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International Rice Research Notes

The International Rice Research Notes (IRRN) expedites communication among scientists concerned with the development of improved technology for rice and rice- based systems. The IRRN is a mechanism to help scientists keep each other informed of current rice research findings. The concise scientific notes are meant to encourage rice scientists to communicate with one another to obtain details on the research reported. The IRRN is published quarterly in March, June, September, and December by the International Rice Research Institute; annual subject and variety indexes are also produced. The IRRN is divided into three sections: notes, news about research collaboration, and announcements.

IRRN production team

Editor: Carolyn Dedolph Assistant editor: Teresita Rola Layout and design: Erlie Putungan Production supervisor: Millet Magsino Editorial assistant: Luisa Gelisan Typesetting: Erlie Putungan Cecilia Gregorio Artwork: Jess Recuenco

Contents

December 1995

Germplasm improvement

Genetics Loci for hybrid sterility in Basmati crosses

Diallel analysis of AI toxicitytolerance in rice

4

5

Breeding methods

Maintainers and restorers for cytoplasmic male sterile line

lR66707A

5

Biological characteristics of indica-japonica hybrids

Grain quality Glutelin banding pattern in rice assessed

7

6

Stress tolerance—drought Leaf rolling and desiccation tolerance in relation to rooting depth

and leaf area in rice

7

Stress

tolerance—adverse

soils

Tolerance for AI toxicity in lowland rice

8

Integrated germplasm improvement—irrigated Karnataka Rice Hybrid-1, a short-duration hybrid for Karnataka,

India

9

Xiangyou 63, a quasi-aromatic hybrid rice with good quality and

high yield

9

Zhushan A: a new Honglian-type cytoplasmic male sterile line

with good grain quality 10

Integrated germplasm improvement—upland Turant Dhan: a very early rice variety released in Bihar, India 11

Integrated germplasm improvement—flood-prone Purnendu, a new deepwater (50-100 cm) rice variety in eastern

India

12

Jitendra, a new deepwater rice variety for Uttar Pradesh and West

Bengal, India

13

Seed technology A simple method for producing F 1 hybrid seed for observational

yield trials

13

Crop and resource management

Physiology and plant nutrition Proline content in rice seedlings grown under saline

conditions

14

Photosynthetic rate and respiration of some F 1 hybrid rices 15

Fertilizer management Integrated effect of deeply placed urea and Gliricidia green

manure on grain yield of transplanted rice

16

Effect of rice hull, biofertilizer, and chemical fertilizers on

 

growth and nitrogen economy of wetland rice

16

Fertilizer management—organic sources Influence of intercropping green manure in wet seeded rice 17

Repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and Pseudomonas species 23

Pathotypic analysis of Pyricularia grisea using two sets of

Crop management Effect of hill density, seedling number/hill, and potassium on late-transplanted sali (rainfed lowland winter) rice yield in Assam, India 18

near-isogenic lines

24

 

Integrated pest management—insects Monitoring variation in brown planthopper biotype in Guangdong, China 19

 

INGER celebrates 20 years of successful rice research 26 IRRI celebrates 35 years of rice research 27 International Rice Genetics Symposium 27 IRRI welcomes two major groups of partners 27

Integrated pest management—their pests Loss of harvested rice due to rodents in central India 20

Farming systems Farmer performance in a rice-based farming system:

Rice dateline 27 IRRI group training courses for 1996 28 New IRRI publications 28 New publications 29 Rice literature update reprint service 29 Call for news 29 IRRI address 29

differences between new and old systems 21

 

Farm machinery Hand tools used for rice harvesting in South Sulawesi,

Indonesia

21

   

Instruction for contributors

Postharvest technology Multipurpose yard-drying implement for rice

22

Inside back cover

for contributors Postharvest technology Multipurpose yard-drying implement for rice 22 Inside back cover
for contributors Postharvest technology Multipurpose yard-drying implement for rice 22 Inside back cover

Germplasmimprovement

Genetics

Loci for hybrid sterility in Basmati crosses

Jianmin Wan, Nanjing Agricultural University,

Nanjing, 210095, China; H. Ikehashi, Faculty

of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-1, Japan

Massive screening has been conducted in hybrid rice breeding to determine if a set of varieties can be used as maintainers or restorers. If the pollen of an F 1 hybrid between a cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) tester and any given variety is sterile, the variety may be used as maintainer. If the pollen is sound and the panicles of the F 1 are

completely fertile, the variety may be used as a restorer. However, interference of hybrid sterility genes with a CMS-restora- tion factor system very much confounds the criteria used in the screening. Hybrid sterility in indica-japonica crosses is due to an allelic interaction at a gamete abortion locus, S-5, on chromosome 6. Recently, in other groups of rice hybrids, similar allelic interactions were found at loci S-7 on chromosome 4, S-8 on chromo- some 6, S-9 on chromosome 7, and S-15 on chromosome 12. All of them cause sterility independent of the others. We found hybrid sterility loci in crosses with Basmati 370, the derivatives of which are frequently used in hybrid rice breeding. Basmati 370 showed hybrid sterility in its

Table 1. Varieties used and their marker alleles at respective loci. a

Marker allele and chromosome

Parent

Chromosome

Chromosome

Chromosome

Chromosome

Chromosome

6

7

4

12

1

 

Est-2

Amp-3

Cat-1

Est-9

Est-1

Sdh-1

Est-5 b

(S-5)

(S-8 )

(S-7)

(S-9)

(S-15)

(S-16)

Basmati 370

1

1

2

1

0

2

2

Akihikari

0

1

2

1

0

2

1

IR36

2

1

1

2

1

1

1

lR2061-628

2

1

1

2

1

1

1

lR2061-418

2

1

1

2

1

1

1

Gilchao 2

2

1

1

2

1

1

1

Ketan Nangka

1

2

2

1

0

2

1

a The isozyme allele systems are from Morishima and Glaszmann (1991). b Three hybrid sterility loci are shown under the marker loci.

crosses to several tester varieties. Spikelet fertility levels in some of the crosses were 67.2% in Basmati 370/IR36,61.3% in Basmati 370/IR2061-628,62.8% in Basmati 370/IR2061-418, and 43.2% in Basmati 370/

Akihikari. The

Ketan Nangka (wide compatibility variety) showed normal fertility of 90.1%. Marker alleles at each of the hybrid sterility loci wereidentified (Table 1). Basmati 370 is closer to japonicas in terms of its isozymes, therefore it is genetically diverse from indicas and should result in pronounced hybrid vigor in its crosses with indicas. The marker genotypes that differentiated the level of spikelet fertility in segregating populations were determined (Table 2). When Basmati 370 was crossed with major indica varieties, such as IR36 and IR2061-628, hybrid sterility was revealed due to an allelic interaction at S-8. In the cross Basmati 370/IR2061-418, hybrid sterility was due to an allelic interaction at S-7. In Basmati 370/Akihikari (a japonica tester), hybrid sterility was affected by at

least the alleles at S-5.

F 1 hybrid of Basmati 370/

We believe that the difficulties in using

Basmati 370 in hybrid rice breeding pro-

grams are caused by its allelic interactions at

several hybrid sterility loci. Systematic use of neutral alleles at each locus is recom-

mended to solve the problem.

alleles at each locus is recom- mended to solve the problem. Table 2. Distribution of spikelet

Table 2. Distribution of spikelet fertility classified by marker genotype of hybrids between Basmati 370 and IRRI lines or a japonica test line. a

Number of plants in spikelet fertility

Genotype

Total mean

T-test

 

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

 

Basmati 370/1R36//1R36

 

Cat-1 2 /Cat-1 1 Cat-1 1 /Cat-1 1

2

3

3

5

9

10

3

3

2

0

40** b

52.3**

2

1

2

1

1

2

1

17

18

16

61

75.8

 

SF was not differentiated at Est-2, Est-9, Est-1, Sdh-T and Est-5

 
 

Basmati 370/lR2061-628//Basmati 370

 

Cat-1 2 /Cat-1 2 Cat-1 1 /Cat-1 2

1

1

1

1

0

2

8

10

8

6

38**

76.3**

3

2

2

4

7

9

8

8

8

4-

55

51.7

 

SF was not differentiated at Est-2, Est-9, Est-1, Sdh-1, and Est-5

 
 

Basmati 370/IR2061-418//Basmati 370

 

Est-9 2 /Est-9 1 Est-9 1 /Est-9 1

2

2

3

3

6

3

14

8

5

4

50**

56.3**

1

1

1

2

1

1

4

10

10

6

37

74.3

 

SF was not differentiated at Est-2, Cat-1, Est-1, Sdh-1, and Est-5

 
 

Basmati 370/Ketan Nangka//Akihikan

 

Amp-3 2 /Amp-3 1 Arnp3 1 /Amp-3 1

0

1

0

0

3

2

14

11

7

5

43

76.5**

2

1

2

3

4

2

4

7

5

3

33

52.3

Diallel analysis of AI toxicity tolerance in rice

Estimates of genetic parameters for relative root length (AI toxicity tolerance) in 7 × 7 diallel cross. IRRI, 1995.

Genetic parameter

Estimate ± SE

S. Khatiwada, D. Senadhira, and R. S. Zeigler, IRRI; A. L. Carpena and P. G. Fernandez, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines

We studied the genetics of Al toxicity tolerance using a full diallel set of crosses among seven parents with differing degrees of response to Al toxicity. The seven vari- eties were Moroberekan, IRAT104, and Azucena (tolerant); IR29 and IR43 (moder- ately tolerant); and IR45 and IR1552 (sus- ceptible). Relative root length of 14-d-old seed- lings, determined by growing seedlings in a normal nutrient solution and nutrient solution with 30 ppm Al, was used to characterize the tolerance of test materials. The experiment was conducted in a glasshouse at the IRRI Phytotron with 29/21 ºC day/night temperature and 70% relative humidity. The experimental units consisted of 49 entries (7 × 7 diallel) in randomized complete block design with four replications. Eight seedlings were sampled for each entry in a replication. Analysis of variance among parents, hybrids, and reciprocals showed highly significant differences among parents and hybrids. Differences between parents and hybrids were not significant. Analysis of variance of the diallels revealed homogene- ity of error variance, directional dominance, symmetrical distribution of genes among parents, and that no parent had more dominant genes than did the others. Covariance-variance graphic analysis showed the adequacy of a simple additive-

Breeding methods

Maintainers and restorers for cytoplasmic male sterile line lR66707 A

S. B. Pradhan and P. J. Jachuck, Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI), Cuttack 753006, Orissa, India

Since its release in India during 1992, IR64 has become very popular in the irrigated areas of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh,

(D)

Additive effects

0.0167

±

0.0005 * a

(H)

Dominance effects

H1 (due to dominant gene)

0.0041

±

0.0015*

H2 (due to positive and negative genes)

0.0034

±

0.0013*

h 2 (due to heterozygous loci)

–0.0002

±

0.0009

(F)

Gene distributlon

0.0028

±

0.0015

(E)

Environmental effects

0.0008

±

0.0002*

(H1/D) ½

(H2/4H1)

(KD/KR) b

r

r

c

2

(h 2 /H2)

(h ns ) (h

)

bs

Proportional values

Mean degree of dominance

0.4954

Proportion of genes with + or - effects on parents

0.2082

Proportion of dominant and

recessive genes in the parents

1.4001

Correlation between (Wr+Vr) and Yr

0.6618

Prediction for measurement of completely dominant and

recessive parents

 

0.4380

Number of gene groups that control tolerance and inhibit dominance

–0.0654

Heritability

(narrow sense)

0.8177

Heritability (broad sense)

 

0.9106

a * = significant at P<0.05. b KD/KR = [(4DH 1 ) ½ + F]/[(4DH 1 ) ½ - F]. c r = correlation between the sum of covariance of an array with nonrecurring parents and variance of an array (Wr + Vr) and parental means (Yr).

dominance model and partial dominance of the trait. It also showed the presence of dominant genes in tolerant varieties and recessive genes in susceptible varieties. Moderately tolerant to tolerant varieties IR43, Azucena, IRAT104, and Moroberekan appeared to contain similar genes for tolerance. Susceptible IR45 possessed most of the recessive genes for tolerance, followed by IR29 and IR1552. Genetic components of variation and proportional values were estimated (see table). The observed variations were due to additive and dominance effects of genes and the environmental effects. Average degree of dominance was within the range of incomplete dominance. The proportion of dominant and recessive genes in the

Orissa, West Bengal, and Maharashtra. It has high yield, wide adaptability, good plant type, long slender grain, intermediate amylose content, and resistance to major insect pests and diseases. IRRI scientists developed cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line IR66707A from IR64 by using Oryza perennis as a cytoplas- mic source. Their intention was to use this CMS line to develop high-yielding, good quality hybrid rice. However, hybrids could

parents indicated an excess of dominant genes. Genes with desirable effects (tolerance) were dominant over those with undesirable effects (susceptibility). Only one group of genes with dominance was found to be involved in governing Al toxicity tolerance in rice. The high narrow-sense heritability (0.82) and the small difference between narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability (0.91) indicated the predominance of additive gene action. Results indicated that in breeding populations, selection for Al toxicity tolerance could be carried out in the early generations. Selection efficiency could be enhanced if done under controlled conditions to reduce

environmental effects.

under controlled conditions to reduce environmental effects. not be developed without effective restor- ers. During

not be developed without effective restor- ers.

During 1992-93, we made 50 test crosses with IR66707 A using high- yielding varieties adapted to irrigated and rainfed lowland conditions. We found 42 of the varieties to be effective maintainers; one a weak maintainer; five partial restorers; and two, IR21820-38-2 and Mahsuri, to be effective restorers for IR66707 A (Table 1). Unlike in the CMS-wild abortive system,

Table 1. Maintainers and restorers for lR66707 A. CRRI, Cuttack, India. 1992 and 1993 wet seasons.

Male parent

M/R a

1992

ADT34

M

Annada

M

B4143 D-PM-51-4

M

BKS64

M

CR580-17-3

M

CR564-8

M

CR644

M

CRM 35

M

Daya

M

IET10158

M

IET10983

M

lR1846-300-1

M

lR25560-109-3-1-3-2

M

lR1248-242-32

M

Krishna

M

Mizoram 24

M

Mizoram 35

M

Mizoram 41

M

Mizoram 51

M

Mizoram 61

M

Mizoram 62

M

PN56-665

M

Panidhan

M

Pusa 33

M

Rasi

WM

Sarasa

M

Suphala

M

Savitri

M

Tulasi

M

V20

M

Gayatri

PR b

 

Mizoram 39

PR

1993

ARC13558

M

86441-5. MR. 10-1

M

BR1870-88-11

M

Col. 155

M

C1954-24-2

M

C2757-22-1-1-1

M

lR49689-84-2-1-2

M

lR35366-28-3-1-2-2

M

lR48725-B-B-120-1

M

lR27315-145-1-3-2

M

Katarni

M

Pusa 33-303

M

Vijaya

M

lR49721-127-2-2-1

PR

Raktachandan

PR

Tox 3108-43-3-6

PR

lR21820-38-2

R*1 c

 

Mahsuri

R*2

d

a M = maintainer (spikelet fertility <1%), WM

=

weak

maintainer (spikelet fertility

storer (spikelet fertility 26-79%), and R = effective

partial

1-<25%),

=

b Spikelet

*2

80.2%;

PR

=

fertility

= 80.0%.

=

re-

re-

76.7%.

storer (spikelet fertility>80%).

c Spikelet fertility for

*1

Table 2. Yield data of two hybrids and check. CRRI, Cuttack, India.

Hybrid/check

Plant

height

Days to

Yield/plant

Standard

 

(cm)

50% flowering

(g)

heterosis (%)

lR66707

A/lR21820-38-2

85

94

36.5

43.1

lR66707

A/Mahsuri

84

95

35.7

40.0

IR36 (check)

 

90

95

25.5

the frequency of maintainers in the CMS-

O. perennis system was very high and the

frequency of restorers very low.

IR21820-38-2 and Mahsuri produced hybrids that yielded about 40% more than

check IR36 (Table 2.)

that yielded about 40% more than check IR36 (Table 2.) Biological characteristics of indica- japonica hybrids

Biological characteristics of indica-

japonica hybrids

Lu Chuan'gen, Gu Fulin, and Zou Jiangshi,

Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences

(JAAS), Nanjing 210014, China

Five indica-japonica hybrids and their

parents were tested for their biological characteristics. The experiment was

conducted in a 40-m 2 plot with three

replications per variety at the JAAS

experimental farm in 1990 and 1991. The hybrids were obtained by crossing indica

lines and japonica wide compatibility lines with the S-5 n gene. The hybrids had grain yields of 7.6-10.6 t/ha and significant heterosis of 13.8-83.1% over the average of their parents. More spikelets per panicle in the hybrids caused the sink capacity to increase by 27.0-70.4% over that of the parents, thus contributing to high grain yields. The panicles per area, however, exhibited no heterosis (Table 1). The biomass of the hybrids averaged about 18 t/ha. It exceeded that of the parents by 11.5-41.1% and was the biological basis for the hybrids' high grain yield. High leaf

Table 1. Grain yield and yield components in indica-japonica hybrids and their parents. a Nanjing, China. 1990-91.

Hybrid

Grain

Yield

Panicles (10 5 /ha)

Spikelets/

Seed

1,000-

Sink

Biomass

or

yield

difference b

panicle

set

grain

capacity

(t/ha)

parent

(t/ha)

(1%)

 

(no.)

(%)

weight (g)

(t/ha)

 

1990

3037

8.1

abc

38.5

107.5

68.1

24.3

10.1

16.4

3037/02428

9.0

a

24.6

220.0

69.1

22.3

12.0

18.6

(18.4)

(–21.8)

(66.4)

(–1.2)

(–5.7)

(27.0)

(13.4)

02428

7.1

c

24.4

157.0

72.5

23.0

8.8

16.4

916/02428

8.3

ab

19.6

218.4

68.7

29.2

12.5

19.4

(46.9)

(–24.3)

(70.2)

(–1.3)

(15.6)

(53.4)

(28.5)

916

4.2

d

27.4

99.6

67.5

27.5

7.5

13.8

916/M2

7.6

bc

20.9

203.5

63.1

28.4

12.1

17.7

(83.1)

(–8.9)

(39.0)

(–6.6)

(23.2)

(70.4)

(22.9)

M2

4.1

d

18.5

193.3

71.9

18.6

6.7

15.0

 

1991

JW28

7.9

cd

19.5

145.0

95.1

28.3

8.0

15.2

3037/JW28

9.5

b

20.7

217.1

79.0

26.8

12.0

19.6

(13.8)

(–6.5)

(36.9)

(–13.8)

(3.7)

(33.3)

(38.0)

3037

8.8

bc

24.8

172.2

90.4

23.4

10.0

13.2

3037/02428

10.6

a

20.2

241.2

78.1

24.9

12.2

18.2

(32.5)

(2.0)

(20.5)

(–9.2)

(0.0)

(29.1)

(41.1)

02428

7.2

d

14.8

228.0

84.2

26.4

8.9

12.6

3037/JW12

9.3

b

22.5

193.7

78.8

25.4

11.1

14.1

(14.1)

(4.7)

(18.0)

(–13.4)

(4.5)

(29.1)

(11.5)

JW12

7.5

d

18.2

156.2

93.9

25.2

7.2

12.1

a Data in parentheses represent the heterosis over the average of the parents. b In the third column, yield differences indicated by different letters are significant at the 1% level.

Table 2. Comparison of some physiological traits of Yayou and Shanyou 63. Nanjing, China, 1989.

Trait

Yayou 2

Shanyou 63

Compared with check a

 

(check)

Maximum leaf area index

8.2

7.1

+15.5%

Maximum photosynthetic rate

 

(µmol

CO 2 /m per s)

24.0

20.9

+14.8%*

Specific leaf weight in heading (mg/cm 2 ) Chlorophyll content in heading (%) Relative growth rate (g/kg per d) Net assimilation rate (g/m 2 per d) Period leaf activity (d)

4.6

3.8

+21.1%*

4.9

4.0

+22.5%*

40.9

37.8

+8.2%

9.6

6.4

+50.0%

73

54

+35.2%*

a * = significant difference at the 5% level.

area index (LAI) and leaf area duration (LAD) caused a high crop growth rate in the hybrids, leading to the higher average biomass than that of the parents. There was no heterosis in harvest index. The grain yield potential increased to 11.1-12.5 t/ha, which was much higher than that for the indica or japonica lines. Seed set, however, was low and unstable com- pared with that of the parents, although the S-5 n gene was used. High and stable seed set should therefore be the main objective for cultivating and breeding indica-japonica hybrids. An example of an indica-japonica hybrid rice is Yayou 2. It was developed by using a chemical hybridizing agent and by crossing indica line 3037 and japonica wide compat- ibility variety 02428. We compared some of its traits with check Shanyou 63, a widely cultivated indica hybrid. Yayou 2 showed a grain yield potential of 12 t/ha, 21 t/ha of biomass (1 3% higher than that of the check), and a harvest index

Grain quality

Glutelin banding pattern in rice assessed

B. Kalita and G. N. Hazarika, Agricultural Biotechnology Program, Plant Breeding and Genetics Department, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat 785013, Assam, India

The high stability of the seed protein profile and its additive nature make seed protein electrophoresis a powerful tool in elucidat- ing the origin and evolution of cultivated plants. The electrophoregram obtained by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of storage proteins is used mostly for

of 0.5, which was 6.4% higher than that of the check. Its LAI increased at a rate of 10.2% per day in the earlier growth stages, which was faster than that of the check, and decreased at 2.0% per day in the later stages, which was slower than that of the check. Its maximum LAI was 1.1 and its LAD 25.5%—both higher than those of the check. Yayou 2 had a leaf photosynthetic rate 14.8% higher than the check and a daily bio-mass accumulation of 17.1% more (Table 2). The leaves of Yayou 2 were droopy during the early growth stage but later became erect, resulting in a lower light extinction coefficient and a higher light transmission in the later stages. Compared with the check, Yayou 2 had a higher translocation coefficient of stored sub- stances in the sheath, leaf, and stem; a higher relative growth rate and net assimila- tion rate in the earlier stages; and a longer

active period for the three top leaves.

stages; and a longer active period for the three top leaves. assessing variation in chemical composi-

assessing variation in chemical composi- tion among cultivars and populations of land races. Scientists have also established an association between electrophoretic components and quality characters in cereals. Glutelin is the major seed storage protein of rice, contributing 80% of the total endosperm protein. We examined the glutelin banding pattern in 72 japonica and indica rices using the sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE technique. Three were japonica varieties (Jinbu 4, Vailoninano, and Stagaree E) and 69 were indica varie- ties, classified as nonscented (23), scented (13), glutinous (9), semiglutinous (9), and deepwater (15).

The different indica varieties showed a similar banding pattern for the major bands. The only exception was the scented variety Kosturi. We observed it to have one mobility variant 6s (R f = 0.67) for band 6, which contributed to a higher molecular weight than the corresponding band in other

varieties (R f = 0.72). Differences for some

minor bands were noticed among sub-

groups of indica varieties.

Similarly, variation for glutelin subunits was not found within japonica varieties. However, indica and japonica varieties showed variation for the major band 6. The japonica varieties also had a mobility variant 6s (R f = 0.67) similar to that of Kosturi. These findings show that glutelin components in rice are conserved, unlike prolamines of wheat and barley. The similarity between indica variety Kosturi and japonica varieties for the slow migrat- ing band 6s indicates the probability of these being distantly related. A detailed study is needed to conclude whether the presence or absence of minor bands in different rice groups has something to do

with varietal characteristics.

groups has something to do with varietal characteristics. Leaf rolling and desiccation tolerance in relation to

Leaf rolling and desiccation tolerance in relation to rooting depth and leaf area in rice

A. R. Gomosta and M. Z. Haque, Plant Physiology Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur 1701, Bangla- desh

Greater rooting depth is associated with drought tolerance in a rice variety. How- ever, more water is lost from plants with a higher leaf area. A balance between rooting depth and leaf area is perhaps important. This study was done to under- stand the relative importance of these two traits in leaf rolling and desiccation tolerance. Different rooting depths were created by placing perforated polyethylene sheets at 5, 10, and 15 cm in the soil. One treat- ment with no polyethylene sheet was used as the control. Fertilizer at 20-40-60 kg NPK/ha was applied before IR5 was dry

Water saturation deficit, leaf rolling, and desiccation tolerance of rice as affected by rooting depth and leaf area. a

Rooting

Leaf

WSD b

 

Leaf

 

Desiccation d

Root zone

depth

area

(%)

 

rolling

tolerance

 

moisture

(cm)

(%)

(1-5) c

 

(1-9)

(%)

5

100

86.0 a

5.0 a

9.0 a

4.0

c

5

50

71.0

b

5.0 a

9.0 a

6.0

c

10

100

50.0

c

5.0 a

8.0 a

6.0

bc

10

50

31.0

d

4.0 a

7.0 a

8.0 ab

15

100

25.0

de

3.0

b

7.0 a

8.0 a

15

50

7.0

f

2.0

e

1.0

c

9.0 a

Control

100

15.0

ef

3.0

b

4.0

b

10.0 a

Control

50

6.0

f

2.0

c

1.0

c

9.0 a

CV (%)

23

11

20

16

a Figures with the same letter(s) do not differ significantly at the 1% level.

b WSD (water saturation deficit) (%) =

Turgid weight – field weight

Turgid weight – oven-dry weight × 100.

c Rated on a 1-5

desiccation of leaves and 9 = leaves severely desiccated.

scale where 1 = no leaf rolling and 5

= leaves severely rolled. d Rated on a 1-9 scale where 1 = no

seeded. Seedlings were sprinkled with water for the first 3 wk. The leaf area was clipped to half at 21 d after seeding. The internal water stress of the leaves was expressed as the water saturation deficit

percentage (WSD%), defined as water deficiency relative to when a leaf was 100% turgid in water. This was measured gravimetrically. The WSD% increased with decrease in rooting depth (see table).

Tolerance for Al toxicity in lowland rice

S. Khatiwada, D. Senadhira, and R. S. Zeigler, IRRI; A. L. Carpena and P. G. Fernandez, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines

A major production constraint in acid

upland soils is Al toxicity. So far, screening

rices for Al tolerance has been limited to upland cultivars. However, lowland rice is grown on about 2 million ha with acid sulfate soil conditions. These rices are prone to Al toxicity during dry spells. Several Al-tolerant upland rices have been

identified, but their use in acid lowlands as cultivars or as donors for breeding purposes

is very limited because they are japonicas.

Previous investigations showed that relative root length (RRL) of 2-wk-old seedlings (determined as the ratio of root

length in a nutrient solution with 30 ppm Al

to the root length in a normal nutrient

solution) is a good criterion for selecting Al-

tolerant genotypes. With the objective of isolating AI-tolerant lowland indicas, we used this technique to screen 62 cultivars originating from acid sulfate soil areas of

India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, and West Africa. The experiment, which was laid out in a randomized complete block design with two replications, was conducted in an IRRI Phytotron glasshouse with 29/21 °C day/ night temperatures and 70% relative humidity. IRAT104 was used as the tolerant check and IR1552 as the susceptible check. Eight seedlings were sampled for each test entry in a replication. The differential tolerance for Al among cultivars was found highly significant (see table). RRL ranged from 0.45 in S-4 to 1.16 in Siyam Kuning. The RRL was 0.83 for tolerant check IRAT104 and 0.57 for susceptible check IR1552. In 17 varieties, RRL was 1.0 or more, indicating that Al did not affect the root growth of these cultivars. Other researchers earlier reported increases in root length and growth of seedlings of tolerant cultivars when exposed to added Al.

The difference in RRL means between tolerant check IRAT104 and the two best performing test varieties (Siyam Kuning and Gudabang Putih) was highly signifi- cant. This finding suggests that the toler- ance of these two cultivars is very much

The soil moisture percentage around the root zone decreased as rooting depth de- creased. Soil moisture was also reduced with increased leaf area, but only at 5- and 10-cm rooting depths. At 15 cm or deeper, leaf area did not affect the root zone mois- ture. Like rooting depth, the leaf area also sig- nificantly determines the plant’s internal water balance as well as its desiccation tol- erance. However, the degrees of leaf rolling and leaf desiccation were significantly re- duced with decreased leaf area at 15 cm rooting depth or more. At 5- and 10-cm rooting depths, leaf rolling as well as desic- cation tolerance were statistically similar at 100% and 50% leaf area. Thus, less leaf area is more important at greater rooting depths than at shallower rooting depths when desiccation tolerance

of a variety is considered.

~~

when desiccation tolerance of a variety is considered. ~~ Relative root length of some traditional rice

Relative root length of some traditional rice va- rieties grown in normal and AI toxic nutrient solution.

Relative

Variety

Origin

root

 

length a

Siyam Kuning

Indonesia

1.16

Gudabang Putih

Indonesia

1.14

Siyam

Indonesia

1.10

Lemo

Indonesia

1.09

Khao Daeng

Thailand

1.08

Siyamhalus

Indonesia

1.06

Bjm-12

Indonesia

1.06

Ketan Seribu Gantang Bayar Raden Rati Padi Kanji

Indonesia

1.06

Malaysia

1.05

Indonesia

1.05

Indonesia

1.04

Bjm-13

Indonesia

1.04

Batang Pane

Indonesia

1.04

Bjm-14

Indonesia

1.04

Ca Dung Do

Vietnam

1.04

Bjm-10

Indonesia

1.04

Padi Jambi

Indonesia

1.03

Gablak Cablak

Indonesia

0.96

Barito

Indonesia

0.94

Engatek

Malaysia

0.93

Bjm-15

Indonesia

0.93

Siyam Kuning

Indonesia

0.93

Quisidugo

West Africa

0.93

Lua Thuoc

Vietnam

0.92

Gudabang Kuning

Indonesia

0.92

Bjm-17

Indonesia

0.90

Kutik Putih

Indonesia

0.90

Kapuas

Indonesia

0.89

Baiang 6

lndonesia

0.89

Pontianak

Indonesia

0.85

continued on next page

Table continued

 

Relative

Variety

Origin

root

 

length a

Nang Coi Bayar Kuning

Vietnam

0.85

Indonesia

0.85

Bjm-11

Indonesia

0.85

Thung Hoa Binh Alabio Khao Seetha Gaw Diaw Bow Khao Taeng Lua Thuoc Co Talang A Mahakam Galambong Tai Nguyen Ketumbar Thom Ran Talang B Duvi Trau Can Dung Phen Gogo Ranceh Doc Phung Nang Gao Mansirit Kapus Yaca

Vietnam

0.85

Indonesia

0.81

Thailand

0.81

Indonesia

0.80

Thailand

0.80

Vietnam

0.79

Indonesia

0.78

Indonesia

0.78

Indonesia

0.77

Vietnam

0.77

Indonesia

0.74

Vietnam

0.74

Indonesia

0.73

Vietnam

0.70

Vietnam

0.70

Indonesia

0.70

Vietnam

0.68

Vietnam

0.67

Indonesia

0.67

Indonesia

0.66

West Africa

0.66

S-1

West Africa

0.66

Atanha Nang Co Than Nang Do Pokkali SOC Nau Silla

West Africa

0.62

Vietnam

0.62

Vietnam

0.62

India

0.62

Vietnam

0.59

West Africa

0.57

S-4

West Africa

0.45

IRAT104 (tolerant check) lR1552 (susceptible check) CV (%) LSD (0.05) LSD (0.01)

0.83

0.57

12.5

0.21

0.28

a Mean of two replications.

higher than that of IRAT104. Varieties Siyam, Lemo, Khao Daeng, Siyamhalus, Bjm- 12, Ketan, Seribu Gantang, Bayar Raden Rati, and Padi Kanji also produced significantly higher RRLs than did IRAT104. The tolerance level of the other cultivars was comparable with that of IRAT104. Only three of the 62 varieties expressed sensitivity. The results indicated that tolerance for Al toxicity exists in lowland varieties grown on acid sulfate soils. The cultivars that are more tolerant of Al than upland cultivar IRAT104 may be good donors for breeding

Al-tolerant lowland rice varieties.

good donors for breeding Al-tolerant lowland rice varieties. Karnataka Rice Hybrid-1, a short- duration hybrid for

Karnataka Rice Hybrid-1, a short-

duration hybrid for Karnataka, India

B. Vidyachandra, R. M. Radhakrishna, S. Lingaraju, A. H. Krishnamurthy, and V. Bhaskar, University of Agricultural Science, Regional Research Station (RRS), V. C. Farm, Mandya 571405, Karnataka, India

Karnataka Rice Hybrid-1 (KRH-1) is a short-duration rice hybrid selected at RRS from rice hybrids shared by IRRI through the Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad. Its parents are cytoplasmic male sterile line IR58025 A and restorer line IR9761-19-1 R. KRH-1 matures in 125 d and is 90-cm tall. It produces an average of 460 panicles/ m 2 and 168 grains/panicle. The grains are long-slender and straw-colored, the kernels

are white, and the 1,000-grain weight is 23.3 g. It is for use in the irrigated areas of Karnataka. The recommended fertilizer dose for KRH-1 is 100-50-50 kg NPK/ha. The seed rate is 20 kg/ha with single seedlings per hill at 20- × 10-cm spacing. KRH-1 recorded a yield advantage of 1.5 t/ha over check Mangala in trials conducted during 1990-93 at Mandya (see table). Similar results were obtained in multilocation trials and in 100 on-farm trials around Karnataka, in which KRH-1 yielded an average 6.8 t/ha with a yield advantage of 1.5 t/ha over Mangala. KRH-1 has moderate resistance to neck blast, sheath rot, and stem borer. The State Variety Release Committee released KRH-1 during 1994 for cultivation

in Karnataka State.

KRH-1 during 1994 for cultivation in Karnataka State. Mean yield (t/ha) of Karnataka Rice Hybrid-1 (KRH-1)

Mean yield (t/ha) of Karnataka Rice Hybrid-1 (KRH-1) in different trials in Karnataka, India. 1990-

93.

Type of trial

Year

Trials

KRH-1

Mangala

Yield

 

(no.)

(check)

advantage

Research station

1990-93

10

7.2

5.7

1.5

(Mandya)

Multilocation

1991-93

18

5.3

3.7

1.6

On-farm

1991-93

100

6.8

5.3

1.5

Demonstration

1993

10

6.3

5.0

1.3

Mean

6.4

4.9

1.5

Xiangyou 63, a quasi-aromatic hybrid rice with good quality and high yield

Zhou Kunlu and Liao Fuming, Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center (HHRRC), Changsha 410125, Hunan, China

Xiangyou 63 was developed at HHRRC using aromatic cytoplasmic male sterile line Xiangxiang 2 A and nonaromatic restorer line Minghui 63. It was released to farmers in Jan 1995. Xiangyou 63 is the first quasi- aromatic hybrid rice in China, and Xiangxiang 2A, developed from the cross V20A//N20 B/MR365 by HHRRC, is the first aromatic CMS line in China. The hybrid has so far been planted on more than 20,000 ha and seems popular with farmers and consumers. In addition to being aromatic, the hybrid has good grain quality, high-yielding ability, good disease resist- ance, and wide adaptability.

The hybrid, which produces only some aromatic grains on each plant, has some advantages over aromatic inbred or hybrid rices. In China, aromatic inbred and hybrid rices are usually mixed before cooking with nonaromatic rice to lessen their intense aroma. Xiangyou 63 grain, however, is already mixed due to F 2 segregation. Another advantage is that its grains are not as easily attacked by insect pests and rats as are those of aromatic rices, and that it is also relatively easier to store than aromatic rice. All of Xiangyou 63’s quality characters, except brown rice percentage, meet the first and second class standards of fine quality rice issued by the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture (Table 1). It has been endorsed as a fine quality rice in Hunan, Guangdong, Yunnan, Guizhou, Shaanxi, and Henan

provinces. Xiangyou 63 yielded an average of about 6.9 t/ha in various trials during 1987- 89. For example, in the 1988-89 Hunan

Table 1. Grain quality performance of Xiangyou 63.

Hybrid/

Institutes a

Brown

Milled

Head

Kernel

Chalkiness

Gelatinization

Gel

Amylose

Protein

standard

doing the

rice

rice

rice

temperature

consistency

content

content

testing (year)

(%)

(%)

(%)

Length

L-W

Rice

Area

(alkali value)

(mm)

(%)

(%)

(mm)

ratio

(%)

(%)

Xiangyou 63

HRRl (1988)

81.6

73.0

64.0

24.2

7.4

CNRRI

(1990)

80.7

72.5

38.1 b

7.0

3.0

51 b

9.1

6.4

54

22

7.55

SGBA (1992)

82.6

71.4

7.03

3.0

3.0

40

20.6

8.6

Chinese

1st class

>81

>74

>59

6.5-7.5

>3.0

<5

<5

>4

>60

17-22

>8

Ministry of

Agriculture

2nd class

>79

>72

>54

5.6-6.5

2.5-3.0

<10

<10

24

41-60

<25

>8

standard

a HRRI = Hunan Rice Research Institute, CNRRl = Chinese National Rice Research Institute, and SGAB = Shaoguan Agricultural Bureau. b Xiangyou 63 did not mature very well in 1990 because of late sowing, which gave lower head rice and higher chalky rice percentages than the other results.

Table 2. Agronomic characters of Xianyou 63. Hunan Rice Variety Regional Trial, China, 1988.

 

Hybrids

Replica-

Plant

Spikelets/

Filled

1,000-

Grain

Hybrid

Locations

tested

tions

Maturity

height

panicle

spikelets

grain

yield a

(no.)

(no.)

(no.)

(d)

(cm)

(no.)

(%)

weight

(t/ha)

 

(g)

Xiangyou 63 Weiyou 6 (check)

15

10

3

126

99

91.9

81.1

28.1

6.7 ns

15

10

3

127

88

94.5

80.4

26.6

6.6

a ns = yields not significant by Duncan's SSR test.

Rice Variety Regional Trials, it yielded a mean 6.8 t/ha with a growth duration of 126 d, which was comparable with that of check Weiyou (Table 2). It has also been cultivated in farmers’ fields and grown in demonstration plots in 19 provinces in

China. For example, as a single crop grown on 23.5 ha in Bingchuan,Yunnan, in 1994, it yielded 1 1.9 t/ha. The hybrid was evaluated for blast resistance in Hunan. It scored 4,4, and 0 for seedling, leaf, and neck blast, respectively,

on the 1-9 scales of the Standard evaluation system for rice. It had good field resistance to rice blast and bacterial leaf blight. Xiangyou 63 has wide adaptability and can be grown as either a late crop in the double rice-cropping areas on which Weiyou 6 is commonly planted, or as a single crop in the single rice-cropping areas planted to Shanyou 63, the most popular hybrid in China. When planted as late rice in the double-cropping system in Hunan, it was about 100 cm tall with strong tillering ability. Its seed set was more than 75% with a mean of 100 spikelets/panicle and a

1,000-grain weight of 28 g.

of 100 spikelets/panicle and a 1,000-grain weight of 28 g. Zhushan A: a new Honglian-type cytoplasmic

Zhushan A: a new Honglian-type cytoplasmic male sterile line with

good grain quality

Zhang Jianzhong, Liu Kangping, and Peng Junhua, Zhanjiang Agricultural College, Zhanjiang 524088, China

Grain quality is one of the important objectives in hybrid rice breeding. The poor grain quality of leading cytoplasmic male

sterile (CMS) lines, such as Zhenshan 97 A and V20A, has contributed to retarding the production of high-quality hybrid rices in China. Our goal was to breed high-quality CMS lines to improve the grain quality of hybrid rice. In 1982 autumn, high-quality variety Shuangzhuzhan was used as the maternal parent in a cross with wild rice S7539 (O. sativa f. spontanea), which has multiple pest resistances. The F 1 generation was

crossed with bacterial blight-resistant cultivar Gushan in 1983 spring. The best line, Zhushan, was developed from this multiple cross in 1986. From 1987 spring onward, Zhushan was used as the recurrent parent in a backcross to Guang 41 A, a Honglian-type CMS line. Zhushan A, a new Honglian-type CMS line, was bred in 1991. We conducted a series of experiments under irrigated lowland conditions in Zhanjiang (N21°10) during 1991-93 to

Table 1. Heading date, fertility, and general combining ability (GCA) effects for grain quality characters of Zhushan A, Zhenshan 97 A, and Guang 41 A. Zhangjiang, China. 1991-93.

Trait

CMS line a

   

Fertility (%)

Relative value of GCA effects (%) c

 

Days to

 
 

heading b

Pollen

Stained

Spikelet

Chalkiness d

Length e

Width f

Length-width

Milling rate of polished head rice (%)

 

sterile pollen

(cm)

(cm)

ratio

Zhushan A Zhenshan 97 A (check) Guang 41 A (check) SE for GCA value

78

±

12

0-0.1

9.7-63.3

0-0.2

–10.3* g

3.9*

–8.3**

12.6**

3.2**

69

±

12

0-0.1

3.0- 6.8

0-0.1

7.2** g

–1.5

6.0**

–7.15

–1.4

86

±

16

0-0.1

8.2-55.1

0-0.1

3.1*

–2.4

2.3

–5.5

–1.8

 

1.3

1.6

2.0

4.5

1.2

a Zhenshan 97 A is a leading wild abortive CMS line in China. Guang 41 A is a leading Honglian-type CMS line in Guangdong Province, China. b Mean values across 16 seeding times from 3 Feb to 13 Aug 1992. c The six restorer lines, R59, R56, R892, Zaoteqing, Gujinyang, and 771, that can restore the fertility of both Honglian-type and wild abortive-type CMS

lines were used in an Incomplete diallel experiment. d Measured using the Standard evaluation system for rice. e Sum of the length of 10 brown rice grains. f Sum of the width of 10

brown rice

grams. g *, ** = significant at

the 5 and 1% level, respectively.

observe the traits of Zhushan A, to test its general combining ability (GCA) effects on some grain quality characters, and to determine the yield capacity of the new hybrids from Zhushan A. Zhushan A has good plant type and is about 85 cm tall. It has dark green leaves, erect flag leaves, and long-slender grain (9.1 mm long × 2.6 mm wide). Its heading date was 78 d, which was 9 d longer than that of Zhenshan 97 A and 8 d shorter than that of Guang 41 A (Table 1). Pollen fertility was 0-0.1%. Like the Honglian-type CMS line Guang 41 A, Zhushan A had 9.7-63.3% stained sterile pollen. The sterility of Zhushan A is acceptable for commercial hybrid rice production in southern China. In a 3 × 6 incomplete diallel experiment, the relative values of GCA effects of the parents were estimated by Bulmer's method. Zhushan A had higher GCA effects for grain length, length-width ratio, and milling rate of polished head rice than did Zhenshan 97 A and Guang 41 A, but lower GCA effects for chalkiness and grain width. Therefore, Zhushan A could be used to produce hybrids with lower chalkiness, grain length, grain width, length-width ratio in grain, and milling rates of polished head rice (Table 1). Yield trials were laid out in a random- ized complete block design with three replications. Four of the hybrid crosses from Zhushan A yielded 8.0-8.4 t/ha during the early cropping season (5.6-10.7% more than the national check Shanyou 63) and 6.9-7.1 t/ha during the late cropping season (2.5-5.4% more than the provincial check Shanyou 64) (Table 2). For the four hybrids, grain length was 6.1-6.8 mm; length-width ratio, 2.5-3.2; chalkiness, 0-1; amylose content, 19.7-23.5%; and grain quality, grade 1 or 2. In the 1993 early cropping season, Zhuyou 61 (Zhushan A/R61) yielded 7.7 t/ha, ranking first among 14 crosses in the united test of high-quality hybrid rice of southern China. Zhuyouqing (Zhushan A/Meiqing) ranked second in a regional test during the early cropping season in Guangdong Province. Zhushan A has greater GCA for grain quality characters than do other CMS lines. The hybrid crosses derived from Zhushan A have good grain quality and higher grain yield, making the line valuable for use in

breeding programs.

making the line valuable for use in breeding programs. Table 2. Grain yield and grain quality

Table 2. Grain yield and grain quality of several Zhushan A hybrids. Zhanjiang, China. 1991-93 early and late cropping seasons. a

Hybrid

Character

Zhushan A/Meiqing

Zhushan A/R61

Zhushan A/R903

Zhushan A/R54

 

Early

Late

Early

Late

Early

Late

Early

Late

Grain yield (t/h) Check b Grain quality Grain length (mm) Length-width ratio Chalkiness Amylose content (%) Quality grade d

8.0

7.1

8.2

7.0

8.3

7.0

8.4

6.9

5.6

5.4

8.1 c

4.0

8.7*

3.7

10.7**

2.5

6.1

6.7

6.5

6.8

6.6

6.8

6.4

6.6

2.5

2.7

2.7

3.0

3.0

3.2

2.8

3.1

0-1

0-1

0-1

0-1

0-1

0-1

0-1

0-1

22.0

21.1

23.5

21.0

20.8

21.3

19.7

21.8

2

1

2

1

1

2

2

1

a Early crop was seeded in February, late crop was seeded in July.

Shanyou 64 for the late crop. c *, ** = significant at the 5 and 1% level, respectively. d According to the national standard of high-quality rice in China, quality grade 1 = milling rate of brown rice >81% and that of polished rice >72%,

half-transparent rice grain, length-width ratio is >3.0, and amylose content = 17-22%. Quality grade 2 = milling rate of brown rice >79% and that of polished rice >72%, half-transparent rice grain, length-width ratio = 2.5-3.0, and amylose content <25%.

b Shanyou 63 was the check for the early crop and

Integrated germplasm improvement—upland

Turant Dhan: a very early rice variety released in Bihar, India

R. Thakur, A. K. Singh, R. S. Singh, and M. Mishra, Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa 848125, Samastipur, India; and R. C. Chaudhary, IRRI

Flood or drought periodically affects rice in Bihar—especially in the northern areas. Sometimes floods and droughts occur at the same time in different parts of the state. Farmers require rice varieties that are suitable for preflood and postflood condi- tions and for intermittent drought to enable a harvest on the available rainfall.

Varieties that are very early-maturing are the obvious choice for these situations. Sattari, Prasana, and Heera, which all have 70-75 d durations and were released in recent years, have not been accepted by farmers because of their poor yield and susceptibility to diseases and insect pests. We began working to develop very early rice varieties in the early 1980s. Numerous early-maturing cultures from IRRI were evaluated. A hybridization program was undertaken that made use of available very early germplasm. Culture ES18-5-1, with 70-75 d dura- tion, was developed from the cross Sattari/ Rasi. The culture consistently outyielded

Table 1. Yields of ES18-5-1 in uniform varietal trials at different locations in Bihar, India. 1989-95.

Yield (t/ha) (preflood)

Year

Location

 

ES18-5-1

Sattari

Prasana

Heera

CV (%)

LSD (5%)

1989-90

Dhangain

3.1

2.3

1.4

12.6

0.4

Pusa

2.4

1.7

1.9

16.0

0.6

1990-91

Dhangain

2.8

2.7

2.1

11.9

0.8

Sabour

2.2

1.9

1.2

19.9

0.4

Pusa

2.0

1.2

1.7

8.8

0.2

1991-92

Dhangain

3.1

2.2

1.1

15.4

0.3

Sabour

2.3

1.6

1.3

14.6

0.6

Pusa

1.3

1.1

1.2

13.1

0.2

1992-93

Dhangain

2.1

2.5

1.6

0.6

ns a

Sabour

1.9

1.2

1.0

1.1

11.1

0.2

Pusa

2.6

1.8

1.2

0.9

10.4

0.4

1993-94

Bikramganj

4.3

4.3

1.1

1.7

13.9

0.1

Sabour

1.5

1.1

1.1

0.5

16.8

0.8

Pusa

3.8

3.0

2.7

2.3

11.8

0.05

Patna

1.6

2.3

1.4

0.5

ns

1994-95

Pusa

2.9

2.0

13.8

0.6

Pooled mean

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.2

a ns = not significant.

Table 2. Yield (t/ha) of ES18-5-1 in on-farm trials sown on different dates around Bihar, India.

1991-95.

 

10 Jul

25 Aug (postflood)

Year

ES18-5-1

Sattari

Heera

ES18-5-1

Sattari

Heera

1991-92

2.6

2.1

1.6

2.4

1.5

1.1

1992-93

3.6

2.3

1.5

3.4

2.1

1.2

1994-95

3.2

2.4

1.7

2.7

1.8

1.3

Pooled mean

3.1

2.2

1.6

2.8

1.8

1.2

check varieties in multilocation state uniform varietal trials (very early) from 1989 to 1994 under preflood conditions. The pooled averages exhibited a 20.8%

yield increase over Sattari, 38.4% over Prasana, and 41.7% over Heera (Table 1). Under late sown conditions (Aug 25) in on-farm trials, ES18-5-1 outyielded checks

across 3 yr. Yield increases were as high as 133.3% over Sattari and 55% over Heera (Table 2). The culture was released as Turant Dhan for preflood and postflood conditions as well as for use under upland conditions. It is a semidwarf (90-95 cm) indica with sturdy stems. Turant Dhan has field resistance to brown spot and bacterial blight and is suitable for double cropping during the wet

season.

and is suitable for double cropping during the wet season. Purnendu, a new deepwater (50-100 cm)

Purnendu, a new deepwater

(50-100 cm) rice variety in eastern India

S. Mallik, C. Kundu, S. K. B. Roy, S. D.

Chatterjee, and B. K. Mandal, Rice

Research Station (RRS), Chinsurah 712102, West Bengal, India

We developed the new variety Purnendu (CN573-221-7-1) by pedigree selection from the cross Patnai 23/Jaladhi 2. Purnendu is suitable for intermediate and deepwater conditions where water is 50- 100 cm deep or more. Pumendu was evaluated as IET10029 across 36 locations in the national varietal testing program for several years. Its mean yield was 3.0 t/ha, with a potential yield of 5.3 t/ha. The mean yield of Purnendu was 78% more than that of Tilakkachari across 8 locations, 38% more than that of Sabita across 17 locations, and 67% more than that of Jalamagna across 111 locations (see table). In national testing, it ranked first in the 1987 preliminary variety trial-5 and second in the 1989 uniform variety trial-6 and 1990 and 1992 advanced variety trials-deepwater. It was approved for release in 1994 in Orissa, West Bengal, eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, and Assam. Purnendu is strongly photoperiod- sensitive and flowers around the end of October. It has very good tolerance for submergence with nominal elongation (similar to that of FR13A) and good kneeing ability. The variety possesses resistance to sheath blight, yellow stem

Performance of Purnendu in national trials in India. 1986-92.

Yield (t/ha)

Maximum

Year

Trial/site

 

water

 

Purnendu

Standard

depth

 

check

(cm)

1986

PVT-5 a Patna, Bihar Pusa, Bihar Ghagraghat, Uttar Pradesh Central Rice Research Institute Chinsurah, West Bengal

 

Tilakkachari

 

3.6

1.5

NA b

2.4

2.3

40

2.0

1.8

25

(CRRI)

1.0

0

90

2.6

2.0

100

1987

PVT-5

Pulla, Andhra Pradesh Chinsurah, West Bengal CRRI, Orissa

 

2.6* e

0.8

75

5.1*

2.2

75

3.4*

2.1

85

1988

UVT-5 b Pulla, Andhra Pradesh CRRI,Orissa

 

Sabita

 

2.3*

1.4

90

3.0*

1.4

80

N.

Lakhimpur, Assam

4.2

3.3

103

Patna, Bihar

 

2.2

1.6

70

Pusa, Bihar

0.8*

0.5

170

Sabour, Bihar

2.6

2.6

60

Ghagraghat, Uttar Pradesh

 

1.7

1.6

64

1989

UVT-5

Chinsurah, West Bengal Patna, Bihar Pusa, Bihar Sabour, Bihar CRRI, Orissa Pulla, Andhra Pradesh

 

4.2

3.8

55

3.9*

0.9

70

3.8*

1.4

50

4.5

3.9

75

3.4

3.3

90

3.4*

2.4

80

1989

UVT-6 c

 

Jalamagna

N.

Lakhimpur, Assam

4.07

3.42

110

Chinsurah, West Bengal Kamardanga, West Bengal

-

 

2.17*

0.62

65

3.19*

1.41

65

Pusa, Bihar

 

2.67*

1.35

125

1990

AVT-DW d

 

Pusa, Bihar

 

2.22*

1.61

95

Chinsurah, West Bengal

 

1.80*

1.32

50

N.

Lakhimpur, Assam

4.01*

3.12

100

1991

AVT-DW Chinsurah, West Bengal Pusa, Bihar

 
 

2.32*

0.50

70

2.70

2.16

NA

1992

AVT-DW Motto, Orissa Ghagraghat, Uttar Pradesh

 
 

3.42*

1.67

125

4.73*

2.75

141

a PVT-5 = Preliminary variety trial-5. b UVT-5 = Uniform variety trial-5. b NA =

6. d AVT-DW = Advanced variety trial - deepwater. e *Significantly superior to standard checks at the 5% level.

not available. c UVT-6 = Uniform variety trial-

borer, and leaffolder and moderate resist- ance to sheath rot, brown spot, and gall midge biotype 1. Purnendu has strong seed dormancy for about 3 mo. Grain is golden with purple

apiculi. Mean grain dimensions are 7.9 × 2.8 mm with a test weight of 18.9 g. Kernels are white with a length-breadth ratio of 2.5. Hulling percentage is 79.5 and milling percentage is 73.5. Both alkali value (5.6)

and amylose content (26.1) are high. A large amount of seed has been distributed through the minikit program to

make the variety available to farmers.

minikit program to make the variety available to farmers. Jitendra, a new deepwater rice variety for

Jitendra, a new deepwater rice variety for Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, India

S. Mallik, C. Kundu, S. K. Datta, B. Banerjee, S. D. Chatterjee, and B. K. Mandal, Rice Research Station (RRS), Chinsurah, 712102, West Bengal, India

The Varietal Identification Committee of the Indian Council of Agricultural Re- search approved the release in 1994 of Jitendra (SF432) for deepwater areas in Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, India. Jitendra is a pureline selection from land races. It was developed at RRS, Chinsurah. The variety is suitable for water depths of 100 cm or more. The mean yield of the variety in national trials was 2.8 t/ha with a yield potential of 5.0 t/ha. It yielded 46% more than Tilakkachari and 33% more than Jalmagna. It ranked third in the 1992 advanced variety trial-deepwater (AVT- DW), fifth in the 1991 AVT-DW, and seventh in the 1990 AVT-DW over the pooled means. At Ghagraghat, Uttar Pradesh, Jitendra yielded 5 t/ha in 1989 with a maximum water level of 191 cm, and 4 t/ha in 1992 when the maximum water depth was 141 cm (see table). Jitendra is tall, photoperiod-sensitive, and flowers around the third week of October. It has tolerance for submergence, mainly through elongation and very good kneeing ability. Panicles are well exserted with long slender golden grains and purple apiculi. Grain dimension is 10.9 × 2.9 mm, with a test weight of 31.2 g. Kernels are white with a length-breadth ratio of 3.3. Hulling percentage is 79.7 and milling percentage is 72.5. The rice has intermedi- ate alkali value (2.6) and amylose content (25.0). Seed dormancy is about 3 mo. Jitendra has resistance to neck blast, brown planthopper, and whitebacked planthopper and moderate resistance to

leaffolder and gall midge biotype 1.

moderate resistance to leaffolder and gall midge biotype 1. Performance of Jitendra in national trials. India.

Performance of Jitendra in national trials. India. 1988-92.

Yield (t/ha)

Maximum

Year

Trial/site

water