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SR SAIFUL AMAN HJ SULAIMAN DEPARTMENT SURVEYING SCIENCE AND GEOMATIC FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE, PLANNING AND SURVEYING UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI

MARA, MALAYSIA ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: SR DR. OTHMAN MOHD YUSOF

LEAD LINE MEASUREMENT Lead lines are to be used in situations where use of electronic sounding would be impractical, impossible, or give faulty results. Lead line sounding is especially suited for underwater investigation of rock or concrete placement; on the slopes of jetties, groins, and revetments; and near bulkhead construction. In such areas, echo sounding may be inaccurate or contaminated with noise from side echoes

DEPTH MEASUREMENT

DEPTH MEASUREMENT
LEAD LINE MEASUREMENT

SOUNDING POLE Basically a level rod which uses the water surface instead of a differential levelling instrument for reference. Depths are observed relative to the water surface Sounding poles, like lead lines, are useful in certain situations in which an electronic echo sounding system is not practical or accurate.

DEPTH MEASUREMENT

SOUNDING POLE

DEPTH MEASUREMENT

SINGLE BEAM ECHO SOUNDER Single beam echo sounder is the most widely used for depth measurement. Single beam echo sounder measure the depth by sending out an acoustic signal and measuring the time it taken for that signal to travel to the bottom and return back to echo sounder. If multiplied by sound velocity, this travel time will given an indication of the depth below the echo transducer.

DEPTH MEASUREMENT

SINGLE BEAM ECHO SOUNDER

DEPTH MEASUREMENT

SINGLE BEAM ECHO SOUNDER

DEPTH MEASUREMENT

INSTALLATION TRANSDUCER
Critical for the correct reliable operation of the echo sounder If high and low frequency transducer have to be installed, both transducer should be mounted as close as possible. Usually standard dual frequency transducer at market is provided with transducer in same housing. Transducer is ideally located at third or half of the length of the vessel measured from bow It should also be installed as close as possible to the centerline. (Minimized effect of roll and pitch) The position of the transducer should be determined accurately as possible. (in relation to other survey system) The transducer should be located as far as possible from source of noise such as propeller and engine.

INSTALLATION TRANSDUCER OVER THE BOW

INSTALLATION TRANSDUCER OVER THE SIDE

ECHO SOUNDER CALIBRAIONS (BAR CHECK) Echo sounder Calibration Routine task which of adjusting the equipment to ensure correct depth can be measured. The Bar Check is performed to calibrate the depth reading of the echo sounder. The Bar Check is recognized throughout the Navy, International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) and dredging industry as the standard reference system for acoustic depth measurements. The Bar Check calibration should be done before and after the surveying done every day at the surveyed area. Two main parameters are directly involve in bar check calibration; the draught and the speed of sound.

BAR CHECK PROCEDURE Measure the physical draught of the transducer and input the value into the echo sounder. The draught is distance measured from water surface till the base of the transducer. If a speed of sound is available, insert the value of SOS into echo sounder. If not just set 1500m/s as the initail value. Lay down the bar plate 1 meter below the transduser, check the measured depth at the echo sounder. If the value of depth is different, adjust the input value of draught. Lay down the bar plate 2 meter below the transduser, adjust the draught if the value of depth is still have a different.

BAR CHECK PROCEDURE Lay down the bar plate 3 meter below the transduser, check the measured depth at the echo sounder. If the value of depth is different, adjust the input value of Sound of Velocity or Speed of Sound. Lay down the bar plate 4 meter until the deepest bar plate as possible below the transducer, adjust the SOS or SOV until the depth shown same between the bar plate and echo sounder display. Repeat the procedure in the opposite direction.

BAR CHECK CALIBRATION

ECHO SOUNDER SETTING


POWER The operating range of the echo sounder depends on pulse length and frequency. To optimize the use of the echo sounder, the transmitted power should be kept at the lowest values consummate with adequate detection. Increases in power will result in high levels of echoes and creating poor record. PULSE LENGTH The pulse length is usually selected automatically as a function of the operating range. The short pulses are necessary for a better resolution. It may be necessary to increase the pulse length in areas with poor reflectivity.

ECHO SOUNDER SETTING


GAIN The amplification of the signal also amplifies the noise and consequently the data record may be confused. It is recommended that the gain is adjusted according to the seabed type and to the transmission power. RANGE Corresponds to the depth scale of the echo sounder recording window. The width of the recording paper is fixed. DRAUGHT This parameter corresponds to the immersion of the transducer; in order to record the depth with reference to the instantaneous water level, the draught should be set and verified before survey operations commence and regularly thereafter

ECHO SOUNDER SETTING


PAPERS SPEED This speed is particularly important and should be selected to ensure good horizontal resolution from depth measurements. SPEED OF SOUND

INTERPRETATION OF RECORDS
Interpretation of the echo trace is a hydrographers responsibility. The interpretation requires experience to identify particular shapes, multiple echoes and false echoes.

INTERPRETATION OF RECORDS
FALSE ECHO Caused by foreign matter such as kelp or fish in the water column.

INTERPRETATION OF RECORDS
MULTIPLE ECHOES
Echoes received subsequent to the very first one due to a multiplicity of reflections back and forth between the seafloor and the surface. These reflections are often recorded as multiples of the first depth.

OPERATION MEASURING DEPTH USING ECHO SOUNDER

ANTENNA

INSTALLATION ANTENNA WITH PARALLEL TO TRANSUCER

ASSIGNMENT 2
Discuss in detail what is Multibeam Echo Sounder. Your discussion and explanations must cover on Principle of operation, Installation and Calibration and Sample of application Discuss in detail what is Side Scan Sonar. Your discussion and explanations must cover on Principle of operation, Installation and Calibration and Sample of application. Discuss in detail what is Sub Bottom Profiler. Your discussion and explanations must cover on Principle of operation, Installation and Calibration and Sample of application .

Instruction
Assignment 1
4 - 5 persons in each group Prepare slide presentation and report on selected topic Selected group will be present on the selected topic. Hardcopy and softcopy report and slide presentation must submit on 23th Feb 2010 before 16:59:59 Malaysia Std Time. Your Presentation on 24th Feb 2010

Multi Transducer

the geometry of a typical sidescan sonar.

www.oceanicimaging.org

sidescan image with the center track and data from the port and starboard channels.

the geometry of a typical multibeam sonar for mapping ocean bottom contours.