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1
Using the method of joints, determine the force in each member of the
truss shown. State whether each member is in tension or compression.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
Joint FBDs:
Joint B:
N
Joint C:
N
( ) ( )( ) 0: 6.25 m 4 m 315 N 0 240 N
B y y
M C Σ = − = = C
0: 315 N 0 75 N
y y y y
F B C Σ = − + = = B
0: 0
x x
F Σ = = B
75 N
5 4 3
AB BC
F F
= =
125.0 N C
AB
F = W
100.0 N T
BC
F = W
By inspection:
260 N C
AC
F = W
PROBLEM 6.2
Using the method of joints, determine the force in each member of the
truss shown. State whether each member is in tension or compression.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
Joint FBDs:
Joint C:
Joint A:
( ) ( )( ) 0: 14 ft 7.5 ft 5.6 kips 0 3 kips
A x x
M C Σ = − = = C
0: 0 3 kips
x x x x
F A C Σ = − + = = A
0: 5.6 kips 0 5.6 kips
y y y
F A Σ = − = = A
3 kips
5 4 3
BC AC
F F
= =
5.00 kips C
BC
F = W
4.00 kips T
AC
F = W
1.6 kips
8.5 4
AB
F
=
3.40 kips T
AB
F = W
PROBLEM 6.3
Using the method of joints, determine the force in each member of
the truss shown. State whether each member is in tension or
compression.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
Joint FBDs:
Joint C:
Joint B:
( )( ) ( ) 0: 6 ft 6 kips 9 ft 0 4 kips
B y y
M C Σ = − = = C
0: 6 kips 0 10 kips
y y y y
F B C Σ = − − = = B
0: 0
x x
F Σ = = C
4 kips
17 15 8
AC BC
F F
= =
8.50 kips T
AC
F = W
7.50 kips C
BC
F = W
By inspection:
12.50 kips C
AB
F = W
10 kips
5 4
AB
F
=
PROBLEM 6.4
Using the method of joints, determine the force in each member of the
truss shown. State whether each member is in tension or compression.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
Joint FBDs:
Joint D:
Joint C:
Joint B:
( ) ( )( ) ( ) 0: 1.5 m 2 m 1.8 kN 3.6 m 2.4 kN 0
B y
M C Σ = + − =
3.36 kN
y
= C
0: 3.36 kN 2.4 kN 0
y y
F B Σ = + − =
0.96 kN
y
= B
2
0: 2.4 kN 0
2.9
y AD
F F Σ = − =
3.48 kN T
AD
F = W
2.1
0: 0
2.9
x CD AD
F F F Σ = − =
2.1
(3.48 kN)
2.9
CD
F =
2.52 kN C
CD
F = W
By inspection:
3.36 kN C
AC
F = W
2.52 kN C
BC
F = W
4
0: 0.9 kN 0
5
y AB
F F Σ = − =
1.200 kN T
AB
F = W
PROBLEM 6.5
Using the method of joints, determine the force in each member of the
truss shown. State whether each member is in tension or compression.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
Joint FBDs:
Joint B:
Joint C:
Joint A:
0 :
x
F Σ =
0
x
= C
By symmetry: 6 kN
y y
= = C D
1
0: 3 kN 0
5
y AB
F F Σ = − + =
3 5 6.71 kN T
AB
F = = W
2
0: 0
5
x AB BC
F F F Σ = − =
6.00 kN C
BC
F = W
3
0: 6 kN 0
5
y AC
F F Σ = − =
10.00 kN C
AC
F = W
4
0: 6 kN 0
5
x AC CD
F F F Σ = − + =
2.00 kN T
CD
F = W
1 3
0: 2 3 5 kN 2 10 kN 6 kN 0 check
5 5
y
F
Σ = − + − =
By symmetry: 6.71 kN T
AE AB
F F = = W
10.00 kN C
AD AC
F F = = W
6.00 kN C
DE BC
F F = = W
PROBLEM 6.6
Using the method of joints, determine the force in each member of the
truss shown. State whether each member is in tension or compression.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
Joint FBDs:
Joint C:
Joint D:
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 25.5 ft 6 ft 3 kips 8 ft 9.9 kips 0
A y
M C Σ = + − =
2.4 kips
y
= C
0: 2.4 kips 9.9 kips 0
y y
F A Σ = + − =
7.4 kips
y
= A
0: 3 kips 0
x x
F A Σ = − + =
3 kips
x
= A
2.4 kips
12 18.5 18.5
CD BC
F F
= =
3.70 kips T
CD
F = W
3.70 kips C
BC
F = W
or: 0:
x BC CD
F F F Σ = =
6
0: 2.4 kips 2 0
18.5
y BC
F F Σ = − =
same answers
( )
17.5 4
0: 3 kips 3.70 kips 0
18.5 5
x AD
F F Σ = + − =
8.125 kips
AD
F =
8.13 kips T
AD
F = W
( ) ( )
6 3
0: 3.7 kips 8.125 kips 0
18.5 5
y BD
F F Σ = + − =
6.075 kips
BD
F =
6.08 kips C
BD
F = W
Joint A:
PROBLEM 6.6 CONTINUED
( )
4 4
0: 3 kips 8.125 kips 0
5 5
x AB
F F Σ = − + − =
4.375 kips
AB
F =
4.38 kips C
AB
F = W
PROBLEM 6.7
Using the method of joints, determine the force in each member of the
truss shown. State whether each member is in tension or compression.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
Joint FBDs:
Joint A:
Joint B:
0: 480 N 0 480 N
y y y
F A Σ = − = = A
( ) 0: 6 m 0 0
A x x
M D Σ = = = D
0: 0 0
x x x
F A Σ = − = = A
480 N
6 2.5 6.5
AB AC
F F
= =
200 N C
AB
F = W
520 N T
AC
F = W
200 N
2.5 6 6.5
BE BC
F F
= =
480 N C
BE
F = W
520 N T
BC
F = W
Joint C:
Joint D:
PROBLEM 6.7 CONTINUED
By inspection:
520 N T
CD CE
F F = = W
( )
2.5
0: 520 N 0
6.5
x DE
F F Σ = − =
200 N C
DE
F = W
PROBLEM 6.8
Using the method of joints, determine the force in each member of the
truss shown. State whether each member is in tension or compression.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
Joint FBDs:
Joint F:
Joint C:
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 9 ft 6.75 ft 4 kips 13.5 ft 4 kips 0
E y
M F Σ = − − =
9 kips
y
= F
0: 9 kips 0 9 kips
y y y
F E Σ = − + = = E
0: 4 kips 4 kips 0 8 kips
x x x
F E Σ = − + + = = E
By inspection of joint : E
9.00 kips T
EC
F = W
8.00 kips T
EF
F = W
By inspection of joint : B
0
AB
F = W
0
BD
F = W
4
0: 8 kips 0
5
x CF
F F Σ = − =
10.00 kips C
CF
F = W
3
0: (10 kips) 0
5
y DF
F F Σ = − =
6.00 kips T
DF
F = W
( )
4
0: 4 kips 10 kips 0
5
x CD
F F Σ = − + =
4.00 kips T
CD
F = W
( )
3
0: 9 kips 10 kips 0
5
y AC
F F Σ = − + =
3.00 kips T
AC
F = W
Joint A:
PROBLEM 6.8 CONTINUED
4
0: 4 kips 0
5
x AD
F F Σ = − =
5.00 kips C
AD
F = W
PROBLEM 6.9
Determine the force in each member of the Gambrel roof truss shown.
State whether each member is in tension or compression.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
Joint A:
Joint B:
Joint D:
0: 0
x x
F Σ = = H
By symmetry: 12 kN
y
= = A H
By inspection of joints and , C G
and 0
CE AC BC
F F F = = W
and 0
EG GH FG
F F F = = W
3
0: 12 kN 3 kN 0
5
y AB
F F Σ = − − =
15.00 kN C
AB
F = W
( )
4
0: 15 kN 0
5
x AC
F F Σ = − =
12.00 kN T
AC
F = W
( )
4 10 4
0: 15 kN 0
5 10.44 5
x BD BE
F F F Σ = − − =
( )
3 3 3
0: 15 kN 6 kN 0
5 10.44 5
y BD BE
F F F Σ = − − + =
Solving yields
11.93 kN C
BD
F = W
0.714 kN C
BE
F = W
0: by symmetry
x
F Σ =
11.93 kN C
DF
F = W
( )
3
0: 6 kN 2 11.93 kN 0
10.44
y DE
F F Σ = − − + =
0.856 kN T
DE
F = W
By symmetry:
so 0.714 kN C
EF BE EF
F F F = = W
FH AB
F F =
15.00 kN C
FH
F = W
GH AC
F F =
12.00 kN T
GH
F = W
From above
CE AC
F F =
12.00 kN T
CE
F = W
EG GH
F F =
12.00 kN T
EG
F = W
PROBLEM 6.10
Determine the force in each member of the Howe roof truss shown.
State whether each member is in tension or compression.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
Joint FBDs:
Joint C:
Joint B:
0: 0
x x
F Σ = = A
By symmetry: 12 kN
y y
= = A H
and
; ;
; ;
FH AB GH AC FG BC
DF BD EF BE EG CE
F F F F F F
F F F F F F
= = =
= = =
9 kN
3 4 5
AC AB
F F
= =
12.00 kN T
AC
F = W
15.00 kN C
AB
F = W
so 15.00 kN C
FH
F = W
By inspection:
12.00 kN T
GH
F = W
0; 12 kN
BC CE
F F = =
0
BC FG
F F = = W
12.00 kN T
CE
F = W
12.00 kN T
EG
F = W
1
1
4
Note: tan so sin 0.8
3
3
2tan so sin 0.96
4
−
−
= =
= =
α α
β β
1 0: 6 kN sin sin 0
y BE
F F Σ = − + = α β
5.00 kN C
BE
F = W
so 5.00 kN C
EF
F = W
( )
3 3 3
0: 6 kN 15 kN 0
5 5 5
y BD BE
F F F Σ = − − + + =
Joint D:
PROBLEM 6.10 CONTINUED
( ) ( )
3 3 3
5 kN 15 kN 6 kN
5 5 5
BD
F = + −
10.00 kN C
BD
F = W
so 10.00 kN C
DF
F = W
3
0: 6 kN 2 10 kN 0
5
y DE
F F
Σ = − + − =
6.00 kN T
DE
F = W
PROBLEM 6.11
Determine the force in each member of the Fink roof truss shown. State
whether each member is in tension or compression.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
Joint FBDs:
Joint A:
Joint B:
0: 0
x x
F Σ = = A
By symmetry: 24 kips
y y
= = A G
also;
; ;
;
FG AB EG AC EF BC
DF BD DE CD
F F F F F F
F F F F
= = =
= =
18 kips
;
4 9 97
AC AB
F F
= =
40.5 kips T
AC
F = W
44.32 kips
AB
F =
44.3 kips C
AB
F = W
so 44.3 kips C
FG
F = W
40.5 kips T
EG
F = W
( )
9 3
0: 44.32 kips 0
5 97
x BD BC
F F F Σ = − − =
( )
4 4
0: 44.32 kips 12 0
5 97
y BD BC
F F F Σ = − + − =
Solving:
11.25 kips C
BC
F = W
36.9 kips C
BD
F = W
so 11.25 kips C
EF
F = W
36.9 kips C
DF
F = W
Joint C:
PROBLEM 6.11 CONTINUED
( )
4 4
0: 11.25 kips 0
5 5
y CD
F F Σ = − =
11.25 kips T
CD
F = W
11.25 kips T
DE
F = W
( )
3
0: 2 11.25 kips 40.5 kips 0
5
x CE
F F
Σ = + − =
27.0 kips T
CE
F = W
PROBLEM 6.12
Determine the force in each member of the fan roof truss shown. State
whether each member is in tension or compression.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
Joint FBDs:
Joint A:
Joint B:
Joint D:
0 : 0
x x
F Σ = = A
By symmetry: 12 kN
y y
= = A I
and
; ;
; ;
AB HI AC GI BC GH
BD FH DC FG DE EF
CE EG
F F F F F F
F F F F F F
F F
= = =
= = =
=
10 kN
4 9 97
AC AB
F F
= =
22.5 kN T
AC
F = W
so 22.5 kN T
GI
F = W
2.5 97 kN
AB
F =
24.6 kN C
AB
F = W
so 24.6 kN C
HI
F = W
( )
9
0: 22.5 kN 0
97
x BD BC
F F F Σ = − + =
( )
4
0: 10 kN 4 kN 0
97
y BC BD
F F F Σ = − + − =
Solving:
19.70 kN C
BD
F = W
so 19.70 kN C
FH
F = W
and 4.92 kN C
BC
F = W
so 4.92 kN C
GH
F = W
By inspection:
19.70 kN C
DE
F = W
so 19.70 kN C
EF
F = W
and 4.00 kN C
CD
F = W
so 4.00 kN C
FG
F = W
Joint C:
PROBLEM 6.12 CONTINUED
( )
9 3
0: 22.5 kN 4.92 kN 0
5 97
x CE CG
F F F Σ = − + + + =
( )
4 4
0: 4 kN 4.92 kN 0
5 97
y CE
F F Σ = − − + =
Solving:
7.50 kN T
CE
F = W
7.50kN T
EG
so F = W
and 13.50 kN T
CG
F = W
PROBLEM 6.13
Determine the force in each member of the roof truss shown. State
whether each member is in tension or compression.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 16 ft 16 ft 200 lb 12 ft 300 lb 8 ft 400 lb 4 ft 400 lb 0
A y
M H Σ = − − − − =
725 lb
y
= H
0: 200 lb 400 lb 400 lb 300 lb 200 lb 725 lb 0
y y
F A Σ = − − − − − + =
775 lb
y
= A
0 : 0
x x
F Σ = = A
Joint FBDs:
Joint A:
575 lb
1 26 29
AC AB
F F
= =
3096.5 lb; 3.10 kips C
AB AB
F F = = W
2931.9 lb; 2.93 kips T
AC AC
F F = = W
PROBLEM 6.13 CONTINUED
Joint C:
By inspection:
0
BC
F = W
2.93 kips T
CE
F = W
Joint B:
( )
2 2
0: 3097 lb 400 lb 0
29 29
y BD
F F Σ = − − =
2020.0 lb; 2.02 kips C
BD BD
F F = = W
( )
5
0: 3097 2020 lb 0
29
x BE
F F Σ = − − = 1000.0 lb; 1.000 kip C
BE BE
F F = = W
Joint D:
( )
5
0: 2.02 kips 0
29
x DF
F F Σ = − =
2.02 kips C
DF
F = W
( )
2
0: 2 2.02 kips 0.4 kips = 0
29
y DE
F F Σ = + −
1.100 kips C
DE
F = W
Joint H:
525 lb
1 29 26
FH GH
F F
= =
2827 lb; 2.83 kips C
FH FH
F F = = W
2677 lb; 2.68 kips T
GH GH
F F = = W
Joint G:
By inspection:
2.68 kips T
EG
F = W
0
FG
F = W
PROBLEM 6.13 CONTINUED
Joint F:
( )
2
0: 2.83 kips 0.3 kips 0 2.02 kips
29
y DF DF
F F F Σ = − − = =
( )
5
0: 2.02 kips 2.827 kips 0
29
x EF
F F Σ = + − = 0.750 kips C
EF
F = W
PROBLEM 6.14
Determine the force in each member of the Gambrel roof truss
shown. State whether each member is in tension or compression.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
Joint FBDs:
Joint A:
Joint B:
0 0
x x
F Σ = = A
By symmetry: 5 kN
y y
= = A J
and
; ;
; ;
AB HJ AC IJ BD GH
CD GI DE EG DF FG
BC HI
F F F F F F
F F F F F F
F F
= = =
= = =
=
By inspection of joint F:
0
EF
F = W
8 89
0: 5 kN 1 kN 0 kN
2 89
y AB AB
F F F Σ = − − = =
4.72 kN C
AB
F = W
5 89
0: kN 0
2 89
x AC
F F Σ = − =
2.50 kN T
AC
F = W
so 4.72 kN C
HJ
F = W
2.50 kN T
IJ
F = W
5 89
0: kN 0
2 89
x BD BC
F F F
Σ = − − =
8 89
0: kN 1 kN 0
2 89
y BD BC
F F F
Σ = − + − =
Solving: 4.127 kN
BD
F =
so 4.13 kN C
BD
F = W
0.5896 kN
AB
F =
and 0.590 kN C
BC
F = W
so 4.13 kN C
GH
F = W
and 0.590 kN C
HI
F = W
Joint C:
Joint D:
PROBLEM 6.14 CONTINUED
( )
5
0: .59 kN 2.5 kN 0; 2.187 kN
89
x CI CI
F F F Σ = + − = =
2.19 kN T
CI
F = W
( )
8
0: .59 kN 0
89
y CD
F F Σ = − =
0.500 kN T
CD
F = W
so 0.500 kN T
GI
F = W
( )
8 5
0: 4.127 kN 2.5 kN 0
89 281
y DE
F F Σ = − − =
3.352 kN
DE
F =
so 3.35 kN C
DE
F = W
and 3.35 kN C
EG
F = W
( ) ( )
5 16
4.127 kN 3.352 kN 0
89 281
x DF
F F Σ = − + =
1.012 kN T
DF
F = W
1.012 kN T
FG
F = W
PROBLEM 6.15
Determine the force in each member of the Pratt bridge truss shown.
State whether each member is in tension or compression.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
FBDs Joints:
0: 0
x x
F Σ = = A
By symmetry: 9 kN
y y
= = A H
and
;
;
;
AB FH AC GH
BC FG BD DF
BE EF CE EG
F F F F
F F F F
F F F F
= =
= =
= =
By inspection of joint D:
0
DE
F = W
4
0: 9 kN 0
5
y AB
F F Σ = − =
11.25 kN C
AB
F = W
3
0: 0
5
x AC AB
F F F Σ = − =
6.75 kN T
AC
F = W
0: 6.75 kN 0
x CE
F F Σ = − =
6.75 kN T
CE
F = W
0: 6 kN 0
y BC
F F Σ = − =
6.00 kN T
BC
F = W
( )
4 4
0: 11.25 kN 6 kN 0
5 5
y BE
F F Σ = − + =
3.75 kN C
BE
F = W
( ) ( )
3 3
0: 11.25 kN 3.75 kN 0
5 5
x BD
F F Σ = − − =
9.00 kN T
BD
F = W
From symmetry conditions above
11.25 kN C
FH
F = W
6.75 kN T
GH
F = W
6.75 kN T
EG
F = W
6.00 kN T
FG
F = W
3.75 kN C
EF
F = W
9.00 kN T
DF
F = W
PROBLEM 6.16
Determine the force in each member of the Pratt bridge truss shown.
State whether each member is in tension or compression. Assume
that the load at G has been removed.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
Joint FBDs:
Joint H:
Joint F:
Joint B:
0: 0
x x
F Σ = = A
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 12 m 6 m 6 kN 3 m 6 kN 0
A y
M H Σ = − − =
4.5 kN
y
= H
0: 6 kN 6 kN 4.5 kN 0
y y
F A Σ = − − + =
7.5 kN
y
= A
4.5 kN
4 3 5
GH FH
F F
= =
3.375 kN
GH
F =
3.38 kN T
GH
F = W
5.625 kN
FH
F =
5.63 kN C
FH
F = W
By inspection of joint : G
0
FG
F = W
3.38 kN T
EG GH
F F = = W
5.625 kN
5 5 6
EF DF
F F
= =
5.63 kN T
EF
F = W
6.75 kN C
DF
F = W
By inspection of joint : D
0
DE
F = W
6.75 kN C
BD DF
F F = = W
By inspection of joint :
AC CE
C F F =
and 6.00 kN T
BC
F = W
( )
3
0: 6.75 kN 0
5
x AB BE
F F F Σ = + − =
( )
4
0: 6 kN 0
5
y AB BE
F F F Σ = − − =
( )
4
0: 6 kN 0
5
y AB BE
F F F Σ = − − =
Joint A:
PROBLEM 6.16 CONTINUED
Solving:
9.375 kN so 9.38 kN C
AB AB
F F = = W
1.875 kN
BE
F =
1.875 kN T
BE
F = W
7.5 kN 9.375 kN
5.625 kN
3 4 5
AC
AC
F
F = = =
5.63 kN T
AC
F = W
From above
5.63 kN T
CE
F = W
PROBLEM 6.17
Determine the force in member DE and in each of the members
located to the left of DE for the inverted Howe roof truss shown.
State whether each member is in tension or compression.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
Joint FBDs:
Joint A:
Joint B:
Joint C:
0: 0
x x
F Σ = = A
By load symmetry 2400 lb
y y
= = A H
Note:
1
10.08
tan 16.26
15.81 18.75
θ
−
= = °
+
90 2 57.48 ; 180 32.52 β θ α β = − = ° = − = °
( ) 0: 2400 lb 600 lb cos sin 0
y AC
F F θ θ
′
Σ = − − =
( ) 1800 lb
6171.5 lb;
tan16.26
AC
F = =
°
6.17 kips T
AC
F = W
0: (6171.5 lb) cos 2 cos 0
x AB
F F θ θ Σ = − =
cos32.52
6171.5 5420.7 lb;
cos16.26
AB
F
°
= =
°
5.42 kips C
AB
F = W
( ) 0: 5420.7 lb 1200 lb sin 0
x BD
F F θ
′
Σ = + − =
5420.7 1200sin16.26 5756.7 lb
BD
F = + ° =
5.76 kips C
BD
F = W
( ) 0: 1200 lb cos 0 1152 lb
y BC BC
F F F
′
Σ = − = = θ
1.152 kips C
BC
F = W
( ) 0: sin 2 1152 lb cos 0
y CD
F F θ θ
′′
Σ = − =
cos16.26
1152 2057.2 lb
sin32.52
CD
F
°
= =
°
2.06 kips T
CD
F = W
( ) ( ) 0: 1152 lb sin 2057.2 lb cos 2 6171.5 lb 0
x CE
F F θ θ
′′
Σ = + + − =
Joint E:
PROBLEM 6.17 CONTINUED
6171.5 1152sin16.26 2057.2cos32.52
CE
F = − ° − °
4114.3 lb =
4.11 kips T
CE
F = W
( ) 0: 4114.3 lb sin 2 cos 0
y DE
F F θ θ Σ = − =
sin32.52
4114.3 2304.0 lb
cos16.26
DE
F
°
= =
°
2.30 kips C
DE
F = W
PROBLEM 6.18
Determine the force in each of the members located to the right of
DE for the inverted Howe roof truss shown. State whether each
member is in tension or compression.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
Joint FBDs:
Joint H:
Joint F:
0: 0
x x
F Σ = = A
By symmetry of loads 2400 lb
y y
= = A H
Note:
1
10.08
tan 16.26
15.81 18.75
θ
−
= = °
+
90 2 57.48 = − = ° β θ
0: 2400 lb 600 lb sin 0
y FH
F F θ Σ = − − =
1800 lb
6428.7 lb
sin16.26
FH
F = =
°
6.43 kips C
FH
F = W
( ) 0: 6428.7 lb cos 0
x GH
F F θ Σ = − =
6428.7cos16.32 6171.5 lb
GH
F = ° =
6.17 kips T
GH
F = W
( ) 0: 1200 lb cos 0 1152.0 lb
y FG FG
F F F θ
′
Σ = − = =
1.152 kips C
FG
F = W
( ) 0: 1200 lb sin 6428.7 lb 0
x DF
F F θ
′
Σ = + − =
6428.7 1200sin16.26 6092.7 lb
DF
F = − ° =
6.09 kips C
DF
F = W
Joint G:
PROBLEM 6.18 CONTINUED
0: sin 2 (1152 lb) cos 0
y DG
F F θ θ Σ = − =
cos16.26
1152 2057.2 lb
sin32.52
DG
F
°
= =
°
2.06 kips T
DG
F = W
0: 6171.5 lb 2057.2cos 2 1152 lb sin 0
x EG
F F Σ = − − − = θ θ
( ) 6171.5 2057.2cos32.52 1152lb sin 16.26 4114.3 lb
EG
F = − °− ° =
4.11 kips T
EG
F = W
PROBLEM 6.19
Determine the force in each of the members located to the left of
member FG for the scissor roof truss shown. State whether each
member is in tension or compression.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
Joint FBDs:
Joint A:
Joint B:
Joint E:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0: 6 ft 6 3 .5 kip 2 1 kip 1 1 kip 0
A y
M L Σ = − − − =
0.75 kip
y
= L
0: 0.5 kip 1 kip 1 kip 0.5 kip 0.75 kip 0
y y
F A Σ = − − − − + =
2.25 kips
y
= A
0: 0
x x
F Σ = = A
1.75 kips
1 5 8
AC AB
F F
= =
4.95 kips C
AB
F = W
3.913 kips
AC
F =
3.91 kips T
AC
F = W
By inspection of joint : C
0
BC
F = W
and
so 3.91 kips T
CE AC CE
F F F = = W
4.95 kips
0: 1 kip 0
2 2
BD
y
F
F Σ = − − =
3.536 kips
BD
F =
3.54 kips C
BD
F = W
( )
1
0: 4.95 kips 3.536 kips 0
2
x BE
F F Σ = − − =
1.000 kip
BE
F =
1.000 kip C
BE
F = W
[ ]
2
0: 3.913 kips 1 kip 0
5
x EG
F F Σ = − + =
2.795 kips
EG
F =
2.80 kips T
EG
F = W
( )
1
0: 2.795 kips 3.913 kips 0
5
y DE
F F Σ = − + =
0.500 kip T
DE
F = W
Joint D:
PROBLEM 6.19 CONTINUED
( ) ( )
1 2
0: 3.536 kips 0
2 5
x DF DG
F F F Σ = − + =
( ) ( )
1 1
0: 3.536 kips 1.5 kips 0
2 5
y DG DF
F F F Σ = − + − =
Solving:
2.516 kips so 2.52 kips C
0.280 kip 0.280 kip C
DF DF
DG DG
F F
F F
= =
= =
W
W
PROBLEM 6.20
Determine the force in member FG and in each of the members
located to the right of member FG for the scissor roof truss shown.
State whether each member is in tension or compression.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
Joint FBDs:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0: 6 ft 6 3 0.5 kip 2 1 kip 1 1 kip 0
A y
M L Σ = − − − =
0.75 kip
y
= L
Inspection of joints , , and , in order, shows that K J I
0
JK
F = W
0
IJ
F = W
0
HI
F = W
and that
; and
IK KL HJ JL GI IK
F F F F F F = = =
0.75
2.1213 kips
1 8 5
JL KL
JL
F F
F = = =
2.12 kips C
JL
F = W
1.6771kips
KL
F =
1.677 kips T
KL
F = W
and, from above:
2.12 kips C
HJ
F = W
1.677 kips T
GI IK
F F = = W
( ) ( )
2 1
0: 2.1213 kips 0
5 2
x FH GH
F F F Σ = + − =
( ) ( )
1 1
0: 2.1213 kips 0
5 2
y GH FH
F F F Σ = + + =
Solving:
2.516 kips
FH
F =
2.52 kips C
FH
F = W
0.8383 kips
GH
F = −
0.838 kips T
GH
F = W
PROBLEM 6.20 CONTINUED
( )
2
0: 2.516 kips 0
5
x DF
F F Σ = − =
2.52 kips C
DF
F =
( )( )
1
0: 0.5 kip 2 2.516 kips 0
5
y FG
F F Σ = − + =
1.750 kips T
FG
F = W
PROBLEM 6.21
The portion of truss shown represents the upper part of a power
transmission line tower. For the given loading, determine the force in
each of the members located above HJ. State whether each member is
in tension or compression.
SOLUTION
Joint FBDs:
1.5 kN
2.29 2.29 1.2
DF EF
F F
= =
2.8625 kN
DF EF
F F = =
2.86 kN T
DF
F = W
2.86 kN C
EF
F = W
2.8625 kN
1.25 kN
2.21 0.6 2.29
BD DE
F F
= = =
2.7625 kN
BD
F =
2.76 kN T
BD
F = W
0.750 kN C
DE
F = W
By symmetry of joint vs. joint A F
2.86 kN T
AB
F = W
2.86 kN T
AC
F = W
( )
2.21 4
0: 2.7625 kN 2.8625 kN 0
2.29 5
x BE
F F Σ = − + =
0
BE
F = W
( )
0.6
0: 2.8625 kN 0;
2.29
y BC
F F Σ = − =
0.750 kN C
BC
F = W
( )
2.21
0: 2.8625 kN 0 2.7625 kN
2.29
x CE CE
F F F Σ = − = =
2.76 kN C
CE
F = W
( )
0.6
0: 0.75 kN 2.8625 kN 0
2.21
y CH
F F Σ = − − =
1.500 kN C
CH
F = W
PROBLEM 6.21 CONTINUED
( )
2.21 4
0: 2.7625 kN 2.8625 kN 0
2.29 5
x HE
F F Σ = − − =
0
HE
F = W
( )
0.6
0: 0.75 kN 2.8625 kN 0
2.29
y EJ
F F Σ = − − =
1.500 kN
EJ
F = W
PROBLEM 6.22
For the tower and loading of Prob. 6.21 and knowing that
1.5 kN
CH EJ
F F C = = and 0
EH
F = , determine the force in member
HJ and in each of the members located between HJ and NO. State
whether each member is in tension or compression.
SOLUTION
Joint FBDs:
1.5 kN
1.2 3.03 3.03
JL KL
F F
= =
3.7875 kN
JL KL
F F = =
3.79 kN T
JL
F = W
3.79 kN C
KL
F = W
By symmetry:
3.79 kN T
GH
F = W
3.79 kN C
GI
F = W
( )
2.97
0: 3.7875 kN 0
3.03
x HJ
F F Σ = − =
3.7125 kN
HJ
F =
3.71 kN T
HJ
F = W
( )
0.6
0: 3.7875 kN 1.5 kN 0
3.03
y JK
F F Σ = − − =
2.25 kN C
JK
F = W
Knowing 0; by symmetry
HE
F =
0
HK
F = W
2.25 kN C
HI
F = W
( )
2.97
0: 3.7875 kN 0 3.7125
3.03
x IK IK
F F F Σ = − = =
3.71 kN C
IK
F = W
( )
0.6
0: 2.25 kN 3.7875 kN 0
3.03
y IN
F F Σ = − − =
3.00 kN C
IN
F = W
Knowing that 0, by symmetry
HK
F =
3.00 kN C
KO
F = W
0
KN
F = W
PROBLEM 6.23
Determine the force in each member of the truss shown. State whether
each member is in tension or compression.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
Joint FBDs:
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 10 m 7.5 m 80 kN 8 m 30 kN 0
F y
M G Σ = − − =
84 kN
y
= G
0: 30 kN 0 30 kN
x x x
F F Σ = − + = = F
0: 84 kN 80 kN 0 4 kN
y y y
F F Σ = + − = = F
By inspection of joint : G
0
EG
F = W
84 kN C
CG
F = W
84 kN
10.5 kN
8 61 29
CE AC
F F
= = =
82.0 kN T
CE
F = W
56.5 kN C
AC
F = W
( )
2 6
0: 82.0 kN 80 kN 0
5 61
y AE
F F Σ = + − =
19.01312
AE
F =
19.01 kN T
AE
F = W
( ) ( )
1 5
0: 19.013 kN 82.0 kN 0
5 61
x DE
F F Σ = − − + =
43.99 kN
DE
F =
44.0 kN T
DE
F = W
1
0: 30 kN 0
5
x DF
F F Σ = − =
67.082 kN
DF
F =
67.1 kN T
DF
F = W
PROBLEM 6.23 CONTINUED
( )
2
0: 67.082 kN 4 kN 0
5
y BF
F F Σ = − − =
56.00 kN
BF
F =
56.0 kN C
BF
F = W
5 5
0: 30 kN 0
61 29
x BD AB
F F F Σ = + − =
6 3
0: 56 kN 0
61 29
y BD AB
F F F Σ = − − =
Solving:
42.956 kN
BD
F =
43.0 kN T
BD
F = W
61.929 kN
AB
F =
61.9 kN C
AB
F = W
( ) ( )
6 2
0: 42.956 N 67.082 N 0
61 5
y AD
F F Σ = + − =
30.157 kN
AD
F =
30.2 N T
AD
F = W
PROBLEM 6.24
Determine the force in each member of the truss shown. State whether
each member is in tension or compression.
SOLUTION
Joint FBDs:
9 kN
9 40 41
AC AB
F F
= =
41.0 kN T
AB
F = W
40.0 kN C
AC
F = W
By inspection of joint B:
41.0 kN T
BD
F = W
3.00 kN C
BC
F = W
( )
4.6
Note: to determine slope of : 2.25 m 1.035 m
10.0
CD DE = =
1
0: 3 kN 0
5
y CD
F F Σ = − =
3 5 kN 6.71 kN T
CD
F = = W
( )
2
0: 3 5 kN 40 kN 0
5
x CE
F F Σ = + − =
46.0 kN C
CE
F = W
( )
( )
40 2
0: 41 kN 3 5 kN 0
41 5
x DG
F F Σ = − − =
47.15 kN
DG
F =
47.2 kN T
DG
F = W
( )
( )
9 1
0: 47.15 kN 41 kN 3 5 kN 0
41 5
y DE
F F Σ = + − − =
1.650 kN C
DE
F = W
5
0: 1.65 kN 0
13
y EG
F F Σ = − =
4.29 kN T
EG
F = W
( )
12
0: 46 kN 4.29 kN 0 49.96 kN
13
x EF EF
F F F Σ = + − = =
50.0 kN C
EF
F = W
PROBLEM 6.24 CONTINUED
49.96 kN
5 4 3
FG FH
F F
= =
40.0 kN C
FG
F = W
30.0 kN C
FH
F = W
PROBLEM 6.25
For the roof truss shown in Fig. P6.25 and P6.26, determine the force
in each of the members located to the left of member GH. State
whether each member is in tension or compression.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
Joint FBDs:
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
0: 3 ft 300 lb 9 ft 300 lb 15 ft 300 lb
18 ft 300 lb 24 ft 300 lb 30 ft 200 lb
M
M Σ = + +
+ + +
( )( )
30 ft 0 890 lb
y y
A − = = A
0: 0
x x
F Σ = = A
690 lb
5 12 13
AC AB
F F
= =
1794 lb C
AB
F = W
1656 lb T
AC
F = W
By inspection of joint F: 0
CF
F = W
0
EF
F = W
1656 lb
12 13 5
CE BC
F F
= =
1794 lb T
CE
F = W
890 lb C
BC
F = W
( )
5
0: 1794 lb 690 lb 300 lb 0
13
y BD
F F Σ = − + − =
2808 lb
BD
F =
2.81 kips C
BD
F = W
( )
12
0: 1794 lb 2808 lb 0
13
x BE
F F Σ = + − =
936 lb T
BE
F = W
6 12
0: 936 lb 1794 lb 0
13 37
x EH
F F Σ = − − =
432 37 lb
EH
F =
2.63 kips T
EH
F = W
( )
( )
5 1
0: 1794 lb 432 37 lb 0
13 37
y DE
F F Σ = − − =
1122 lb T
DE
F = W
PROBLEM 6.25 CONTINUED
( )
12 1
0: 2808 lb 0
13 2
x DG DH
F F F Σ = + − =
( )
5 1
0: 2808 lb 300 lb 1122 lb 0
13 2
y DG DH
F F F Σ = + + − − =
Solving:
1721 lb T
DG
F = W
1419 lb C
DH
F = W
PROBLEM 6.26
Determine the force in member GH and in each of the members located
to the right of GH for the roof truss shown. State whether each member
is in tension or compression.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
Joint FBDs:
( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )
0: 30 ft 30 ft 200 lb 27 ft 300 lb
21 ft 300 lb 15 ft 300 lb
12 ft 300 lb 6 ft 300 lb 0
A y
M M Σ = − −
− −
− − =
1010 lb
y
= M
810 lb
5 12 13
LM KM
F F
= =
2106 lb
KM
F =
2.11 kips C
KM
F = W
1944 lb
LM
F =
1.944 kips T
LM
F = W
1944 lb
1 6 37
JL KL
F F
= =
324 lb C
KL
F = W
1970.8 lb
JL
F =
1.971 kips T
JL
F = W
( )
12 24
0: 2106 lb 0
13 577
x IK JK
F F F Σ = − + =
( )
5 1
0: 2106 lb 24 lb 0
13 577
y IK JK
F F F Σ = − + − + =
Solving:
2162.7 lb
IK
F =
2.16 kips C
IK
F = W
52.4 lb T
JK
F = W
( ) ( )
6 24
0: 1970.8 lb 52.4 lb 0
37 577
x HJ
F F Σ = − + =
2024 lb
HJ
F =
2.02 kips T
HJ
F = W
( ) ( )
1 1
0: 2024 lb 1970.8 lb 52.4 lb 0
37 577
y IJ
F F Σ = − + − =
10.90 lb C
IJ
F = W
PROBLEM 6.26 CONTINUED
( ) 0: sin38.88 10.9 lb 300 lb cos 22.62 0
y HI
F F
′
Σ = ° + − ° =
425.1 lb
HJ
F =
425 lb C
HI
F = W
( ) 0: cos38.88 300 lb 10.9 lb sin 22.62
x GI HI
F F F
′
Σ = + ° + − °
2162.7 lb 0 − =
1720.5 lb 1.721 kips C
GI
F = = W
By symmetry 1720.5 lb
DG
F =
( )
5
0: 2 1720.5 lb 300 lb 0
13
y GH
F F Σ = − − =
1023.46 lb
GH
F =
1.023 kips T
GH
F = W
PROBLEM 6.27
Determine whether the trusses of Probs. 6.13, 6.14, and 6.25 are
simple trusses.
SOLUTION
Truss of 6.13:
Truss of 6.14:
Truss of 6.25:
Start with and add, in order, joints , , , , ABC E D F G H ∆
This is a simple truss. W
ABDC, DEGF, and GHJI are all individually simple trusses, but no
simple extension (one joint, two members at a time) will produce the
given truss:
Not a simple truss. ∴ W
Starting with , add, in order, joints , , , , , , , , , ABC E F D H G I J K L M ∆
This is a simple truss. W
PROBLEM 6.28
Determine whether the trusses of Probs. 6.19, 6.21, and 6.23 are
simple trusses.
SOLUTION
Truss of 6.19:
Truss of 6.21:
Truss of 6.23:
Start with , ABC ∆ and add, in order, E, D, G, F, H, I, J, K
Simple truss ∴ W
Start with , ABC ∆ and add, in order, E, D, F, H, J, K, I, G, L, N, O, R, Q,
M, P, S, T, etc.
Simple truss ∴ W
Start with , BDF ∆ and add, in order, A, E, C, G.
Simple truss ∴ W
PROBLEM 6.29
For the given loading, determine the zeroforce members in the
truss shown.
SOLUTION
By inspection of joint : B
0
BC
F = W
Then by inspection of joint : C
0
CD
F = W
By inspection of joint : J
0
IJ
F = W
Then by inspection of joint : I
0
IL
F = W
By inspection of joint : N
0
MN
F = W
Then by inspection of joint : M
0
LM
F = W
PROBLEM 6.30
For the given loading, determine the zeroforce members in the truss
shown.
SOLUTION
By inspection of joint : C
0
BC
F = W
Then by inspection of joint : B
0
BE
F = W
By inspection of joint : G
0
FG
F = W
Then by inspection of joint : F
0
EF
F = W
Then by inspection of joint : E
0
DE
F = W
By inspection of joint : M
0
MN
F = W
Then by inspection of joint : N
0
KN
F = W
By inspection of joint : I
0
IJ
F = W
PROBLEM 6.31
For the given loading, determine the zeroforce members in
the truss shown.
SOLUTION
By inspection of joint : D
0
DI
F = W
By inspection of joint : E
0
EI
F = W
Then by inspection of joint : I
0
AI
F = W
By inspection of joint : B
0
BJ
F = W
By inspection of joint : F
0
FK
F = W
By inspection of joint : G
0
GK
F = W
Then by inspection of joint : K
0
CK
F = W
PROBLEM 6.32
For the given loading, determine the zeroforce members
in the truss shown.
SOLUTION
By inspection of joint : C
0
BC
F = W
By inspection of joint : M
0
LM
F = W
PROBLEM 6.33
For the given loading, determine the zeroforce members in the truss
shown.
SOLUTION
By inspection of joint : F
0
BF
F = W
Then by inspection of joint : B
0
BG
F = W
Then by inspection of joint : G
0
GJ
F = W
Then by inspection of joint : J
0
HJ
F = W
By inspection of joint : D
0
DH
F = W
Then by inspection of joint : H
0
HE
F = W
PROBLEM 6.34
For the given loading, determine the zeroforce members in the truss
shown.
SOLUTION
By inspection of joint : C
0
BC
F = W
Then by inspection of joint : B
0
BE
F = W
Then by inspection of joint : E
0
DE
F = W
By inspection of joint : H
0
FH
F = W
and 0
HI
F = W
By inspection of joint : Q
0
OQ
F = W
and 0
QR
F = W
By inspection of joint : J
0
IJ
F = W
PROBLEM 6.35
Determine the zeroforce members in the truss of (a) Prob. 6.9, (b)
Prob. 6.19.
SOLUTION
Truss of 6.9:
Truss of 6.19:
By inspection of joint : C
0
BC
F = W
By inspection of joint : G
0
FG
F = W
By inspection of joint : C
0
BC
F = W
By inspection of joint : K
0
JK
F = W
Then by inspection of joint : J
0
IJ
F = W
Then by inspection of joint : I
0
HI
F = W
PROBLEM 6.36
The truss shown consists of six members and is supported by a ball
and socket at B, a short link at C, and two short links at D. Determine
the force in each of the members for ( ) 5670 lb = − P j and 0. = Q
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
Joint B:
0: 0
z z
F Σ = = B
( )( ) ( ) ( ) 0: 2.4 ft 5670 lb 8.4ft 0 1620 lb
BD y y
M C Σ = − = = C j
( ) ( ) 0: 6.3 ft 6.3 ft 0
x y y y y
M D B B D Σ = − = =
( ) 0: 5670 lb 1620 lb 0 2025 lb
y y y y y
F B D Σ = + − + = = = B D j
( ) ( ) 0: 6.3 ft 6.3 ft 0
y x x
M B D Σ = − =
0
x x
= = B D
0: 0
x x x
F B D Σ = + =
Where
( )
( )
2.4 14.4 6.3
15.9
0.1509 0.9057 0.3962
8.4 6.3
0.8 0.6
10.5
BA BA
BA
BC BC BC
F
F
F F
+ −
=
= + −
−
= = −
i j k
F
i j k
i k
F i k
0: 0.9057 2025 lb 0
y BA
F F Σ = + =
2236 lb
BA
F = −
2.24 kips C
BA
F = W
By symmetry 2.24 kips C
AD
F = W
( ) 0: 0.1509 2236 lb 0.8 0
x BC
F F Σ = − + =
422 lb T
BC
F = W
By symmetry 422lb T
DC
F = W
Joint C:
PROBLEM 6.36 CONTINUED
( ) ( ) 0: 0.3962 2236 lb 0.6 422 lb 0
z BD
F F Σ = − − − − =
633 lb T
BD
F = W
( )
6 14.4
0.3846 0.9231
15.6
AC AC AC
F F
−
= = −
i j
F i j
( ) 0: 1620 lb 0.9231 0
y AC
F F Σ = − =
1755 lb C
AC
F = W
PROBLEM 6.37
The truss shown consists of six members and is supported by a ball
and socket at B, a short link at C, and two short links at D. Determine
the force in each of the members for 0 = P and ( ) 7420 lb = Q i .
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
Joint FBDs:
0: 0
z z
F Σ = = B
( ) ( )( ) 0: 8.4 ft 14.4 ft 7420 lb 0
BD y
M C Σ = − =
( ) 12720 lb
y
= C j
( )( )
0: 6.3 ft 0
x y y y y
M D B D B Σ = − = =
0: 0; 2 12720 lb 0
y y y y y
F B D C D Σ = + + = + =
so
( ) 6360 lb
y y
= = − B D j
( )( ) 0: 6.3 ft 0;
y x x x x
M B D B D Σ = − = =
( ) 0: 7420 lb 0; 3710 lb
x x x x x
F B D Σ = + + = = = − B D i
( )
( )
2.4 ft 14.4 ft 6.3 ft
15.9 ft
0.1509 0.9057 0.3962
BA BA
BA BD BD
F
F F
+ −
=
= + − =
i j k
F
i j k F k
( )
( )
8.4 ft 6.3 ft
0.8 0.6
10.5 ft
BC BC BC
F F
−
= = −
i j
F i j
0: 0.9057 6360 lb 0 7022 lb
y BA BA
F F F Σ = − = =
7.02 kips T
BA
F = W
By symmetry
7.02 kips T
DA
F = W
( ) 0: 0.1509 7022 lb 0.8 3710 lb 0 3313 lb
x BC BC
F F F Σ = + − = =
so 3.31 kips T
BC
F = W
By symmetry
3.31 kips T
DC
F = W
( ) ( ) 0: 0.3962 7022 lb 0.6 3313 lb 0
z BD
F F Σ = − + − =
4770 lb
BD
F = −
4.77 kips C
BD
F = W
PROBLEM 6.37 CONTINUED
( )
( )
6 ft 14.4 ft
15.6 ft
0.3846 0.9231
AC AC
AC
F
F
−
=
= −
i j
F
i j
12720 lb 0.9231 0; 13780 lb
y AC AC
F F F Σ = − = =
1.378 kips C
AC
F = W
PROBLEM 6.38
The truss shown consists of six members and is supported by a short
link at A, two short links at B, and a ball and socket at D. Determine
the force in each of the members for the given loading.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
Joint FBDs:
0: 0
z z
F Σ = = D
( ) ( )( ) ( ) 0: 5 ft 12 ft 800 lb 0 1920 lb
z x x
M A Σ = − = = A i
( )( ) 0: 3.5 ft 0;
y x x x x
M B D B D Σ = − = =
( ) 0: 1920 lb 0 so 960 lb
x x x x x
F B D Σ = + − = = = B D i
( )( )
0: 3.5 ft 0;
x y y y y
M D B D B Σ = − = =
( ) 0: 800 lb 0 so 400 lb
y y y y y
F B D Σ = + − = = = B D j
( )
( )
12 ft 5 ft
12 5
13 ft 13
AC
CA AC
F
F
− +
= = − +
i j
F i j
( )
( )
12 ft 3.5 ft
12 3.5
12.5 ft 12.5
CD
CD CD
F
F
− −
= = − −
i k
F i k
Similarly
( ) 12 3.5
12.5
CB
CB
F
F = − + i k
( )
3.5
0: 0;
12.5
z CB CD CB CD
F F F F F Σ = − = =
5
0: 800 0 2080 lb
13
y AC AC
F F F
Σ = − = =
2.08 kips T
AC
F = W
( )
( )
( )
5 ft 3.5 ft
5 3.5
6.1033 ft 6.1033
12 3.5
12.5
BA
BA BA
BD BD
CB
BC CB
F
F
F
F
−
= = −
= −
= − = + −
j k
F j k
F k
F F i k
PROBLEM 6.38 CONTINUED
5
0: 400 lb 0 488 lb
6.1033
BA
y BA
F
F F Σ = + = = −
so 488 lb C
BA
F = W
By symmetry:
488 lb C
AD
F = W
12
0: 960 lb 0 1000 lb
12.5
x BC BC
F F F
Σ = + = = −
1.000 kip C
BC
F = W
By symmetry:
1.000 kip C
CD
F = W
( )
3.5 3.5
0: 488 lb 1000 lb 0
6.1033 12.5
z BD
F F
Σ = − − + =
559.9 lb
BD
F = −
560 lb C
BD
F = W
PROBLEM 6.39
The portion of a power line transmission tower shown consists of nine
members and is supported by a ball and socket at B and short links at
C, D, and E. Determine the force in each of the members for the given
loading.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
Joint FBDs:
( )( ) ( ) 0: 1 m 200 N 0 200 N
BD z z
M E Σ = − = = E k
( )( ) 0: 1 m 1200 N 0
x z z
M E D Σ = − − =
( ) 1200 N 200 N 1000 N 1000 N
z Z
D = − = = D k
( ) 0: 1000 N 200 N 0 1200 N
z z z
F B Σ = − − = = B k
( )( ) ( ) ( ) 0: .5 m 1200 N 1 m 0 600 N
Bz y y
M C Σ = − = = C j
( ) 0: 200 N 0 200 N
x x x
F B Σ = − = = B i
0: 1200 N 0
y y y
F B C Σ = + − =
( ) 1200 N 600 N 600 N
y y
B = − = B j
0: 200 N 0
1.5
EA
z
F
F Σ = − =
300 N T
EA
F = W
.5
0: 0 100 N
1.5
x ED EA ED
F F F F Σ = + = = −
100 N C
ED
F = W
0: 0 200 N
1.5
EA
y EC EC
F
F F F Σ = − − = = −
200 N C
EC
F = W
0: 1000 N 0
1.5
AD
z
F
F Σ = − =
1500 N T
AD
F = W
0.5 1
0: 100 N 0
1.5 2
x AD CD
F F F Σ = − − =
1500 N
2 100 N 400 2
3
CD
F
= − = −
566 N C
CD
F = W
0: 0
1.5 2
CD AD
y BD
F F
F F Σ = − − − =
400 1000 600 N
BD
F = + − = −
600 N C
BD
F = W
PROBLEM 6.39 CONTINUED
0: 600 N 200 N 400 N 0
y
F Σ = − − =
0: 0
1.25
AC
z
F
F Σ = =
0
AC
F = W
.5
0: 400 N
1.25
x BC
F F Σ = − +
0
0
AC
F =
400 N T
BC
F = W
.5
0: 200 N 400 N 0
1.25
x AB
F F Σ = − − − =
1200 1.25 N
AB
F =
1342 N C
AB
F = W
PROBLEM 6.40
The truss shown consists of 18 members and is supported by a ball and
socket at A, two short links at B, and one short link at G. (a) Check that
this truss is a simple truss, that it is completely constrained, and that the
reactions at its supports are statically determinate. (b) For the given
loading, determine the force in each of the six members joined at E.
SOLUTION
(a) To check for simple truss, start with ABDE and add three members at a time which meet
at a single joint, thus successively adding joints F, G, H, and C, to complete the truss.
This is, therefore, a simple truss.W
There are six reaction force components, none of which are inline, so they are determined
by the six equilibrium equations. Constraints prevent motion. Truss is completely constrained and W
statically determinate W
(b) FBD Truss:
( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) 0: 5.04 m 550 N 5.5 m 0 504 N
BC y y
M A Σ = + = = − A j
( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 5.5 m 480 N 4.8 m 550 N 0 0
BF z z
M A Σ = + − = = A
By inspection of joint : C 0
DC BC GC
F F F = = =
By inspection of joint : A 504 N T
AE y
F A = − = W
0
AD z
F A = =
By inspection of joint : H 0
DH
F =
480 N C
EH
F = W
By inspection of joint : F 0
EF
F = W
PROBLEM 6.40 CONTINUED
Then, since ED is the only nonzero member at D, not in the plane BDG, 0
DE
F = W
Joint E:
4.8
0: 480 N 0
7.3
z EG
F F Σ = − = 730 N T
EG
F = W
5.04
0: 504 N 0 746 N
7.46
y BE BE
F F F Σ = − − = = − 746 N C
BE
F = W
PROBLEM 6.41
The truss shown consists of 18 members and is supported by a
ball and socket at A, two short links at B, and one short link at G.
(a) Check that this truss is a simple truss, that it is completely
constrained, and that the reactions at its supports are statically
determinate. (b) For the given loading, determine the force in each
of the six members joined at G.
SOLUTION
(a) See part (a) solution 6.40 above
(b) FBD Truss:
( ) ( )( ) 0: 4.8 m 5.04 m 480 N 0 504 N
AB y y
M G Σ = + = = − G
By inspection of joint : C 0
CG
F = W
By inspection of joint : H 550 N C
HG
F = W
By inspection of joint : F 0
FG
F = W
Joint G:
5.5 5.5
0: 550 N 0
7.46 7.30
x DG EG
F F F Σ = − − =
PROBLEM 6.41 CONTINUED
5.04 5.04
0: 504 N 0
7.46 6.96
y DG BG
F F F Σ = − − − =
4.8 4.8
0: 0
7.30 6.96
z EG BG
F F F Σ = + =
Solving: 696 N
BG
F = − 696 N C
BG
F = W
0
DG
F = 0
DG
F = W
730 N
EG
F = 730 N T
EG
F = W
PROBLEM 6.42
A Warren bridge truss is loaded as shown. Determine the force in
members CE, DE, and DF.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
Section ABDC:
( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) 0: 15 m 3 kN 20 m 3 kN 25 m 0
K y
M A Σ = + − =
4.2 kN
y
= A
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 6 m 2.5 m 3 kN 7.5 m 4.2 kN 0
D CE
M F Σ = + − =
4 kN
CE
F =
4.00 kN T
CE
F = W
12
0: 4.2 kN 3 kN 0
13
y DE
F F Σ = − − =
1.3 kN
DE
F =
1.300 kN T
DE
F = W
5
0: 0
13
x DF DE CE
F F F F Σ = + + =
( ) ( )
5
1.3 kN 4 kN 4.5 kN
13
DF
F = − − = −
4.50 kN C
DF
F = W
PROBLEM 6.43
A Warren bridge truss is loaded as shown. Determine the force in
members EG, FG, and FH.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
Section FBD:
0: 0
x x
F Σ = = K
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 25 m 10 m 3 kN 5 m 3 kN 0
A y
M K Σ = − − =
1.8 kN
y
= K
( )( ) ( ) 0: 10 m 1.8 kN 6 m 0
G FH
M F Σ = + =
3 kN
FH
F = −
3.00 kN C
FH
F = W
( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 12.5 m 1.8 kN 6 m 0
F EG
M F Σ = − =
3.75 kN
EG
F =
3.75 kN T
EG
F = W
12
0: 1.8 kN 0
13
y FG
F F Σ = + =
1.95 kN
FG
F = −
1.950 kN C
FG
F = W
PROBLEM 6.44
A parallel chord Howe truss is loaded as shown. Determine the force
in members CE, DE, and DF.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
FBD Section:
0: 0
x x
F Σ = = A
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
0: 4 ft 1 0.3 kip 2 0.6 kip 3 1 kip
4 0.6 kip 5 0.3 kip 6 0.3 kip 6 0
M
y
M
A
Σ = + +
+ + + − =
1.7 kips
y
= A
( )( ) ( )
4
0: 4 ft 3 kips 1.7 kips 2 ft 0
4.1
D CE
M F
 
Σ = − + =

\ .
2.87 kips
CE
F =
2.87 kips T
CE
F = W
( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 8 ft 3 kips 1.7 kips 4 ft 0.3 kip
E
M Σ = − +
( )
4
2 ft 0
4.1
DF
F
 
− =

\ .
5.125 kips
DF
F = −
5.13 kips C
DF
F = W
( )
4 4
0: 0
4.1 17.21
x DF CE DE
F F F F Σ = + + =
( )
17.21
5.125 2.87 kips 2.28 kips
4.1
DE DE
F F = − − + =
2.28 kips T
DE
F = W
PROBLEM 6.45
A parallel chord Howe truss is loaded as shown. Determine the force
in members GI, GJ, and HJ.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
FBD Section:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 24 ft 4 ft 0.3 kip 8 ft 0.6 kip 12 ft 1 kip
A y
M M Σ = − − −
( ) ( ) ( ) 16 ft 0.6 kip 20 ft 0.3 kip 24 ft 0.3 kip 0 − − − =
1.7 kips
y
= M
( ) ( )
4
8 ft 1.7 0.3 kips 4 ft 0.3 kip 2 ft 0
4.1
J GI
M F
Σ = − − − =
5.125 kips 5.3 kips T
GI GI
F F = = W
( ) ( ) 12 ft 1.7 0.3 kips 8 ft 0.3 kip
G
M Σ = − −
( )
4
4 ft 0.6 kip 2 ft 0
4.1
HJ
F
− + =
6.15 kips 6.15 kips C
HJ
F = − = W
( )
4 4
6.15 5.125 kips
4.1 4.94
x GJ
F F Σ = − −
1.235 kips T
GJ
F = W
PROBLEM 6.46
A floor truss is loaded as shown. Determine the force in members CF,
EF, and EG.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
FBD Section:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
0: 1 m 1 kN 2 1 kN 3 1.5 kN
4 2 kN 5 2 kN 6 1 kN 6 0
K
y
M
A
Σ = + +
+ + + − =
5.25 kN
y
= A
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0: 1 m 1 2 kN 2 1 kN 5.25 kN 0.5 m 0
E CE
M F Σ = + − + =
13.0 kN
CF
F =
13.00 kN T
CF
F = W
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
0: 1 m 1 2 kN 2 2 kN 3 1 kN 5.25 kN
0.5 m 0
F
EG
M
F
Σ = + + −
− =
13.5 kN
EG
F = −
13.50 kN C
EG
F = W
1
0: 5.25 kN 1 kN 2 kN 2 kN 0
5
y EF
F F Σ = − − − − =
5
0.5590 kN
4
EF
F = =
559 N T
EF
F = W
PROBLEM 6.47
A floor truss is loaded as shown. Determine the force in members FI,
HI, and HJ.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
0: 0
x x
F Σ = = K
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0: 1m 6 0.5 kN 5 1 kN 4 1 kN 3 1.5 kN 2 2 kN 1 2 kN 0
A y
M K
Σ = − − − − − − =
3.75 kN
y
= K
FBD Section:
( )( ) ( ) 0: 1 m 3.75 kN .5 kN .5 m 0
I HJ
M F Σ = − − =
6.5 kN
HJ
F =
6.50 kN C
HJ
F = W
1
0: 1 kN 0.5 kN 3.75 kN 0
5
y HI
F F Σ = − − + =
2.25 5 kN
HI
F = −
5.03 kN C
HI
F = W
2
0: 0
5
y HI FI HJ
F F F F Σ = − − + =
( ) 2 2.25 kN 6.50 kN
FI
F = +
11.00 kN T
FI
F = W
PROBLEM 6.48
A pitched flat roof truss is loaded as shown. Determine the force in
members CE, DE, and DF.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
FBD Section:
0: 0
x x
F Σ = = A
By load symmetry: 8 kips
y y
= = A I
( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 7 ft 2 kips 8 kips 3 ft 0
D CE
M F Σ = − + =
14 kips
CE
F =
14.00 kips T
CE
F = W
( ) ( ) ( ) 0: 7 ft 1 4 kips 2 2 kips 8 kips
E
M Σ = + −
( )
7
4.5 ft 0
51.25
DF
F =
8 51.25
kips
4.5
DF
F =
12.73 kips C
DF
F = W
1.5 8 51.25 3
0: 8 kips 2 kips 4 kips kips 0
4.5 51.25 58
y DE
F F Σ = − − + − =
1.692 kips
DE
F = −
1.692 kips C
DE
F = W
PROBLEM 6.49
A pitched flat roof truss is loaded as shown. Determine the force in
members EG, GH, and HJ.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
By load symmetry: 8 kips
y y
= = A I
FBD Section:
( )( ) ( ) 0: 7 ft 8 kips 2 kips 6 ft 0
EG
M F Σ = − − =
7.00 kips T
EG
F = W
7
0: 7.00 kips 0
51.25
x HJ
F F Σ = − =
51.25 kips
HJ
F =
7.16 kips C
HJ
F = W
( )
( )
1.5
0: 51.25 kips 8 2 kips 0
51.25
y HG
F F Σ = − + − =
7.50 kips C
HG
F = W
PROBLEM 6.50
A Howe scissors roof truss is loaded as shown. Determine the force in
members DF, DG, and EG.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
0: 0
X x
F Σ = = A
By symmetry: 6 kN
y y
= = A L
FBD Section:
Notes:
15
m
6
2 5 5
m
3 2 3
2 2
1 m
3 3
5
m
6
1 m
2
m
3
F
D
E
F D
G
D G
y
y
y
y y
y
y y
=
= ⋅ =
= ⋅ =
− =
=
− =
PROBLEM 6.50 CONTINUED
( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
6
0: 1 m 2 m 2 kN 4 m 1 kN 6 kN 0
37
D EG
M F Σ = + + − =
8
37 kN
3
EG
F =
16.22 kN T
EG
F = W
( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )
1 3
0: 2 m 2 kN 4 m 2 kN 6 m 1 m 0
10 10
A DG DG
M F F
Σ = + − − =
4
10 kN
3
DG
F =
4.22 kN C
DG
F = W
6 3 12 12
0: 0 16 4 0
13 13 37 10
x EG DG DF DF
F F F F F Σ = − − = − − =
13 kN
DF
F = 13.00 kN C
DF
F = W
PROBLEM 6.51
A Howe scissors roof truss is loaded as shown. Determine the force in
members GI, HI, and HJ.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
0: 0
x x
F Σ = = A
By symmetry: 6 kN
y y
= = A L
FBD Section:
Notes:
2
m
3
2 5 5
m
3 2 3
I
H
y
y
=
= ⋅ =
so
1 m
H I
y y − =
60
PROBLEM 6.51 CONTINUED
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )
12
0: 4 m 6 kN 1 kN 2 m 2 kN 1 m 0
13
I HJ
M F
Σ = − − − =
52
kN
3
HJ
F =
17.33 kN C
HJ
F = W
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )
6
0: 4 m 6 kN 1 kN 2 m 2 kN 1 m 0
37
H GI
M F
Σ = − − − =
8
37 kN
3
GI
F =
16.22 kN T
GI
F = W
( )( ) ( ) 0: 2 m 2 kN 4 m 0
L HI
M F Σ = − =
1.000 kN T
HI
F = W
PROBLEM 6.52
A Fink roof truss is loaded as shown. Determine the force in members
BD, CD, and CE.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
0: 0
x x
F Σ = = A
By symmetry: 3.6 kips
y y
= = A K
FBD Section:
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
16
0: ft 5 ft 1.2 kips 10 ft 0.6 kips 10 ft 3.6 kips 0
3
D CE
M F
Σ = + + − =
4.50 kips T
CE
F = W
( ) ( )( )
4
0: 6 ft 5 ft 1.2 kips 0
5
A CD
M F
Σ = − =
1.250 kips T
CD
F = W
( ) ( )
4 8
0: 3.6 0.6 kips 1.2 kips 1.25 kips 0
5 17
y BD
F F Σ = − − + − =
5.95 kips
BD
F =
5.95 kips C
BD
F = W
62
PROBLEM 6.53
A Fink roof truss is loaded as shown. Determine the force in members
FH, FG, and EG.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
0: 0
x x
F Σ = = A
By symmetry: 3.6 kips
y y
= = A K
FBD Section:
( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0: 15 ft 3.6 .6 kips 10 ft 1.2 kips 5 ft 1.2 kips 8ft 0
F EG
M F Σ = − − − − =
3.375 kips
EG
F =
3.38 kips T
EG
F = W
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )
8
0: 5 ft 1.2 kips 10 ft 1.2 kips 12 ft 0
73
K FG
M F
Σ = + − =
3
73 kips
16
FG
F =
1.602 kips T
FG
F = W
8 3 8
0 73 kips 1.2 kips 1.2 kips 0.6 kip 3.6 kips 0
16 17 73
y FH
F F
Σ = − − − − + =
4.4625 kips
FH
F =
4.46 kips C
FH
F = W
PROBLEM 6.54
A Fink roof truss is loaded as shown. Determine the force in members
DF, DG, and EG. (Hint: First determine the force in member EK.)
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
FBD Sections:
Forces in 1b
0: 0
x x
F Σ = = A
By symmetry: 2000 lb
y y
= = A O
( )( ) ( ) 0: 2 3 500 lb 4 250 lb
H
M a a a a Σ = + + +
( ) 4 2000 lb 2 0
EK
a aF − + =
2000 lb T
EK
F =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0: 500 lb 2 250 lb 2 2000 lb 2000 lb
D
M a a a a Σ = + − +
( )
3 4
12 ft 2 0
5 5
EG EG
a F a F
+ + − =
1000 lb
EG
F = 1.000 kip T
EG
F = W
( ) ( )
4 1
0: 1000 lb 2000 250 500 500 lb 0
5 5
y DF
F F Σ = − + − − − =
1550 5 lb
DF
F = 3.47 kips C
DF
F = W
( )
( )
3 2
0: 2000 lb 1000 lb 1550 5 lb 0
5 5
x DG
F F Σ = + − + =
500 lb T
DG
F = W
PROBLEM 6.55
A roof truss is loaded as shown. Determine the force in members FH,
GJ, and GI.
SOLUTION
By symmetry: 2.45 kips
y y
= = A M
0: 0
x x
F Σ = = A
J
M Σ ( ) ( )
4
6 ft 0.3 kip 12 ft 2.35 kips 7 ft 0
17
GI
F
= − + =
3.887 kips
GI
F = 3.89 kips T
GI
F = W
G
M Σ ( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 6 ft 4 ft 1.0 kips 10 ft 0.3 kips 16 ft 0.1 kips
HJ
F = − − −
( )( ) 16 ft 2.45 kips 0 + = 5.10 5.10 kips C
HJ
F = − =
By inspection: 5.10 kips C
FH HJ
F F = = W
( )
1 3
0: 3.887 kips 2.45 kips 1.4 kips 0
17 13
y GJ
F F Σ = + − − =
2.40 kips T
GJ
F = W
PROBLEM 6.56
A stadium roof truss is loaded as shown. Determine the force in
members AB, AG, and FG.
SOLUTION
FBD Section:
Note:
p
( )
8.4
2.7 m 1.89 m
12.0
BG = =
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 2.7 m 3.6 m 8 kN 7.8 m 8 kN 12 m 4 kN 0
A FG
M F Σ = − − − =
51.56 kN
FG
F = 51.6 kN C
FG
F = W
( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
12
0: 1.89 m 4.2 m 8 kN 8.4 m 4 kN 0
12.3
G AB
M F
Σ = − − =
36.44 kN
AB
F = 36.4 kN T
AB
F = W
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )
3
0: 4.2 m 8 kN 8.4 m 8 kN 8.4 m 0
5
D AG
M F
Σ = + − =
20.0 kN T
AG
F = W
PROBLEM 6.57
A stadium roof truss is loaded as shown. Determine the force in members
AE, EF, and FJ.
SOLUTION
FBD Section:
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
8
0: 2.7 m 3.6 m 8 kN 7.8 m 8 kN 12 m 4 kN 0
145
F AE
M F
Σ = − − − =
17.4
145 kN
2.7
AE
F = 77.6 kN T
AE
F = W
8 17.4
0: 145 kN 0
2.7 145
x EF
F F
Σ = − =
51.555 kN
EF
F = 51.6 kN C
EF
F = W
( )
9 17.4
0: 145 kN 4 8 8 4 kN 0
2.7 145
y FJ
F F
Σ = − − + + + =
82.0 kN C
FJ
F = W
PROBLEM 6.58
A vaulted roof truss is loaded as shown. Determine the force in members
BE, CE, and DF.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 1.2 m 0.2 kN 1.8 m 0.5 kN 2.88 m 0.5 kN 4.2 m 1.3 kN
N
M Σ = + + +
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) 4.8 m 0.6 kN 6.6 m 0.7 kN 8.4 m 0.1 kN 8.4 m 0
y
A + + + − =
1.95 kN
y
= A
0: 0
x x
F Σ = = A
FBD Section:
( ) ( )( ) 0: 0.9 m 1.8 m 1.95 kN 0.1 kN 0
B CE
M F Σ = − − =
3.70 kN T
CE
F = W
PROBLEM 6.58 CONTINUED
( ) ( )
1 2
0: 1.8 m .7 kN .9 m 0
5 5
A BE BE
M F F
   
Σ = − + =
 
\ . \ .
0.35 5 kN
BE
F = 783 N C
BE
F = W
( )
2 2
0: 3.70 kN 0.35 5 kN 0
5 5
x BD
F F Σ = − − =
1.5 5 kN 3.35 kN C
BD
F = =
Then by inspection of joint D:
DF BD
F F = so 3.35 kN C
DF
F = W
PROBLEM 6.59
A vaulted roof truss is loaded as shown. Determine the force in
members HJ, IJ, and GI.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 1.8 m 0.7 kN 3.6 m 0.6 kN 4.2 m 1.3 kN 5.52 m 0.5 kN
A
M Σ = + + +
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
6.6 m 0.5 kN 7.2 m 0.2 kN 8.4 m 0.1 kN 8.4 m 0
y
N + + + − =
2.05 kN
y
= N
FBD Section:
( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) 0: 1.8 m 2.05 0.1 kN 0.6 m 0.2 kN 0.45 m 0
J IK
M F Σ = − − + =
7.533 kN
IK
F = 7.53 kN T
IK
F =
PROBLEM 6.59 CONTINUED
( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )
2 1
0: 2.88 m 2.05 0.1 kN 1.68 m 0.2 kN 0.45 m 1.08 m 0
5 5
I HJ HJ
M F F
Σ = − − − − =
2.3939 5 kN
HJ
F = 5.35 kN C
HJ
F = W
( )
1 5
0: 2.3939 5 kN 2.05 kN 0.5 kN 0.2 kN 0.1 kN 0
13 5
y IJ
F F Σ = − + + − − − =
2.974 kN
IJ
F = 2.97 kN C
IJ
F = W
FBD Joint:
( )
12
0: 2.974 kN 7.533 kN 0
13
x GI
F F Σ = − − + =
4.788 kN
GI
F = 4.79 kN T
GI
F = W
PROBLEM 6.60
Determine the force in members AF and EJ of the truss shown when
2 kips. P Q = = (Hint: Use section aa.)
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 24 ft 18 ft 2 kips 36 ft 2 kips 0
A x
M K Σ = − − =
4.5 kips
x
= K
FBD Section:
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) 0: 12 ft 4.5 kips 18 ft 2 kips 36 ft 2 kips 36 ft 0
F EJ
M F Σ = − − + =
1.500 kips T
EJ
F = W
( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) 0: 18 ft 2 kips 12 ft 4.5 kips 36 ft 0
J AF
M F Σ = + − =
2.50 kips T
AF
F = W
PROBLEM 6.61
Determine the force in members AF and EJ of the truss shown when
2 kips P = and 0. Q = (Hint: Use section aa.)
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
( ) ( )( ) 0: 24 ft 18 ft 2 kips 0
A x
M K Σ = − =
1.5 kips
x
= K
FBD Section:
( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) 0: 12 ft 1.5 kips 18 ft 2 kips 36 ft 0
F EJ
M F Σ = − + = 0.500 kip T
EJ
F = W
( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) 0: 18 ft 2 kips 12 ft 1.5 kips 36 ft 0
J AF
M F Σ = + − = 1.500 kips T
AF
F = W
PROBLEM 6.62
Determine the force in members DG and FH of the truss shown.
(Hint: Use section aa.)
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
0: 0
x x
F Σ = = A
By symmetry: 3.2 kN
y y
= = A N
FBD Section:
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 2.4 m 3.2 m 3.2 kN 1.6 m 1 kN 0
F DG
M F Σ = − + =
3.60 kN C
DG
F = W
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 2.4 m 1.6 m 1 kN 3.2 m 3.2 kN 0
D FH
M F Σ = + − =
3.60 kN T
FH
F = W
PROBLEM 6.63
Determine the force in members IL, GJ, and HK of the truss shown.
(Hint: Begin with pins I and J and then use section bb.)
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
0: 0
x x
F Σ = = A
By symmetry: 0; 3.2 kN
x y y
A A N = = =
Joints: By inspection of joint I:
GI IL
F F = and 1.2 kN
IJ
F = C
By inspection of joint J: ( ) ( ) C T
GJ HJ
F F =
PROBLEM 6.63 CONTINUED
FBD Section:
0
4
0; 0 so 0
5
HJ
x IL HK GJ IL HK
F F F F F F F
Σ = − + − = − =
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 3.2 m 3.2 kN 1.2 m 1.6 m 1 kN 0 so 7.2 kN
J IL HK IL HK
M F F F F Σ = − + − = + =
Solving: 3.6 kN
IL HK
F F = = 3.60 kN C
IL
F = W
3.60 kN T
HK
F = W
( )
3
0: 3.2 kN 1 kN 1.2 kN 0
5
y GJ HJ
F F F Σ = − − − + =
5
kN
3
GJ HJ
F F + = but
5
kN
6
GJ HJ
F F = = .833 kN C
GJ
F = W
PROBLEM 6.64
The diagonal members in the center panels of the truss shown are
very slender and can act only in tension; such members are known as
counters. Determine the forces in the counters which are acting under
the given loading.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
FBD Section:
0: 0
x x
F Σ = = F
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 5.5 m 2.75 m 24 kN 2.75 m 24 kN
F y
M H Σ = + −
( )( ) ( )( ) 5.5 m 12 kN 8.25 m 12 kN 0 − − =
30 kN
y
= H
( ) ( ) 0: 30 kN 3 24 kN 2 12 kN 0
y y
F F Σ = + − − =
66 kN
y
= F
Assume there is no pretension in any counter so that, as the truss is
loaded, one of each pair becomes taut while the other becomes slack.
Here tension is required in BG to provide downward force, so CF is
slack.
2.4
0: 66 kN 24 kN 24 kN 0
3.65
y BG
F F Σ = − − − =
27.375 kN
BG
F = 27.4 kN T
BG
F = W
0
CF
F = W
Here tension is required in GD to provide downward force, so CH is
slack.
0
CH
F = W
( )
2.4
0: 30 kN 2 12 kN 0
3.65
y GD
F F Σ = − − =
9.125 kN
GD
F =
9.13 kN T
GD
F = W
PROBLEM 6.65
The diagonal members in the center panels of the truss shown are
very slender and can act only in tension; such members are known as
counters. Determine the forces in the counters which are acting under
the given loading.
SOLUTION
FBD Section:
FBD Truss:
FBD Section:
Assume that there is no pretension in any counter. So that, as the truss is
loaded, one of each crossing pair becomes taut while the other becomes
slack.
Note: Tension is required in CH to provide upward force; thus GD is
slack
2.4
0: 24 kN 0
3.65
y CH
F F Σ = − =
36.5 kN T
CH
F = W
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
0: 5.5 m 24 kN 2.75 m 24 kN 2.75 m
G y
M F Σ = + −
( )( ) ( )( ) 2.75 m 12 kN 5.5 m 12 kN 0 − − =
36 kN
y
= F
0: 0
x x
F Σ = = F
Note: Tension is required in FC to provide upward force; so BG is
slack.
( )
2.4
0: 36 24 24 kN 0
3.65
y FC
F F Σ = − − + =
18.25 kN T
FC
F = W
PROBLEM 6.66
The diagonal members in the center panel of the truss shown are very
slender and can act only in tension; such members are known as
counters. Determine the force in members BD and CE and in the
counter which is acting when P = 3 kips.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
FBD Section:
0: 0
x x
F Σ = = A
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 25 ft 17 ft 2 kips 8 ft 3 kips 0
A y
M F Σ = − − =
2.32 kips
y
= F
Assume there is no pretension in either counter so that, as the truss is
loaded, one becomes taut while the other becomes slack.
Here tension is required in CD to provide downward force, so
0
BE
F =
5.6
0: 2.32 kips 2 kips 0
10.6
y CD
F F Σ = − − =
0.6057 kip
CD
F =
606 lb T
CD
F = W
( )( ) 0: 8 ft 2.32 kips (5.6 ft) 0
D CE
M F Σ = − =
3.314 kips
CE
F =
3.31 kips T
CE
F = W
( )
9
0: 0.6057 kip 3.314 kips 0
10.6
x BD
F F Σ = − − =
3.829 kips
BD
F = 3.83 kips C
BD
F = W
PROBLEM 6.67
Solve Prob. 6.66 when P = 1.5 kips.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
FBD Section:
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 25 ft 17 ft 2 kips 8 ft 1.5 kips 0
A y
M F Σ = − − =
1.84 kips
y
= F
Here tension is needed in BE to provide upward force, so 0
CD
F =
5.6
0: 1.84 kips 2 kips 0
10.6
y BE
F F Σ = + − =
0.03029 kip
BE
F =
303 lb T
BE
F = W
( )( ) ( ) 0: 8 ft 1.84 kips 5.6 ft 0
E BD
M F Σ = − =
2.629 kips
BD
F =
2.63 kips C
BD
F = W
( )
9
0: 2.629 kips 0.3029 kip 0
10.6
x CE
F F Σ = − − =
2.371 kips
CE
F =
2.37 kips T
CE
F = W
PROBLEM 6.68
The diagonal members CF and DE of the truss shown are very slender
and can act only in tension; such members are known as counters.
Determine the force in members CE and DF and in the counter which
is acting.
SOLUTION
FBD Section:
DE must be in tension to provide leftward force, so CF is slack.
4
0: 4 kips 0
5
x DE
F F Σ = − =
5.00 kips T
DE
F = W
( ) ( )( ) 0: 8 ft 6 ft 4 kips 0
D CE
M F Σ = − =
3.00 kips T
CE
F = W
( ) ( )( ) 0: 8 ft 12 ft 4 kips 0
E DF
M F Σ = − =
6.00 kips C
DF
F = W
PROBLEM 6.69
The diagonal members EH and FG of the truss shown are very slender
and can act only in tension; such members are known as counters.
Determine the force in members EG and FH and in the counter which
is acting.
SOLUTION
FBD Section:
It is not obvious which counter is active, so assume FG is (and thus
EH is slack)
( ) ( )( )
6
0: 8 ft 12 ft 4 kips 0
6.824
F GE
M F
Σ = − =
6.824 kips T
GE
F =
( ) ( )( )
6
0: 14.5 ft 18 ft 4 kips 0
6.824
G FH
M F
Σ = − =
5.647 kips C
FH
F =
( )
6 6
0: 5.647 kips 6.824 kips 0
6.824 12.75
y FG
F F
Σ = − − =
This gives 0
FG
F < which is impossible, so the assumption is wrong,
FG is slack, and EH is in tension.
Then
( ) ( )( )
6
0: 8 ft 12 ft 4 kips 0
6.824
E FH
M F
Σ = − =
6.824 kips
FH
F =
6.83 kips C
FH
F = W
( ) ( )( )
6
0: 14.5 ft 18 ft 4 kips 0
6.824
H GE
M F
Σ = − =
5.647 kips
GE
F =
5.65 kips T
GE
F = W
( )
6 6
0: 6.824 kips 5.647 kips 0
6.824 12.75
y EH
F F Σ = − − =
2.198 kips
EH
F =
2.20 kips T
EH
F = W
PROBLEM 6.70
Classify each of the structures shown as completely, partially, or
improperly constrained; if completely constrained, further classify it as
determinate or indeterminate. (All members can act both in tension
and in compression.)
SOLUTION
Structure (a):
Structure (b):
Structure (c):
Also
consider
Simple truss with 4, r = 16, m = 10 n =
So 20 2 m r n + = = so completely constrained and determinate W
Compound truss with 3, r = 16, m = 10 n =
So 19 2 20 m r n + = < = so partially constrained W
Nonsimple truss with 4, r = 12, m = 8 n =
So 16 2 m r n + = = but must examine further, note that reaction
forces
x
A and
x
H are aligned, so no equilibrium equation will resolve them.
∴ Statically indeterminate W
For
0: 0,
y y
F H Σ = = but then
0
A
M Σ ≠ in FBD Truss,
∴ Improperly constrained W
PROBLEM 6.71
Classify each of the structures shown as completely, partially, or
improperly constrained; if completely constrained, further classify it as
determinate or indeterminate. (All members can act both in tension and
in compression.)
SOLUTION
Structure (a):
FBD Sections:
Structure (b):
Structure (c):
Nonsimple truss with 4, r = 16, m = 10 n =
so 20 2 , m r n + = = but must examine further.
FBD I: 0
A
M Σ = ⇒
1
T
II: 0
x
F Σ = ⇒
2
T
I: 0
x
F Σ = ⇒
x
A
I: 0
y
F Σ = ⇒
y
A
II: 0
E
M Σ = ⇒
y
C
II: 0
y
F Σ = ⇒
y
E
Since each section is a simple truss with reactions determined,
structure is completely constrained and determinate. W
Nonsimple truss with 3, r = 16, m = 10 n =
so 19 2 20 m r n + = < = ∴ structure is partially constrainedW
Simple truss with 3, r = 17, m = 10 n =
20 2 , m r n + = = but the horizontal reaction forces and
x x
A E are
collinear and no equilibrium equation will resolve them, so the
structure is improperly constrained and indeterminate W
PROBLEM 6.72
Classify each of the structures shown as completely, partially, or
improperly constrained; if completely constrained, further classify it as
determinate or indeterminate. (All members can act both in tension and
in compression.)
SOLUTION
Structure (a):
Structure (b):
Structure (c):
Nonsimple truss with 4, r = 12, m = 8 n = so 16 2 , r m n + = = check
for determinacy:
One can solve joint F for forces in EF, FG and then solve joint E for
y
E and force in DE.
This leaves a simple truss ABCDGH with
3, r = 9, m = 6 n = so 12 2 r m n + = =
Structure is completely constrained and determinate W
Simple truss (start with ABC and add joints alphabetically to complete
truss) with 4, r = 13, m = 8 n =
so 17 2 16 r m n + = > = Constrained but indeterminate W
Nonsimple truss with 3, r = 13, m = 8 n = so 16 2 r m n + = = . To
further examine, follow procedure in part (a) above to get truss at left.
Since
1
0 ≠ F (from solution of joint F),
1 A
M aF Σ =
0 ≠ and there is no equilibrium.
Structure is improperly constrained W
PROBLEM 6.73
Classify each of the structures shown as completely, partially, or
improperly constrained; if completely constrained, further classify it as
determinate or indeterminate. (All members can act both in tension and
in compression.)
SOLUTION
Structure (a):
Structure (b):
Structure (c):
Simple truss (start with ABC and add joints alphabetical to complete
truss), with
4, r = 13, m = 8 n = so 17 2 16 r m n + = > =
Structure is completely constrained but indeterminate. W
From FBD II: 0
G
M Σ = ⇒
y
J
0
x
F Σ = ⇒
x
F
FBD I: 0
A
M Σ = ⇒
y
F
0
y
F Σ = ⇒
y
A
0
x
F Σ = ⇒
x
A
FBD II: 0
y
F Σ = ⇒
y
G
Thus have two simple trusses with all reactions known,
so structure is completely constrained and determinate. W
Structure has 4, r = 13, m = 9 n =
so 17 2 18, r m n + = < = structure is partially constrained W
PROBLEM 6.74
Classify each of the structures shown as completely, partially, or
improperly constrained; if completely constrained, further classify it as
determinate or indeterminate. (All members can act both in tension and
in compression.)
SOLUTION
Structure (a):
Structure (b):
Structure (c):
Rigid truss with 3, r = 14, m = 8 n =
so 17 2 16 r m n + = > =
so completely constrained but indeterminate W
Simple truss (start with ABC and add joints alphabetically), with
3, r = 13, m = 8 n = so 16 2 r m n + = =
so completely constrained and determinate W
Simple truss with 3, r = 13, m = 8 n = so 16 2 , r m n + = = but
horizontal reactions ( and )
x x
A D are collinear so cannot be resolved
by any equilibrium equation.
∴ structure is improperly constrainedW
PROBLEM 6.75
Classify each of the structures shown as completely, partially, or
improperly constrained; if completely constrained, further classify it as
determinate or indeterminate. (All members can act both in tension and
in compression.)
SOLUTION
Structure (a):
FBD of EH:
Structure (b):
No. of members 12 m =
No. of joints 8 n = 16 2 m r n + = =
No. of react. comps. 4 r = unks eqns =
0 ;
H DE
M F Σ = → 0 ;
x GH
F F Σ = → 0
y y
F H Σ = →
Then ABCDGF is a simple truss and all forces can be determined.
This example is completely constrained and determinate. W
No. of members 12 m =
No. of joints 8 n = 15 2 16 m r n + = < =
No. of react. comps. 3 r = unks eqns <
partially constrained W
Note: Quadrilateral DEHG can collapse with joint D moving downward:
in (a) the roller at F prevents this action.
Structure (c):
PROBLEM 6.75 CONTINUED
No. of members 13 m =
No. of joints 8 n = 17 2 16 m r n + = > =
No. of react. comps. 4 r = unks eqns >
completely constrained but indeterminate W
PROBLEM 6.76
For the frame and loading shown, determine the force acting on
member ABC (a) at B, (b) at C.
SOLUTION
FBD member ABC:
Note: BD is a twoforce member so
BD
F is through D.
( ) a
( ) ( )( )
4
0: 8 in. 12 in. 60 lb 0
5
C BD
M F
Σ = − =
112.5 lb
BD
= F 36.9° W
( ) b
( )
4
0: 60 lb 112.5 lb 0
5
x x
F C Σ = + − =
30 lb
x
C =
( )
3
0: 112.5 lb 0
5
y y
F C Σ = − =
67.5 lb
y
C =
so 73.9 lb = C 66.0 ° W
PROBLEM 6.77
Determine the force in member AC and the reaction at B when (a)
o
30 , = θ (b)
o
60 . = θ
SOLUTION
FBD member BCD:
Note: AC is twoforce member so
AC
F is through A.
p
( ) 8 in. cos BC θ =
( ) ( ) ( )( ) 0: 8 in. cos sin 10 in. 20 lb
B AC
M F θ θ Σ = −
( )( ) 14 in. 20 lb 0 − =
60 lb
sin cos
AC
F
θ θ
=
60 lb
0: cos 0
sin
x x AC x
F B F B θ
θ
Σ = − = =
0: sin 20 lb 20 lb 0
y y AC
F B F θ Σ = + − − =
60 lb
40
cos
y
B lb
θ
= −
(a) 30 θ = ° 138.56 lb
AC
F =
138.6 lb T
AC
F = W
120.0 lb
x
B = 29.28 lb
y
B = −
123.5 lb = B 13.71 ° W
(b) 60 θ = ° 138.56 lb
AC
F =
138.6 lb T
AC
F = W
69.28 lb
x
B = 80 lb
y
B = −
105.8 lb = B 49.1 ° W
PROBLEM 6.78
A circular ring of radius 200 mm is pinned at A and is supported by rod
BC, which is fitted with a collar at C that can be moved along the ring.
For the position when θ = 35°, determine (a) the force in rod BC,
(b) the reaction at A.
SOLUTION
FBD ring:
( ) a
35 θ = °
( ) ( )( ) 0: 0.2 m cos35 0.2 m 24 N 0
A BC
M F Σ = ° − =
24 N
29.298 N
cos35
BC
F = =
°
29.3 N C
BC
F = W
( ) b
24 N
0: cos35 0
cos35
x x
F A Σ = − ° =
°
24 N
x
A =
24 N
0: sin35 24 N 0
cos35
y y
F A Σ = + ° − =
°
7.195 N
y
A =
so 25.1 N = A 16.69° W
PROBLEM 6.79
Solve Prob. 6.78 when θ = −20°.
SOLUTION
FBD ring:
( ) a
20 θ = °
( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 0.2 m cos 20 0.2 m 24 N 0
A BC
M F Σ = ° − =
24 N
25.54 N
cos 20
BC
F = =
°
25.5 N C
BC
F = W
( ) b
24 N
0: sin 20 24 N 0
cos 20
y y
F A Σ = − ° − =
°
32.735 lb
y
A =
( ) ( )( ) 0: 0.2 m 0.2 m 24 N 0
B x
M A Σ = − =
24 N
x
A =
so 40.6 N = A 53.8° W
PROBLEM 6.80
For the frame and loading shown, determine the components of all
forces acting on member ABC.
SOLUTION
FBD Frame:
FBD member ABC:
( ) ( )( ) 0: 1.2 m 1.5 m 80 kN 0
E x
M A Σ = − =
100.0 kN
x
= A W
0: 80 kN 0
y y
F A Σ = − =
80.0 kN
y
= A
W
Note: BE is twoforce member so
2
0.4
5
y x x
B B B = =
( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 1.2 m 100 kN 3.0 m 80 kN
C
M Σ = −
( )( ) ( )( ) 0.6 m 1.5 m 0.4 0
x x
B B + + =
100.0 kN
x
= B
W
so 40.0 kN
y
= B
W
0: 100 kN 100 kN 0
x x
F C Σ = − − + =
200 kN
x
= C W
0: 80 kN 40 kN 0
y y
F C Σ = − − =
40.0 kN
y
= C
W
PROBLEM 6.81
Solve Prob. 6.80 assuming that the 80kN load is replaced by a
clockwise couple of magnitude 120 kN m ⋅ applied to member EDC
at point D.
SOLUTION
FBD Frame:
FBD member ABC:
0:
y
F Σ =
0
y
= A
W
( ) 0: 1.2 m 120 kN m 0
E x
M A Σ = − ⋅ =
100.0 kN
x
= A
W
Note: BE is twoforce member, so
2
0.4
5
y x x
B B B = =
( ) ( ) ( )( ) 0: 1.2 m 100 kN 0.6 m 1.5 m 0.4 0
C x x
M B B Σ = − − =
100.0 kN
x
= B
W
so 40.0 kN
y
= B
W
0: 100 kN 100 kN 0
x x
F C Σ = − + − =
0
x
= C W
0: 40 kN 0
y y
F C Σ = − = 40.0 kN
y
= C W
PROBLEM 6.82
For the frame and loading shown, determine the components of all
forces acting on member ABC.
SOLUTION
FBD Frame:
FBD member ABC:
( ) ( )( ) 0: 10.8 ft 12 ft 4.5 kips 0
F y
M A Σ = − =
5.00 kips
y
= A
W
0: 4.5 kips 0
x x
F A Σ = − + =
4.50 kips
x
= A
W
Note: BE is a twoforce member
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 12 ft 10.8 ft 5 kips 18 ft 4.5 kips 0
C BE
M F Σ = + − =
2.25 kips
BE
= F
W
0: 2.25 kips 4.5 kips 0
x x
F C Σ = + − =
2.25 kips
x
= C W
0: 5 kips 0
y y
F C Σ = − =
5.00 kips
y
= C
W
PROBLEM 6.83
Solve Prob. 6.82 assuming that the 4.5kip load is replaced by a
clockwise couple of magnitude 54 kip ft ⋅ applied to member CDEF
at point D.
SOLUTION
FBD Frame:
FBD member ABC:
0:
x
F Σ =
0
x
= A
W
( ) 0: 10.8 ft 54 kip ft 0
E y
M A Σ = − ⋅ =
5.00 kips
y
= A
W
( ) ( )( ) 0: 12 ft 10.8 ft 5 kips 0
C BE
M F Σ = − + =
4.50 kips
BE
= F
W
0: 4.5 kips 0
x x
F C Σ = − =
4.50 kips
x
= C
W
0: 5 kips 0
y y
F C Σ = − =
5.00 kips
y
= C
W
PROBLEM 6.84
Determine the components of the reactions at A and E when a 160lb force
directed vertically downward is applied (a) at B, (b) at D.
SOLUTION
FBD Frame (part a):
FBD member (part b):
Note: EC is a twoforce member, so
1
2
y x
E E =
( ) ( )( ) 0: 10 in. 6 in. 160 lb 0
A x
M E Σ = − =
96.0 lb
x
= E
W
so 48.0 lb
y
= E
W
0: 96 lb 0
x x
F A Σ = − + =
96.0 lb
x
= A W
0: 160 lb 48 lb 0
y y
F A Σ = − + =
112.0 lb
y
= A W
Note: AC is a twoforce member, so
3
x y
A A =
0: same as part (a)
A
M Σ =
96.0 lb
x
= E
W
0: same as part (a)
x
F Σ =
96.0 lb
x
= A W
Here
1
3
y x
A A =
so 32.0 lb
y
= A
W
0: 32 lb 160 lb 0
y y
F E Σ = + − =
128.0 lb
y
= E
W
PROBLEM 6.85
Determine the components of the reactions at A and E when a 120N force
directed vertically downward is applied (a) at B, (b) at D.
SOLUTION
FBD ABC:
FBD CE:
(a) CE is a twoforce member
( ) ( )
1 1
0: 200 mm 50 mm
2 2
A CE CE
M F F Σ = +
( ) 150 mm 120 N 0 − =
72 2 N
CE
F =
so 72.0 N
x
= E
W
72.0 N
y
= E
W
1
0: 0
2
x x CE
F A F Σ = + =
72 N
x
A = − W
72.0 N
x
= A W
1
0: 120 N 0
2
y y CE
F A F Σ = − + =
48.0 N
y
= A
W
(b) AC is a twoforce member
( ) ( )
4 1
0: 75 mm 75 mm
17 17
E AC AC
M F F
Σ = +
( )( ) 25 mm 120 N 0 8 17 N
AC
F − = =
4
0: 0
17
x x AC
F E F Σ = − =
32.0 N
x
= E W
1
0: 120 0
17
y y AC
F E F Σ = + − =
112.0 N
y
= E W
and 32.0 N
x
= A W
8.00 N
y
= A W
PROBLEM 6.86
Determine the components of the reactions at A and E when the frame
is loaded by a clockwise couple of magnitude 360 lb in. ⋅ applied
(a) at B, (b) at D.
SOLUTION
FBD Frame:
Note for analysis of the frame FBD, the location of the applied couple is
immaterial.
( ) 0: 10 in. 360 in lb 0
A x
M E Σ = − ⋅ =
36.0 lb
x
= E
W
( ) 0: 10 in. 360 in lb 0
E x
M A Σ = − ⋅ =
36.0 lb
x
= A
W
Part (a): If couple acts at B, EC is a twoforce member, so
1
2
y x
E E =
18.0 lb
y
= E
W
and then
0: 18 lb 0
y y
F A Σ = + =
18.00 lb
y
= A
W
Part (b): If couple acts at D, AC is a twoforce member, so
1
3
y x
A A =
12.00 lb
y
= A
W
Then
0: 12 lb 0 12 lb
y y y
F E E Σ = + = = −
12.00 lb
y
= E
W
PROBLEM 6.87
Determine the components of the reactions at A and E when the frame is
loaded by a counterclockwise couple of magnitude 24 N · m applied
(a) at B, (b) at D.
SOLUTION
(a) FBD Frame:
(b) FBD Frame:
Note: is a twoforce member, so
x y
CE E E =
( ) ( ) 0: 24 N m 0.125 m 0.125 m 0
A x y
M E E Σ = ⋅ − − =
96 N
x y
E E = =
96.0 N
x
= E
W
96.0 N
y
= E
W
0: 96 N 0
x x
F A Σ = − =
96.0 N
x
= A
W
0: 96 N 0
y y
F A Σ = − =
96.0 N
y
= A
W
Note: is a twoforce member, so 4
x y
AC A A =
( ) ( )( )
0: 24 N m 0.125 m 0.125 m 4 0
E y y
M A A Σ = ⋅ + − =
64 N
y
A =
64.0 N
y
= A
W
256 N
x
= A
W
0: 64 N 0
y y
F E Σ = − =
64.0 N
y
= E
W
0: 256 N 0
x x
F E Σ = − + =
256 N
x
= E
W
PROBLEM 6.88
Determine the components of the reactions at A and B if (a) the 240N
load is applied as shown, (b) the 240N load is moved along its line of
action and is applied at E.
SOLUTION
FBD Frame:
Regardless of the point of application of the 240 N load;
( ) ( )( ) 0: 1.25 m 2.25 m 240 N 0
A y
M B Σ = − =
432 N
y
= B
W
( ) ( )( ) 0: 1.25 m 1.0 m 240 N 0
B y
M A Σ = − =
192.0 N
y
= A
W
If load at , is a twoforce member, D BCE Part (a):
so 0
x
= B W
Then
0: 0 0
x x x x x
F A B A B Σ = − = = =
0
x
= A W
5
If load at , is a twoforce member, so
3
x y
E ACD A A = Part (b):
then
320 N
x
= A
W
and
0: 0
x x x
F A B Σ = − =
320 N
x
= B
W
PROBLEM 6.89
The 192N load can be moved along the line of action shown and
applied at A, D, or E. Determine the components of the reactions at B
and F when the 192N load is applied (a) at A, (b) at D, (c) at E.
SOLUTION
FBD Frame:
Note, regardless of the point of application of the 192 N load,
( )( ) ( ) 0: 2 m 192 N 3 m 0
B x
M F Σ = − =
128.0 N
x
= F
W
0: 128 N 0
x x
F B Σ = − =
128.0 N
x
= B
W
0: 192 N 0
y y y
F B F Σ = + − =
( ) and ( ): If load applied at either or , is a twoforce member a c A E BC
so
5
16
y x
B B =
40.0 N
y
= B
W
Then
0: 40 N 192 N 0
y y
F F Σ = + − =
152.0 N
y
= F
W
( ): If load applied at , is a twoforce member, so b D ACEF
7
16
y y
F F =
56.0 N
y
= F
W
Then
0: 56 N 192 N 0
y y
F B Σ = + − =
136.0 N
y
= B
W
PROBLEM 6.90
The 192N load is removed and a 288 N m ⋅ clockwise couple is
applied successively at A, D, and E. Determine the components of the
reactions at B and F when the couple is applied (a) at A, (b) at B, (c) at
E.
SOLUTION
FBD Frame:
Regardless of the location of applied couple,
( ) 0: 3 m 288 N m 0
B x
M F Σ = − ⋅ =
96.0 N
x
= F
W
0: 96 N 0
x x
F B Σ = − + =
96.0 N
x
= B
W
0: 0
y y y
F B F Σ = + =
( ) and ( ): If couple applied on , is a twoforce a c anywhere ACEF BC
member,
so
5
16
y x
B B =
30.0 N
y
= B
W
Then
0: 30 N 0 30 N
y y y
F F F Σ = + = = −
30.0 N
y
= F
W
( ): If couple is applied on , is a twoforce b anywhere BC ACEF
member,
so
7
16
y x
F F =
42.0 N
y
= F
W
0: 42 N 0 42 N
y y y
F B B Σ = + = = −
42.0 N
y
= B
W
PROBLEM 6.91
(a) Show that when a frame supports a pulley at A, an equivalent
loading of the frame and of each of its component parts can be
obtained by removing the pulley and applying at A two forces equal
and parallel to the forces that the cable exerted on the pulley.
(b) Show that if one end of the cable is attached to the frame at
point B, a force of magnitude equal to the tension in the cable should
also be applied at B.
SOLUTION
First note that, when a cable or cord passes over a frictionless, motionless pulley, the tension is
unchanged.
1 2 1 2
0: 0
C
M rT rT T T Σ = − = =
(a) Replace each force with an equivalent forcecouple.
(b) Cut cable and replace forces on pulley with equivalent pair of forces at A as above.
PROBLEM 6.92
Knowing that the pulley has a radius of 1.5 ft, determine the
components of the reactions at A and E.
SOLUTION
FBD Frame:
FBD member ABC:
( ) ( )( ) 0: 21 ft 13.5 ft 210 lb 0
A y
M E Σ = − =
135.0 lb
y
= E
W
0: 210 lb 135 lb 0
y y
F A Σ = − + =
75.0 lb
y
= A
W
0: 0
x x x x x
F A E A E Σ = − = =
( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) 0: 3 ft 210 lb 3 ft 75 lb 9 ft 0
C x
M A Σ = − − =
45.0 lb
x
= A
W
so 45.0 lb
x
= E
W
PROBLEM 6.93
Knowing that the pulley has a radius of 1.25 in., determine the
components of the reactions at B and E.
SOLUTION
FBD Frame:
FBD member ACE:
( ) ( )( ) 0: 3.75 in. 8.75 in. 75 lb 0
E x
M B Σ = + =
175 lb
x
B =
175.0 lb
x
= B
W
0: 0
x x x
F E B Σ = − =
175.0 lb
x
= E
W
0: 75 lb = 0
y y y
F E B Σ = + −
75 lb
y y
B E = −
( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) 0: 1.25 in. 75 lb 3.75 in. 175 lb 4.5 in. 0
C y
M E Σ = − + − =
125.0 lb
y
= E
W
Thus
75 lb 125 lb 50 lb
y
B = − = −
50.0 lb
y
= B
W
PROBLEM 6.94
Two 200mmdiameter pipes (pipe 1 and pipe 2) are supported every
3 m by a small frame like the one shown. Knowing that the combined
mass per unit length of each pipe and its contents is 32 kg/m and
assuming frictionless surfaces, determine the components of the
reactions at A and E when a = 0.
SOLUTION
FBDs:
pipe 2:
pipe 1:
Frame:
3
0: 0 0.6
5
x G G
F N W N W
′
Σ = − = =
4
0: 0 0.8
5
y D D
F N W N W
′
Σ = − = =
3
0: cos16.26 0.6 0 1.25
5
x F F
F N W W N W
′
Σ = ° − − = =
4
0: 1.25 sin16.26 0 0.45
5
y C C
F N W W N W
′
Σ = + ° − = =
( ) ( ) ( )
4
0: 0.96 m 0.48 m 0.48 0.2 m 0
5
A y
M E W W
¦ ¹
Σ = − − + =
´ `
¹ )
1.16667
y
E W =
1099 N
y
= E
W
0: 1.16667 0
y y
F A W W W Σ = + − − =
0.83333
y
A W =
785 N
y
= A
W
0: 0 so
x x x x x
F A E A E Σ = − = =
member BE:
PROBLEM 6.94 CONTINUED
( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 0.075 m 1.25 0.48 m 1.16667
B
M W W Σ = +
( ) 0.36 m 0
x
E − =
1.816
x
E W =
1710 N
x
= E
W
thus 1710 N
x
= A
W
PROBLEM 6.95
Solve Prob. 6.94 when a = 280 mm.
SOLUTION
FBDs
pipe 2
pipe 1:
member BE:
941.76 W N =
4
0: 0 0.8
5
y D D
F N W N W
′
Σ = − = =
3
0: 0 0.6
5
x G G
F N W N W
′
Σ = − = =
4
0: 0 0.8
5
y C C
F N W N W
′
Σ = − = =
3
0: 96 g 0 1.2
5
x F G F
F N N N W
′
Σ = − − = =
( ) ( ) ( ) 0: 640 mm 480 mm 100 mm 0
B x y F
M E E N Σ = + + =
( ) ( ) ( ) 0: 280 mm 960 mm 100 mm
A x y F
M E E N Σ = + +
( ) ( ) 700 mm 900 mm 0
C D
N N − − =
1.400
x
E W = −
1318 N
x
= E
W
1.617
y
E W =
1523 N
y
= E
W
FBD Frame:
PROBLEM 6.95 CONTINUED
( )
3 4
0: 0
5 5
x x x C D F
F A E N N N Σ = + + + − =
1.400
x
A W =
1318 N
x
= A
W
( )
4 3
0: 0
5 5
y y y C D F
F A E N N N Σ = + − + − =
0.3833
y
A W =
361 N
y
= A
W
PROBLEM 6.96
The tractor and scraper units shown are connected by a vertical pin
located 1.8 ft behind the tractor wheels. The distance from C to D
is 2.25 ft. The center of gravity of the 20kip tractor unit is located at
,
t
G while the centers of gravity of the 16kip scraper unit and the 90
kip load are located at
s
G and ,
l
G respectively. Knowing that the
tractor is at rest with its brakes released, determine (a) the reactions
at each of the four wheels, (b) the forces exerted on the tractor unit at
C and D.
SOLUTION
FBD Entire machine:
FBD Tractor:
( ) a
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 21.6 ft 2 7.2 ft 90 kips 10.8 ft 16 kips
A
M B Σ = − −
( )( ) 26.4 ft 20 kips 0 − =
31.22 kips B =
31.2 kips = B
W
( ) ( ) 0: 2 2 31.22 kips 90 16 20 kips 0
y
F A Σ = + − + + =
31.78 kips A =
31.8 kips = A W
( ) b
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 2.25 ft 1.8 ft 62.44 kips 6.6 ft 20 kips 0
D
M C Σ = + − =
8.7146 kips C =
8.71 kips = C
W
0: 0
x x
F D C Σ = − =
8.715 kips
x
D =
0: 62.44 kips 20 kips 0
y y
F D Σ = − − =
42.44 kips
y
D =
so 43.3 kips = D 78.4° W
PROBLEM 6.97
Solve Prob. 6.96 assuming that the 90kip load has been removed.
SOLUTION
FBD Entire machine:
FBD Tractor:
( ) a
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 21.6 ft 2 10.8 ft 16 kips 26.4 ft 20 kips 0
A
M B Σ = − − =
16.222 kips B =
16.22 kips = B
W
( ) ( ) 0: 2 2 16.222 kips 16 20 kips 0
y
F A Σ = + − + =
1.778 kips A =
1.778 kips = A W
( ) b
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 2.25 ft 1.8 ft 32.44 kips 6.6 ft 20 kips 0
D
M C Σ = + − =
32.71 kips C =
32.7 kips = C
W
0: 0
x x
F D C Σ = − =
32.71 kips
x
D =
( ) 0: 2 32.44 kips 20 kips 0
y y
F D Σ = − + − =
12.44 kips
y
D =
so 35.0 kips = D 20.8° W
PROBLEM 6.98
For the frame and loading shown, determine the components of all
forces acting on member ABE.
SOLUTION
FBD Frame:
FBD member BC:
( )( ) ( ) 0: 1.2 m 3.6 kN 4.8 m 0
F y
M E Σ = − =
0.9 kN
y
= E
W
4.8 8
5.4 9
y x x
C C C = =
( ) ( )( ) 0: 2.4 m 1.2 m 3.6 kN 0
C y
M B Σ = − =
1.8kN
y
B =
on ABE:
1.800 kN
y
= B
W
0: 1.8 kN 3.6 kN 0
y y
F C Σ = − + − =
5.40 kN
y
C =
so
9
8
x y
C C =
6.075 kN
x
C =
0: 0 6.075 kN
x x x x
F B C B Σ = − + = =
on BC
on ABE:
6.08 kN
x
= B W
FBD member AB0E:
PROBLEM 6.98 CONTINUED
( ) 0: 6.075 kN 2 0
A x
M a aE Σ = − =
3.038 kN
x
E =
3.04 kN
x
= E W
( ) 0: 6.075 3.038 kN 0
x x
F A Σ = − + − =
3.04 kN
x
= A
W
0: 0.9 kN 1.8 kN 0
y y
F A Σ = + − =
2.70 kN
y
= A
W
PROBLEM 6.99
For the frame and loading shown, determine the components of all
forces acting on member ABE.
SOLUTION
FBD Frame:
FBD member BCD:
( ) ( )( ) 0: 7.2 ft 1.2 ft 6 kips 0
F y
M F Σ = − =
1.000 kip
y
= E
W
( ) ( )( ) 0: 4.8 ft 7.2 ft 6 kips 0
B y
M C Σ = − =
9 kips
y
C =
But is , so 2 ;
x y
ACF C C ⊥ = C
18 kips
x
C =
0: 0 18 kips
x x x x x
F B C B C Σ = − + = = =
18.00 kips
x
B =
on BCD
0: 9 kips 6 kips 0
y y
F B Σ = − + − =
3 kips
y
B =
on BCD
On ABE: 18.00 kips
x
= B W
3.00 kips
y
= B W
( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 4.8 ft 18 kips 2.4 ft 3 kips
A
M Σ = −
( )( ) ( )( ) 3.6 ft 1 kip 7.2 ft 0
x
E + − =
11.50 kips
x
= E W
0: 11.50 kips 18 kips 0
x x
F A Σ = − + − =
6.50 kips
x
= A
W
FBD member ABE:
PROBLEM 6.99 CONTINUED
0: 1.00 kip 3.00 kips 0
y y
F A Σ = − + − =
2.00 kips
y
= A
W
PROBLEM 6.100
For the frame and loading shown, determine the components of
the forces acting on member ABC at B and C.
SOLUTION
FBD Frame:
FBD members:
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 0.12 m 0.27 m 192 N 0.33 m 80 N 0
A
M D Σ = − − =
652 N = D
0: 0
y y
F Σ = = A
( )( ) ( ) 0: 0.39 m 652 N 0.12 m 0 2119 N
E x x
M B B Σ = − = =
0: 2119 N 652 N 0 1467 N
x x x
F E E Σ = − + = =
PROBLEM 6.100 CONTINUED
0: 80 N 192 N 1467 N 0 1195 N
x x x
F C C Σ = + − + = =
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 0.9 m 0.12 m 1195 N 0.6 m 80 N 0
E y
M C Σ = − + − =
1540 N
y
C =
From above, on ABC
1.195 kN
x
= C W
1.540 kN
y
= C
W
2.12 kN
x
= B
W
0: 1540 N 0
y y
F B Σ = − + =
1540 N
y
B =
1.540 kN
y
= B
W
PROBLEM 6.101
For the frame and loading shown, determine the components of the
forces acting on member CDE at C and D.
SOLUTION
FBD Frame:
FBD members:
Note:
p
( ) 2 0.32 m cos30 0.5543 m AF = ° =
( ) ( )( ) 0: 0.5543 m 0.48 m 100 N 0
F x
M A Σ = − =
86.603 N
x
= A
0: 100 N 0
y y
F A Σ = − =
100 N
y
= A
( )( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 0.32 m cos30 86.603 N 0.16 m cos30
B x
M D Σ = ° + °
( )( )( ) ( )( ) 0.32 m sin30 100 N 0.16 m sin30 0
y
D − ° − ° =
tan30 57.736 N
x y
D D = ° −
( ) ( )( ) 0: 0.16 m 0.40 m 100 N 0 250 N
C y y
M D D Σ = − = =
250 N
y
= D
W
Then, from above
86.6 N
x
D =
86.6 N
x
= D
W
0: 86.6 N 0
x x
F C Σ = − =
86.6 N
x
= C
W
0: 250 N 100 N 0
y y
F C Σ = − + − =
150.0 N
y
= C
W
PROBLEM 6.102
Knowing that 15 N P = and 65 N, Q = determine the components
of the forces exerted (a) on member BCDF at C and D, (b) on
member ACEG at E.
SOLUTION
FBD Frame:
FBD member BF:
15 N P = 65 N Q =
( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) 0: 0.25 m .15 m 0.08 m 0
D x
M P Q P Q E Σ = + − + − =
( ) 1.2 100 N
x
E P Q = + =
100.0 N
x
= E
W
0: 0 100 N 100 N
x x x x x
F D E D D Σ = − = = − =
100.0 N
x
= D
W
0: 2 2 0
y y y
F E D P Q Σ = − − − =
( ) 2 160 N
y y y
E D P Q D = + + = +
( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) 0: 0.15 m 65 N 0.1 m 0.04 m 100 N
C y
M D Σ = − −
( )( ) 0.25 m 15 N 0 − =
20 N
y
D =
20.0 N
y
= D
W
From above
20 N 160 N 180 N
y
E = + =
180.0 N
y
= E
W
0: 100 N 0
x x
F C Σ = − + =
100.0 N
x
= C
W
0: 65 N 20 N 15 N 0
y y
F C Σ = − + − − =
100.0 N
y
= C
W
PROBLEM 6.103
Knowing that 25 N P = and 55 N, Q = determine the components
of the forces exerted (a) on member BCDF at C and D, (b) on
member ACEG at E.
SOLUTION
FBD Frame:
FBD member BF:
25 N P = 55 N Q =
( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) 0: 0.25 m 0.15 m 0.08m 0
D x
M P Q P Q E Σ = + − + − =
( ) 1.20 100 N
x
E P Q = + =
100.0 N
x
= E
W
100 N 0
x x
F D Σ = − =
100.0 N
x
= D
W
2 2 0
y y y
F E D P Q Σ = − − − =
( ) 2 160 N
y y y
E D P Q D = + + = +
( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) 0: 0.15 m 55 N 0.1 m 0.04 100 N
C y
M D Σ = − −
( )( ) 0.25 m 25 N 0 − =
20 N
y
D = −
20.0 N
y
= D
W
From above
20 N 160 N 140 N
y
E = − + =
140.0 N
y
= E
W
0: 100 N 0
x x
F C Σ = − + =
100.0 N
x
= C
W
( ) 0: 55 N 20 N 25 N 0
y y
F C Σ = − + − − − =
60.0 N
y
= C
W
PROBLEM 6.104
Knowing that P = 822 N and Q = 0, determine for the frame and
loading shown (a) the reaction at D, (b) the force in member BF.
SOLUTION
FBD Frame:
FBD member DF:
( ) ( )( ) 0: 0.24 m 0.56 m 822 N 0 1918 N
x x
M D D Σ = − = =
1.918 kN
x
= D
( ) ( )
8 3
0: 0.69 m 0.24 m 0
17 5
D BF EC
M F F Σ = − =
0.3247 0.144 0
BF EC
F F − =
15 4
0: 1918 N 0
17 5
x BF EC
F F F Σ = − − =
0.8824 0.800 1918 N
BF EC
F F + =
Solving:
714 N T
BF
F = W
( ) ( ) ( )
8
0: 0.45 m 714 N 0.24 m 0
17
E y
M D Σ = − =
630 N
y
D =
so 2.02 kN = D 18.18° W
PROBLEM 6.105
Knowing that P = 0 and Q = 1096 N, determine for the frame and
loading shown (a) the reaction at D, (b) the force in member BF.
SOLUTION
FBD Frame:
FBD member DF:
( ) ( )( ) 0: 0.24 m 0.69 m 1096 N 0 3151 N
A x x
M D Σ = − = = D
( ) ( )( ) ( )
8 3
0: 0.69 m 0.69 m 1096 N 0.24 m 0
17 5
D BF EC
M F F Σ = − − =
0.3247 0.144 756.24 N
BF EC
F F − =
4 15
0: 3151 N 0
5 17
x EC BF
F F F Σ = − − =
0.8824 0.800 3151 N
BF EC
F F + =
Solving:
2737 N
BF
F =
2.74 kN T
BF
F = W
( ) ( ) ( )
8
0: 0.45 m 2737 N 1096 N 0.24 m 0
17
E y
M D
Σ = − − =
360.06 N
y
= D
3.17 kN = D
6.52°
W
PROBLEM 6.106
The axis of the threehinge arch ABC is a parabola with vertex at B.
Knowing that 28 kips P = and 35 kips, Q = determine (a) the
components of the reaction at A, (b) the components of the force exerted
at B on segment AB.
SOLUTION
FBDs members:
From FBD I:
( ) ( ) ( )( ) 0: 9.6 ft 24 ft 15 ft 28 kips 0
A x y
M B B Σ = − − =
1.2 3.0 52.5 kips
x y
B B − =
FBD II:
( ) ( ) ( )( ) 0: 5.4 ft 18 ft 9 ft 35 kips 0
C x y
M B B Σ = + − =
0.6 2 35 kips
x y
B B − =
Solving:
50 kips; 2.5 kips as drawn, so
x y
B B = = on : 50.0 kips
x
AB = B
W
2.50 kips
y
= B
W
FBD I:
0: 50 kips 0
x x
F A Σ = − = 50.0 kips
x
= A W
0: 28 kips 2.5 kips 0
x y
F A Σ = − − = 30.5 kips
y
= A W
PROBLEM 6.107
The axis of the threehinge arch ABC is a parabola with vertex at B.
Knowing that 35 kips P = and 28 kips Q = , determine (a) the
components of the reaction at A, (b) the components of the force exerted
at B on segment AB.
SOLUTION
member FBDs:
From FBD I:
( ) ( ) ( )( ) 0: 9.6 ft 24 ft 15 ft 35 kips 0
A x y
M B B Σ = + − =
3.2 8 175 kips
x y
B B + =
FBD I:
( ) ( ) ( )( ) 0: 5.4 ft 18 ft 9 ft 28 kips 0
C x y
M B B Σ = − − =
0.6 2 28 kips
x y
B B − =
Solving:
51.25 kips; 1.375 kips as drawn, so
x x
B B = = on : 51.3 kips
x
AB = B
W
1.375 kips
y
= B
W
FBD I:
0: 51.25 kips
x x
F A Σ = − 51.3 kips
x
= A W
0: 35 kips 1.375 kips
y y
F A Σ = − + 33.6 kips
y
= A W
PROBLEM 6.108
For the frame and loading shown, determine the reactions at A, B, D,
and E. Assume that the surface at each support is frictionless.
SOLUTION
FBD Frame:
FBD member ACE:
( ) ( )( ) 0: 0.16 m 0.08 m 1 kN cos30
A
M E Σ = − °
( )( ) 0.06 m 1 kN sin30 0 − ° =
0.2455 kN E =
246 N = E
W
( ) 0: 0.2455 kN 1 kN cos30 0
y
F D Σ = + − ° =
0.6205 kN D =
621 N = D W
( ) 0: 1 kN sin30 0 0.5 kN
x
F A B B A Σ = − + ° = = +
( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 0.8 m 0.2455 kN 0.6 m 0 0.3274 kN
C
M A A Σ = − = =
327 N = A W
From above
0.05 kN B A = +
( ) 0.327 0.50 kN 0.827 kN B = + =
827 N = B
W
PROBLEM 6.109
Members ABC and CDE are pinconnected at C and are supported by
four links. For the loading shown, determine the force in each link.
SOLUTION
member FBDs:
FBD I:
0: 2 0 2
I y x y x
M aC aC aP C C P Σ = + − = + =
FBD II:
0: 2 0
J y x
M aC aC Σ = − = 2 0
y x
C C − =
Solving: ; as shown
2 4
x y
P P
C C = =
FBD I:
1
0: 0 2
2
x BG x BG x
F F C F C Σ = − + = =
2
C
2
BG
F P = W
1 2
0: 0
2 4 2
y AF
P
F F P P
Σ = − + + =
C
4
AF
P
F = W
FBD II:
1
0: 0 2
2
x x DG DG x
F C F F C Σ = − + = =
2
C
2
DG
F P = W
1 2
0: 0
2 4 2 4 2
y y EH EH
P P P
F C P F F
Σ = − + + = = − = −
T
4
EH
P
F = W
PROBLEM 6.110
Members ABC and CDE are pinconnected at C and are supported by
four links. For the loading shown, determine the force in each link.
SOLUTION
member FBDs:
From FBD I:
3
0: 0 3
2 2 2
J x y x y
a a a
M C C P C C P Σ = + − = + =
FBD II:
3
0: 0
2 2
K x y
a a
M C C Σ = − = 3 0
x y
C C − =
Solving : ; as drawn
2 6
x y
P P
C C = =
FBD I:
1 2
0: 0 2
6 2
B y AG AG y
M aC a F F C P Σ = − = = =
2
C
6
AG
F P = W
1 1 2 2
0: 0 2
6 2 2 2
x AG BF x BF AG x
F F F C F F C P P Σ = − + − = = + = +
2 2
C
3
BF
F P = W
FBD II:
1 2
0: 0 2
6 2
D EH y EH y
M a F aC F C P Σ = + = = − = −
2
T
6
EH
F P = W
1 1 2 2
0: 0 2
6 2 2 2
x x DI EH DI EH x
F C F F F F C P P Σ = − + = = + = − +
2
C
3
DI
F P = W
PROBLEM 6.111
Members ABC and CDE are pinconnected at C and are supported
by four links. For the loading shown, determine the force in each link.
SOLUTION
member FBDs:
FBD I:
1
0: 0
2
B y AF
M aC a F Σ = − =
2
AF y
F C =
FBD II:
1
0: 0
2
D y EH
M aC a F = − =
2
EH y
F C =
FBDs combined:
1 1
0: 0
2 2
G AF EH
M aP a F a F Σ = − − =
1 1
2 2
2 2
y y
P C C = +
2
y
P
C =
2
so
2
AF
F P =
C
2
2
EH
F P =
T
FBD I:
1 1
0: 0
2 2
y AF BG y
F F F P C Σ = + − + =
1
0
2 2 2
BG
P P
F P + − + =
0
BG
F =
FBD II:
1 1
0: 0
2 2
y y DG EH
F C F F Σ = − + − =
1
0
2 2 2
DG
P P
F − + − =
2 C
DG
F P =
PROBLEM 6.112
Solve Prob. 6.109 assuming that the force P is replaced by a
clockwise couple of moment
0
M applied to member CDE at D.
SOLUTION
FBDs members:
FBD I:
1
0: 2 0
2
A y BG
M aC a F Σ = − =
2 2
BG y
F C =
FBD II:
0
1
0: 2 0
2
E y DG
M aC M a F Σ = − + =
0
2
2 2
DG y
F C M
a
= − +
FBDs combined:
1 1
0: 0
2 2
x BG x x DG
F F C C F Σ = + − − =
0
2
: 2 2 2 2
BG DG y y
F F C C M
a
= = − +
0
4
y
M
C
a
=
0
2 2
4
BG
M
F
a
=
0
2
2
BG
M
F
a
= T
0
0
2
2 2
4
DG
M
F M
a a
= −
0
2
2
DG
M
F
a
= T
FBD I:
1
0: 0
2
y AF BG y
F F F C Σ = − + =
0 0
1 2
2 4 2
AF
M M
F
a a
= −
0
4
AF
M
F
a
= C
FBD II:
0
0: 0
D y EH
H aC M aF Σ = − + =
0
0
4
EH
M
aF M a
a
= −
0
3
4
EH
M
F
a
= C
PROBLEM 6.113
Four wooden beams, each of length 2a, are nailed together at their
midpoints to form the support system shown. Assuming that only
vertical forces are exerted at the connections, determine the vertical
reactions at A, D, E, and H.
SOLUTION
Note that, if we assume P is applied to EG, each individual member FBD
looks like
so
left right middle
2 2 F F F = =
Labeling each interaction force with the letter corresponding to the joint
of its application, we see that
( )
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 4 8 16 2
B A F
C B D
G C H
P F G C B F E
= =
= =
= =
+ = = = = =
From 16 ,
15
P
P F F F + = = so
15
P
= A
2
15
P
= D
4
15
P
= H
8
15
P
= E
PROBLEM 6.114
Three wooden beams, each of length of 3a, are nailed together to
form the support system shown. Assuming that only vertical forces
are exerted at the connections, determine the vertical reactions at A,
D, and F.
SOLUTION
Note that, if we assume P is applied to BF, each individual member FBD
looks like:
so
short long load
2
2
3
F F F = =
(by moment equations about S and L).
Labeling each interaction force with the letter corresponding to the joint
of application, we have:
( ) 2
2
3
3 2
3 2
P E
F B
C D
E
B A
C
+
= =
= =
= =
so
( ) 2
2 6 18 27
3 26
P E P
B C E P E E
+
= = = + = = E
so 2
13
P
= = D E
2 3 A C E = =
3
13
P
= A
2
3 26
P
F P
= +
9
13
P
= F
PROBLEM 6.115
Each of the frames shown consists of two Lshaped members
connected by two rigid links. For each frame, determine the reactions
at the supports and indicate whether the frame is rigid.
SOLUTION
(a) member FBDs:
FBD I:
1
0: 2 0
A
M aF aP Σ = − =
1
2 ; F P =
0: 0
y y
F A P Σ = − =
y
P = A
FBD II:
2
0: 0
B
M aF Σ = − =
2
0 F =
1
0: 0,
x x
F B F Σ = + =
1
2
x
B F P = − = −
2
x
P = B
0: 0
y y
F B Σ = =
so 2P = B
FBD I:
1 2
0: 0
x x
F A F F Σ = − − + =
2 1
0 2
x
A F F P = − = −
2
x
P = A
so 2.24P = A
26.6 °
frame is rigid
(b) FBD left: FBD whole:
FBD I:
5
0: 0
2 2 2
E x y
a a a
M P A A Σ = + − = 5
x y
A A P − = −
FBD II:
0: 3 5 0
B x y
M aP aA aA Σ = + − = 5 3
x y
A A P − = −
This is impossible unless 0 not rigid P = ∴
PROBLEM 6.115 CONTINUED
(c) member FBDs:
FBD I: 0: 0 F A P
y
Σ = − = P = A
1
0: 2 0
D
M aF aA Σ = − =
1
2 F P =
2 1
0: 0
x
F F F Σ = − =
2
2 F P =
FBD II:
1
0: 2 0
B
M aC aF Σ = − =
1
2
F
C P = =
P = C
1 2
0: 0
x x
F F F B Σ = − + =
0
x
B P P = − =
0: 0
x y
F B C Σ = + =
y
B C P = − = −
P = B
Frame is rigid
PROBLEM 6.116
Each of the frames shown consists of two Lshaped members connected by
two rigid links. For each frame, determine the reactions at the supports and
indicate whether the frame is rigid.
SOLUTION
(a) member FBDs:
FBD II:
0: 0
y y
F B Σ = =
2
0: 0
B
M aF Σ = =
2
0 F =
FBD I:
2
0: 2 0
A
M aF aP Σ = − = but
2
0 F =
so 0 P = not rigid for 0 P ≠
(b) member FBDs:
Note: 7 unknowns
( )
1 2
, , , , , ,
x y x y
A A B B F F C but only 6 independent equations.
System is statically indeterminate
System is, however, rigid
(c) FBD whole: FBD right:
PROBLEM 6.116 CONTINUED
FBD I:
0: 5 2 0
A y
M aB aP Σ = − =
2
5
y
P = B
2
0: 0
5
y y
F A P P Σ = − + =
3
5
y
P = A
FBD II:
5
0: 0
2 2
c x y
a a
M B B Σ = − =
5
x y
B B =
2
x
P = B
FBD I:
0: 0
x x x
F A B Σ = + =
x x
A B = −
2
x
P = A
2.09P = A
16.70 °
2.04P = B
11.31 °
System is rigid
PROBLEM 6.117
Each of the frames shown consists of two Lshaped members
connected by two rigid links. For each frame, determine the reactions
at the supports and indicate whether the frame is rigid.
SOLUTION
Note: In all three cases, the right member has only three forces acting, two of which are parallel. Thus the
third force, at B, must be parallel to the link forces.
(a) FBD whole:
4
0: 2 5 0
4 17 17
A
a
M aP B a B
1
Σ = − − + =
2.06 B P =
2.06P = B
14.04 ° W
4
0: 0
17
x x
F A B Σ = − =
2
x
P = A
1
0: 0
17
y y
F A P B Σ = − + =
2
y
P
= A
2.06P = A
14.04 ° W
rigid W
(b) FBD whole:
Since passes through , A B
2 0 only if 0
A
M aP P Σ = = =
no equilibrium if 0 P ∴ ≠
not rigid W
PROBLEM 6.117 CONTINUED
(c) FBD whole:
0:
A
M Σ =
1 3 4
5 2 0
4 17 17
a
a B B aP + − =
17
4
B P =
1.031P = B
14.04 ° W
0:
x
F Σ =
4
0
17
x
A B + =
x
A P = −
0:
y
F Σ =
1
0
17
y
A P B − + =
3
4 4
y
P P
A P = − =
1.250P = A
36.9 ° W
System is rigid W
PROBLEM 6.118
A 50N force directed vertically downward is applied to the toggle vise
at C. Knowing that link BD is 150 mm long and that 100 a = mm,
determine the horizontal force exerted on block E.
SOLUTION
FBD machine:
( ) ( )
( )
1
Note: 0.1 m sin 15 0.15 m sin
sin 0.17255 9.9359
θ
θ
−
° =
= = °
p
( ) ( ) 0.1 m cos 15 0.15 m cos AD θ = ° +
0.24434 m =
( ) ( )( )( ) 0: 0.24434 m sin 0.25m cos 15 50 N 0
A
M D Σ = − ° = θ
( )( )
0.25 cos 15
50 N 286.38 N
0.24434 0.17255
D
°
= =
FBD part D :
0:
x
F Σ =
cos 0 D E θ − =
cos 282.1 N E D θ = =
block
282 N = E W
PROBLEM 6.119
A 50N force directed vertically downward is applied to the toggle
vise at C. Knowing that link BD is 150 mm long and that 200 a = mm,
determine the horizontal force exerted on block E.
SOLUTION
FBD machine:
Note:
( ) ( ) 0.2 m sin15 0.15 m sin ° = θ
( )
1
sin 0.3451 20.187
−
= = ° θ
p
( ) ( ) 0.2 m cos15 0.15m cos
0.33397 m
AD = ° +
=
θ
( ) ( )( )( ) 0: 0.33397 m sin 20.187 0.35m cos15 50 N 0
A
M D Σ = ° − ° =
146.67 N D =
FBD part D: 0: cos 0
x
F D E θ Σ = − =
( ) 146.67 N cos 20.187 E = °
137.66 N =
on block
137.7 N = E
PROBLEM 6.120
The press shown is used to emboss a small seal at E. Knowing that
60 P = lb, determine (a) the vertical component of the force
exerted on the seal, (b) the reaction at A.
SOLUTION
FBD machine:
FBD part D:
( ) ( ) 0: 5 in. cos60 cos 20 5 in. sin 60 sin 20
A
M D D Σ = ° ° + ° °
( ) ( ) ( ) 5 in. cos 60 10 in. cos15 60 lb 0 − ° + ° =
190.473 lb D =
0: sin 20 0
x x
F A D Σ = − ° =
65.146 lb
x
A =
0: cos 20 60 lb 0
y y
F A D Σ = + ° − =
118.99 lb
x
A = −
so 135.7 lb = A
61.3 °
0: cos 20 0
y
F E D Σ = − ° =
( ) 190.47 lb cos 20 E = °
178.98 lb =
on seal
179.0 lb = E
PROBLEM 6.121
The press shown is used to emboss a small seal at E. Knowing that
the vertical component of the force exerted on the seal must be 240 lb,
determine (a) the required vertical force P, (b) the corresponding
reaction at A.
SOLUTION
FBD part D:
FBD machine:
(a)
0: cos 20 0
y
F E D Σ = − ° =
240 lb
255.40 lb
cos 20
D = =
°
( ) ( ) 0: 5in. cos60 cos 20 5 in. cos 60 sin 20
A
M D D Σ = ° ° + ° °
( ) ) 5in. cos60 10in. cos15 0 P − ° + ° =
80.453 lb P =
80.5 lb = P
(b)
0: sin 20 0
x x
F A D Σ = − ° =
87.35 lb
x
A =
0: 240 lb 80.5 lb 0
y y
F A Σ = + − =
159.5 lb
y
A =
181.9 lb = A
61.3 °
PROBLEM 6.122
The double toggle latching mechanism shown is used to hold member
G against the support. Knowing that α = 60°, determine the force
exerted on G.
SOLUTION
member FBDs:
Note:
( )
( ) ( )
0.05 m 0.02 m sin60
tan
0.09 m 0.03 0.05 0.02 m cos60
+ °
=
+ + − °
θ
0.50518 =
26.802 θ = °
FBD I:
( ) ( ) ( ) 0: 0.15 m 80 N 0.02 m cos 30 26.802 0
C DF
M F Σ = − ° − ° =
600.94 N
DF
F =
( ) ( ) 0: 600.94 N cos 26.802 80 N sin60 0
x x
F C Σ = ° − ° − =
467.10 N
x
C =
( ) ( ) 0: 600.94 N sin 26.802 80 N cos 60 0
y y
F C Σ = − + ° − ° =
230.97 N
y
C =
FBD II:
( )( ) 0: 0.03 m cos30
G x
M B Σ = °
( ) 0.12m 0.03m cos60
y
B + + °
( ) ( ) 0.03 m 600.94 N sin 26.802 + °
( ) ( ) .026 m 600.94 N cos 26.802 0 − ° =
0.015 3 0.135 5.8065 N
x y
B B + =
(1)
PROBLEM 6.122 CONTINUED
FBD III:
( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 0.03m sin 60 0.03 m cos60
A x y
M B B Σ = ° + °
( )( ) 0.08 m sin60 467.10 N − °
( )( ) 0.08 m cos60 230.97 N 0 + ° =
0.015 3 0.015 23.123 N
x y
B B + = (2)
Solving (1) and (2)
973.31 N
x
B =
144.303 N
y
B = −
FBD II:
( ) 0: 600.94 N cos 26.802 973.31 N 0
x x
F G Σ = − − ° + =
436.93 N
x
= G
( ) ( ) 0: 144.303 N 600.94 N sin 26.802 0
y y
F G Σ = − − + − ° =
126.67 N
y
= G
Therefore, the force acting on member G is 455 N = G
16.17 °
PROBLEM 6.123
The double toggle latching mechanism shown is used to hold member
G against the support. Knowing that α = 75°, determine the force
exerted on G.
SOLUTION
FBDs:
Note:
( )
( ) ( )
0.07 m cos30
tan
0.09 m 0.03 m cos75 0.03 m sin30
°
=
+ ° + °
θ
28.262 θ = °
FBD I:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0: 0.15 m 80 N 0.02 m cos 30 28.262 0
C DF
M F Σ = − ° − ° =
600.28 N
DF
F =
( ) ( ) 0: 80 N cos30 600.28 N cos 28.262 0
x x
F C Σ = − − ° + ° =
459.44 N
x
C =
( ) ( ) 0: 80 N sin30 600.28 N sin 28.262 0
y y
F C Σ = − − ° − ° =
244.24N
y
C =
FBD II:
( ) ( ) 0: 0.03m sin 75 0.120m + 0.03m cos75
G x y
M B B Σ = − ° + °
( ) ( ) 0.03 m sin 75 600.28 N cos 28.262 + ° °
( ) ( ) 0.03 m 600.28 N sin 28.262 0 − ° =
0.9659 4.2588 226.47 N
x y
B B − =
(1)
PROBLEM 6.123 CONTINUED
FBD III:
( ) ( ) 0: 0.03 m sin 75 0.03 m cos75
A x y
M B B Σ = ° − °
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.03 sin75° + 0.05m sin 60 459.44 N m − °
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.03 m cos75 0.05m cos60 244.24 N 0 + ° + ° =
0.9659 0.2588 840.18 N
x y
B B − = (2)
Solving (1) and (2):
910.93 N
x
B =
153.428 N
y
B =
FBD II:
( ) 0: 600.28 N cos 28.262 910.93 N 0
x x
F G Σ = − − ° + =
382.21 N
x
= G
( ) 0: 600.28 N sin 28.262 153.428 N 0
y y
F G Σ = − ° + =
130.81 N
y
= G
Therefore, the force acting on member G is: 404N = G
18.89 °
PROBLEM 6.124
For the system and loading shown, determine (a) the force P required
for equilibrium, (b) the corresponding force in member BD, (c) the
corresponding reaction at C.
SOLUTION
member FBDs:
FBD I :
( ) 0: sin30
C BD
M R F Σ = °
( ) ( ) ( ) 1 cos30 200 N 100 N 0 R R − − ° − =
253.6 N
BD
F =
254 N T
BD
F =
( ) 0: 253.6 N cos30 0
x x
F C Σ = − + ° =
219.6 N
x
= C
( ) 0: 253.6 N sin30 200 N 100 N 0
y y
F C Σ = + ° − − =
173.2 N
y
= C
so 280 N = C
38.3 °
FBD II :
( ) 0: 253.6 N cos30 0
A
M aP a Σ = − ° =
220 N = P
PROBLEM 6.125
A couple M of magnitude15 kip in. ⋅ is applied to the crank of
the engine system shown. For each of the two positions shown,
determine the force P required to hold the system in equilibrium.
SOLUTION
(a) FBDs:
Note:
1.5 in.
tan
5.25 in.
θ =
2
7
=
FBD whole:
( ) 0: 7.50 in. 15 kip in. 0
A y
M C Σ = − ⋅ =
2.00 kips
y
C =
FBD piston:
0: sin 0
y y BC
F C F θ Σ = − =
2 kips
sin sin
y
BC
C
F
θ θ
= =
0: cos 0
x BC
F F P θ Σ = − =
2 kips
cos 7 kips
tan
BC
P F θ
θ
= = =
7.00 kips = P
PROBLEM 6.125 CONTINUED
(b) FBDs:
Note:
2
tan as above
7
θ =
FBD whole:
( ) 0: 3 in. 15 kip in. 0
A y
M C Σ = − ⋅ =
5 kips
y
C =
0: sin 0
y y BC
F C F θ Σ = − =
sin
y
BC
C
F
θ
=
0: cos 0
x BC
F F P θ Σ = − =
5 kips
cos
tan 2/7
y
BC
C
P F θ
θ
= = =
17.50 kips = P
PROBLEM 6.126
A force P of magnitude 4 kips is applied to the piston of the engine
system shown. For each of the two positions shown, determine the
couple M required to hold the system in equilibrium.
SOLUTION
(a) FBDs:
Note:
1.5 in.
tan
5.25 in.
θ =
2
7
=
FBD piston:
0: cos 0
x BC
F F P θ Σ = − =
cos
BC
P
F
θ
=
0: sin 0
y y BC
F C F θ Σ = − =
2
sin tan
7
y BC
C F P P θ θ = = =
FBD whole:
( ) 0: 7.50 in. 0
A y
M C M Σ = − =
15 in.
7.5 in.
7
y
M C P = =
8.57 kip in. = ⋅ M
PROBLEM 6.126 CONTINUED
(b) FBDs:
Note:
2
tan as above
7
θ =
FBD piston:
as above
2
tan
7
y
C P P θ = =
FBD whole:
( ) 0: 3.0 in. 0
A y
M C M Σ = − =
( )
2
3.0 in.
7
M P =
24
kip in.
7
M = ⋅
3.43 kip in. = ⋅ M
PROBLEM 6.127
Arm BCD is connected by pins to crank AB at B and to a collar at C.
Neglecting the effect of friction, determine the couple M required to
hold the system in equilibrium when θ = 0.
SOLUTION
member FBDs:
FBD II:
0: 0
y y
F B Σ = =
( ) ( ) 0: 6.4 in. 5 in. 16 lb 0
C x
M B Σ = − =
12.5 lb
x
B =
FBD I:
0: (7.5 in.) 0
A x
M B M Σ = − =
( )( ) 7.5 in. 12.5 lb 93.8 lb in. M = = ⋅
93.8 lb in. = ⋅ M
PROBLEM 6.128
Arm BCD is connected by pins to crank AB at B and to a collar at C.
Neglecting the effect of friction, determine the couple M required to
hold the system in equilibrium when θ = 45°.
SOLUTION
member FBDs:
Note:
( ) ( )
12 in.
5in. tan 5 in. 9.375 in.
6.4 in.
d = = = θ
2
0: 16 lb 0
2
y y
F B Σ = − =
8 2 lb
y
B =
11.3137 lb =
( ) ( ) 0: 12 in. 9.375 in. 5 in. 6.4 in. 0
E y x
M B B Σ = + + − =
46.627 lb
x
B =
( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 7.5 in. 46.627 lb 10 in. 11.314 lb 0
A
M M Σ = + − =
463 lb in. = ⋅ M
PROBLEM 6.129
The double toggle mechanism shown is used in a punching machine.
Knowing that links AB and BC are each of length 150 mm, determine the
couple M required to hold the system in equilibrium when φ = 20°.
SOLUTION
FBD piston:
FBD joint C:
FBD AB:
0: 800 cos 20 0
y CE
F F Σ = − ° =
851.34 N
CE
F =
sin 40 sin 40 sin100
BC CE CD
F F F
= =
° ° °
851.34 N
BC CE
F F = =
( )( ) 0: 0.15 m 851.34 N sin 60 0
A
M M Σ = ° − =
110.6 N m = ⋅ M
W
PROBLEM 6.130
The double toggle mechanism shown is used in a punching machine.
Knowing that links AB and BC are each of length 150 mm and that
M = 75 N · m, determine the angle φ if the system is in equilibrium.
SOLUTION
FBD AB:
FBD piston:
FBD joint C:
( ) 0: 0.15 m sin60 75 N m 0
A BC
M F Σ = ° − ⋅ =
1000
N
3
BC
F =
0: 800 N cos 0
y CE
F F φ Σ = − =
800
N
cos
CE
F
φ
=
500
0: 800 N N cos 0
3
y CD
F F φ Σ = + − =
500
cos 800 N
3
CD
F φ
= +
1 ( )
( ) 0: 500 N 800 N tan sin 0
x CD
F F Σ = − − = φ φ
( ) sin 500 N 800 N tan
CD
F = − φ φ
2 ( )
(2)
Divide :
(1)
tan 0.45927 0.73484tan = − φ φ
tan 0.264733 = φ
14.83 φ = °
W
PROBLEM 6.131
Two rods are connected by a slider block as shown. Neglecting the effect
of friction, determine the couple
A
M required to hold the system in
equilibrium.
SOLUTION
member FBDs:
Note:
AC ⊥ D
0: sin115 25 N m 0
B
M lD Σ = ° − ⋅ =
( )
25 N m
2 0.15 m cos 25 sin115
101.453 N
D
⋅
=
° °
=
( )( ) 0: 0.15 m 101.453 N 0
A A
M M Σ = − =
15.22 N m
A
= ⋅ M
W
PROBLEM 6.132
Two rods are connected by a slider block as shown. Neglecting
the effect of friction, determine the couple
A
M required to hold the
system in equilibrium.
SOLUTION
member FBD’s:
Note:
BD ⊥ C
0: 25 N m 0
B
M lC Σ = − ⋅ =
( )
25 N m
2 0.15 m cos 25
91.948 N
C
C
⋅
=
°
=
( ) 0: 0.15 m sin65 0
A A
M M C Σ = − ° =
( )( ) 0.15 m 91.948 N sin65
A
M = °
12.50 N m
A
= ⋅ M
W
PROBLEM 6.133
Rod CD is attached to the collar D and passes through a collar welded to
end B of lever AB. Neglecting the effect of friction, determine the couple
M required to hold the system in equilibrium when
o
30 . = θ
SOLUTION
FBD DC:
FBD machine:
Note:
CD ⊥ B
0:
x
F
′
Σ =
( ) sin30 120 lb cos30 0
y
D ° − ° =
120 lb
207.85 lb
tan30
y
D = =
°
8 in.
0: 207.85 lb 0
sin30
A
M M Σ = − =
°
3326 lb in. M = ⋅
3.33 kip in. = ⋅ M
W
PROBLEM 6.134
Rod CD is attached to the collar D and passes through a collar welded
to end B of lever AB. Neglecting the effect of friction, determine the
couple M required to hold the system in equilibrium when
o
30 . = θ
SOLUTION
FBD DC:
FBD machine:
( ) 0: sin30 60 lb cos30 0
x y
F D
′
Σ = ° − ° =
( ) 60 lb ctn 30 103.923 lb
y
D = ° =
0: (4 in.)(60 lb) (103.923 lb) 0
A
M d M Σ = − − =
1.6 in. d b = −
tan30
a
b =
so
2.1282 in. b =
0.5282 in.
294.89 lb in.
d
M
=
= ⋅
295 lb in. = ⋅ M
W
PROBLEM 6.135
The slab tongs shown are used to lift a 960lb block of granite.
Determine the forces exerted at D and F on tong BDF.
SOLUTION
FBD link A:
FBD granite block:
FBD tong BDF:
1 2
By symmetry: T T T = =
1 2
8
0: 960 lb 2 0 60 17 lb
17
y
F T T T Σ = − = = =
By symmetry: ;
x x y y
E F E F = =
0: 2 960 lb 0 480 lb
y y y
F F F Σ = − = =
( ) ( )( ) ( )
8
0: 9.4 in. 5 in. 480 lb 15.75 in. 60 17 lb
17
D x
M F
Σ = − −
( )
15
5.9 in. 60 17 lb 0
17
− =
1624.5 lb
x
F =
1.694 kips = F
16.46 ° W
8
0: 60 17 lb 480 lb 0
17
y y
F D Σ = − + =
0
y
D =
15
0: 60 17 lb 1624.5 lb 0
17
x x
F D Σ = + + =
2524.5 lb
x
D = −
2.52 kips = D
W
PROBLEM 6.136
The pallet puller shown is used to pull a loaded pallet to
the rear of a truck. Knowing that P = 420 lb, determine
the forces exerted at G and H on tong FGH.
SOLUTION
FBD A:
By symmetry:
B C
T T =
15
0: 420 lb 2 0
17
x B
F T
Σ = − =
14 17 lb
B
T =
FBD BF & CE:
By symmetry: ;
x x y y
E F E F = =
0: 420 2 0 210 lb
x x x
F F F Σ = − = =
FBD whole :
By symmetry: ;
x x y y
H I H I = =
420 lb 2 0 210 lb
x x x x
F H H I Σ = − = = =
FBD tong FGH: FBD BDF:
FBD BDF :
( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )
15 8
0: 3 in. 3.2 in. 210 lb 6.4 in. 14 17 lb 6 in. 14 17 lb 0
17 17
D y
M F
Σ = − − − =
896 lb
y
F =
PROBLEM 6.136 CONTINUED
FBD tong :
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) 0: 3 in. 896 lb 3.2 in. 210 lb 0.75 in. 210 lb 6 in. 0
G y
M H Σ = + + − =
586.25 lb
y
H = 623 lb = H 70.3 ° W
0: 210 lb 210 lb 0
x x
F G Σ = − + + =
0
x
G =
0: 586.25 lb 896 lb 0
y y
F G Σ = − + =
1482 lb
y
G =
1.482 kips = G
W
PROBLEM 6.137
The drum lifter shown is used to lift a steel drum. Knowing that the mass of
the drum and its contents is 240 kg, determine the forces exerted at F and H
on member DFH.
SOLUTION
FBD System:
FBD machine:
FBD ABC:
0;
y
F Σ =
0 P W − =
( )
( )
2
240 kg 9.81 m/s
2354.4 N
P W
P
=
=
=
Symmetry:
x x
H I =
y y
H I =
0: 2 0
y y
F P H Σ = − =
1177.2 N
2
y
P
H = =
Symmetry: C B =
4
0: 2 0
5
y
F P B Σ = − =
5
1471.5 N
8
B P = =
FBD DFH:
PROBLEM 6.137 CONTINUED
( ) ( )
3
0: 0.1 m 0.39 m 1471.5 N
5
H
M F
Σ = − +
( )
4
0.055 m 1471.5 N 0
5
− =
3973.05 N F = 3.97 kN = F W
3
0: 3973.05 N 1471.5 N 0
5
x x
F H Σ = − − =
3090.15 N
x
H =
3.31 kN = H
20.9 ° W
PROBLEM 6.138
A small barrel having a mass of 72 kg is lifted by a pair of tongs as
shown. Knowing that 100 a = mm, determine the forces exerted at
B and D on tong ABD.
SOLUTION
FBB ABD:
Notes: From FBD whole, by inspection,
( )
( )
2
72 kg 9.81 m/s P W mg = = =
706.32 N P =
is a twoforce member: 3
x y
BC B B =
( ) ( ) ( ) 0: 0.1 m 0.06 m 0.18 m 0
D x y
M B B P Σ = + − =
3 0.6 1.8
y y
B B P + =
353.16 N
2
y
P
B = =
so
3
1059.48 N
2
x
P
B = =
and 1.117 kN = B
18.43 ° W
0: 0
x x x
F B D Σ = − + =
3
1059.48 N
2
x
P
D = =
0: 0
y y y
F P B D Σ = − − =
353.16 N
2
y
P
D P = − =
so 1.117 kN = D
18.43 ° W
PROBLEM 6.139
Determine the magnitude of the ripping forces exerted along
line aa on the nut when two 240N forces are applied to the handles
as shown. Assume that pins A and D slide freely in slots cut in the
jaws.
SOLUTION
FBD jaw AB:
FBD handle ACE:
0: 0
x x
F B Σ = =
( ) ( ) 0: 0.01 m 0.03 m 0
B
M G A Σ = − =
3
G
A =
0: 0
y y
F A G B Σ = + − =
4
3
y
G
B A G = + =
By symmetry and FBD jaw : , 0,
3
x x
G
DE D A E B = = = =
4
3
y y
G
E B = =
( )( ) ( ) ( )
4
0: 0.105 m 240 N 0.015 m 0.015 m 0
3 3
C
G G
M Σ = + − =
1680 N G = W
PROBLEM 6.140
In using the bolt cutter shown, a worker applies two 75lb forces to
the handles. Determine the magnitude of the forces exerted by the
cutter on the bolt.
SOLUTION
FBD Cutter AB: FBD handle BC:
FBD I:
0: 0
x x
F B Σ = = FBD II:
( ) ( ) 0: 0.5 in. 19.5 in. 75 lb 0
C y
M B Σ = − =
2925 lb
y
B =
Then
FBD I:
( ) ( ) 0: 4 in. 1 in. 0
A y
M B F Σ = − =
4
y
F B =
11700 lb 11.70 kips F = = W
PROBLEM 6.141
Determine the magnitude of the gripping forces produced when two 50lb
forces are applied as shown.
SOLUTION
FBD handle CD:
FBD handle AD:
( )( ) ( )
2.8
0: 4.2 in. 50 lb 0.2 in.
8.84
D
M A Σ = − −
( )
1
1 in. 0
8.84
A
+ =
477.27 8.84 lb A =
( )( ) ( )
( )
1
0: 4.4 in. 50 lb 4 in. 477.27 8.84 lb
8.84
D
M Σ = −
( ) 1.2 in. 0 F + =
1.408 kips F = W
PROBLEM 6.142
The compoundlever pruning shears shown can be adjusted by
placing pin A at various ratchet positions on blade ACE. Knowing
that 1.5kN vertical forces are required to complete the pruning of a small
branch, determine the magnitude P of the forces that must be applied to the
handles when the shears are adjusted as shown.
SOLUTION
FBD cutter AC:
FBD handle AD:
( ) ( ) ( ) 0: 32 mm 1.5 KN 28 mm 10 mm 0
C y x
M A A Σ = − − =
11
10 28 48 kN
13
x x
A A
+ =
1.42466 kN
x
A =
1.20548 kN
y
A =
( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 15 mm 1.20548 kN 5 mm 1.42466 kN
D
M Σ = −
(70 mm) 0 P − =
0.1566 kN 156.6 N P = = W
PROBLEM 6.143
Determine the force P which must be applied to the toggle BCD
To maintain equilibrium in the position shown.
SOLUTION
FBD joint B:
FBD joint C:
Note:
30 θ α = ° +
1
20
30 tan
200
30 5.711
35.711
−
= ° +
= ° + °
= °
( ) 0: cos35.711 240 N cos30 0
x BC
F F
′
Σ = ° − ° =
255.98 N T
BC
F =
By symmetry: 255.98 N
CD
F =
( ) 0: 2 255.98 N sin5.711 0
x
F P
′′
Σ = − ° =
50.9 N = P
30.0 ° W
PROBLEM 6.144
In the locked position shown, the toggle clamp exerts at A a vertical
1.2kN force on the wooden block, and handle CF rests against the
stop at G. Determine the force P required to release the clamp.
(Hint: To release the clamp, the forces of contact at G must be
zero.)
SOLUTION
FBD BC:
FBD CDF:
( ) ( )( ) 0: 24 mm 66 mm 1.2 kN 0
B x
M C Σ = − =
3.3 kN
x
C =
0: 0
x x x
F D C Σ = − =
3.3 kN
x
D =
( ) 0: 86 mm
C
M P Σ =
( ) ( ) 18.5 16 tan 40 cos 40 0
DE
mm mm F − − ° ° =
22.124
DE
F P =
0: cos 40 sin30 0
x x DE
F C F P Σ = − ° + ° =
( ) 3.3 kN 22.124 cos 40 sin30 0 P P − ° + ° =
201 N = P
60 ° W
PROBLEM 6.145
The garden shears shown consist of two blades and two handles.
The two handles are connected by pin C and the two blades are
connected by pin D. The left blade and the right handle are connected
by pin A; the right blade and the left handle are connected by pin B.
Determine the magnitude of the forces exerted on the small branch
E when two 20lb forces are applied to the handles as shown.
SOLUTION
FBD handle ACF: (not to scale)
FBD blade DE:
Note: By symmetry the vertical components of pin forces C and D
are zero.
0: 0
y y
F A Σ = =
( )( ) ( ) 0: 13.5 in. 20 lb 1.5 in. 0
C x
M A Σ = − =
180 lb
x
A =
0: 20 lb 0
x x
F C A Σ = − − =
( ) 180 20 lb 200 lb C = + =
( ) ( )( ) 0: 9 in. 3 in. 180 lb 0
D
M E Σ = − =
60.0 lb E = W
PROBLEM 6.146
The bone rongeur shown is used in surgical procedures to cut small
bones. Determine the magnitude of the forces exerted on the bone
at E when two 25lb forces are applied as shown.
SOLUTION
FBD handle AB:
FBD Blade BD:
Note: By symmetry the horizontal components of pin forces at A and D
are zero.
0: 0
x x
F B Σ = =
( ) ( )( ) 0: 1.1 in. 4.4 in. 25 lb
A y
M B Σ = −
100 lb
y
B =
( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 1.6 in. 100 lb 1.2 in. 0
A
M E Σ = − =
133.3 lb E = W
PROBLEM 6.147
The telescoping arm ABC is used to provide an elevated platform for
construction workers. The workers and the platform together have a
mass of 240 kg and have a combined center of gravity located directly
above C. For the position when
o
24 , = θ determine (a) the force
exerted at B by the single hydraulic cylinder BD, (b) the force exerted
on the supporting carriage at A.
SOLUTION
FBD boom:
Note:
( )
( )
1
3.2sin 24 1 m
tan
3.2cos 24 0.6 m
−
° −
=
° −
θ
44.73 θ = °
(a)
( ) ( )
( )
0: 6.4m cos 24 2.3544 kN
3.2 m cos 24 sin 44.73
A
M
B
Σ = °
− ° °
( ) 3.2 m sin 24 cos 44.73 0 B + ° ° =
12.153 kN B =
12.15 kN = B
44.7 ° W
( ) 0: 12.153 kN cos 44.73 0
x x
F A Σ = − ° =
8.633 kN
x
= A
(b)
( ) 0: 2.3544 kN 12.153 kN sin 44.73 0
y y
F A Σ = − + ° − =
6.198 kN
y
= A
On boom:
10.63 kN = A
35.7°
On carriage:
10.63 kN = A
35.7 ° W
PROBLEM 6.148
The telescoping arm ABC can be lowered until end C is close to the ground,
so that workers can easily board the platform. For the position when
o
18 , = − θ determine (a) the force exerted at B by the single hydraulic
cylinder BD, (b) the force exerted on the supporting carriage at A.
SOLUTION
FBD boom:
1
1 m 3.2 msin18
tan
3.2 mcos18 0.6 m
0.2614
−
− °
=
° −
= °
θ
θ
( )( ) 240 kg 9.81 N kg 2354.4 N = = W
(a)
( ) ( ) ( ) 0: 6.4 m cos18 2.3544 kN 3.2 m cos18 sin 0.2614
A
M B Σ = ° − ° °
( ) ( ) 3.2 m sin18 cos 0.2614 0 B − ° ° =
14.292 kN B =
14.29 kN = B
.261 ° W
(b) ( ) 0: cos 0.2614 0
x x
F A B Σ = − ° =
( ) ( ) 14.292 kN cos 0.2614 14.292 kN
x
A = ° =
( ) 0: sin 0.2614 2.3544 kN 0
y y
F A B Σ = + ° − =
( ) ( ) 2.3544 kN 14.292 kN sin 0.2614
y
A = − °
2.2892 kN
y
A =
On boom:
14.47 kN = A
9.10°
On carriage:
14.47 kN = A
9.10 ° W
PROBLEM 6.149
The bucket of the frontend loader shown carries a 12kN load.
The motion of the bucket is controlled by two identical
mechanisms, only one of which is shown. Knowing that the
mechanism shown supports onehalf of the 12kN load,
determine the force exerted (a) by cylinder CD, (b) by
cylinder FH.
SOLUTION
FBD bucket:
FBD link BCE:
FBD boom & bucket mechanism:
( ) a
( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 0.3 m 12 kN 0.32 m 2 0
D AB
M F Σ = − =
5.625 kN
AB
F =
0: 2 2 0 5.625 kN
x AB x x AB
F F D D F Σ = − = = =
0: 12 kN 0
y y
F D Σ = − =
12 kN
y
D =
1
160
tan 21.801
400
θ
−
= = °
( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 0.46 m 5.625 kN 0.1 m sin 21.801
E CD
M F Σ = + °
( )( ) 0.3 m cos 21.801 0
CD
F − ° =
( ) 10.7185 kN C
CD
F =
On BCE:
10.72 kN
CD
= F
21.8 ° W
( ) b
( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 1.5 m 12 kN 0.12 m 2 cos 45
G FH
M F Σ = + °
( )( ) 0.48 m 2 sin 45 0
FH
F − ° =
35.4 kN C
FH
F =
On DFG: 35.4 kN
FH
= F 45 ° W
PROBLEM 6.150
The motion of the bucket of the frontend loader shown is controlled
by two arms and a linkage which are pinconnected at D. The arms
are located symmetrically with respect to the central, vertical, and
longitudinal plane of the loader; one arm AFJ and its control cylinder
EF are shown. The single linkage GHBD and its control cylinder
BC are located in the plane of symmetry. For the position shown,
determine the force exerted (a) by cylinder BC, (b) by cylinder EF.
SOLUTION
FBD bucket:
FBD link BH:
FBD mechanism with bucket:
( ) a
( )( ) ( ) 0: 0.5 m 20 kN 0.55 m 0
J GH
M F Σ = − =
18.1818 kN
GH
F =
( ) ( ) 0: 0.5 m 0.6 m 0
D BC GH
M F F Σ = − =
6 6
18.1818 kN 21.818 kN
5 5
BC GH
F F = = =
On BH:
21.8 kN
BC
= F W
(b)
1
1.625 m
tan 74.521
0.45 m
−
= = ° θ
( )( ) ( )( ) 3.075 m 20 kN 0.3 m 28.818 kN
A
M Σ = −
( )( ) 0.6 m 2 sin74.521 0
EF
F − ° =
On AF:
47.5 kN
EF
= F 15.48° W
PROBLEM 6.151
In the planetary gear system shown, the radius of the central gear
A is 20 a = mm, the radius of the planetary gear is b, and the radius
of the outer gear E is ( ) 2 . a b + A clockwise couple of magnitude
20 N m
A
M = ⋅ is applied to the central gear A, and a counter
clockwise couple of magnitude 100 N m
S
M = ⋅ is applied to the
spider BCD. If the system is to be in equilibrium, determine (a) the
required radius b of the planetary gears, (b) the couple M
E
that must
be applied to the outer gear E.
SOLUTION
FBD Gear A:
FBD Gear C:
FBD Spider:
Smaller scale
(a)
1 2 3
By symmetry F F F F = = =
0: 3 20 N m 0
A
M aF Σ = − ⋅ =
20
N m
3
F
a
= ⋅
0: 0
x x
F C
′ ′
Σ = =
4 4
20 N m
0: 0
3
C
M bF bF F F
a
⋅
Σ = − = = =
4
40 N m
0: 0 2
3
y y y
F C F F C F
a
′ ′ ′
⋅
Σ = − − = = =
By symmetry central forces on gears B and D are the same
( ) 0: 2 0
A S
M M a b F Σ = − + =
( ) ( )
40
100 N m 6 N m a b F a b
a
⋅ = + = + ⋅
100 3
1
40 2
b b
a a
= + =
20 mm a = so that
30.0 mm b = W
FBD Outer gear:
PROBLEM 6.151 CONTINUED
(b) ( ) 0: 3 2 0
A E
M a b F M Σ = + − =
( )
( )
20 N m
3 20 mm 60 mm 80.0 N m
3 20 mm
E
M
⋅
= + = ⋅ W
PROBLEM 6.152
Gears A and D are rigidly attached to horizontal shafts that are held
by frictionless bearings. Determine (a) the couple
0
M that must be
applied to shaft DEF to maintain equilibrium, (b) the reactions at
G and H.
SOLUTION
FBD Gear A: looking from C
FBD Gear B: looking from F
FBD ABC: looking down
(a)
15 lb ft 4 in.
A A
M r = ⋅ =
0: 0
A A A
M M Pr Σ = − =
180 lb in.
4 in.
A
A
M
P
r
⋅
= =
45 lb P =
0
0: 0
B B
M M r P Σ = − =
( )( )
0
2.5 in. 45 lb 112.5 lb in.
B
M r P = = = ⋅
0
112.5 lb in. = ⋅ M i W
(b)
( )( ) ( ) 0: 2 in. 45 lb 5 in. 0
B
M C Σ = − =
18 lb = C k
0: 45 lb 18 lb 0 63 lb
z
F B Σ = − + = = − B k
FBD BEG:
FBD CFH:
PROBLEM 6.152 CONTINUED
By analogy, using FBD 63 lb 18 lb DEF = = E k F k
0: 63 lb 63 lb 0
z z
F G Σ = + − =
0
z
G =
0 0
y y
F G Σ = =
( )( ) 0 6.5 in. 63 lb 0
G G
M M Σ = − =
( ) 410 lb in.
G
= ⋅ M i W
0: 0
z y
H H Σ = = = F
0
H
M Σ =
( )( ) 6.5 in. 18 lb
H
M = −
117 lb in. = − ⋅
( ) 117.0 lb in.
G
= − ⋅ M i W
PROBLEM 6.153
Two shafts AC and CF, which lie in the vertical xy plane, are
connected by a universal joint at C. The bearings at B and D do
ot exert any axial force. A couple of magnitude 50 N m ⋅ (clockwise
when viewed from the positive x axis) is applied to shaft CF at F.
At a time when the arm of the crosspiece attached to shaft CF is
horizontal, determine (a) the magnitude of the couple which must
be applied to shaft AC at A to maintain equilibrium, (b) the reactions
at B, D, and E. (Hint: The sum of the couples exerted on the
crosspiece must be zero).
SOLUTION
Note: The couples exerted by the two yokes on the crosspiece must be equal and opposite. Since neither
yoke can exert a couple along the arm of the crosspiece it contacts, these equal and opposite couples
must be normal to the plane of the crosspiece.
If the crosspiece arm attached to shaft CF is horizontal, the plane of the crosspiece is normal to shaft AC,
so couple
C
M is along AC.
FBDs shafts with yokes:
(a)
FBD : CDE
0:
x
M Σ =
cos30 50 N m 0
C
M ° − ⋅ =
57.735 N m
C
M = ⋅
FBD : BC
0: 0
x A C
M M M
′
Σ = − =
57.7 N m
A
M = ⋅ W
(b)
( ) ( ) 0: 0.5 m 0.5 m 0
C A z y
M B B
′
′ ′ Σ = + − = M i j k
0 = B W
0: 0 Σ = + = F B C
so 0 = C
( ) ( ) FBD : 0: 0.6 m 57.735 N m sin30 0
Dy z
CDF M E Σ = − + ⋅ ° =
48.1 N
z
= E k
0: 0
x x
F E Σ = =
( ) 0: 0.6 m 0 0
Dz y y
M E E Σ = = = ( ) so 48.1 N = E k W
0
0: 0 Σ = + + = F C D E
( ) 48.1 N = − = − D E k W
PROBLEM 6.154
Solve Prob. 6.153 assuming that the arm of the crosspiece attached to
shaft CF is vertical.
SOLUTION
Note: The couples exerted by the two yokes on the crosspiece must be equal and opposite. Since neither
yoke can exert a couple along the arm of the crosspiece it contacts, these equal and opposite couples
must be normal to the plane of the crosspiece.
If the crosspiece arm attached to CF is vertical, the plane of the crosspiece is normal to CF, so the couple
C
M is along CF.
(a)
FBD : CDE
0: 50 N m 0 50 N m
x C C
M M M Σ = − ⋅ = = ⋅
FBD : BC
0: cos30 0
x A C
M M M
′
Σ = − ° =
( ) 50 N m cos30
A
M = ⋅ °
43.3 N m
A
M = ⋅ W
(b)
( )
( )( ) 50 N m 0.5
0: sin30 0.5 m 0 50 N
0.5 m
Cy C z z
M M B B
′
⋅
Σ = ° + = = − = −
( ) 0: 0.5 m 0 0
Cz y y
M B B Σ = − = =
( ) so 50.0 N = − B k W
0: 0 Σ = + = = − F B C C B
( ) so C 50 N on BC = k
FBD : CDE
( ) ( ) ( )
4
0: 0.4 m 0.6 m 0 50 N 33.3 N
6
Dy z z z
M C E E
Σ = − − = = − = −
0: 0
Dz y
M E Σ = =
0: 0
x x
F E Σ = =
( ) so 33.3 N = − E k W
( ) ( ) 0: 0 50 N 33.3 N 0 Σ = + + = − + − = F C D E k D k
( ) 83.3 N = D k W
PROBLEM 6.155
The large mechanical tongs shown are used to grab and lift a thick
1800lb steel slab HJ. Knowing that slipping does not occur between
the tong grips and the slab at H and J, determine the components of
all forces acting on member EFH. (Hint: Consider the symmetry of
the tongs to establish relationships between the components of the
force acting at E on EFH and the components of the force acting at
D on CDF.)
SOLUTION
FBD A:
FBD CDF:
FBD EFH:
By inspection of FBD whole: 1800 lb
A
F W = =
By symmetry: (say)
AB AC
F F T = =
1
0: 1800 lb 2 0 900 5 lb
5
y AC AB
F T T F F Σ = − = = = =
( )
2
0: 900 5 lb 0
5
x x x
F D F Σ = − − =
1800 lb
x x
D F − =
(1)
( )
1
0: 900 5 lb 0
5
y y y
F D F Σ = − + + =
900 lb
y y
D F − =
(2)
( )
( )
( )
1 2
0: (6.9 ft) 900 5 lb 0.9 ft 900 5 lb
5 5
D
M
Σ = +
( ) ( ) 1.5 ft 5.4 ft 0
y x
F F − − =
5.4 1.5 7830 lb
x y
F F + =
(3)
Note: By symmetry ;
x x y y
E D E D = =
( ) ( ) ( ) 0: 4.5 ft 5.4 ft 1.5 ft
F y y x
M D D H Σ = − −
( ) 0.9 ft 900 lb 0 + =
5.4 4.5 1.5 810 lb
x y x
D D H − + =
(4)
0: 0
x x x x
F D F H Σ = + − =
(5)
648 lb
x
= F
W
PROBLEM 6.155 CONTINUED
Solving equations (1) through (5):
648 lb
x
= F
W
2.89 kips
y
= F
W
2.45 kips
x x
= = E D
W
3.79 kips
y y
= = E D
W
3.10 kip
x
= H
W
and, as noted 900 lb
y
= H
W
PROBLEM 6.156
For the frame and loading shown, determine the force acting on member
ABC (a) at B, (b) at C.
SOLUTION
FBD ABC:
Note: is twoforce member BD
(a)
( )( ) ( )
3
0: 0.09 m 200 N 2.4 m 0
5
C BD
M F
Σ = − =
125.0 N
BD
= F
36.9 ° W
(b)
( )
4
0: 200 N 125 N 0 100 N
5
x x x
F C Σ = − − = = C
( )
3 3
0: 0 125 N 75 N
5 5
y BD y y
F F C Σ = − = = = C
125.0 N = C
36.9 ° W
PROBLEM 6.157
Determine the force in each member of the truss shown. State whether
each member is in tension or compression.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
FBD joint A:
FBD joint G:
0: 0
x x
F H Σ = =
( )( ) ( ) 0: 32 ft 12 kips 8 ft 0
H
M G Σ = − =
48 kips = G
0: 12 kips 0
y y
F G H Σ = − + − =
48 kips 12 kips 36 kips
y
H = − =
36 kips
y
= H
12 kips
3 8 73
AB AC
F F
= =
so 32.0 kips T
AB
F = W
4 73 kips;
AC
F =
34.2 kips C
AC
F = W
By inspection of joint : C
0
BC
F = W
34.2 kips C
CE
F = W
Then by inspection of joint : B
0
BE
F = W
32.0 kips T
BD
F = W
Then by inspection of joint : E
0
DE
F = W
34.2 kips C
EG
F = W
Then by inspection of joint : D
0
DG
F = W
32.0 kips T
DF
F = W
By inspection of joint : F
0
FG
F = W
32.0 kips T
FH
F = W
( )
8 8
0: 4 73 kips 0
73 145
x GH
F F Σ = − =
4 145 kips
GH
F =
48.2 kips C
GH
F = W
PROBLEM 6.158
The tongs shown are used to apply a total upward force of 45 kN on a
pipe cap. Determine the forces exerted at D and F on tong ADF.
SOLUTION
FBD whole:
FBD ADF:
By symmetry 22.5 kN = = A B
( ) ( )( ) 0: 75 mm 100 mm 22.5 kN 0
F
M CD Σ = − =
30 kN = CD
W
0: 0 30 kN
x x x
F F CD F CD Σ = − = = =
0: 22.5 kN 0 22.5 kN
y y y
F F F Σ = − = =
so 37.5 kN = F
36.9 ° W
PROBLEM 6.159
A stadium roof truss is loaded as shown. Determine the force in
members BC, BH, and GH.
SOLUTION
FBD Section:
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 6.3 ft 14 ft 1.8 kips 28 ft 0.9 kip 0
B GH
M F Σ = − − =
8.00 kips C
GH
F = W
( ) ( )( )
40
0: 3.15 ft 14 ft 0.9 kip 0
41
H BC
M F
 
Σ = − =

\ .
4.10 kips T
BC
F = W
9 9
0: 1.8 kips 0.9 kip 0
41 21.93
Y BC BH
F F F Σ = − − + =
( )
21.93 9
2.7 kips 4.10 kips 4.386 kips
9 41
BH
F
= − =
4.39 kips T
BH
F = W
PROBLEM 6.160
A stadium roof truss is loaded as shown. Determine the force in
members EJ, FJ, and EI.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
Joint L:
( ) ( )
0: 16 ft 0.9 kip
K y
M L Σ = −
( )( ) 28 ft 1.8 kips −
( )( ) 42ft 1.8 kips −
( )( ) 56ft 0.9 kip 0 − =
11.925 kips
y
L =
( )( ) 0: 8 ft 11.925 kips 0.9 kip
E
M Σ = −
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 20ft 1.8 kips 34ft 1.8 kips − −
( ) ( ) ( ) 48ft 0.9 kip 31.5ft 0
x
L − + =
1.65714 kips
x
L =
8
0: 1.65714 kips 0
32.5
x IL
F F Σ = − + =
6.7321 kips
IL
F =
( )
31.5
0: 6.7321 kips 11.925 kips
32.5
y
F Σ = +
0
JL
F − =
18.4500 kips
JL
F =
By inspection of joint I,
0 6.73 kips T
IJ EI IL
F and F F = = = W
Then by inspection of joint J,
0
EJ
F = W
and
18.45 kips C
FJ JL
F F = = W
PROBLEM 6.161
For the frame and loading shown, determine the components of the
forces acting on member DABC at B and at D.
SOLUTION
FBD Frame:
FBD BEH:
FBD DABC:
( ) ( ) ( )( ) 0: 0.6 m 0.5 m 6 kN 1.0 m 12 kN 0
G y
M H Σ = − − =
25 kN
y
= H
( ) ( )( ) 0: 0.5 m 0.2 m 25 kN 0
E x
M B Σ = − =
10 kN
x
B =
on 10.00 kN
x
DABC = B
W
0: 12 kN 0
x x x
F D B Σ = − + + =
( ) 10 kN 12 kN 22 kN
x
D = + =
22.0 kN
x
= D
W
( ) ( ) 0: 0.8 m 0.5 m 0
B y x
M D D Σ = − =
13.75 kN
y
D =
13.75 kN
y
= D
W
0: 0
y y y
F B D Σ = − =
13.75 kN
y
B =
13.75 kN
y
= B
W
PROBLEM 6.162
Using the method of joints, determine the force in each member of the
truss shown. State whether each member is in tension or compression.
SOLUTION
Joint FBDs:
A:
C:
D:
8.4 kN
2.8 4.5 5.3
AC AB
F F
= =
15.90 kN C
AB
F = W
13.50 kN T
AC
F = W
4.5
0: 13.5 kN 0
5.3
y CD
F F Σ = − =
15.90 kN T
CD
F = W
( )
2.8
0: 15.9 kN 8.4 kN 0
5.3
y BC
F F Σ = − − =
16.80 kN C
BC
F = W
( )
4.5
0: 15.9 kN 0
5.3
y BD
F F Σ = − =
13.50 kN C
BD
F = W
PROBLEM 6.163
For the frame and loading shown, determine the components of
the forces acting on member CFE at C and at F.
SOLUTION
FBD Frame:
FBD ABF:
FBD CFE:
( )( ) ( ) 0: 13 in. 40 lb 10 in. 0
D x
M A Σ = − =
52 lb
x
= A
( ) ( )( ) 0: 4 in. 6 in. 52 lb 0
B x
M F Σ = − =
78 lb
x
F =
on ABF
on from above CFE
78.0 lb
x
= F
W
( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) 0: 9 in. 40 lb 4 in. 4 in. 78 lb 0
c y
M F Σ = − − =
12.00 lb
y
= F
W
0: 0 78 lb
x x x x
F C F C Σ = − = =
78.0 lb
x
= C
W
0: 40 lb 0
y y y
F F C Σ = − + + =
40 lb 12 lb 28 lb
y
C = − =
28.0 lb
y
= C
W
PROBLEM 6.164
A Mansard roof truss is loaded as shown. Determine the force in
members DF, DG, and EG.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
FBD Section:
0: 0
x x
F A Σ = =
5
By symmetry: or 3 kN
2
y y y y
P
A L A L = = = =
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0: 3 m 4 m 1.2 kN 6.25 m 3 kN 0
D EG
M F Σ = + − =
4.65 kN T
EG
F = W
( )
3
0: 3 kN 2 1.2 kN 0
5
y DG
F F Σ = − − =
1.000 kN T
DG
F = W
4
0: 0
5
x EG DG DF
F F F F Σ = + − =
( )
4
4.65 kN 1 kN 5.45 kN
5
DF
F = + =
5.45 kN C
DF
F = W
PROBLEM 6.165
A Mansard roof truss is loaded as shown. Determine the force in
members GI, HI, and HJ.
SOLUTION
FBD Truss:
FBD Section:
0: 0
x x
F A Σ = =
5
By symmetry: or 3 kN
2
y y y y
P
A L A L = = = =
( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) 0: 6.25 m 3 kN 4 m 1.2 kN 3 m 0
I HJ
M F Σ = − − =
4.65 kN C
HJ
F = W
0: 0
x HJ GI GI HJ
F F F F F Σ = − = =
4.65 kN T
GI
F = W
0: 1.2 kN 3 kN 0
y HI
F F Σ = − − + =
1.800 kN C
HI
F = W
PROBLEM 6.166
Rod CD is fitted with a collar at D that can be moved along rod AB,
which is bent in the shape of a circular arc. For the position when
θ = 30°, determine (a) the force in rod CD, (b) the reaction at B.
SOLUTION
FBD:
(a)
( )( )
0: 15 in. 20 lb 0
C y
M B Σ = − =
20 lb
y
= B
0: 20 lb sin30 20 lb 0
y CD
F F Σ = − + ° − =
80.0 lb T
CD
F = W
(b)
( ) 0: 80 lb cos30 0
x x
F B Σ = ° − =
69.282 lb
x
= B
so 72.1 lb = B
16.10 ° W
PROBLEM 6.167
A log weighing 800 lb is lifted by a pair of tongs as shown. Determine
the forces exerted at E and at F on tong DEF.
SOLUTION
FBD AB:
FBD DEF:
By symmetry: 400 lb
y y
A B = =
and
( )
6
400 lb 480 lb
5
x x
A B = = =
Note:
so 480 lb
x
D = − = D B
400 lb
y
D =
( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) 10.5 in. 400 lb 15.5 in. 480 lb 12 in. 0
F x
M E Σ = + − =
970 lb
x
E =
970 lb = E
W
0: 480 lb 970 lb 0 490 lb
x x x
F F F Σ = − + − = =
0: 400 lb 0 400 lb
y y y
F F F Σ = − = =
633 lb = F
39.2 ° W
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