the complexion of the Gospel
is

and of
is

the Epistle

one and the same.

But the Apocalypse

from these and foreign to them, neither nor bordering on any of them ; scarcely, so to touching say, having even a syllable in common with them. Nay,
entirely different

15

more, the Epistle (for I let alone the Gospel) contains neither mention nor thought of the Apocalypse, nor yet the

Apocalypse of the

whereas Paul by his Epistles even of his visions, which he did not signified something Moreover, we may conjecture from the separately insert.
Epistle,

20

diction the difference of the

the Apocalypse.

Gospel and the Epistle from For the former are written not only

without error,
elegantly in

as regards the rules of Greek, but very

words, in reasonings, and in arrangement of

the explanations.
a barbarous

We are very far from
solecism, or

finding in

them

25

any vulgarism at all. For he had, as it appears, both the one word and the other, as the Lord had granted both to him that of knowledge,
and that of expression.

word or a

That the other saw a revelation

160

Selections

from

KalyvSxTLv elXr)(f)vai Kal 7Tpo<pr]Tiav, OVK avrepS> TOV fjLWToi Kal y\S>o~orav OVK a/cpt/3o>y 4XXrjvifov(rav avTov
/SAeTTco,

d\\

i8ia>fiacrti>

re (3ap(3apLKoTs

^pa>[JLvov,

/cat TTOV

Kal
5

0~oXoiKloVTa.

OLTTtp
)

OVK
ri?

ovSe

yap

e7novc<w7rra>i

p.ri

dvayKOLOV VVV K\ylV voftforj, ravra einov, aAAa
EUSEBIUS, Hist.
Eccles.
vii.

IJLOVOV TTJV dvo{JLOLOTr]Ta

SievOvvutv TCOV ypafy&v.
25.

LXIV.
AvTOKparcop Kalo~ap
ia),

TlcinrXios

ALKIVLOS KOL
rr)v
t
ct

rv^s, Aiowa-tcp Kal rots XonroTs CTnovcoTroiy.
cre/Sao-roy,

TUvva

10

r^y

eyt/T/y

Sccpeds Sia

Travros rov Koa-ftov

7rpo(reTaa OTTO)? OLTTO TOTTCOV ran/ Kal Sid TOVTO Kal u/ze??

6pr](TK^vo~Lp.a>v

rfjs

dvTiypafyfjs rfjs
fj.rjS^a
V\JLIV

rS
iv.

TVTTO)

^prla-Qai
otrep
tfSr]

Svvao-Qe,

ware

Kal rovro

Kara TO egbv Svvarai

v^

15 vfjuv di aTrXrjpovcrOai,

rrpb TroXXov VTT

efiov o-yy/ce^a)-

prjrai.

Kal Sid TOVTO AvpijXios Kvprjvios, 6 TOV //ey/crroi/ Tr/joo-rareuooi/, TOV TVTTOV TOV VTT e/j.ov 8o6ei>Ta
Ibid
I

LXV.
Tov
8rj

ovv IlavXov

<rvv

Kal

Trj

TTJS 7r/crreco?

o

XtiTOvpytav

7779

KaTa

A^Tio^iav

e/c/cA?/o-/as

dXXd yap
o-my
aio-ia>TaTa

fj.r)Saficos

eKo-Trjvai

TOV IlavXov TOV
i>Tvx@els

Trjs

e

OLKOV

6eXovTO$, /3a<nAe?3y nepl TOV npaKTeov
O?KOV,

AvprjXiavbs
vtlpai

^ie/Ary^e^

TOVTOIS

5

Trpoa-TaTTCov TOV
Trjv

oh dv

ot

/cara TTJV

iTaXtav Kal
eTTio-reA-

Pcopaicw

TToXiv

7Tio~K07roi

TOV SoypaTOS

Xoiev.

Ibid 30.

H.E.vii.35.]

Early Christian Writers.

161

howbeit

and received knowledge and prophecy, I will not dispute : I see that his dialect and language are not ac

curately Greek, but that he used barbarous vulgarisms, and in some places downright solecisms. But these I need

not now pick out for I do not write this in mockery let no 5 man think it but only to show plainly the unlikeness of
;

the writings.

Rescript of Gallienus.

THE Emperor

Felix, Augustus, to Dionysius, Pinnas, Demetrius,

other bishops. declared through

Caesar Publius Licinius Gallienus, Pius, and the I have ordered the bounty of my gift to be
all

10

the world, that they

may

depart from

the places of religious worship. And for this purpose you may use this copy of my rescript, that no one may molest

you.

And

this

which you are now enabled lawfully

to do,
15

has already for a long time been conceded by me. Therefore Aurelius Cyrenius, who is the chief administrator of
affairs, will

keep

this

copy which

I

have given.
N. L.

Aureliaris Decision of the Bishopric of Antioch.

So

then, as Paul

had

fallen

from the bishopric as well
as

as from the orthodox

faith,

Domnus

was

said before
20

succeeded him as bishop of the Church of Antioch. But as Paul entirely refused to leave the church-house, petition

was made

to the

just decision of the matter,

emperor Aurelian, and he gave a very by ordering the house to be

given up to those with whom the bishops of the religion in Italy and Rome held intercourse.

25

M

Selections

from

LXVI.
v

.Eroy

TOVTO

r\v

e

ftacrtXeias,

Avcrrpos

prjv,

Kara
5

PcopaLovs, ev w,
ijtrXcoTo

777 y

o5roy Mdprios XeyotTO roS (ra)Tr]piov irdOovs eopTrjs
<$

a*>

ela-eXavvovvrjs,

iravTa-^oae fiaaiXiKa y/?a/z/zara,

ray

pev

tKK\r)(ria$
irvpl

e^a^o? ^epetr, ray yeveaOai 7rpo(7TdTTOi>Ta Kal TOVS
e/y
}

IJL\V

aTifjLOUs,

rouy
Kal

5e

ei/

oiKtTiais,

el

roi)

Xpio-TiavKrfjLov

TrpoOeo-ei,
77

tXtvOepias are-

Trpoayoptvovra,
10
ypa<pr)

/*?)j/

TT/JOOTT;

TOiavTT)

ry ^*
,

/ier

01) 770X1)

5e tTtpco

TTpoeSpovs Trarray

Trpoo-erarrero roi)y TOOZ/ ZKK\T](TI<DV /cara Trdvra TOTTOV Trpcora /zei/ Sea-pots irapaSioocrOai, elff varepov navy prj^avfj Oveiv
ypa/jL/JLaTOdi

advTCOv

roi)y

LXVII.
15

omnia ilia perfecit, Aegyptiorum ex adytis angelorum potentium nomina et
fuit,

MAGUS

clandestinis artibus

20

remotas furatus est disciplinas/ Quid dicitis, o parvuli, incomperta vobis et nescia temerariae vocis loquacitate garrientes ? Ergone ilia quae gesta sunt daemonum fuere Potestis aliquem praestigiae et magicarum artium ludi ? nobis designare, monstrare ex omnibus illis magis, qui umquam fuere per saecula, consimile aliquid Christo millesima ex parte qui fecerit ?
. .
.

e nobis, qui redire in corpora iamdudum 25 animas praecipiebat efflatas, prodire ab aggeribus conditos et post dum funeris tertium pollinctorum velaminibus expediri ? Unus fuit e nobis, qui quid singuli voluerint, quid sub obscuris cogitationibus continerent tacitorum in cordibus pervidebat ? Nihil ut remini magicum, nihil humanum, praestigiosum 30
fuit
. .

Unus

.

Lact. de Mart. Pers. 13 ut religionis illius hominis carerent omni honore ac dignitate . . . libertatem denique ac vocem non haberent.

1

H.E.vui.2.]

Early Christian Writers.

163

The Edicts of Diocletian. THIS year was the nineteenth of the reign of Diocletian, the month Dystrus, which is called March by the Romans, when as the feast of the Saviour s Passion was approach ing, imperial edicts were published everywhere, com
to be levelled with the ground and 5 the Scriptures to be destroyed with fire, and ordering that those possessed of honour should lose their position, and

manding the churches

that they of Caesar s household, if they held to their pro fession of Christianity, should be deprived of freedom.

Such was the first edict against us ; and before long by 10 other edicts following it was ordered that all the rulers of the Churches everywhere should first be committed to
bonds, and afterwards by every art be

made

to sacrifice.

JESUS was a Magi an
secret arts.

the

names

these things by ; the shrines of the Egyptians he stole 15 of angels of might, and the rules of a secret

Our Lord s Miracles. He effected all

From

Why, O witlings, do you speak of things which you have not examined, and which are unknown to you, prating with the garrulity of a rash tongue ? Were, then, those things which were done, the freaks of demons, and the 20 tricks of magical arts ? Can you specify and point out to me any one of all those magicians who have ever existed in past ages that did anything similar in the thousandth
craft.

who ordered souls once breathed 25 return to the body, persons buried to come forth from the tomb, and after three days to be loosed
us,

degree to Christ ? Was He one of

.

.

.

forth to

from the swathings of the undertaker
us,

?

Was He

one

of

clearly in the hearts of the silent what each was pondering, what each had in his secret thoughts ? ... 30 There was nothing magical, as you suppose, nothing

who saw

M 2

Selections

from

aut subdolum, nihil fraudis delituit in Christo, derideatis licet ex more atque in lasciviam dissolvamini cachinnorum.

Deus
5

ille

sublimis

fuit,

incognitis regnis est missus.

et

deus radice ab intima, deus ab ab omnium principe deo sospitator
ARNOBIUS, Adv. Nationes,
i.

43-53.

LXVIII.

Ex
est,
si

iis

inter causidicos loci

non ignobilis qui mihi noti sunt Minucius Felix Huius liber, cui Octavio titulus fuit.

declarat

quam idoneus veritatis

assertor esse potuisset,

se totum ad id studium contulisset.

10

Tertullianus fuit omni genere litterarum peritus,

Septimius quoque sed in
et

eloquendo parum facilis obscurus fuit. Ergo ne
invenit.

et

hie

mi us comptus quidem satis

multum

celebritatis

Unus

igitur
et

anus,
15

quoniam

magnam
et

praecipuus et clarus exstitit Cyprisibi gloriam ex artis oratoriae

professione quaesierat

admodum multa

conscripsit in

Erat enim ingenio facili copioso suo genere miranda. suavi et, quae sermonis maxima est virtus, aperto, ut discernere non queas, utrumne oratior in eloquendo an
20

explicando an potentior in persuadendo fuerit. Hie tamen placere ultra verba sacramentum ignorantibus non potest, quoniam mystica sunt quae locutus est et ad
felicior in

id praeparata, ut a solis fidelibus

audiantur: denique a

doctis huius saeculi, quibus forte scripta eius innotuerunt, derideri solet.

LACTANTIUS, Div.

Inst. v. i.

LXIX.
25

nator

DIOCLETIANUS, qui scelerum inventor et malorum machicum disperderet omnia, ne a deo quidem fuit,

Adv. Nat. L 43-53.]

Early Christian Writers.
Christ
;

165
in
is,

human

trickery in

no

deceit

lurked

him,

although you smile in derision, as your wont though you split with roars of laughter. He was
high,

and

God on
realms,
5
R.

God

in

His inmost
all

root,

God from unknown

sent by the ruler of

as a Saviour.

Lactantius criticizing earlier Apologists.

OF
of no
truth

those

who are known to me, Minucius Felix was mean rank among pleaders. His book, which is

entitled Octavius,

shows how doughty a champion of the he could have been, if he had devoted himself

entirely to that occupation. Septimius Tertullianus too 10 was skilled in every sort of literature, but in eloquence he
little readiness, with small polish and much obscurity. neither did he find much popularity. Cyprianus there fore was the one more than others conspicuous and

had

So

eminent, for he had won to himself much glory from his profession of the art of oratory, and he has written a great

15

number of things in their own sort worthy of admiration. For he was of a ready spirit, fluent, agreeable, and (what
is a very great excellence of language) plain, so that you cannot decide whether he was more elegant in language,

20

or happier in explanation, or stronger in persuasion. Yet even he cannot please further than his words those who do not know the mystery, since the words he has

spoken are mystical, and shaped to the end that they may be understood of the faithful only in short, by the learned of this world to whom his writings have by chance become known, he is commonly ridiculed.
:

25

Misgovernment of Diocletian.

WHEN
of
evils,

Diocletian, that inventor of crimes

was ruining

all things,

and deviser he could not refrain his

166

Selections
potuit

from
orbem
terrae

manus

abstinere.

Hie

simul

et

avaritia et timiditate subvertit.

Tres enim participes regni

sui fecit,

in

et multiplicatis quatuor partes orbe diviso,

exercitibus,
5

cum
cum

singuli

eorum longe maiorem numerum

militum

habere

contenderunt,
soli

quam

priores

principes

habuerant,

rempublicam gererent.

Adeo maior
ut

esse coeperat

numerus accipientium, quam dantium,

enormitate indictionum consumptis viribus colonorum, desererentur agri et culturae verterentur in silvam.
10

Et ut

omnia terrore complerentur, provinciae quoque
concisae
:

in frustra

multi praesides et plura officia singulis regioni-

bus ac paene iam civitatibus incubare; item rationales
multi, et magistri, et vicarii praefectorum, quibus
civiles
15 et

omnibus

actus

admodum

rari,

sed condemnationes tantum

proscriptiones frequentes, exactiories

rerum innumeraet in exactioni-

bilium,

non dicam

crebrae, sed perpetuae,

bus iniuriae non ferendae.

Haec quoque

tolerari

possunt

Idem insatiabili quae ad exhibendos milites spectant. avaritia thesaurus nunquam minui volebat, sed semper
20

extraordinarias opes ac largitiones congerebat, ut ea quae

recondebat, integra atque inviolata servaret.
variis
pretiis

Idem cum
legem

iniquitatibus

immensam

faceret

caritatem,
est.

rerum venalium statuere conatus
vilia

Tune ob

exigua et
25

quam metu apparebat,
veretur.
ficandi,

multus sanguis effusus, nee venale quidet caritas multo deterius exarsit,
sol-

donee lex necessitate ipsa post multorum exitium

Hue accedebat infinita quaedam cupiditas aedinon minor provinciarum exactio in exhibendis
omnibusque quaecumque

operariis, et artificibus, et plaustris

DeM.p.7-]

Early Christian Writers.

167

hands even from God. He was the man who overturned the whole world, partly by avarice and partly by cowardice. He made three partners in his government, dividing the were multiplied, Empire into four parts, so that armies because each of the four endeavoured to have a much number of soldiers than former emperors had
greater

5

when they

ruled the state alone. Thus the receivers of taxes began to be more in number than the payers, so that by reason of the consumption of husbandmen s goods

were left waste by the excess of land-taxes, the farms and tilled lands turned into forest. In order too that all the provinces also were places might be filled with terror cut up into fragments, and many presidents and sundry and companies of officials lay heavy on every territory, on every city; and there were many indeed almost receivers besides and secretaries and deputies of the All these very seldom had civil cases before prefects. condemnations and continual confiscations and
them, only
requisitions
I

10

15

not say frequent, but unceasing of intolerable 20 every kind of property, and in the levying Even these might be borne if they were intended wrongs. his to provide pay for the soldiers; but Diocletian in would never let his treasures be insatiable avarice
will

diminished, but was always heaping up extraordinary and benevolences, in order to keep his hoards untouched and inviolate. Again, when by various evil deeds he caused a prodigious scarcity, he essayed by law to fix the of goods in the market. Then much blood was
prices

aids

25

shed

for

trifling

and paltry wares, and

through fear

nothing appeared made much worse, till after the law had ruined multitudes In addition to this it was of sheer necessity abolished. he had an unlimited taste for building, and levied of the as unlimited exactions for the wages of work
provincials

in the market, so that the scarcity

was

30

men and

artificers,

and the supplying of wagons and

35

168
sint

Selections

from
Hie
basilicae, hie
fabrica, hie uxori domus,
civitatis exceditur.

fabricandis operibus necessaria.

circus, hie moneta, hie

armorum

hie

filiae.

Repente magna pars

Migra-

bant omnes
5

hostibus

cum coniugibus ac liberis, quasi urbe ab Et cum perfecta haec fuerant cum interitu capta.

provinciarum,
fiant.

Non

recte facta

sunt,

aiebat

;

alio

modo

Rursus
Ita

dirui ac mutari necesse erat, iterum fortasse

casura.
urbi

semper dementabat, Nicomediam studens
coaequare.

Romae

lam

illud praetereo,
gratia.

10 perierint

possessionum, aut

opum

quam multi Hoc enim usiSed
in

tatum et fere licitum consuetudine malorum.
illud
fuit

hoc

praecipuum, quod ubicunque cultiorem agrum viderat, aut ornatius aedificium, iam parata domino ca-

lumnia
15 sine

et

poena

capitalis,

quasi non posset rapere aliena
ID.

sanguine.

De

Mart. Pers.

7.

LXX.
INTER
atque
caetera,

quae pro

rei

publicae semper

commodis

utilitate

disponimus, nos quidem volueramus antehac,

iuxta leges veteres et publicam disciplinam

Romanorum,

cuncta corrigere, atque id providere, ut etiam Christiani,
20 qui

parentum suorum reliquerant sectam, ad bonas mentes

redirent: siquidem

quadem
et

ratione tanta

eosdem

Christi-

anos voluntas invasisset

tanta stultitia occupasset, ut

non

ilia

veterum

instituta sequerentur,
;

quae forsitan

pri-

mum
25

parentes eorundem constituerant atque
ut

sed pro arbitrio
sibimet
leges

suo

iisdem

erat

libitum,

ita

P. 7 .]

Early Christian Writers.

169

everything else that was wanted for the works in hand. Here were public offices, there a circus, here a mint, there a factory of arms, here a palace for his wife, and there one for his daughter. On a sudden a large part of the city is turned out of doors they all had to remove
:

5

with wives and children, as if the city had been taken by enemies. And when the works had been finished at the
cost of ruin to the provinces

-

They

are not done right,
10

he used to say ; let them be done another way/ So they had to be pulled down and altered, perhaps only to be demolished again. Thus he always played the madman in his endeavour to equal Nicomedia with imperial Rome. I leave untold, how many perished on account of their estates or wealth, for by the custom of evil men this was become frequent and almost lawful. Yet the worst of it was this, that wherever he saw a field more care fully tilled or a house more elegantly adorned than usual, straightway an accusation and capital sentence was pre pared for the owner as though he could not spoil his neighbour s goods without shedding of blood.

15

20

The Toleration Edict of Galerius.

AMONGST our
making
for our part

for the use

other arrangements, which we are always and profit of the commonwealth, we

had heretofore endeavoured to set all things right according to the ancient laws and public order of the Romans, and to compass this also that the Christians 25 too who had left the persuasion of their own fathers should return to a better mind seeing that through some strange reasoning such wilfulness had seized the Christians and such folly possessed them, that, instead of following those constitutions of the ancients which per- 30 adventure their own ancestors had first established, they were making themselves laws for their own observance, merely according to their own judgement and as their
;

170
facerent,

Selections
quas observarent,
et

from
per diversa varies populos

congregarent.
stitisset,

Denique cum eiusmodi nostra iussio exut ad veterum se instituta conferrent, multi perideturbati

; atque subiugati, multi etiam ac videremus, nee diis 5 plurimi in proposito perseverarent,

culo

sunt

cum

eosdem cultum
Christianorum simae nostrae
sempiternam,
10

religionem debitam exhibere, nee observare, contemplatione mitisclementiae intuentes et consuetudinem qua solemus cunctis he-minibus veniam
ac

deum

15

his quoque indulgentiam indulgere, promptissimam in ut denuo sint Chrisnostram credidimus porrigendam ita ut ne quid contra tiani, et conventicula sua componant, Per aliam autem epistolam iudicibus disciplinam agant. Unde iuxta observare. significaturi sumus, quid debeant hanc indulgentiam nostram debebunt deum suum orare
;

pro salute nostra, et
suis possint.

rei publicae, ac sua, ut undiqueversum res publica praestetur incolumis, et securi vivere in sedibus
Ibid. 34.

LXXI.
LlTTERAE
LlCINII.

CUM
20

feliciter

tarn

ego Constantinus Augustus,

quam

etiam ego Licinius Augustus apud Mediolanum convenissemus, atque universa, quae ad commoda et securitatem publicam pertinerent, in tractatu haberemus, haec inter
caetera quae videbamus pluribus

hominibus profutura,

vel in primis ordinanda esse credidimus, quibus divinitatis

reverentia continebatur, ut daremus et Christianis et omnibus liberam potestatem sequendi religionem, quam quisque voluisset, quo quidquid divinitatis in sede coelesti *, nobis atque omnibus, qui sub potestate nostra sunt constituti, placatum ac propitium possit existere. Itaque hoc soconsilium salubri ac rectissima ratione ineundum esse
25
Etis. If.

E,

x.

5 6 , ri TTOTC

IffTJ

6eioTT)Tos KOI ovpaviov -npa

DeM.p.34.]

Early Christian Writers.

171

divers places were assembling sundry pleasure was, and in In short, when a command of ours had sorts of peoples. been set forth to the effect that they were to betake them selves to the institutions of the ancients, many of them when were subdued danger, many also ruined ; yet
their determination, and we saw great numbers held to that they neither gave worship and due reverence to the the god of the Christians we gods, nor yet regarded therefore in consideration of our most mild clemency, and

by

5

of the unbroken custom whereby

we

pardon to all to offer our speediest indulgence, that Christians may so that exist again, and may establish their meetings, yet to good order. By another they do nothing contrary
letter

men, have thought

it

are used to grant 10 right in this case also

we

shall

proceed. of ours, they will be bound to pray their god for our and their estate, and that of the commonwealth,

how they signify to magistrates, Wherefore, in accordance with this indulgence
should

15

good

endure on every side own, that the commonwealth may and they may be able to live securely in unharmed, their own homes.

ac

The Edict of Milan. WHEN we, Constantine Augustus and Licinius Augus at Milan, and were holding tus, had happily met together
consideration of all things which concern the advantage and security of the state, we thought that amongst other
25

to profit men generally, we things which seemed likely to set in order the conditions ought in the very first place to the of the reverence paid to the Divinity, by giving whatever Christians and all others full authority to follow whatsoever Divinity worship any man has chosen ; whereby in heaven may be benevolent and propitious to us, dwells and to all who are placed under our authority. Therefore we thought it good with sound counsel and very right

30

172

Selections

from

credidimus, ut nulli omnino facultatem abnegandam putaremus, qui vel observation! Christianorum, vel ei religion! mentem suam dederet, quam ipse sib! aptissimam esse
sentiret; ut possit nobis
5 liberis

summa

divinitas, cuius religioni

mentibus obsequimur, in omnibus solitum favorem

suum benevolentiamque

nem tuam
omnino
10

Quare scire dicatiopraestare. 1 convenit, placuisse nobis, ut amotis omnibus ad officium tuum conditionibus, quae prius scriptis
Christianorum nomine videbantur, nunc libere

datis super

ac simpliciter

vandae

religioni

unusquisque eorum, qui eandem obserChristianorum gerunt voluntatem, citra

ullam inquietudinem ac molestiam sui id ipsum observare contendant. Quae sollicitudini tuae plenissime significanda esse credidimus, quo scires, nos liberam atque
15

absolutam

colendae

religionis

suae

facultatem

iisdem

Christianis dedisse.

Quod cum

iisdem a nobis indultum

esse pervideas, intelligit dicatio tua, etiam aliis religionis

20

potestatem similiter apertam et nostri esse concessam, ut in colendo, quod quisque delegerit, habeat liberam facultatem, quod nobis placuit, ut neque cuiquam honori,
liberam

suae vel observantiae

pro

quiete

temporis

videatur.

25

cuiquam religioni aliquid a nobis detractum Atque hoc insuper in persona Christiano rum statuendum esse censuimus, quod si eadem loca, ad quae antea convenire consuerant, de quibus etiam datis ad officium tuum litteris certa antehac forma fuerat
neque

comprehensa, priore tempore aliqui vel a fisco nostro, vel ab alio quocunque videntur esse mercati, eadem Chris
tianis sine
30

omni

pecunia et sine ulla pretii petitione, postposita atque ambiguitate, restituantur. Qui etiam dono fuerunt consecuti, eadem similiter iisdem Christianis quantocius reddant. Et iam vel hi qui emerunt,
frustratione

vel

qui
1

dono fuerunt
Eus.

consecuti,

si

petiverint de nostra
ruv
alpiaecuv.

H. E.

x. 5

cnj>aip(0ti(Tu>v

iravTC\<as

DeM.p.48.]

Early Christian Writers.

173

reason to lay down this law, that no man whatever should be refused any legal facility, who has given up his mind either to the observance of Christianity, or to the worship which he personally feels best suited to himself; to the

end that the supreme Divinity, whose worship we freely follow, may continue in all things to grant us his wonted favour and goodwill. Wherefore your Devotion should know that it is our pleasure to abolish all conditions what ever which appeared in former charters directed to your office about the Christians, that every one of those who have a common wish to observe the Christian worship may now freely and unconditionally endeavour to observe
the

5

10

same without any annoyance or disquiet. These manner things we thought good to signify in the fullest to your Carefulness, that you might know that we have
given
freely and unreservedly to authority to practise their worship.

15

the

said

Christians

And when you
likewise

per

ceive that

we have made

your Devotion their own worship and observance

this grant to the said Christians, understands that to others also freedom for
is

left

open and

20

of our times, that every freely granted, as befits the quiet man may have freedom in the practice of whatever wor not our will that aught be ship he has chosen, for it is

diminished from the honour of any worship. Moreover in regard to the Christians we have thought fit to ordain 25 this also, that if any appear to have bought, whether from our exchequer or from any others, the places at which which they were used formerly to assemble, concerning definite orders have been given before now, and that by that the same be restored to 30 letters issued to your office
all delay and doubtfulness, Those also without any payment or demand of price. who have obtained them by gift shall restore them in like manner without delay to the said Christians; and those moreover who have bought them, as well as those who

the Christians, setting aside

35

have obtained them by

gift,

if

they request anything of our

174

Selections

from
Quae omnia

benevolentia aliquid, vicarium postulent, quo et ipsis per

nostram

clementiam

consulatur.

corpori

Christianorum protinus per intercessionem tuam ac sine mora tradi oportebit. Et quoniam iidem Christian! non
5

ea loca tantum, ad quae convenire consuerunt, sed alia etiam habuisse noscuntur, ad ius corporis eorum, id est
ecclesiarum,

non hominum singulorum, pertinentia; ea

qua superius comprehendimus ; citra ullam prorsus ambiguitatem, vel controversiam iisdem Chris10 tianis, id est, corpori et conventiculis eorum reddi iubebis
lege,

omnia

:

supra dicta

scilicet ratione servata, ut

ii,

qui

eadem

sine

pretio, sicut diximus, restituant, indemnitatem de nostra benevolentia sperent. In quibus omnibus supra dicto cor pori Christianorum intercessionem tuam efficacissimam
15

exhibere debebis, ut praeceptum nostrum quantocius compleatur; quo etiam in hoc per clementiam nostram
quieti

publicae

consulatur.

Hactenus

fiet,

ut

sicut

su

perius
in

comprehensum est, divinus iuxta nos favor, quern tantis sumus rebus experti, per omne tempus prospere

20 successibus nostris

cum

Ut autem huius forma ad omnium

sanctionis

beatitudine publica perseveret. et benevolentiae nostrae

possit pervenire notitiam, prolata pro-

grammate tuo haec

25

scripta et ubique proponere, et ad scientiam te perferre conveniet, ut huius benevolentiae nostrae sanctio latere non possit.

omnium

Ibid. 48.

LXXII.
8k
Ei>x<>iJii>a>

ravra KOI

\nrapS>s

iKerevovTi
r)v

T&

/?a<nAe? 3

6tO(rr]fj,ia

ris

e7n0an/rcu TrapaSogoraTr)

ra^a

\JL\V

DeM.p. 4 8.]

Early Christian Writers.

175

benevolence, they shall apply to the Vicarius, that order may be taken for them too by our Clemency. All these things must be delivered over at once and without delay by your intervention to the corporation of the Christians.

And

since the said Christians are known to have possessed, not those places only whereto they were used to assemble, but others also belonging to their corporation,
individuals, we comprise that you will order them

5

namely the churches, and not to them all under the above law, so
to

be restored without any doubtfulness or dispute to the said Christians, that is to their corporation and
assemblies;

i

provided

always

as

aforesaid,

that those

expect a compensation from our benevolence. In all these things you must give the aforesaid Christians your most effective
intervention, that our command may be fulfilled as soon as may be, and that in this matter, as well as others, order may be taken by our Clemency for the public quiet. So

who

restore

them without

price, as

we

said, shall

15

ensure that, as is already said, the Divine we have already experienced in so many affairs shall continue for all time to give us prosperity and successes, together with happiness for the State. But that it may be possible for this command of our
far

we

will

favour which

20

benevolence to come to the knowledge of all men, it will be your duty by a proclamation of your own to publish

25

everywhere and bring to the notice of all men this present document when it reaches you, that the command of this
our benevolence

may

not be hidden.

Constantines Cross.

[ACCORDINGLY he called on him with earnest prayer and he was, supplications that he would reveal to him who and stretch forth his right hand to help him in his present And while he was thus praying with fervent difficulties.] to him from entreaty, a most marvellous sign appeared

30

i; 6

Selections

from

dXXov

Xeyoi/royj ov paSiov r\v diroBe^acrQai, avTOv 8e TOV /3ao-iXeo)y, TOIS rrjv ypaffiv Sirj-yovfjiti/ois rj/^Tv

vvTepov
yj/cocreaJy

\povois,
civ

ore

r]^LO)6r]fjLv
o/j/coi?

TTJS

avrov

re Kal

<yuX/ay,

e^ayye/Xat/roy,
dfj.(j)i/3d\oi

re

5 crayLteVou
r<3

rw

Xoyor, r/V

/JLTJ

ov^l

Snryrifj.aTi ;
rS>

fjid\L(T&

ore

Kal

6

/zera

ravra
dfj.(f)l

d\r]0rj

Xoya>

Trapeze
rjSrj
(f)r]

r^

p-aprvpiav.

/j.(rr]fjL-

fipivas fjXiov wyoay,
6(f)6a\fj.oi$
10

r^y
e/c

fj/j-epas

diroK\ivovcrris^ avrols
VTrepKeifjievov

[Sew

kv

avrcp ovpavco

TOV

fjXiov crravpov rpoiraiov,

re
TTL

0ooroy (TwivraiLtvov, ypa^v aura) o-vvfj^Oai, Xtyovaav TOVTO> viKa. Od/jifios 8 ro) Qedfiari KparijcraL avrov re Kal TO <TTpaTia>TiKbv
o
8rj

airav,

(rreAXoyue^oo

TTOL

iroptiav

crvvtiTrtTO

re

Kal

Ottopov ey/i/ero Oavfiaros. ai 5) SiaTTOpeTv TT/OO? eavTov 15 eXeye, rt Trore 8 avTto Kal irl noX <f)dorfj.a. kv6v[jLov[jLtvG>

eny

ro

tvTavQa 8rj VTTVOVVTI vvg 7Tfli KaraXaftovo-a TOV Xpl&TOV TOV OV (TVV rO) <fya.VVTl K.OLT re Kal irapaKeXtvcracrOaL, ptfjnjpa Troirja-d(TrjfJifta)
6<f>6ijvai

20 [JLtvov
rooj/

TOV

K.CL&

ovpavov ofyOevTos

a"r)jj.iov j

TOVTCi) Trpoy

ray

TroAeyLuW

cri/yLt/3oXas

aXe^yLtari \pf)o~6ai.
EUSEBIUS, Fzte Cwrf.
i.

28, 29.

LXXIII.
Can.
3.

ATryyopeva-ev Ka&oXov

rj

ficydXr] vvvoSos ftfyt
rti/
/ZT)

tTTiarKOTra) /z^re

irpea-pvTepa) /ZTyre SiaKovto fi^Te oXa)y

rwr
25

e^ ra)

KXr)pa>

tgeivai (rvvtivaKTov e^ef^,
y

?rX^

et

apa

fj.r)Tpa

r)

dStXfprjv ^ 6ttav

rj

a

[lova, TrpoacoTra

ira<rav

viro^riav SiaTrefavyc.

Can. 6. Ecclesia Romana semper habuit primatum. ra dpyala Wrj KpareiVa) ra ei/ ^4iyu7rra) Kal Aifivy Kal

v. c. L 3 8, 2 9 .]

Early Christian Writers.

177

heaven, the account of which it might have been hard to believe had it been related by any other person. But since the victorious emperor himself long afterwards declared it to the writer of this history, when he was
his statement

honoured with his acquaintance and society, and confirmed by an oath, who could hesitate to accredit

5

the relation, especially since the testimony of after-time its truth ? He said that about noon, when the day was already beginning to decline, he saw with his own eyes the trophy of a cross of light in the heavens, 10 above the sun, and bearing the BY

has established

inscription,

CONQUER

he himself was struck with amaze his whole army also, which followed him on this expedition, and witnessed the miracle. He said, moreover, that he doubted within himself what
THIS.
this sight

At ment, and

15

the import of this apparition could be.

And

while he

continued to ponder and reason on its meaning, night came on ; then in his sleep the Christ of God appeared to him with the same sign which he had seen in the heavens, and commanded him to make a likeness of that sign which he had seen in the heavens, and to use it as a safeguard in all engagements with his enemies.
N. L.

20

Nicene Canons.
Can. 3. The great council entirely forbids it to be lawful for either bishop or elder or deacon or any at all of the his a clergy to have sister
all

[in house] spiritual ; only a mother or sister or aunt, or such persons only as

25

are past

suspicion.

Let the old customs prevail those current in Egypt and Libya and Pentapolis, that the bishop of
6.

Can.

178
i,

Selections

from
kirttTKOTrov
ro>

wore TOV AXeav8peias
T *l v egovaiav,
7ra5?7

TOVTODV ^X
tTTKTKOTra)

LJ/

KCU

kv

rfl

KOL K.OLTQL TT)V TOVTO (H/VTj64s (TTLV 6/10 LOOS KOL kv rcay aAXaty eTrap^t afS ra 7Tpo-@ia AvTi6)(iav
rafy tKK\r)(Tiais
EireiSr]
.
.

5

crco^ea-^ai
.

.

17.

woXXol ev

r<S

KOLVOVI e^era^o/ze^o*

TT)I/

v KOI rr)v aicr)(poKep8eiai

SivKovres

7re\d6ovTo
O.VTOV OVK

TOV Otiov
.8(>Kv

ypdfJifj.a.TO$

XeyovTOS
.
.

To apyvpiov
rj

7rl

TOKO)
L

.

eSiKaiG>o~is

ayia

KOLL

fieydXrj

10

0~Vl>oSo$

0)9
.

TIS
.

Xanpdvcw

.

TOV 6pOV TOVTOV TOKOVS KaOaipeQrjo-eTat TOV KXrjpov KOL dXXo-

Vp0ir)

fjLTO.

Tpios TOV Kavovos

eo-rcu.

Can.
TOQV
15 o-Oai

ig.

Tlepl T&V HavXiavio-dvTtov, efra Trpoa-fyvyove/cre^eirae, avaf:$airTie-

rg KaQoXtKrj e/c/cX^o-i a, opos avTOvs t^diravTos
.
.

.

Can. 20.

eTrei^Ty

Tives

io~iv

ev

Trj

KVptaKrj
fjfjiepas

KCU kv ra?9 Trjs Tre^r^fcocrr^y
kv
TTJ
Trdorrj

yovv K\Lvnep TOV

irapotKia

^yXarrea-tf
ra>

dyta

o~vv6Sa>

ray

i)^ay diroStdovai

@a5.

LXXIV.
20

Ta
e/icoy

Trepf Trjs

kKK\ri(na(7TLKT}s

7ri(TTa>$

KCLTO. Trjv

fitydXyv avvoSov TTJV kv NiKaia fjitv vfids KCU dXXoOev fJLfJLa6r]Kvai,
TO>V

TTJS

irpoTp^iv elnOvtas TOV trepl
Xoyov.
25 ereporooy

ireTrpayfj-evav

a

AXX
vjj.iv

iva

p.r)

e/c

TOiavTr]? a/co^y

ra r^y d
8ie7rfj.\jrdfj.0a

dnayyeXXrjTai, dvayKaioos
fJLV

VfltV

7TpO)TOI/

TTJV

V(j)

f}fJitt>V

TTpOTcOeiO-aV

7Tpl

TTJS

canons.]

Early Christian Writers.
all

179

Alexandria have power over
practice with the

these,

for this is the

bishop also. Likewise in the case of Antioch and the other provinces let their pre
rogatives be preserved to the churches.
.
.

Roman

.

Can. 17. Seeing that many on the roll of the Church in following after covetousness and filthy lucre have forgotten
the divine scripture (Ps. xv. 5) which says, He hath not given his money upon usury ... the great and holy synod

5

determines that
usury, ... he
off the roll.

any be found after this decision taking shall be deposed from the clergy and struck
if

10

Can. 19.

Concerning former Paulianists who have be

taken themselves to the Catholic Church, a rule has been

put forth [by the Council itself], that they are without exception to be rebaptized ...

15

Seeing that there are some who kneel on and in the days of Pentecost, it has seemed good Sunday to the holy council (that all things may be observed in
Can. 20.

every diocese) that

men

should offer their prayers to
ao

God

standing.

The Letter of Eusebius.

You

will

have probably learnt from other sources what
faith

was decided respecting the

of the Church at the

General Council of Nicaea,for the fame of great transactions generally outruns the accurate account of them but lest
:

rumours not
reach you,

in strict

accordance with the truth should
necessary to

25

we

think

formulary of

faith

send to you, first, the originally proposed by us, and next, the N 2
it

i8o

Selections
ypa^rfv, etreiTa

from
r\v

rr)i>

SevTepav,

raft

eKSe8a)Kao-i. TTpocrQriKas eiri^aXovTes

To

fiev ovv

Trap

f)/j.a)v

Trapovcria TOV 6eo(j)iXeo~TdTov ypdfjLfjia o)*/ dvayvcoo-Oev, ev re e^eii/ /cat
ejrl

H
pa
i
)

ev,
v(f)
r<^

TOVTOV

e

r\\i5^

?rpo 97/^00^ eTHcr/corroDi/,

/cat

e^

r^

irpcoTrj

Karrjr$>v

Kal ore ro \ovrpov eXa//jSa^o/zej/, KaOcos kv /JLfJLa6^KafjLv, Kal
a>y

OLTTO
ra>

avrS>

TT/oecr-

10

pvrepiq)
TTLO-TIV

k-nun-evo/jLev re Kal Kal kv avrfl TTJ 7ri(TK07rfj OVTCO Kal vvv irio~TtvovTS TTJV fi/JLtrepav e&&ovco/iej
>

Trpoo-avatyepofjLev.

"Ea-ri

Se

avrrj.

IIio~Tvct>

e/9

eVa

@or,

IIare pa

15 Irjcrovv

opaT&v re Kal XpivTOv, TOV TOV
00)?

TravTOKpdropa, TOV TCOV aTrdvTCQv Kal e/y eVa Kvpiov aopdrtov TroirjTrji
,

eov

A6yov
T$>V

}

@ov
altovcov

K

Stov, K

K 000T09,
TTJS

{torjV

K ^O)^?, TlOV
Trpo
SL

fJLOVOyevf], TTpdOTOTOKOV

Trdarjs

KTicrea)?,

TrdvTcov

TOV

ov Kal eyei/ero iravTa- TOV Sia TTJV rjfjLTepav o~a)Tr]piav o~apK<o@vTa Kal kv dvOpdoTrois 20 TroXiTevo-d/JLtvov, Kal naQovTa, Kal dvao~TavTa TTJ TpiT*,

ITarpos yeyevvr^^vov

r)fipa 9 Kal dv\66vTa irdXiv ev 86r) Kplvai

Trpoy
a>vTas

TOV

IlaTepa, Kal vtKpovs.

Kal

ijgovra

IIio~Tvofj.v

Kal

e/y ev

25

irio-TvovT$, dXrjQtvws Tlov Ilvevfid re ayiov, dXr)6iva>$ Ilvevfia ayiov, Ka6a Kal 6 Kvpios fjfjL&v d7roo~TeXX<t)v els TO Krjpvyfj.a TOVS eavTov
vTrdpyjeiv

TOVTWV

Ilvevfia ayiov. Kao~TOv eivai

Kal

IlaTepa, dXrjOiVQ)? IlaTepa

Kal

Tlov,

fjLaQrjTas elire.

IIopevOevTes /za^revcrare ndvTa

TO. eOvrj }

(3aTrTiovTes avTovs els TO ovofjia TOV JTarpoy, Kal TOV 30 T/oO, Kal TOV ayiov IIvevfiaTOS irepl &v Kal 8ia(3(3aiovX LV Ka ^ ^ y (ppoveiv, Kal irdXai OI/TCDJ
ra>
>

,

Kal fie\pL 6avaTOV virep TavTrjs o-vvio~Tao-6at,

rfjs

Tr/b-reooy,

dvaOe^aTL^ovTes

irao-av

dOeov

aipeo~iv.

Hist.Ecci.i.i 3 .]

Early Christian Writers.

181

second, published with additions made to our terms. The following is our formulary, which was read in the presence of our most pious emperor, and declared to be couched in
right

and proper language.

The Faith put forth by
"As

us.
5

instruction, and at the time of our baptism, we received from the bishops who were before us and as we have learnt from the Holy
in
first

our

catechetical

wont
"

Scriptures, and, alike as presbyters, and as bishops, were to believe and teach; so we now believe and thus declare our faith. It is as follows 10
:

I

believe in one God, Father Almighty, the

Maker

of

all

things, visible

and

invisible;

and

in

one Lord Jesus

Christ, the Word of God, God of God, Light of Light, Life of Life, Only-begotten Son, First-born of every
all worlds; by our salvation was He suffered and rose incarnate, and lived among men. again the third day, and ascended to the Father ; and He will come again in glory to judge the quick and the dead. also believe in one Holy Ghost.

creature, begotten of the

Father before
;

15

Whom

all

things were

made

Who

for

We

20

"

I

believe in
;

each of these

the being and continual existence of that the Father is in truth the Father ; the

Son ; the Holy Ghost in truth the Holy Ghost; as our Lord, when sending out His disciples to preach the Gospel, said, Go forth and teach all nations, baptizing them into the name of the Father, and of the Son,
in truth the

Son

25

and of the Holy
this faith, that

Ghost.

We

we have always

positively affirm that we hold held it, and that we adhere

even unto death, condemning all ungodly heresy. as before God, the Almighty and our Lord 30 Jesus Christ, that we have thought thus from the heart, and from the soul, ever since we can remember and we
to
it

We

testify,

:

Selections

from

vcQpovrjKtvai, eg ovnep Kal vvv typoveiv re Kal Xeyetz/ eg dXrjQeias, IO-/JH-V eavrovs, OV TOV TTaVTOKpaTOpOS KOI TOV KvplOV TTL rOV SeiKvvvai tyovrts Kal Si Irjo-ov Xpicrrov ftaprvpofjLtOaOTI Kal TOVS 7rap\r)\v6oTas 5 a7ro5e/^eo)9 Kal neiOeiv vfi.as ot/ra)? tTno-TevofjLev re Kal e/crypuo-o-o/zei/.
f)f*O>V

Tavra dnb KapSia? Kal

^v^

Xpoi/ovy

oi)5eiy Trapfjv TavTrj? rjjjLco^ tKTeOfio-rjS 7779 Trio-reoojj ^XX auro? re npcoTOS 6 6eo(f>i\avTi\oyias TOTTO?.
v(f>

o-Taros
10 prja-ev

f](Jia>v

(3a<ri\evs

opOoTara Trepte^eiv avrr]V

c/jLaprv/cat

OVTCO re

Kal

iavTov (ppoveiv

o-fi/co/ioXoy^cre,

ravTTj TOVS irdvTas a-vyKaTariOea-OaL viroypdfaiv re rols TOVTOLS avrols Trape/ceXeuero* eVo? Soyfjiao-t Kal (rvufypovtiv
IJLOVOV TTpoo
f)pfj.r)VV(re

eyy/oa^eVro?
Xeycoi/

prj paras

TOV

OJJ.OOVO-LOV, o

Kal avro

on

/zr)

Kara

(rco/iara)^

Tra^?;

Xeyoiro

15 ofjLoova-tos,

OVT

Kara

8iaip<rtv,

ovrt Kara riva

d.7rorofj.r]v

Kal

K Ilarpbs vnovrrivai. MrjSe yap SvvavQat rrjv duXov voepav Kal daa>fjLarov fyixnv vafiariKov TL TrdQos 6eiois Se Kal aTTOppyrots Xoyoi? 77/300-77 Acet vfyivravBai

ra roiavra
dcrei

votiv.

Kal

6 p.\v (ro^coraro?

Kal
r\\L<>v

vanpo-

20 jSeo-raroy (3ao~i\vs
rfjs

ra roiavra &e0tXoo-60er
TrpocrflrJKrjs

ol

e

rov

O/JLOOVCTIOV

rrjvSG rr\v

kv rrj

(Tvv68a>

e/y
25 rcoi/

virayoptvOt io a iri eVa Oebv Ilarepa rravroKpdropa, Trdv-

oparcov re Kal dopdrav iroirjrrjv Kal

Irja-ovv

Xpivrov rov Tiov rov &eov
rovreanv
0a>y

t

eVa Kvpiov yevvrjOevra K rov
/?

ITar/ooj fiovoyevfj,

e/c

7779

ovaias rov Ilarpos,

IK (fxoros, Seov dXriQwov e/c @eou dXrjOivov, yevvrjOevra ov rfoir]6tvra 6{JLoovo~iov Harpi* 30 SL ov ra rrdvra eyevero, ra re kv ovpavw Kal ra kv rfi
e/c

@ebv

@eov, Kal

rS>

y

ra>

yfr rov Si
fftorrjpiav

fjfjids

rovs
t

di>0pa>irovs

Kal Sia ri]v rjperepav

Kare\66vra Kal o~apKco6evra, evavOpconrjaavra TraOovra Kal dvavravra rfj rpiry T^/zepa- dve\6ovra tis

HistEcci.i.i2.]

Early Christian Writers.

183

have the means of showing, and, indeed, of convincing you, that we have always during the past thus believed
and
preached."

this formulary had been set forth by us, there was no room to gainsay it but our beloved emperor himself was the first to testify that it was most orthodox, and and he exhorted the that he coincided in opinion with it others to sign it, and to receive all the doctrine it con "consubtained, with the single addition of one word He explained that this term implied no bodily stantial." condition or change, for that the Son did not derive His existence from the Father either by means of division or of abscission, since an immaterial, intellectual, and incor poreal nature could not be subject to any bodily condition or change. These things must be understood as bearing a divine and mysterious signification. Thus reasoned our
;

When

5

;

10

15

The addition of the wisest and most religious emperor. word consubstantial has given occasion for the composition
of the following formulary
:

The Creed published by
"

the Council.

We

believe in one God, Father Almighty,

Maker of 20

all

one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, begotten of the Father; onlythings visible

and

invisible.

And

in

begotten, that is, of the substance of the Father, God of God, Light of Light, Very God of Very God, begotten

not made, being of one substance with the Father

Whom
earth
:

all

things were

made both

in

by heaven and on
:

.-5

Who for us men, and for our salvation, came and was incarnate, and was made man; He He ascended into suffered, and rose again the third day heaven, and is coming to judge both quick and dead.
down,
;

30

And

(we believe) in the Holy Ghost.

The Holy

Catholic

184

Selections

from

TOVS ovpavovs, epxo/j.vov Kplvai ffivTas KOI veKpovs. Kal Tovs Se XeyovTas OTL r\v TTOTC ore e/y ro dyiov Hvevp-a.

OVK

r\v y
t

Kal irplv yevvrjOijvaL OVK yv, Kal OTL
rj

e

OVK OVTCOV
<pdo~Koi>Ta$

yevTO

e

erepay
rj

I Troaracrea)?

rj

ovcrias

5 ea/at, TpeTTTov

d\\oi<>rov

TOV Tiov TOV @eou,
e

riL

fj

ayia KadoXiKrj Kal aTrocrToXiKrj
Sri

Kal

TavTTjS rfjs ypacpfjs vir avT&>v V tiprjTai avrois TO e/c TTJS ovatas TOV JTarpo? Kal TO
ofJLoovo-iov,

IlaTpl
dvtKivovvTO
{jLtvtov.

OVK

Ep(OTrjo~t,$

ave^GTavTOv avTois KaTaXifj.Toiyapovv Kal aTTOKpiaeis kvrtvfttv

Kal

ij$a(rav{tTo 6 Xoyos TTJS Siavoias TCOV e/p?;K 777? ovo~ia$ OD/jLoXoyrjTO TT/ooy OVT>V Srj TO
e/c

SrjXtoTiKov
fjiepos
15

ewai TOV

JJL\V

TOV ITarpo?

?vai y ov
r^iiv

/JLTJV

coy

TTJ Siavoia, 7779 vo~povs Si8ao~KaXtas vrrayoptvovo-r]? e/c TOV IlaTpbs tlvai TOV Tioi^ ov nty /JLpos Trjs ova-ias avTOV Tvyydveiv. Aioirep Tavrrj Siavota, Kal avTol cvi tTtOt/j.eOa, ovSt T^V TTJ ^v^v

VTrdpysw TOV JTarpoy. KaXcos tX tv vvyKaTaTiOeaOai

TavTy Kal

tSoKet

TTapaiTovptvoi,
20 fi/Aw

TOV

7779

e/pryi/7;y

(TKOTTOV

irpb

6(j)6a\fj.wv

KaTa
fteOa
TO>V

K7reo~Ti> Keipevov, Kal TOV fir] Trjs opOfjs Siavotas. TavTa Se Kal TO yevvr)6evTa ov Troirj6ei>Ta

KaTeSegd-

7Ti8rj TO noirjOevTa KOLVOV
\OL1T$)V
ofJLOiov

(/)ao~Kov elvai TTp6o~prjiJ.a

KTlfffjidTGW TCOV

SlO,

TOV TtOV y tVO \Jikv
o
5r)

0>V

(>V,

ovSev

X
SL

LV

Tol/

^tov.

Ai

pr]

tlvat

avTov

25 Trofyfjia TOIS
77

ai>Tov

yevoptvois

/i0epey,

KaTa Trav Trofypa Tvyydvew

ova-ias, rjv

KpeiTTOvos Se *K TOV IlaTpbs

yeyewfjo-eai SiSdvKti TO, Oeia Xoyia, TOV Tponov 7779 yewrjo-tcos Kal dvtKfodo-Tov Kal dvmXoyio~Tov navy yevOVTCO 8e Kal TO, O/JLOOVGIOV vrjTfi 0ucret TvyxdvovTos. 30 e l/ai TOV IlaTpbs TOV Tiov, egeTafofJievos 6 Xoyos avviaTrj, ov KaTa TOV T&V a-^aTCOv Tponov, ovSe TOLS QvrjTots
ga>oi$

OVTS yap KaTa Siaipeaiv TTJS ovvias, KaTa dnoTOfjLrjv, dXX ovSe KaTa TI irdOos rj
,

Hist. ECCI.

i.

is.]

Early Christian Writers.

185

and Apostolic Church anathematizes all who say there was a time when the Son of God was not; that before He was begotten He was not ; that He was made out of the non-existent; or that He is of a different essence and of a different substance from the Father ; and is susceptible 5
of variation or change.

When they had set forth this formulary, we did not leave without examination that passage in which it is said that the Son is of the substance of the Father and consubwith the Father. Questions and arguments thence and the meaning of the terms was exactly tested. Accordingly they were led to confess that the word constantial
10

arose,

substantial signifies that the Son is of the Father, but not deemed it right to as being a part of the Father. for that is sound doctrine which 15 receive this opinion

We

:

teaches that the
substance.
fall

is of the Father, but not part of His the love of peace, and lest we should from the true belief, we also accept this view, neither

Son

From

do we
reason

reject the

term

"

consubstantial."

For the same

we

made";

admitted the expression, "begotten, but not 20 for they alleged that the word "made" applies

generally to all things which were created by the Son, to which the Son is in no respect similar ; and that conse

quently He is not a created thing, like the things made by Him, but is of a substance superior to all created objects, which the Holy Scriptures teach to be begotten of the
Father, by a mode of generation which is incomprehensible and inexplicable to all created beings. So also the term one substance with the Father," when investigated, was accepted not in accordance with bodily relations or For it was also shown that it similarity to mortal beings.
"of

25

30

does not either imply division of substance, nor abscission, nor any modification or change or alteration in the power of the Father, all of which are alien from the nature of the

1 86

Selections

from

ITarpoy SvvdpcW TOVTCDV yap airdvdXXoTpLov eivai TTJV TOV dyevvrjTOV ITarpoy HaTpl TOV /jLrjScIlapaaTaTLKov 8 tlvai TO opoovo-iov ra yzvrjTa /crtay/ara TOV Tibv TOV Trpoy
77

dXXoLcoo-Lv rfjs TOV

TQ)v

(/>V(TIV.

ro>

jj.iav
5

jj.(pepeiav

&eov

(ptpeiv,

fj.6vov

B

ra>

JTarpt
fir]

r<3

ytyevvriKOTi /cara
/2i ^ai

irdvTa Tpoirov op.oi.ov KCU o-rao-eco? re /cat ova-la s d\\

tlvai e^ Prepay rt^oy UTTO7779

e/c

rou JTar/ooy.

aiJrw TOVTOV kp^r\ve.vQ^vTi TOV Tponov /caXa)? e^eii^
<rvyKaTaTi@o~6ai

cTrei

/cat

TO)*>

naXaicov Xoyidvs

10 /ecu
7TL<pai>i$

eTTiO /coTroL ?
roi)

r^y

ITarpo?

/cat

avyypatyeas eyvco/ttv CTTt TtoO ^eoXoyta? roO opoovvtov
r<S

/cat

77

(TW(f)covrjo afj.v oi
15

ra? aVoflofletVay
jSaatXeoo?

OVK aVe^eraara)?, aXXa /cara Siavoias tir avTov TOV OeocpiXeo-TaTov

7rdvT$

}

^era<j^e/(ra5,

/cat

ro??

e/p^/zez/ot?

Xoytcr/zoty

crvvofjLoXoyrjOeia-as.
rr)i/

SLO,

TOV dvaOe^aTLO-fibv 6e TOV /zera ivai TTLCTTLV 7rpoy avTo&v TiQevTa StKTOv TO aTreipytiv dypdtyois XprjaOai 0ooraty, 5t ay
Kal a/caracrratrta r?;?
ra>

Kal

20

fj

7rdo~a zyeyoveL crvyxycris

Mr)8fj,ids yovv QtOTTvtvo-TOV ypa(f)fj$ Kal rco, 7^r Trore ore ou/c /cat roty e^y
?^J>,

e^ ou/c
7rtXeyo-

jLteVoty

Kxprjfj.vr)$ } OVK tvXoyov $dvrj ravra Xeyeti/ /cat T SiSd&Keiv. /2t /cat /caXcoy 86avTL avvveOe/jieOa,
ai/r<3

25 evret yLtTy^e

ez/

r5

?rp6 rourou
v
j"

\pbva>

rouroty

etco^et/zei/ eruy-

XprjaOai ro?y prjfj.a(nv. Trpb TOV yevvrjQfjvai OVK

rt
r\v

/ZT)Z/

ro dvaQefJLaTifcarQaL TO
e^o/zto-^?;,
ra>

OVK &TOTTOV

irapa irdcn {JL\V onoXoytio-Qai ivai avTov Tlbv TOV @ov v Kal Trpb Trjs /cara crap/ca yez/i/Tjo-ecuy. JI5r; 5e o ^eo^tXe30 crraroy qjjicov /3ao~tXeL y

r5 Xoyoo KaT0~Kevae Kal /cara ev&eov avTov yevvrja-iv TO irpb TrdvTcov aloov&v ivai avTov eTret /cat ?rptV ei/epyeta ytvvrjdrjvai, Swdpti rjv ev r5
toy

r7)j>

ITarpt aye^i/r^rcoy, oVroy roO ITarpoy aet Harpoy,

/cat

Hist Ecd. 1

12.]

Early Christian Writers.

187

It was concluded that the expression unbegotten Father. being of one substance with the Father, implies that the

Son

of

God

creatures which
alone,
for

does not resemble, in any one respect, the He has made ; but that to the Father

who
is

begat Him,

He

is in all

points perfectly like

:

5

He

of the essence

of the Father. the

and of the substance of none save This interpretation having been given of

doctrine, it appeared right to us to assent to it, especially as we were aware that of the ancients some learned and celebrated bishops and writers have used the 10 term consubstantial with respect to the divinity of the
"
"

Father and of the Son. These are the circumstances which

I

had

to

communi
15

To cate respecting the published formulary of the faith. it we all agreed, not without investigation, but, in the above
thorough examination in having subjected the presence of our most beloved emperor, and agreed to it also allowed in accordance with the above reasons.
sense, after
it

to

We

that the

anathema appended by them to their formulary of faith should be accepted, because it prohibits the use of words which are not scriptural through which almost all the disorder and troubles of the Church have arisen. And since no passage of the inspired Scripture uses the terms "out of the non-existent," or that "there was a time
;

20

when He was the same class,
it

not,"

nor indeed any of the other phrases of

25

did not appear reasonable to assert or to In this opinion, therefore, we judged teach such things.
it

since, indeed, we had never, at any been accustomed to use such terms. that before [Moreover, the condemnation of the assertion He was begotten He was not, did not appear to involve any incongruity, because all assent to the fact that He was the Son of God before He was begotten according to the And here our emperor, most beloved by God, flesh.

right to agree;

former

period,

30

!88

Selections
KOI

from
Svvd^t Trdvra OVTOS, dtt Tavra vjuv

jSao-iXewy act KOL (rcoTrjpos

T

KOL Kara ra aura Kal obcraurcoy exo^ros.]

rfjs ayaTTT/rot ^ra KKpi^va re KOL o-vyKaraOto-ecos Qavepa KaQ-

5 to-rcoj/res*

a>9

ci/Xoy&s rore /ze^

/cat

pfypi-S vo-Tarr)? co/ja?

/crra/ie^a,

6

^^

rare 5e
d<f>i\ot>iKa>$

ra ercpofas ypafyevTa TT/ooo-e/coTrre, ra /zr) \virovvra /care^e^a/ze^a, o^
Xoycor
e^era^oucri

17/1^
/j.(pai>fj

vyvcofJi6i G)S

TO>V

r^r

Biavoiav

o-vjj.Trpagi

10 TrpoeKTeOeicrr)

marei
THEODORET,
ZTw/.

Hist. ECCI. 1 12.]

Early Christian Writers.

189

began

to

existence before

reason concerning His divine origin, and His He was virtually in the Father all ages.

without generation, even before He was actually begotten, the Father having always been the Father, just as He has always been a King and a Saviour, and, virtually, all and has never known any change of being or
things,
action.]

5

have thought it requisite, beloved brethren, to transmit you an account of these circumstances, in order to show you what examination and investigation we bestowed on all the questions which we had to decide and also to prove how at one time we reasonably resisted, even
;

We

10

the last hour, when doctrines improperly expressed offended us, and, at another time, we, without contention, accepted the articles which contained nothing objectionof able, when after a thorough and candid investigation
to

15

conformable signification, they appeared perfectly with what had been confessed by us in the formulary of
their
faith

which

we

had published.
N. L.

INDEX
Ads, of Peter,
32.

of Paul, 34, 36. of Apostles (Eus.), 36
84.

(Callistus), 130, to be deposed (Cyprian), 150; Cyprian s theory
;

(Mur.\

Agape, described, 20. Aiburnus, an unknown god, no.
Alexander, martyr, 78. Alexandria, Nicene Canon on, 176. Allegorical interpretation, samples from Justin, 56 sq. Origen on, 132 Porphyry on, 142, 164.
;
;

of, 146 sq. Blandina, martyr, 68 sq.

Caesariani, 154, 162 (?). Callistus, bp. of ; misdeeds of,

Rome

128.
Celsus, 132 sq. Cerdon, 96. Cerinthus and St. John, 104. Chiliasm, 40. Christian life, accounts of (adDiogn.},

Ambrosius, 130.
Anicetus, bishop of

Rome, 102

bis.

Antichrist, 88, H4(?).

Antioch, Aurelian

s

decision, 160.

12 sq. ; (Aristides), lian), 1 1 6.

46; (Tertul-

Apocalypse

(Mur.}, Apostles: in Teaching, 22.
Aristides, 44. Aristion, 40.

of John (Eus.}, 36, 40 ; (Mur.), 86; (Irenaeus),88; (Dion Al.), 156. of Peter, 36 ; 86.
:

Christian
(Tert.),

worship
1 1 6.

:

(Justin),

50

;

Christians, in the jvorld, 12, before Christ, 48, 50 not
;

46;

disloyal,

of, 114; do not specially address fools, 134.

114; numbers

Arnobius, on our Lord
162.

s

miracles

Church discipline, n6; confounded by heretics, 122; Roman bp. s
124; relaxed by Callistus, Novatian, 146 ; and the Confessors, 148 sq. ; of sinful bps.. 130, 150; Nicene Canons, 176. government, 6 sq., 12, 26; Cyprian s theory, 146, 150.
edict,
1

Attalus, martyr, 68 sq. Aurelian, decision about Antioch
1

28

;

60.

Aurelius, illiterate confessor, 148.
dTro^.vr]fjiovfVf^aTa

rwv

air.,

52.

Baptism, the Teaching, 18 ; Justin, 50 Tert., 118; of infants, 128 repeated, 130; schismatic, worth less, 152 heretical, 142 sq., 178.
;
;
;

no forgiveness outside, 146, 152. Clement of Rome Letter to Corin
;

thians, 2sq.,62,

100; wrote Ep.

Basilides, 88.
Biblias, martyr, 70.

Hebr., 142. Constantine, Edict of Milan, 170; vision of Cross, 174; at Nicaea,
182.

Bishops
ing,

Clement, 8 sq. in Teach 26; sinful, to be retained
;

in

Corinth, church of: Clement s letter
to, 2 sq.

192

Index.
Eusebius

Corpus (Christianorum), 116, 174. of Caesarea Creed, traces of, 152 810 ; of Nicaea, 182. 118 ; vision of, 174. Cross, sign of,
;

on Epistles, 34 on the on Papias, 38 sq. ; Canon, 36
: ;
;

intercourse with Constantine,

1

76

;

Letter
:

of,

178.

Cyprian, on Church unity, 146
Lactantius on,
1

sq.

64.

Faith and knowledge, 108.
Deaconesses, 28. Deacons, in Teaching, 26. Demons, authors of heathenism, 46 ; imitated Eucharist, 52. Diatessaron of Tatian, 60. Diocletian: edicts, 160; misgovernFasts: the Teaching,^; Montanists,
92.

Firmilian, letter of, 154. Flavia Domitilla, 10. Flavius Clemens, 10.
Florinus, 92.

ment, 164. Dionysius of Alexandria, on Novatian, 146 ; on Apocalypse, 156,
1

Gaius of Rome, 32.
Galerius, edict of, 168. Gallienus, Rescript of, 160. Glabrio, 10. Gnostic, the true, 106.

60.

of Corinth, 32, 60.

Docetism, Ignatius on, 12. Domnus, bp. of Antioch, 160. AavatSes /rat Aiptcai, 6.
Easter

Gospels

Question Polycrates, 94 Polycarp, 102 ; Firmilian, 154.
:

;

Canonical, Eus., 36 Irenaeus, 88. spurious, 36. of Matthew (Papias), 44 ; (Ir.), 88. of Mark (Papias), 42; (Mur.},
: ;

;

Egregii mrt, 156.
Elders, 10, 12.

Eleutherus, bp. of
Encratites, 58. of Epistles:
St.
;

Rome,
Paul,

102.

82 (Ir.), 88. of Luke (Mur.\ 82 (Marcion), 98. of John (Mur.\ 84
;

;

(Ir.),

88;

(Ir.), 88.

fourteen

(Eus.), 34, 36 (Mur.), lated by Marcion, 98.

84

;

muti

to Hebrews (Eus.), 34 ; (Origen), 142. to Laodicenes (Mur.\ 86.

Heathenism, work of demons, 46. Hebrews, Gospel ace. to, 36, 44. Heretics, misuse of Scripture, 108 not to be argued with, 120 ; dis
orderly worship, 122.

;

of Clement, 62. of Polycarp, 104.

Hermas, Shepherd

of, 34,

86, 90.
sq.

Hyginus, bp. of Rome, 96, 102
;

-

James, 36.
i

Peter (Eus.), 32, 36

(Papias),

Ignatius
90.

:

44; (Mur.V), 86;
2

(Iren.), QC.

Docetism, 12

on episcopacy, 12; on ref. by Irenaeus, ;

Peter (Eus.), 32, 36; (Mur. ?), 86; (Firmilian?), 154. i John (Eus.), 36; (Papias), 44 ;

(Mur.\ 84 (Iren.), 90. 2 & 3 John (Eus.), 36 (Mur.\ 86.
; ;

Jude (Eus.), 36
Barnabas, 36.

;

(Mur.}, 86.
;

Inspiration: ofO.T., 136; ofN.T., 136. Irenaeus, on Papias, 38 chiliastic, 48; on Gospels and Apoc., &c., 88 to Florinus, 92 on Marcion,
; ; ;

96
Justin,

;

on tradition, 98

;

on Poly

Eucharist, in Teaching, 20 52 sq. Tert., 118, 126.
;

carp, 102.
fesus Christ, put to death, 2

unbaptized excluded from, 20, 52.
reserved, 54.

;

Incar

nation real,

1

2

;

Reason incarnate,

Index.
instituted 48 sq. ; date of, 48 Eucharist, 52; rose again on Sun day, 56 ; Temptation parabolical, 138 miracles, 162.
; ;

Origen, 130 sq
opoovfftov, 182 sq.

Jewish interpretations, 56. see John, the apostle:

Gospels,

Epistles, Apocalypse, Papias, Polycrates, Cerinthus.

Papias, 38 sq. Papirius, 96. Paul, apostle at Rome (Clement) , 4 ; (Eus.),5o; (Ahtr.}, 84; (Ir.), loo.
:

-

confessor, 148.

the Elder, 40. works of, 134. Jugglers, the on heathenism, 46 sq., Justin Martyr, on Christian worship, 50 Tatian
;

of Samosata, 160
178.

;

followers
in

of,

Pericope

adulterae

(?)

Papias,

his disciple, 58

;

ref.

by

Ir.,

90.

Justus (Barsabas), 40.
62. KvptaK6s, 26, 38, 44,

44Persecution, futility of, 16, 18, 114. Persecutions Nero, 2, 4, 30, I to.
:

Lactantius on earlier Apologists, 164. Lapsi (Pliny), 28; (Decian), 144,
148.
Libelli, 144, 148.

Domitian, 2, 10, no. Trajan, 26,112. Marcus Aurelius, 62 sq., no. libdlus of, 144 Decius lapsi,
:

;

Licinius,

Emperor, 170.

Linus, bp. of

Rome,

100.
recklessness
of,

148. Valerian, 154, 160. Diocletian, 162, 168, 170. Peter, apostle put to death, 4 (Cle
:

Lord

s Prayer Lucian, confessor:

in Teaching, 20.

ment), 30 (Eusebius), at Rome, mention 32 ; Preaching of, 32 ; by Papias, 38 ; Gospel of, 32 :

148

sq.

Mappalicus, martyr, 148. Marcion, 88 (?), 96 sq.,

102

;

and

Polycarp, 104, 118. of clergy, Marriages, mixed, 124; 130; unequal, 130. Matthias, 40. Maturus, martyr, 68 sq.
Melito, 96. Memoirs of Apostles, 52, 54. Messianic Prophecies, 56 sq. Milan, Edict of, 170.

Apocalypse of, 32. Philip at Hierapolis, 40, 94. preparation for the Philosophy of heresy, Gospel, 1 06 ; mother 118. 102. Pius, bp. of Rome, 86, Pliny, 26 sq. Irenaeus on, Polycarp, martyr, 96 ; 102 ; and Marcion, 104. Polycrates, bp. of Ephesus, 94.
:

Ponticus, martyr, 78. Pontifex maximus, 124.

Minucius Felix, 164. Miracles, argument from: (Quadratus), 44; (Origen), 132; (Arnobius), 162. Mithras, 52.

Porphyry, on allegorical interpreta
tions, 142.

Potentiorem principalitatem,
Pothinus, martyr, 70. Praescriptio, 122.

i

oo.

Montanus, 90,
fiapcLv

1

28.

Praxeas, misdeeds of, 1 26. Preaching of Peter, 32.
Priscilla

add, 22.
KOfffJ.lKOV,

and Maximilla, 90, 128.

fWOTflplOV

24.

Proclus, Montanist, 32.

Nicaea, Council of, 176-188. Noetians, 92. Dion. Al. on, 146 Novatian
:

26; Prophets, in Teaching, 22, 24, Montanist, 90.
;

his

baptism worthless, 152.

Quadratus, 44.

194
Rome, Church
sq.
;

Index.
Telesphorus, bp. of
102. Tertullian
on, 164.
:

of: to Corinthians, 2 apostles at, 32, 100; charity Nicene of, 60; Firmilian on, 154 Canon on, 176; Ir. s list of
;

Rome,

martyr,

110-128;

Lactantius

bishops, 98.
Sagaris, bishop and martyr, 96. Sanctus, martyr, 68 sq.

Testimonium animae, 112.
Thraseas, bp. and martyr, 96.
Tiberius, emperor, no. Tradition: Irenaeus, 98; Tert., 118, 120; variety of, 154. Travellers, reception of, 24.

Saturninus (i), 60; (2), 148.

misused by heretics, 108. Shepherd of Hermas (Eus.), 34, 36 (Mur.\ 86 (Iren.), 90.
Scripture
;
;
;

Usury forbidden to clergy, 178.
Valentinus, 60, 102, 118, 120. Vettius Epagathus, martyr, 64. Victor, bp. of Rome, 94.

dealing with, 140. Socrates the philosopher, condemned heathenism, 48,50. Soter, bp. of Rome, 60, 102.
Soul, Testimony
of,

Sinners,

God

s

112.

Stephen, bp. of Rome, 154.
Successus, bp., 154.

Wisdom

Women
;

(A fur.), 86
:

;

90.

Montanist

prophetesses,

Sunday in Teaching, 26 sq. ; at Corinth, 62 ;
on,
1 1 8,

Justin, 54

90; heretic, 122.
Zacharias, 64, 66. Zephyrinus, bp. of Rome, 32.
50.

no kneeling

178.

Tatian, 58 sq. Teaching Q{ the Apostles, 18 sq., 36.

OXFORD: HORACE HART, PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY

flDacmillan

&

Co/e Gbeolooical Morks.

BY THE LATE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY. CYPRIAN his Life, his Times, his Work. By EDWARD
:

WHITE BENSON,
8vo, 2is. net.

D.D., D.C.L., sometime Archbishop of Canterbury.

is a worthy termination of a The Arch great career. bishop has given us not only the best account we possess of St. Cyprian s mind and policy, but also a revelation of himself; and his readers will welcome in these pages the last and greatest of his charges from the throne of St. Augustine. TIMES. In its main outlines full of dramatic insight and force, and in its details full of the fruits of ripe learning, sound judgment, a lofty Christian temper, and

GUARDIAN.

The book

a mature

ecclesiastical

wisdom.

BY THE LATE BISHOP THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS.
Rome.
of

LIGHTFOOT.
Part
I.

St.

Clement of

Revised Text, with Introductions, Notes, Dissertations, and Translations. By J. B. LIGHTFOOT, D.D., LL.D., D.C.L., late Bishop

A

Durham.

New

Edition.

Two

Vols. 8vo, 32^.

THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS.
S.

Part II. S. Ignatius. Revised Texts, with Introductions, Notes, Dissertations, and Translations. Second Edition. Two vols. in Three. 48^.
Polycarp.

THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS.

Comprising the Epistles

(genuine and spurious) of Clement of Rome, the Epistle of St. Ignatius, the Epistle of St. Polycarp, the Martyrdom of St. Polycarp, the Teaching of the Apostles, the Epistle of Barnabas, the Shepherd of Hermas, the Epistle of Diognetus, the Fragments of Papias, the Reliques of the Elders preserved in Irenaeus. Revised Texts, with short Introductions and English Translations. Edited and completed by J. R. HARMER, M.A., Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, sometime Chaplain to the Bishop. 8vo, i6s.

BY THE LATE
SIX

REV.

F. J. A.

HORT,

D.D.

LECTURESON THE ANTE-NICENE FATHERS.
ECCLESIA.

By the late FENTON JOHN ANTHONY HORT, D.D., D.C.L., LL.D., Lady Margaret Professor of Divinity in the University of Cambridge. Crown 8vo, 3*. 6d.

THE CHRISTIAN
Sermons.

A Course of Lectures A

on

the Early History and Early Conceptions of the Ecclesia, and Four

Crown
6s.

8vo, 6s.

JUDAISTIC CHRISTIANITY.
Crown
8vo,

Course of Lectures.

THE WAY, THE TRUTH, THE
Lectures for 1871.

LIFE.

The Hulsean
BISHOP

OF DURHAM.

With Prefatory Note by Crown 8vo, 6s.

the Right Rev. the

MACMILLAN &

CO., Ltd.,

LONDON.

flDacmillan

&

Co/0 Gbeoloflical Worfcs*

A GENERAL SURVEY OF THE HISTORY OF THE CANON OF THE NEW TESTAMENT DURING THE
FIRST FOUR CENTURIES.
By BROOKE Foss WESTCOTT,
;

D.D., D.C.L., Lord Bishop of Durham Honorary Fellow of Trinity and King s Colleges, Cambridge. Sixth Edition. Crown 8vo, los. 6d.

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF THE
GOSPELS. By
8vo,
i

B. F.

WESTCOTT, D.D.

Eighth Edition

.

Crown

os. 6d.

A

HISTORY

OF

THE
Crown

CHRISTIAN
By
;

CHURCH
S.

DURING THE FIRST SIX CENTURIES.
King s College, London.
8vo, los. 6d.

CHEETHAM,

D.D., F.S. A., Archdeacon and Canon of Rochester Honorary Fellow of Christ s College, Cambridge; Fellow and Emeritus Professor of

OUTLINES OF CHURCH HISTORY,

By RUDOLF

SOHM, Professor of Law, Leipzig. Translated by Miss MAY SINCLAIR. With a Preface by Professor H. M. GWATKIN. Crown 8vo, 3^. 6d.

THE CHURCH OF THE FIRST
the
;

DAYS,

Comprising

Church of Jerusalem, the Church of the Gentiles, the Church of the World. Being Lectures on the Acts of the Apostles. By C. J. VAUGHAN, D.D., Dean of Llandaff Master of the Temple, 1869-94; and late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. New Editioji
.

~

Crown

8vo, los. 6d.

THE CANON OF THE OLD TESTAMENT,
;

An

Essay on the Growth and Formation of the Hebrew Canon of Scrip ture. By H. E. RYLE, D.D., Hulsean Professor of Divinity, Cambridge; Professorial Fellow of King s College, Cambridge and Examining to the Lord Bishop of Ripon. Second Edition. Crown 8vo, 6s. Chaplain

THE EARLY NARRATIVES OF GENESIS, A
Introduction to the Study of Genesis I-XI.

By H.

E. RYLE,

Brief D.D.

Crown

8vo,

3*. net.

PHILO AND HOLY SCRIPTURE, or

the Quotations

of Philo from the Books of the Old Testament. With Intro duction and Notes. By H. E. RYLE, D.D. Crown 8vo, los. net.

MACMILLAN &

CO., Ltd.,

LONDON.

BR 160 .A2 1897 SMC Gwatkin, Henry Melvill, 1844-1916. Selections from early

writers illustrative of AWS-3661 (sk)

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful