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# IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 54, NO.

2, APRIL 2007

797

**Control of Single-Phase-to-Three-Phase AC/DC/AC PWM Converters for Induction Motor Drives
**

Dong-Choon Lee, Member, IEEE, and Young-Sin Kim

Abstract—This paper proposes a novel control scheme of singlephase-to-three-phase pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) converters for low-power three-phase induction motor drives, where a single-phase half-bridge PWM rectiﬁer and a two-leg inverter are used. With this converter topology, the number of switching devices is reduced to six from ten in the case of full-bridge rectiﬁer and three-leg inverter systems. In addition, the source voltage sensor is eliminated with a state observer, which controls the deviation between the model current and the system current to be zero. A simple scalar voltage modulation method is used for a two-leg inverter, and a new technique to eliminate the effect of the dc-link voltage ripple on the inverter output current is proposed. Although the converter topology itself is of lower cost than the conventional one, it retains the same functions such as sinusoidal input current, unity power factor, dc-link voltage control, bidirectional power ﬂow, and variable-voltage and variable-frequency output voltage. The experimental results for the V /f control of 3-hp induction motor drives controlled by a digital signal processor TMS320C31 chip have veriﬁed the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. Index Terms—AC/DC/AC pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) converter, dc-link voltage ripple, induction motor, source voltage estimation, two-leg inverter.

Fig. 1. Single-phase-to-three-phase ac/dc/ac converter with a dc boost chopper.

I. I NTRODUCTION N VIEW of the machine efﬁciency, power factor, and torque ripples, a three-phase induction motor is preferable to a single-phase induction motor. Therefore, it is desirable to replace the single-phase induction motor drives by the threephase induction motor drives in residential appliances, farming, and low-power industrial applications [1]. However, where only a single-phase utility is available, a single-phase-to-three-phase power converter system is required to feed the three-phase induction motor drives. Conventionally, a full-bridge diode rectiﬁer plus three-leg pulsewidthmodulation (PWM) inverter has been used. However, the diode rectiﬁer produces harmonic currents to ﬂow into the supply and has no capability of regenerative operation. A few recent papers dealt with the half-bridge PWM rectiﬁer and the two-leg three-phase PWM inverter. However, most of

I

them investigated its modulation schemes and output performance [2]–[8], and its control scheme has not been very much studied [9]–[11]. Moreover, the sensor elimination technique for this kind of converter is very rare since it usually requires a high-performance digital signal processor (DSP) [12]–[14]. In this paper, a low-cost power converter combined with a half-bridge PWM rectiﬁer and a two-leg PWM inverter for the three-phase induction motor drives are studied, and an algorithm of the source voltage sensor elimination technique is presented, which makes the system cheaper and robust to measurement noises. Also, a new compensation scheme of the dc-link voltage ripple effect on the inverter output voltage is proposed. In addition, a balancing control of the neutral voltage in the dc link is applied for the symmetrical output voltage of the inverter. The proposed algorithm has been implemented for the V /f control of the three-phase induction motor drives controlled by a DSP TMS320C31.

II. C ONVENTIONAL S INGLE -P HASE - TO -T HREE -P HASE AC/DC/AC C ONVERTERS The simplest circuit of an ac/dc/ac converter topology converting from a single-phase supply to a three-phase variable-voltage and variable-frequency (VVVF) system is a single-phase full-bridge diode rectiﬁer and a three-leg PWM inverter system. This circuit is simple and relatively of low cost. However, it has signiﬁcant disadvantages such as nonreversible power ﬂow and source current distortion with poor power factor [1]. Fig. 1 shows the power circuit structure with a dc boost chopper intervening between the diode rectiﬁer and the threeleg PWM inverter. With the dc chopper, the source current can be controlled to be sinusoidal, with unity power factor. However, the power ﬂow is still unidirectional, not reversible [2].

Manuscript received January 25, 2006; revised October 27, 2006. Abstract published on the Internet January 14, 2007. This work was supported by the Korea Electrical Engineering and Science Research Institute under Grant R2005-B-109, which is funded by the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy, Korea. This paper was presented in part at the International Conference on Power Electronics and Intelligent Control for Energy Conservation, Warsaw, Poland, October 16–19, 2005. D.-C. Lee is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749, Korea (e-mail: dclee@yu.ac.kr). Y.-S. Kim is with LG Philips LCD Company, Kumi 730-726, Korea (e-mail: antonio41@hanmail.net). Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TIE.2007.891780

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Single-phase-to-three-phase ac/dc/ac PWM converter. Combining (1)–(6). where one output is fed to the main winding and the other output is for the auxiliary winding [15]. S INGLE -P HASE H ALF -B RIDGE PWM R ECTIFIERS Fig. whereas it retains the function of the topology in Fig. However. 5 [12]–[14]. the source voltage elimination technique is proposed to reduce the system cost and for better reliability to the sensing noise. where Sa is a switching state. the current and voltage are given by ic1 = idc1 − il idc1 = Sa ∗ is vdc1 = = 1 C 1 C ic1 dt (idc1 − il )dt (3) (1) (2) Fig. NO. Expressing (9) in a discrete domain vs (n−1) = Rs is (n−1)+ Ls {is (n)−is (n−1)}+vr (n−1). it has usually been applied to two-phase induction motor drives. However. 4 [7]. it also has some disadvantages such as higher output current distortion and doubly high dc-link voltage requirement [3]. Half-Bridge PWM Rectiﬁer There are two operating modes in half-bridge PWM rectiﬁers. the similar equations are obtained as follows: ic2 = − idc2 − il idc2 = Sb ∗ is = (1 − Sa ) ∗ is vdc2 = 1 C ic2 dt = 1 C (−idc2 − il )dt. 1 or 0. and then. unity power-factor control of the source side. APRIL 2007 When is > 0. respectively. For is < 0. 54. so that it is more expensive than other circuits [2]. However. and vr is the rectiﬁer input voltage. By controlling the deviation between the measured current and the model current to be zero. i. Single-phase half-bridge plus two-leg three-phase ac/dc/ac PWM converter topology. 2. dt (9) (7) (8) Fig. and bidirectional power ﬂow. the source voltage sensor may be eliminated. 2. The voltage equation at the source can be expressed as follows: vs = Rs is + Ls d is + vr . the application of this converter to the V /f control of the three-phase induction motor drives is studied. 3. 2. the same equations can be applied to the relation of current and voltage. In this paper. Source Voltage Estimation In order to control the source current at unity power factor. 2. the number of the switching devices is reduced to six from ten. Unlike the input current sensor necessary for system protection. 3 shows a single-phase half-bridge PWM rectiﬁer and a two-leg three-phase PWM inverter. The circuit topology shown in Fig. the source voltage can be estimated. a source voltage sensor is normally required. Ts (10) The source voltage in (10) is expressed as vs (n − 1) = V cos θ (11) where V and θ are the magnitude and phase angle of the source voltage. 2 shows a single-phase full-bridge PWM rectiﬁer with a three-phase full-bridge PWM inverter system. Compared with the circuit of Fig. where vs and is are the source voltage and current. the voltage sensor may be eliminated without loss of safety. as shown in Fig.798 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS.. it requires ten active switching devices. vdc1 and vdc2 are the capacitor voltages in the dc side. constant dc voltage control. This converter gives excellent performance such as sinusoidal control of source current. respectively. (4) (5) (6) Fig. A block diagram of the source voltage estimation is shown in Fig. For the lower part. In addition. The phase angle at the nth sampling instant is given by θ(n) = (n − 1)ωTs + θ0 (12) . namely: 1) charging mode and 2) discharging mode. III. 3 is not new. VOL. B. A.e. the input voltage of the rectiﬁer and the dc-link voltage are expressed as vr = Sa ∗ vdc1 − Sb ∗ vdc2 vdc = vdc1 + vdc2 . for the upper part of the rectiﬁer.

Applying Fourier series to (16) 2π On the other hand.. Operating modes of the circuit. It is assumed that the inductance and resistance in both the real system and the model are the same. the source current in a discrete domain can be written as is (n) = is (n−1)+ Ts {vs (n−1)−Rs is (n−1)−vr (n−1)} . and the subscript M means the variable or parameter in the rectiﬁer model. the model current is given by iM (n) = is (n − 1) + Ts {VM cos θM − RM is (n − 1) LM − vr (n − 1)} (15) where LM and RM are the model parameters. Ls 1 ∆θ = − Ts V π 0 ∆is sin θM dθM . Then. From (10).LEE AND KIM: CONTROL OF SINGLE-PHASE-TO-THREE-PHASE AC/DC/AC PWM CONVERTERS 799 Fig. (c) and (d) Discharging. i. the magnitude error and the phase angle error. subtracting (15) from (13) gives Fig. 5. (18) . ∆is (n) = is (n) − iM (n) ∼ Ts {∆V cos θM − ∆θ · V sin θM }. Block diagram for source voltage estimation.e. the estimated source voltage in the rectiﬁer model from (11) can be expressed as vM (n − 1) = VM cos θM (14) Ls 1 ∆V = Ts π 0 ∆is cos θM dθM 2π (17) where VM and θM are the magnitude and phase angle of the source voltage at the (n − 1)th sampling point. (a) and (b) Charging. Similarly to (13). which is usually reasonable in the rectiﬁer system. 4. Ls (13) It should be noted that the deviation of ∆is is caused by the estimation error of the source voltage. = Ls (16) where θ0 is an initial angle at the (n − 1)th sampling.

7. the difference of vdc1 and vdc2 is fed back to the current controller through the proportional gain of Kﬀ (= 0. From (17) and (18). Then. Control block diagram for half-bridge PWM rectiﬁer. the scalar modulation scheme is adopted since it is simple and straightforward. Also. which uses the phase voltages in calculating the switching time. 6. as discussed in Section III-B. APRIL 2007 Fig.800 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. Voltage modulation in triangular comparison method. One is named a vector modulation using a space voltage vector concept. the source voltage is estimated. Switching states of two legs. from (21)–(23). (22) (23) √ π 3Vm cos ωt − 6 √ π . Let the c-phase be connected to the neutral point. which gives a three-phase VVVF output voltage. The other is called a scalar modulation. IV.36) and Kθ (= 0. 6 shows the control block diagram for a half-bridge PWM rectiﬁer. For the dclink voltage feedback. 7 shows a two-leg inverter. the line-to-line voltage can be used for the PWM instead of the phase voltage. [11]. to avoid using the source voltage sensor. 8.01 Hz. Fig. the threephase voltage references are given in a balanced set as ∗ vas = Vm cos ωt ∗ vbs = Vm cos ωt − ∗ vcs = Vm cos ωt + (20) Fig. PWM IN T WO -L EG I NVERTERS Fig. and for the balanced control loop. VOL. 54. Control of the System Fig. Here. For a balancing control of the neutral voltage of the dc link. NO. = 3Vm cos ωt − 2 (24) (25) √ The magnitude of these two voltages is 3 times that of the phase voltage and displaced by π/3 relative to each other. TABLE I SWITCHING STATES AND OUTPUT VOLTAGES Fig. the two line-to-line voltage references are given by ∗ ∗ ∗ vac = vas − vcs = ∗ ∗ ∗ vbc = vbs − vcs (21) 2π 3 2π 3 . For the induction motor drive. 9. For controlling the source current and the dclink voltage. VM and θM are estimated as VM (n) = VM (n − 1) + KE ∆is (n) cos θM (n − 1) (19) θM (n) = θM (n − 1) + ωTs − Kθ ∆is (n) sin θM (n − 1) where KE (= 2. the proportional–integral regulators are employed. 2. Two-leg three-phase PWM inverter.5) [7]. By .02) are gains. There are two kinds of voltage modulation schemes for the two-leg three-phase PWM inverter [4]. Since the two phases of the induction motor are connected to the inverter legs and the third phase is connected to the neutral point of the dc link. C. it has been chosen as 0. a cutoff frequency of the low-pass ﬁlter has been chosen as 50 Hz.

LEE AND KIM: CONTROL OF SINGLE-PHASE-TO-THREE-PHASE AC/DC/AC PWM CONVERTERS 801 Fig. 11. using the proportionality of the triangle. Conﬁguration of experimental system. the average voltages over one switching period are calculated as vac = T1 vdc − Ts ¯ vdc /Ts 2 vdc /Ts . According to the switching state. However. when the switching state is given. vbc = T2 vdc − Ts ¯ 2 (28) (29) Although the average value of vdc1 is the same as that of vdc2 . 9. the output currents as well as the output voltages are unbalanced and distorted. due to the dc-link voltage ripples and the deadtime effect. (a) Positive power ﬂow. For example. Source voltage estimation. From (26) and (27). T2 = 2 vdc (26) (27) Fig. the output voltages of the inverter are given in Table I. (31) For precise modulation. as shown in Fig. the output voltages in case of the unequal vdc1 and vdc2 are modiﬁed from (28) and (29) as vac = {(Ts − T1 )(−vdc2 ) + (T1 − T2 )vdc1 + T2 vdc1 } /Ts ¯ = {T1 (vdc1 + vdc2 ) − Ts vdc2 } /Ts = (T1 vdc − Ts vdc2 )/Ts (30) vbc = {(Ts − T1 )(−vdc2 ) + (T1 − T2 )(−vdc2 ) + T2 vdc1 } /Ts ¯ = {T2 (vdc1 + vdc2 ) − Ts vdc2 } /Ts = (T2 vdc − Ts vdc2 )/Ts . These ac ripple components cause the voltage modulation error in (26) and (27). Unity power-factor control of source side. Fig. their instantaneous values are not the same due to the ac ripple components. Thus. 8. 10. 12. the switching time can be calculated as v∗ Ts + ac Ts T1 = 2 vdc v∗ Ts + bc Ts . as shown in Fig. the instantaneous difference of the two dc voltages should be compensated. the time duration of T1 and T2 in (26) and (27) gives precise modulated voltages. The deterioration of these waveforms can be eliminated by compensating for the dc-link voltage ripples and the dead-time effect. (b) Negative power ﬂow. When vdc1 and vdc2 are exactly equal to each other. a voltage component to be compensated can be derived from the difference between the real .

and the dc-link voltage is controlled to be 540 V for the ease of experiment. 54. The main controller is a DSP TMS320C31. The deadtime of the inverter is 2. APRIL 2007 Fig. (c) dead-time effect. which is connected in series across the dc bus bar. vdc1 . respectively. Fig. This dead time should be compensated for eliminating the voltage distortion. E XPERIMENTAL R ESULTS Fig. (b) dc-link ripple voltage. and the boost inductance and its resistance are 2 mH and 0. 13 shows the dc-link voltages of vdc . It is a single-phase. Fig. 2 vdc (32) Including this term in the calculation of the switching time T1 = T2 = (33) (34) . With the proposed estimation strategy. For applying the load to the induction motor. The dead-time effect will be considered in Section V. (b) vdc1 and vdc2 . the separately excited dc motor coupled is operated in torque control mode. V. (a) vdc . with unity power factor kept for bidirectional power ﬂow operation. Fig. output voltage and its reference as ¯ ¯ vcomp = vac − vac = vbc − vbc ¯ ¯ vdc1 − vdc2 . On the other hand. 2. Fig. (c) dead-time effect. Fig. 14. Induction motor currents at half-load condition (10 Hz) with compensation for (a) none. NO. 110-V. Induction motor currents at half-load condition (60 Hz) with compensation for (a) none. VOL. four-pole. = 2 v ∗ − vcomp Ts + ac Ts 2 vdc v ∗ − vcomp Ts + bc Ts . 11 shows the estimated source voltage waveform.802 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. and vdc2 . DC-link voltage control.7 µs. The source current is controlled to be sinusoidal. the sampling period of the current control loop is 100 µs. (b) dc-link ripple voltage. the capacitance of each dc-link capacitor is 3300 µF. The switching frequency of the insulated gate bipolar transistor devices is 5 kHz. the deadtime is required to prevent the shoot-through of the inverter switching leg. and (d) both dc-link ripple voltage and dead-time effect. 15. The three-phase. 3-hp induction motor is operated by V /f constant control mode. In addition. 220-V. and (d) both dc-link ripple voltage and dead-time effect. 12 shows the source voltage and current waveforms in steady state. 10 shows the conﬁguration of the experimental setup. so that the source voltage sensor can be eliminated. where it is compensated by using the method [16].06 Ω. 60-Hz source voltage. 13. the source voltage is well performed.

2. 118-D. (c) DC-link voltage. Fig.” Proc. 1999.. [12] K. 16(b)]. Ando and I. no. Jul. 1989. Hansen. T. B. 1996.” in Proc. “Stability and initial estimation of power source voltage sensorless single-phase PWM ac/dc converter. vol. the waveform becomes a balanced set of sinusoidal currents. 14(a). Correa. 38. da Silva. the set of the three-phase current has been made sinusoidal and balanced. 2004. Green. [4] C. pp. no. which is applied by the torque control of the dc motor coupled. Ind. and a solution was proposed. Inst. Electr. Appl. and N. Hansen. it is shown that the distortion of the waveforms still exists. pp. “Single-phase half-bridge rectiﬁer with power factor correction. With the balancing control. fan. and T. B. 124–136. 53. 16(d)] at impact loading of 12 N · m [Fig. [5] R. 29. Blaabjerg. Power Appl.. With compensation. May 1998. 1. 14 shows the induction motor currents at half load and at 10-Hz operation. “Simple sensorless control of a sinusoidal input current PWM converter. T.” IEEE Trans. Hickok. vol. Enjeti and A. Fig.” IEEE Trans. However. 1995. which proved that the estimated source voltage coincides well with the measured voltage. VI. R. dc-link voltage [Fig. 2006. pp. 2004. the motor current is much distorted. Jan. T. However. Power Electron. 4. [8] R. Eng. . “Current-forced single-phase reversible rectiﬁer. Here. Electr. Without any compensation in Fig. whereas they are used for the high-performance vector control. 52–61. Appl. Aerosp.—Electr. “A new single phase to three phase converter with active input current shaping for low cost ac motor drives. and S. which resulted in a balanced set of a three-phase output current. 14(b) and (c). Madorell and J. Eng. Power Electron. 136–137. Srinivasan and R. Chen. Oliveira. 2. 16(a)]. vol. vol. vol. (b) Induction motor currents. “A new optimized space vector modulation strategy for a component minimized voltage source inverter.” Trans. 806–813. The proposed digital control algorithm for the given circuit topology can be applied to the residential appliance. 443–450. 12. With the compensation for these two effects in Fig. 14(d). 1287–1294. “Control of the single-phase three-leg AC/AC converter. Jul. Oruganti. Hung. vol. C ONCLUSION In this paper. Jul. vol. 151. pp. adverse inﬂuences of a dc-link voltage ripple and the deadtime of the inverter switching legs on the inverter output current have been investigated. and the source current is controlled well. IEEE ISIE. 1279–1284. [11] C. 35. Lin and T. [10] B. no.. 2327– 2332. no. (d) Source current. pp. Y. R. Rahman. 3. Freysson. Yang. Jpn. R EFERENCES [1] H.. too./Feb. “A unity power factor converter using half-bridge boost topology. Eng. no.. 1. pp..-H. “Adjustable speed a tool for saving energy losses in pumps. pp. 13.—Electr. blowers and compressors. 4. 487–500. Eng. [13] I. 1997. Inst. D. W. no. 1993. H. the degree of distortion without proper compensation is less than that at low speeds. pp. [2] P. (a) Load torque. vol. pp. no. pp. Lipo. an algorithm to eliminate the source voltage sensor in the half-bridge PWM rectiﬁer was studied. 16(c)]. J. 1. S. C. Appl. Jacobina. and low-power industrial applications with a low-cost DSP chip such as TMS320LF2407. R. 467–476. In addition.” IEEE Trans. 1985. Lin.” IEEE Trans. no. 3. Fig. IEEE IAS Annu.” IEEE Trans. In Fig.” IEEE Trans... vol. N. Elect. and E. and source current [Fig. Inst. A.LEE AND KIM: CONTROL OF SINGLE-PHASE-TO-THREE-PHASE AC/DC/AC PWM CONVERTERS 803 It should be noted that the current sensors are required for the deadtime effect compensation. Inst. vol. Thus. R.” Proc.-T. Matsui. no. vol. 354–360. 16. [9] B. an integrative control algorithm for a singlephase half-bridge PWM rectiﬁer and a two-leg PWM inverter for three-phase induction motor drives has been studied. 14 except in operating at 60 Hz. Power Appl. Pou. Kim and T. the motor currents are well balanced and sinusoidal in transient state. Ind. farming. Jan. 205–211. 2002. “Half-bridge neutral point diode clamped rectiﬁer for power factor correction. Ind. Electron. Syst.” Trans. 4. the current sensors are not usually used for the V /f control of the induction motor drives. no. Takahashi.. B. Ind. Sep. [7] J. Since the output voltage at high speeds is larger than that at low speeds. Oct./Aug. “VSI-PWM rectiﬁer/inverter system with a reduced switch count. [3] F. “Induction motor drive system for low-power application. The validity of the proposed algorithm has been veriﬁed by experimental results. no. 15 shows the same results as in Fig. Elect. 704–714. a balancing control of the neutral voltage in the dc link was applied for the symmetrical output voltage of the inverter. 1998. 16 shows the transient response of the three-phase motor currents [Fig. Due to the compensation. vdc1 and vdc2 are well balanced. Jpn. Jacobina and M. Apr. Electron. pp. IA-21. Also. Takeshita. vol. with the compensation of either the dc-link ripple component or the dead-time effect. pp. Transient response of induction motor currents for load variation. 5. 116-D.. Fig. [6] G.. 136.” IEEE Trans. vdc coincides with its reference value of 540 V with low ripple components. L. Toyama. 4.” in Proc. there still exist some distortion and unbalance. Boys and A. Meeting. “Modulation techniques for a low-cost singlephase to three-phase converter. pp. it is up to the users whether the current sensors are employed or not for the deadtime effect compensation. M.

He received the B. 1995.” IEEE Trans. 54. Seoul. 1987. . no. 1996. 11.” IEEE Trans. degrees in electrical engineering from Yeungnam University. APRIL 2007 [14] T. and the Wisconsin Electric Machines and Power Electronics Consortium. College Station. Electron. “A maximum torque control with a controlled capacitor for a single-phase induction motor. His research areas are high-voltage power supplies and control of power electronics circuits. and Ph. no. degrees in electrical engineering from Seoul National University. under a Postdoctoral Fellowship for one year. [15] T. 2. Korea.S. Liu. he was with the Power Quality Laboratory. Kumi.. Madison. 1. in 2001.-W. H. where he is currently a Professor.K. Power Electron. Choi and S. Gyeongsan. the Electrical Drive Center. pp.” IEEE Trans. and power quality. NO. Since 1994. Feb. “Direct power control of PWM converter without power-source voltage sensors.. 17–24. vol. H. Takahashi. 221–227.-K. University of Wisconsin. Ind. Ind. pp. Yeungnam University.S.804 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. 473–479. and 1993. wind power generation systems.. Dong-Choon Lee (S’90–M’95) received the B. Appl. 42. University of Nottingham.. in 1998. pp. in 2004. U. respectively. in 1985. respectively. Kondo.D. Korea. vol. and M. no. vol. Noguchi. Korea. He is currently a Research Engineer at LG Philips LCD Company. His research interests include ac machine drives. Korea..S. [16] J. May/Jun. VOL. 1998. Nottingham. Tomiki.. Texas A&M University. Sul. 3. 2. Young-Sin Kim was born in Korea in 1978. 34. “Inverter output voltage synthesis using novel dead time compensation. Gyeongsan. He was a Research Engineer at Daewoo Heavy Industry from 1987 to 1988. he has been a Faculty Member in the Department of Electrical Engineering. Mar. He was also with the Research Institute of Science Engineering. control of power converters. in 2004 and 2006. S. As a Visiting Scholar. and I. Seoul National University.S. M.