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THE THOR HISTORY

MAV 1963 DOUGLAS REPORT SM-41860

A P P R O V E D BY: W.H..

HOOPER

C H I E F . T H O R SYSTEMS E N G I N E E R I N G

AEROSPACE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING


DOUGLAS M/SS/LE &?SPACE SYS7EMS D / V / S / U N

This h i s t o r y i s intended a s a quick orientation source and


zs a ready-reference f o r review of the Thor and i t s systen-s.

The report b r i e f l y s t a t e s the development of Thor,

s~c.p.!~arizes chronicles Thor missile and booster launchand i n g ~ ,provides i l l u s t r a t i o n s and descriptions of the vehicle s y s t u , ~ s ,r e l a t e s t h e i r genealo~y, explains s m e of the performance c a w b i l i t i e s of the Thor and Thor-based vehicles used, and focuses a t t e n t i o n t o the exploration of space by Douglas AircraPt Cmpmy, Inc. (MC).
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PREFACE

The purpose of The Thor History is t o survey t h e launch record of the Thor Weapon, Special Weapon, and Space Systems; give a systematic account of the major events; and review Thor's participation i n t h e m i l i t a r y and space programs of t h i s nation. The period covered is from December 27, 1955, t h e date of t h e f i r s t contract award, through May, 1963.

T B OF CONTENTS Am

Page

Basic Organization and Objectives Basic Developnental Philosophy

Early Research and Development Launches

Transition to ICBM with Space Capabilities=.Mult i S a e .tg Initial Lwnar and Space Probes Initial Operational C p b l t . aaiiy. Overseas Deployment in the

Combat Training Launches and the Concurrent Programs

Fr<cisely Guided Re-Entry Test Vehicles

. . . . . . ..-. . . . . . Space Age ~~orkhorse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


1

................ .................. .............. 4 . 6 .................. 8 AMR . PMR . . . . . . . . . . . 8 U K . .......... RAF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12


1
2

Vehicles

and

"Project Ehily"

1 0

1 2

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Satellites with Recoverable Data Capsules The "Paddlewheel" Photographs the Earth

Navigational and Meteorological Satellites

Combat Training Launches and Continued Reliability Test of MB-3 Block I Engine and GE Nose Cone I Interplanetary Space Probe

............

............ ............. .... ..

14

14
14

Navigational and Active Communications Satellites

........... Improved Space System for Capsule Recovery . . . . Applications Vertical Test (AVT) . . . . . . . . .
Satellites and Space Probes
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W E OF CONTENTS (continued) L

Improved Space System for Satellites and Probes

Appendices

Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4 Appendix

. ........ ............................. ............. ...


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Page
29

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Appendix 6

.... Thor Launch Record, Weapon and Space Systems . . , Thor-Boosted Space Satellites and Probes , . . . . Thor-Boosted Payload, Orbit, and Trajectory Data . Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Sketches and Identifications

Thor "Family Tree"

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35 63

71

79
85

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LIST O IZ,LUSTRATIONS F

Figure

1
2

R & D Missile Prepares f o r Launch

............. n o r Able, F~rerunnero f Thor Multi-ISLege Veh%clerr, Launches I B Nose Cone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CM


Thor Able I Launches Space Probe t o Record Distance i n Space

Page

5
7

..........................

9
11

Thor I n s t a l l a t i o n i n t h e UK was Completed by Douglas, USAF, and t h e B r i t i s h Ahead of Schedule ,

...... .. R F Crews Launch Thors i n Less than 15 Minutes. . . . . . . A ................. Thor Agena A Prepares t o Launch a Payload . . . . . . . . . Thor Able I 1 Prepares t o Launch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Thor Able I1 (sTV), Successfully Launched by Thor; on Second Try Achieved Most Accurate U.S. Orbit t o t h a t Date Thor Able I1 Launches PGRTV--First Thor-Boosted Nose Cone Recovered from t h e Sea.

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15

16
18

..........................

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21 22
24

Thor Able IV Launches a Space Probe i n t o Solar Orbit Between EarthandVenus....

..........,......

Thor Ablestar Made i t s Debut by Orbiting a Navigational S~tellite

.........................

. F i r s t Thor &ena B having a Block I1 m i n e with Increased Thrust, and Second-Stage In-Flight Restart Capability . . Thor A T Pioneers f o r World Communications S a t e l l i t e s . . . V
Thor Delta Points an Orbiting Solar Observatory a t Space

26
27

Contract Award the research and development conThe Dews Aircraft Company laas a~mrded t r a c t f o r the Thor intermediate-range b a l l i s t i c missile (~RBM)Iieapon System
31%
(WS-31%) on December 27, 1955.

Background The United States A i r Force had been given t h e responsibility f o r intercont i n e n t a l b a l l i s t i c missile programs, and l a t e r , f o r lXEll1 programs a s w e l l . The I C B 4 programs were proceedim favorably, but such extended-range (5,0001 L mile) missiles r e r e s t i l l years atray from being operational. J u s t over t h e horizon, Red Russia ' ~ m s brightening the sky trith mushrocxning themonuclear experiments, and developing rocket propulsion systems capable of carrying %he l e t h a l payloads over very great distances.

"

The United States had an Immediate deterrent force, the Strategic A i r Command (SAC), but it was a question trhether bmbers alone 1mu3.d be sufficient t o keep Red Russia i n check. Some weapon within easy r e t a l i a t o r y range ~ m s needed. The deterrent n i s s i l e ~ ~ 0 u l .have t o be capable of h i t t i n g a t a r g e t d 1,500 nautical miles away, and i t s r e f l e x action had t o be fast--15 minutes from the s t a r t of the countdown. The nominal range of 1,500 nautical miles,excluded effective deployment i n P o n t i n e n t a l North America. The range limitation posed the problem of obtain3w international agreements,which rmuld permit the overseas deployment of . the treapon system.
an atmosphere of m i l i t a r y urgency and intense international concern, bold

thinking and correct decisions had t o be made quiclcly t o overcame the many problems. Such decisions required not only confident but experienced minds. ~asic Organization and Objectives Douglas rms selected because it had a background of missile experience which s t a r t e d i n 1941, and a record of accmplishments which inspired confidence.

Associated with Doughs in the project under the over-all direction of the BaUis%ic EIissile Division of the ARDC Irere the follming contractors: Rocketdyne Division of North derican Aviation Corporation, for the propulsion system. A. C. Spark Plug Division of General ldotors Cornoration, for the guidance systen. General Electric Campany, for the nose cone. Sandia Corporation, for the warhead. The United States Air Force placed contracting responsibilities under the Ballistic Missile Office of the Air Materiel Command. The Ramo-IJooldridge Corporation through its Guided 14issile Research provided technical. direction. Douglas, as associate contractor, was given the responsibility for fabricating the airframe, developing the ground-support equipent, and integrating the system. Basic Developnental. Philosophx As associate contractor, Douglas had to coordinate, not only with other associate contractors, but also with the diverse activities of hundreds of vendors and subcontractors. New research and developnent concepts had to be evolved. It was custamary to develop the missile first, and then introduce the ground-support equipment as each piece was needed. Such development was inexpensive and very n safe, both i the attainment of the final design and the preservation of reputations--but, it would take this nation five or more years to do the job. The gravity of the intermtional situation demanded a compressed, tight schedule.

'

A .conceptwas evolved to meet the development problen. It was called


concurrency. " One of its strongest advocates at that mament of history was Bernard A. Schriever (at that time Mjor ~enend.)in ccar.mand of the USAF, Ballistic Ydssile Division.
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"~oncurrency"T ~ the bold philosophy of doing all things necessary t o be S ready f o r t h e operational use of the system rdxi.le the weapon was s t i l l under development. If the r i s k m s properly calculated, years vere chopped off the schedule--if not, the men ~Jhochanced it had placed t h e i r careers on the chopping block.
b

The developent had t o be done quickly. The program vas c l e a r l y on a 9mxm.m rPalc" baaPa. T h l a memt that the f i r s t objective was gross perform c e , and t h a t t o t a l operational r e l i a b i l i t y could only be secondary. Needed s c i e n t i f i c o r engineering '%reakthroughstl had t o be done v i t h i n t h e year. This posed problems. For ewmple, h m can you t e l l an inventor t o invent by a forecast date? Or, how can you t e l l him t h a t there i s no time UOT-red n the schedule f o r a mistake? i

One decision t h a t was made e a r l y i n the program tras t o freeze the missile configura+ion design; another, II&S t o intensify the development and t e s t i n g proslam. These two decisions, i n conjuction with a well-coordinated team of contractors, nlade it mandatory t o design and manufacture r i g h t the f i r s t It neant constructing f a c i l i t i e s while the canrponents they wou3.d t e s t &me.
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m r e s t i l l on the dralring boards. Even the ground-support equipment (=)


TJ~S designed

and placed i n volume

production so t h a t it 1~0ul.d available as the missile approached operationbe al status. The g m d - s u g p o r t equipnent and the missile were designed t o be trans?or'czble i n t h e C-3.24 and C-133, i n order t o expedite overseas deployment. T,lith the need f o r speed important, t h e United States A i r Force, relyine heavily on the extensive Douglas missile design and production experience, 6ecided 'GO mnufacture the first Thor with production tooling, skipping t h e custauzry prototype stage. Douglas and the United States A i r Force jointly financed a s t a t i c t e s t f i r i n g f a c i l i t y f o r the IRE3bI at Sacramento, California. The s i t e was leased, with an option t o buy, from Aerojet General Corporation. The s t a t i c t e s t f i r i n g p e m i t t e d the checking out and t e s t i n g of the precise missile systems as an inteLmted unit Trithout expending a missile.

Althou& Thor posed problems of a nature and magnitude never before encountered, t h e i r solutions under a t i g h t time schedule contributed greatly t o company prestige i n the missile field. Early Research and D e v e l q e n t Launches

O October 26, 1956, just 10 months a f t e r the contract was signed, Doughs n delivered the f i r s t Thor missile.
It was on January 25, 1957, only 13 months from the contract date, t h a t the

f i r s t Thor stood on the pad at the A i r F o r p Missile Training Center ( A E E ~ ~ Y : ) , Cape Canaveral, Florida. Everyone enjoys reporting a success. Hmrever, the f i r s t Thor malflmctioned. Just as it l i f t e d from the pad, the liquid oxygen s t a r t tank ruptured. Yet, short a s the flight was, it was not a t o t a l failure. Scientific equipment recorded data which proved t h a t the basic missile
..

concept was valid.

Early f i r i n g s of the "crash" program were chiefly concerned with research


and technological investigations i n order t o achieve the i n i t i a l operational. capability of a t a c t i c a l system within the shortest time. It was the f i f t h n i s s i l e , Serial Nmber 105, t h a t accmplished the first completely successful e t o ~eclipse the so-called "failures." f l i g h t . Soon successes b Missile Serial Number 109 proved r e could, deliver the IRBlI punch. The high mwe than 2,000 nautical miles. It was acceleration f l i g h t pushed do~mrange SeriaJ. ITmber l l 3 , the nev i n e r t i a l guidance system, t h a t gave an excellent performance i n directing the missile t o i t s target. The series of Thor missile research and development f i r i n g s f'rum Cape CanaveraL yielded information vital t o - of the nation's b a l l i s t i c missile programs. all Figure 1 i s a photograph of an ea.rly R & D launching. below. Also, see the footnote1

' ~ tthe reader's option, the reading of t h i s t e x t may be coordinated rrlth the various recapitulations and i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n the Appendix of t h i s history. These visuaL aids and data pertain to: models, missiles, boosters, space vehicle systems, programs, payloads, and s a t e l l i t e s or probes.

Transition t o ICBM with Space Capabilities--Multi-Stage Vehicles The Thor lRBM aided i n the development of the ICBM program i n many ways. also aided i n development of t h i s nation's space program.

It

For example, the United States A i r Force needed a reliable booster t o t e s t a a ne~rly developed ablative nose cone a t ICBM re-entry distances rand 6;peeds. This scientific and technical inquisitiveness led t o three Advanced Re-entry Test Vehicle (RTV) launchings. On April 23, 1958, the f i r s t attempt tms made t o launch the two-stage vehicle, designated a s Thor Able. It malfunctioned, but those launched on July 9 and July 23 of t h a t year were successful. The nose cones were propelled more. than 5,000 nautical miles downrange with almost unbelievable accuracy. That was the f i r s t time re-entry was achieved with a full. scale ICBM nose cone at the ICBM speed and range. I n fact, those two s p e c i d weapon system versions were the f i r s t United States b a l l i s t i c missiles t o achieve a surface range greater than 5,000 nautical miles.

Figure 2 i s a photograph of the Thor Able special weapon system. Besides aiding i n determining further development of 1CBE.I: nose cones, the re-entky t e s t vehicles served a s precursors of Thor a s a booster of m u l t i stage space vehicles. The RTVs were not considered t o be launched by the
R & D weapon system (WS-3l%), but by a special weapon system--Thor Able--

with long range and space capabilities. The Thor lR?3M was the f i r s t stage, or booster, f o r a.second-stage Able, a liquid-propellant propulsion system developed by the Aerojet General Corporation. Subsequent recwery of a nose cone confirmed t h a t the ablative technique could withstand extreme re-entry conditions. Because of successes such a s these, Thor was selected, and i t s program expanded t o include the production of missiles and boosters having long range and space capabilities. Thor became the United States8 f i r s t double-programed system. That choice ~ m s made even before the vehicle T J ~ Sdeclared o ~ e r a t i o n a l a s a military weapon.

THOR ABLE, FORERUNNER OF THOR MULTI-STAGE VEHICLES, LAUNCHES ICBM NOSE CONE FIGURE 2

I n i t i a l Lunar and Space Probes Another system evolved during t h e R & D phase. The United S t a t e s A i r Force,

operating under management of the Defense Department's Advanced Research n Projects Agency (ARPA), began a space probe program, O August 17, 1958, t h e Thor Able I, a space system of four stages, made an unsuccessful attempt t o o r b i t the moon. O October 1 , 1958, the Thor Able I space system dispatched a Space n 1 Technology Laboratories ' payload, approximately 78,000 nautical miles i n t o t h e vastness of space. shown i n Figure 3 . Another Probe followed, but was unsuccessful due t o a third-stage f a i l u r e . I n i t i a l Operational Capability--AMR and PMR Despite those e x t r a t e r r e s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s placed upon the Thor by t h e space race, Weapon System 315A's R & D program had come t o f r u i t i o n . O November n .5, 1958, t h e I n i t i a l Operational Capability (IOC) program commenced with t h e That was the g r e a t e s t distance a t t a i n e d by any The Thor Able I space system i s United S t a t e s probe up t o t h a t time.

f i r s t launch attempt of the DM-18~ o u ~ l ~ o d e l - 1 8 ~ ) Although t h e launch(~ as ing aborted, t h e innovation of DM-18A and t h e IOC program marked t h e end of

.'

M1 . any f u r t h e r R & D launches of t h e D - 8


1958, was a success.

The next I O C launch, November 26,

System r e l i a b i l i t y began t o improve sharply.

Until t h i s time, a l l launching8 had been conducted from the AFMTC, Cape Canaveral, over the Atlantic Missile Range ( A M R ) . The date, December 16, 1958, has s p e c i a l significance Force Base (VAFB) missile f a c i l i t y on t h e West coast.

The Thor was chosen Furthermore, t h a t date

a s t h e i n i t i a l b a l l i s t i c missile t o be f i r e d from t h e new Vandenberg A i r marked t h e f i r s t c m b a t training launch (CTL) of a Thor by an A i r Force h i s s i l e DM-18 designated as XSM-75 by the Air Force; it means: Experiis i mental S t r a t e g i c Missile. The Ar Force designation SM-75 means: S t r a t e g i c Missile, t h e equivalent of Douglas' i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h e operational DM-18A.

On t h e same day, scored at t h e AEWE on the East coast. another successful Thor l i f t o f f ~ m s
The B r i t i s h Royal A i r Force soon joined Douglas, the the United S t a t e s A i r Force, i n IOC and CTL Thor f i r i n g s w e r two ranges, v i t h t h e cumulative experience s t e a d i l y increasing the mapon system r e l i a b i l i t y .
Overseas Deployment in the UK--PraJect ESnfly

S t r a t e g i c A i r Carmtland crew.

The launch tms a success.

The Royal A i r Force was being trained t o man Thor squadrons being deployed i n .the United Kingdom (UK). The establishment of Thor launch s i t e s i n the

UK had a marlced e f f e c t on m i l i t a r y and diplomatic thinking. The accomplishment of t h e program, called "Project Ehily," i s regarded as one of t h e most
d i f f i c u l t tasks of a l l time. Establishing four c m p l e t e Thor IRBM squadrons The squadrons were dispersed over

a t overseas bases was a huge undertaking.

20 e x i s t i n g a i r bases and old World War I1 a i r f i e l d s .


The United S t a t e s A i r Force had contracted with Douglas f o r t h e Thor i n s t a l -

l a t i o n pmgracl i n the UK. the B r i t i s h (see Figure

Actual work of constructing t h e bases was done by blueprints supplied by the United States. Living quarters, both permanent and moDouglas provided

4) from

Certain parts, such a s the launch complex, limited tolerances t o one-eighth of an inch both i n l i n e and level. b i l e , were constructed f o r the ~mrlunena s well f o r t h e 1,000 RAF men who made up the maintenance and launch crews a t each complex. t h e design blueprints and equlpped the launch complexes as they were completed. t7ork included i n s t a l l a t i o n of l i q u i d o m e n and f u e l storage and t r a n s f e r systems, nlis s i l e shelters, launch control t r a i l e r s , erecting mechanisms, and maintenance and t e s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . K i s s i l e s began t o a r r i v e i n t h e UK i n September of 1958. Autumn aLso saw the a r r i v a l of support equipment accompanied by a contingent of nearly 400 Douglas personnel as technical a s s i s t a n t s t o the B r i t i s h i n t h e construction and i n i t i a l operation of t h e bases. I n s t a l l a t i o n of 60 operational Thor emplacements a t four widely separated squadron locations i n t h e UK tras cmpleted by Douglas, USAF, and the B r i t i s h ahead of schedule. Thor tras the f i r s t United S t a t e s long-range b a l l i s t i c . missile deployed overseas.

THOR INSTALLATION IN THE UK WAS COMPLETED BY DOUGLAS, USAF, AND THE BRITISH AHEAD OF SCHEDULE

FIGURE 4

Canbat Training Launches and the RAF Combat t r a i n i n g launches during the period from January 1959 through June

1961, r e f l e c t e d t h e excellent r e s u l t s obtained from Douglas- and USAF-trained and supported RAF crews. They scored 16 successes out of 18 launches. With
each successive launch, the amount of Douglas and U A launch crew support SF s t e a d i l y diminished. Then complete launch operations were performed exclus i v e l y by approximately 50 RAP' personnel. Thor program proficiency was c l e a r l y demonstrated by RAP crews. Although t o t a l readiness time a l l o ~ ? s o r f no more than 15 minutes, RAF crews launched Thors i n l e s s than t h a t . Here i s another keyhole view of t h e r e l i a b i l i t y t h a t Douglas builds i n t o t h e hardware it makes. Some Thor missiles had been deployed on operational pads They were returned t o VAFB f o r ccanbat t r a i n i n g i n t h e UK under t h e usual a l e r t conditions f o r periods from 1 8 t o 24 months. ( ~ i g u r e i s an kiAF Thor.) 5 launches. The RAF crew's successful. launching of those "old" missiles i s a

strong a t t e s t a t i o n of the soundness and management of t h e Thor Weapon System development and production programs. Concurrent Programs Indeed, t h e year 1959 reveals an excellent p r o f i l e of Douglas system management conducting concurrent programs, nationally and internationally. These

are, broadly speaking, some of t h e programs:


Manufacturing and assembly a t Santa Monica. S t a t i c and captive t e s t s a t Sacranlento. Missile f l i g h t t e s t i n g and space vehicle launching at t h e AMR. Space vehicle and both Strategic A i r Command and Royal A i r Force t r a i n i n g launches a t t h e FWR. Deployment of four operational Thor squadrons i n t h e UK, Precisely Guided Re-entry Test Vehicles The year of 1959 :as a l s o milestoned by six special multi-stage weapon system launches. The f i r s t vehicle, launched January 23, 1959, malflxnctioned; but These

l t h e other five, launched through June l , 1959, were a l l successflxl.

FIGURE 5
13

precisely guided re-entry t e s t vehicles (PGRTV) were l o f t e d by t h e Thor Able

I1 s p e c i a l weapon system

The boosters, designated ~~1812-4, were t a c t i c a l Of

Thor missiles modified t o increase c a p a b i l i t i e s and precision guidance. resulted i n t h e f i r s t recovery of a Thor-boosted noee cone from the sea. Space Age Workhorse

t h e f i v e successful launches, t h e one of April 8, 1959, s h a m i n Figure 6,

.
Employment of t h e

Concurrent with t h e s p e c i a l weapon system f i r i n g s i n 1959, were Douglas' space e f f o r t s .


As a r e s u l t of the Thor Weapon System's proven r e l i a b i l i t y ,

system hardware and Douglas management c a p a b i l i t i e s were e n l i s t e d immediately upon t h e entry of t h e United S t a t e s i n t o the space race. basic Thor e s a f i r s t - s t a g e f o r various space vehicles provided Douglas with
a background of successful participation i n most of t h i s country's space

~ccomplishments; and the participation continues.

More United S t a t e s s a t e l -

l i t e s and space probes have employed a Thor Booster launched by Douglas crews than e l l other booster-vehicles combined. By t h e end of 1959, t h e Thor had c l e e r l y demonstrated i t s r i g h t t o the t i t l e "Workhorse of t h e Space Age." S a t e l l i t e s with Recoverable Data Capsules After the Thor Able and Thor Able I launchings, Douglas entered the M i l i t a r y S a t e l l i t e program i n 1959, with a space system i d e n t i f i e d as t h e Thor Agena A. This program was also under the Advanced Research Projects Agency.
is a photograph of such a system.

Figure 7

The Thor booster was ~ ~ 1 8 1 2 - 3 hckheed . From t h e f i r s t launch on February 28,1959, The purpose of t h e program The

provided the second-stage Agena A.

t h e Thor booster was consistently successful.


*

was t o provide a s c i e n t i f i c data-gathering e a r t h s a t e l l i t e system capable of e j e c t i n g a recoverable research capsule from t h e o r b i t i n g s a t e l l i t e . Government furnished payload which was Thor-boosted August 10,1960, is t h e

first knam payload t o have i t s data capsule recovered from o r b i t . The Thor Agena A launchings of payloads concluded with a launching on September 13,1960.
The "Paddlewheel" Photographs t h e Earth Again, t h e year of 1959 witnessed s t i l l another space system, t h e Thor Able 111.

THOR ABLE II LAUNCHES PGRTV - FIRST THOR-BOOSTED NOSE CONE RECOVERED FROM THE SEA FIGURE 6

The system's booster was the ~~1812-6, puwerful first stage of a fourthe stage vehicle. Space Technology Laboratories (STL) provided the instrumentation p~ckage. The peyload was pleced in an elongated orbit, and the instrumentation gathered vital spnce environmental date. Figure 8 is a photograph of the Thor Able I11 space vehicle system. The satellite it l~unched called "Peddlewheel." It returned electronic pictures of the is earth from sp~ce Navigationel and Meteorological Satellites
4.

Remember the Thor Able I1 special weapon system with the precisely guided re-entry test vehicle? It was drafted into the space race, too. On 99 9) 1 September 17, 1 5 , ( ~ i ~ u r e the Thor Able I "space" system attempted to orbit a navigational aid communications satellite. The Thor booster, successfully lifted off, but the orbit was not achieved because ~~1812-2, the third stage failed to ignite. The crew returned to the launch pad at the AFM'I'C, determined to use another Thor Able I space system in launching the TIROS 1. T-I-R-0-S stands for: 1 Television and Infra-Red Observation Satellite. It is a meteorological payload developed by the Radio Corporation of America for weather observation experiments sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration On April 1 1 6 , TIROS 1 was launched into an orbit that was the , 90 most accurate achieved by any United States satellite to that date.
9

(NASA).

Combat Trainina Launches ind Continued Reliability In the meantime, combat training launches of the Thor Weapon System were con90 ducted through 1 6 and 1961. All launches were successful. The launch crews brought home the perfect report card ( 0 per cent) for Thor' launch 10 s reliability.

Test of MB-3 Block I1 Engine and GS Nose Cones Three DM-18A missiles were modified and renumbered as Thor missile test vehicle DM-1&. These IOC vehicles, allocated to R & D usage, had two objecttives: test and evaluation of the MB-3 Block I engine and the new GE nose 1

THOR ABLE I l l PREPARES TO LAUNCH

FIGURE 8

THOR ABLE I I (STV), SUCCESSFULLY LAUNCHED BY THOR; ON SECOND TRY ACHIEVED MOST ACCURATE U.S. ORBIT TO THAT DATE FIGURE 9

cone.

The launches i n January and February, 1960, were a l l successful, and

the obJectives were met. Interplanetary Space Probe Perhaps t h e major event f o r the year of 1960 was t h e launching of a Space Probe. Figure 10 share t h e Thor Able N , the three-stage space vehicle aymdm, whioh, wre unad te boorti the aprss probe, 'Ilkre Ilrror boaster war %be ~ ~ 1 8 1 2 - 6 A STL provided the instrumentation package which t h e Thor Able IV . lnunched on March 1 , 1960. 1 between t h e Earth and Venus. The payload achieved a heliocentric o r b i t

It transmitted data over a record distance of 22,500,000 s t a t u t e miles from t h e earth u n t i l June 26, 1960. That was %he
longest d i r e c t radio transmission man had ever ~ c h i e v e d .

Navigational end Active Communications S a t e l l i t e s The Thor Ablestar made i t s debut as a space system employing t h e Thor DM-21A booster.
1 n That space system is shown i n Figure 1 . O April 13, 1960, t h i s

higher t h r u s t engine orbited a navigational aid s a t e l l i t e of t h e Advanced Resesrch Project Agency and t h e United S t a t e s Navy.
A Thor Ablestar system was responsible f o r a space milestone on June 22,

1960, when it placed two s a t e l l i t e s i n o r b i t simultaneously, t h e f i r s t time t h i s f e a t had been accomplished. One payload was a navigational a i d s a t e l l i t e , and the other, a radiation detection device. That launch is sometimes c a l l e d t h e "Piggy-back

."

A Thor Ablestar system placed another payload i n o r b i t on October

4, 1960.

During t h e f i r s t o r b i t , t h f s communication s a t e l l i t e relayed a message from President Eisenhower t o Secretary of S t a t e , Christian Rerter, a t t h e United Netions

The Thor Ableetar can accommodate many types of payloads.

THOR ABLE IV LAUNCHES PROBE INTO SOLAR ORBIT BETWEEN EARTH AND VENUS

FIGURE 10

THOR ABLESTAR MADE ITS DEBUT BY ORBITING NAVIGATIONAL SATELLITE

FIGURE 11

S a t e l l i t e s and Space Probes


On April 1 1959, t h e National Aeronautics and Space Administration entered , i n t o a contract with Douglas t o develop, fabricate, t e s t and launch twelve

three-stage Thor Delta vehicles f o r diverse o r b i t a l and space probe missions. The f i r s t stage is a modified DM-18A, redesignated the DM-19 booster. prime contractor, Douglas is also responsible f o r t h e other two stages.
payloada sra auppl.laa by NABA.

As
The

O May 13, 1960, t h e f i r s t Thor Delta space system was successfully leunched, n but the Echo s a t e l l i t e f a i l e d t o achieve o r b i t due t o a second-stage coast a t t i t u d e control malfunction a t an 800-mile a l t i t u d e . O August 12, 1960, t h e Thor Delta space system successfully launched t h e n Echo I, a p l a s t i c sphere 100 f e e t i n diameter, which e f f e c t i v e l y demonstrated t h e u t i l i t y of passive communications s a t e l l i t e s . Orbit was achieved and t h e s a t e l l i t e was dramatically v i s i b l e t o observers on earth. 12) has successfully launched Since then, t h e Thor Delta space system ( ~ i g u r e
TIRC6 A-2; Explorer X (P-14); TIR05 A-3;

Ekplorer XI1 (s-3); The "UK-1"

TIROS A-4; (s-51), t h e

"OSO," t h e Orbiting Solar Observatory (s-16); world's f i r s t i n t e r n a t i o n a l s a t e l l i t e .

end Ariel, "UK-1"

is the r e s u l t of a cooper-

s t i v e program between the United States and Great B r i t a i n . peeceful exploration of space. Im~rovedS ~ a c e Svstem f o r Cmsule Recoverv

This is t h e f i r s t

of a s e r i e s of programs i n which other countries w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e

The Thor Agena A space system using the ~ ~ 1 8 1 2 booster, was succeeded i n -3 1960 by t h e Thor Agena B space system. The Thor booster was given a higher t h r u s t engine of ~pproximately170,000 pounds compared t o 150,000 pounds. The second-stage Agena B kept the same t h r u s t but was given l e r g e r propellant tanks and an engine capable of r e s t a r t i n g i n space. capability is another "first" i n space. This "on-off-on-again"
/

The improved booster is t h e DM-21,

and the two-stage vehicle s t a r t e d i t s career with payload on October 26, 1960. The improved Thor booster, DM-21, launched successfully, but the Agena B

THOR DELTA POINTS A ORBITING SOLAR OBSERVATORY AT SPACE N

FIGURE 12

failed to separate and the orbit was not achieved.

On November 12, 1 1 0 the Thor Agena B space system successfully launched 56, ~nd orbited a payload. The capsule was recovered in the air.
Since then, there have been many successful recoveries of capsules. Figure 13'is a photogreph of the Thor Agena B system. The program continues. Its purpose i e to provide e ~eisntifiadab-gathering earth estellfte eyetam c ~ p ~ b l e ejecting a recoverable research capsule from the orbiting of setellite. Applications Vertical Test Program (AvT) NASA sponsored the Applications Vertical Test Program, commonly referred to 91 as the " ~ i g shot." On June 30, 1 6 , Douglas was named prime contractor. This responsibility entailed the design, procurement, testing, production, checkout, end launching of the test vehicle. It also included the ejectable data capsule and the integration of the government-furnished TY system into the launch vehicle. NASA's Goodard Space Flight Center (GSFC) was responsible for program management of the vehicle and payload design, checkout, and launch. NASA's Langley Research Center (IRC) designed, fabricated, and ground tested the payload, LRC was also responsible for the coordination and evaluation of the vertical test results, The mission of the program was to test the A-12 Spacecraft in a space environment to qualify the proper release of the sphere from the canister and propoer inflation of the 135-foot diameter rigidized aluminum and mylar sphere. The Thor AVT space system consisted of a DM-21booster modified into a DSV-2D (~igure 4 . An equipment comp~rtment 1) and a shroud were designed and fabricated. The payload shroud was also furnished by Douglas to protect the payload during flight through the earth's atmosphere,

FIRST THOR AGENA B HAVING A BLOCK II ENGINE WITH INCREASED THRUST, AND SECOND STAGE IN-FLIGHT RESTART CAPABILITY

FIGURE 13

THOR AVT PIONEERS FOR WORLD COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITES


\

O January 15, 1962, the Thor A T space system was launched on a l o f t e d baln V

l i s t i c trajectory. The spacecraft c a n i s t e r was s u c c e s s W y ejected fram t h e vehicle a f t e r t h e main and vernier engine shutdown. After engine shutdown, t h e a t t i t u d e of the vehicle was controlled by a coast phase a t t i t u d e control system so t h a t t h e television and motion picture e m e r a s i n t h e equipment a a n p & r ~ e n were trained on the spaoeemrt f s r the t duration of the t e s t . These cameras, mounted i n the forward end of t h e vehicle, recorded t h e sepa r a t i o n of t h e canister, opening of t h e canister, ,and i n f l a t i o n of the sphere. For reasons as yet undetermined, t h e 135-foot sphere i n f l a t e d too rapi6J-y and ripped. The W camera relayed cleqr pictures of the separation of both t h e sphere and t h e data capsule. I n f a c t , the Thor AVT, o r "Big Shot," accamplished the f i r s t Ino1.m l i v e TV r e l a y and t h e f i r s t known d i r e c t recording fram l i v e T V transnission a t the record a l t i t u d e of 1,000 n a u t i c a l miles. ejected f o the spacecraft and parachuted rm The 16-mn motion picture camera ~ m s i n t o t h e sea. The camera tras recovered, and t h e films gave exceptionally c l e a r p i c t u r e s of t h e separation. The image tras of the highest q u a l i t y cons i s t e n t with t h e s t a t e of the art. The recovery of t h e encapsulated camera established a record of t h a t date, because it reached t h e highest known a l t i t u d e i n an unmanned suborbital b a l l i s t i c t r a j e c t o r y before i t s descent t o t h e sea and subsequent recovery.
IICISR considered the t e s t e f f o r t very successful.

Associated f u t u r e t e s t programs v i l l include an o r b i t a l launch t o check t h e long-term r i g i d i t y of t h e sphere. Later, t h e sphere w i l l be incorporated i n t o the Rebound program, where it w i l l be used t o develop qrecise o r b i t i n g ?lacement techniques

Lriproved Space System fgr S a t e l l i t e s and Probes T1ie Thor Delta space system t h a t used t h e Dl.5-19 booster i s presently being 1 succeedec by the DSV-3A and DSV-3B space system, both cor.mgnly r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e "Improved Thor Deltas." The D S V - 3 ,
fire$

bproved Thor Delta, i s a three-stage research vehicle.

The

e higher t h r u s t of ayproximately 170,000 pounds compared t o 150,000 pounds.


and given

stage is a modified I24123 b o o s t e r , sedeei@u%tedDEW-3,

The DSV-3E, Improved Thor Delta, i s s i n i l a r t o the DSV-3A. differences a r e i n the Douglas second stage.

Some of the major


'

- -

The DSV-3B second stage i s 36

inches longer, uses IRFNA instead of WF A as t h e oxydizer and uses B e l l IN Telephone Laboratories' (BTL) 600 S e r i e s radio guidance system r a t h e r than the B L 300 Series system used i n t h e DSV-3A. T Bo'ih I r q r n e d Thor Deltas a r e three-stage space vehicles t o be used t o hpart the necesscry v c l o c i t y and- control t o various payload packages f o r space probes znS! e a r t h o r b i t a l n i s s i o n s .

Dmglas has acquired v a s t e,wericnce i n t h e over-all ewineering, tooling, r ~ n u l " e c t u - i n s ,laboratory and s t a t i c t e s t i n g , inspection and q u a l i t y assura c e , f l i g h t t e s t i n g , deplolpent an2 q e l - a t i o n a l support. The effectLveness 02 the use of t h i s e,qerience i s r e f l e c t e d i n Douglas' s y s t m s and integra-

'iim rrianazm-ent c a p a b i l i t i e s , and i s measured qtmnti-LstivePj by t h e r e l i z b i l i t y record of i t s operational products. tabulated i n the appendix t o t h i s h i s t o r y . The r e l i a b i l i t y performance of t h e basic Thor booster i s hish and progressi v e l y increasing i n both m i l i t a r y and space a z ~ l i c a t i ~ n s Despite t h e f a c t . t h a t t h e basic Thor has been subject t o (1)i n t e r n a l and e:&ernal confib-a-Lion changes, ( 2 ) engine changes, (3) the use of d i f f e r e n t guidance systems, Some of t h i s infomlil.tion i s

%SIT-3~means : Douglas Space Vehicle-%.

(4) the

mating trith and separation f r m various upper stages, (5) various

trajectory shaping requirements, and (6) the resulting influences on flight environments by these changes--the Thor booster systems have established an over-all reliability record unmatched in the Free Ilorld.

AI'PENDIX I

Thor "Fmily Tree"

B 8

1
W
IY

A
IMPROVED

El

@1

THO, AGENA D

----A

DELTA

I I

I I

THOR ABLE ll STV

n
I

P 8 la

Q u

I I I---I
I ----- I
I
THOR

a I
A

II

1
THOR AGENAB

I I

E3 A

AQ A

I
I

b
THOR AGENA A

I I
THOR ABLE I1 PGRTV

fj
?A

I I

I I
I

C
6

I -l----I

1::::
B

I I
- - - - - -II

RTV
Pv

43,

I I I

, -

-------A

a
-

THOR DM-18
---- -

THOR "FAMILY TREE"

PROPOSED VEHICLES WILL BE COMPATIBLE WlTH THE CURRENTLY AVAILABLE SECOND STAGES AS WELL A S WlTH NEW OR IMPROVED SECOND STAGES WHICH ARE PLANNED.

LEGEND
EXISTING

APPET?DLX 2

Configumtion Sketches and I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s

DIAMETER STATION 14.62 42 094 VEHICLE GUIDANCE SECTION

EIODEL : SYSmYI: SPONSOR: EIISSLON:

DM-18
Thor WS-31% ( l J . 5 ~ ) Air Force Research and Development Program

151.0-,

I 74.712

i
FUEL TANK

DESCRIPTION: The DX-18 Thor booster, t r s used .a for the first 18 research and development vehicles launched as a single-stage Imd, cmprised of the sections designated in the accompanying slretch. The section is modified, effective booster S/N 120. Either ACSP giac or BTL , u d n e systenl is used. The CEA flight controller is used. Thrust is provided by the Rocketdyne ED-1 (135,000-pound thrust) and FB-1 Bzsic (150,000-pound thrust) propulsion system consisting of one main and two vernier rocket engines, each having a thrusl; of 1 0 0 pounds. The system ,0 uses RP-1 fie1 and liquid oxygen. Directional control is effected by ~imballing the main and vernier engine of 'thrust chambers. Fins are mounted on the engine section. T~r MJ; cco s3lid propellant retroroclcets are used to separate the re-entry vehicle from the booster.
PAYLOAD :
*
* .

336.0 369.0

96.000

LIQUID OXYGEN TANK

II Il Il
/I

II
ENGINE SECTION

11
/ I \

THRUST CHAMBER

778.0

DAC ,dmqrnose cone with flight orl test b o ~ .

DM-18(continued)
COXTRACTORS: Integration

Airframe I X C Guidance ACSP Re-entry GE Propulsion R/NAA

- DAC

FOR REFERENCE, CITE: MC drat.~ng560230 (secret).

SySTEE..1: S O . S R: P PT O NISSIOTJ :

Thor WS-315A and SJS-ll5A

A i r Force
I n i t i a l Operational Capability Program

DESCF2rnION : This i s t h e o r i g i n a l IOC* Thor B a l l i s t i c Missile, a single-stage boost e r i d e n t i c a l t o t h e DM-18 but using anti-vortex f i l t e r s instead of vanes and c p i c k - f i l l flanges f o r f u e l and l i q u i d owgen. This booster i s powered by t h e Rocketdyne MB-3 Basic and 8 1 - Block I 133 propulsion system of 150,000-pound t h r u s t

and t m vernier engines, each having a


t h r u s t of 1,000 pounds. stalled. l i q u i d oxygen. The ACSP i n e r t i d guidance system i s used. P YO D ALA: Mark I1 re-entry vehicle (GE). C l R CO : Om A T R Fins a r e not inThe system uses -W-1 f'uel and

Prime

- DAC

F R REFERQ,iCE,CITE: O

Drawing 5727000- 503 ( ~ o n f)

*I n i t i a l

Operational Capability.

SYSTEP3:

Tnor \?IS315A
A i r Force

S OT O : F IS R EESSIOPJ :
DESCRIFTION : The DM-&

Test Vehicle t o Demonstrate Range bprovement,

i s i d e n t i c a l t o DM-18A

except f o r more powerful engine and use of the General E l e c t r i c 1017-drag nose f i n launches This e f f o r t included t h r e e

Po~reri s developed by a Rocketdyne


bIB- 3, Block 1 , (165,000-~ound thrust-1

sea level-stabilized) propulsion system,


and
~ITO vernier

engines each having a The system uses

t'nmst of 1,000 pounds.

RP-1 f u e l and l i q u i d oxygen. P Y O D: ALA Elark I1 Re-entry Vehicle (GE)

FOR l33ZRENCE, CITE:


DAC drawing 5844194.

SYSTF2.1: SPOIiSOR : MISSION :

Thor Able A i r Force Special Weapon t o Test Full Scale ICE34 Nose Cone at ICBM Speed and Range.

DEERIHTION r

The ~14L8.U-1 (3 launches) i s a modified DM-18 trith relocated gyros and the nose cone and guidance recl~ved, used

as the f i r s t stage of a two-stage vehicle.


The f i r s t - s t a g e main engine has a l50,OOOpound t h r u s t and tTro vernier engines each have a 'thA-ust of 1,000 pounds. The sys-

'im uses RP-1 f i e 1 and l i q u i d o-xygen.


The second stage i s an STL-modified V a n w r d ~ . r i t h AGC AJl0-40 propulsion an system.
PAYLOAD :

N guidance i s used. o

Advanced ICBM Re-entry Test Vehicle

(m)
C N R C O S: OTATR Prime

F i r s t Stage

- DAC Second Stage - AOC


5729179 f o r ~1.f-18

- STL

FOR REEERElJCE, CITE: DAC drawing

modifications.

M DL O E: SYSTEM: SPONSOR: MISSION:

~ m 8 1 -2 2 Thor Able I1 (SW)


ARPA (Transit); N S ( ~ i r o s ) AA

To Orbit a Navigational S a t e l l i t e and a Metoergological ( ~ i r o s ) atellite. S

DESCRIPTION: The DMl812-2 (2 launches) is modif i e d by t h e addition of f i n s and an interstage transition section. moved. The guidance system and nose cone a r e r e -

It i s a f i r s t - s t a g e booster of a three-stage Special Test Vehicle (STV)

The f i r s t - s t a g e main engine has a 150,000pound t h r u s t and t h e two v e r n i e r engines each ahve a t h r u s t of 1,000 pounds. The aystem uses RP-1 f u e l and l i q u i d oxygen. The second stage is a Douglasmodified AGC Vanguard using an AJl0-42 l i q u i d propulsion system and t h e BTL r a d i o guidance system.

It uses UDMH o r

WIFNA, and develops a 7,575-pound t h r u s t .

The t h i r d stage uses a spins t a b i l i z e d ABL X-248-A7 s o l i d propoellant rocket motor. Retro-rockets a r e used t o separate t h e second and t h i r d s t a g e s . P YWAD : A Specie1 Test Vehicles (STV) : Tiros (RCA) CONTRACTOR: Prime

DAC f o r SSD/STL

F i r s t Stage Second Stage Third Stage

- DAC

- ABL

- AGC

MODEL:

11141812-2 (continued)

ASSOCIATE CONTRACTORS: R/NAA and BTL


FOR REFEmNcE, c : m llAC drawing 5842054 (cod.); Douglas report SM-35705 ( c o ~ )

MODEL :

~111.812- 3 Thor Agena A ARPA : AIR F R E OC Orbit of Data-Gathering Earth S a t e l l i t e System under the Discoverer Program

SYSTEM: S O S R: P NO EIISSIOTT :

DEBdrnrnTrn 1

The DKL812-3 i s the f i r s t stage of

a tm-stage space vehicle ( f i f t e e n t launches). It i s a DM-18.A d t h t h e nose cone and guidance removed and t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n modified. The main engine has a 150,000-pound t h r u s t and t h e two vern i e r engines each have a t h r u s t of 1,000 pounds. The second stage i s a Lockheed 2205 Agena A powered by a B e l l Aircraft Hustler liquid-propellant engine. The guidance system i s i n t h e second stage. P Y O D: ALA Earth s a t e l l i t e s which e j e c t recoverable data capsules from o r b i t . C N R C O S: OTATR Prime

- LMSD F i r s t Stage - DAC Second Stage - U S ZD


R/W
and BAC

ASSOCIAm CONTRhCTOR:

F R RERZENCE, CITE: O

DAC draving 3696695; Doughs Report % 38447. I -

SYSTD~:
SP~ITSOR :

Thor Able I 3 (KIEV) A i r Force Special Weapon Test f o r the Recovery of Precisely Guided Nose Cones

N I SSION:

D E B C m O N:

The ~ ~ ~ 8 1 2 - launches) i s a (6 4 modified DM-18T h I L interstage t r a n s i t i o n E s k i r t added and the nose cone and g u i dance removed. It i s used a s t h e first stage of a two-stage vehicle. The main engine has a 150,000-pound thrust and the -two vernier engines each have a thrust of 1,000 pounds. The second stage i s a modified Vanguard ~ J i t h AGC AJl0-42 propulsion system and BTL guidance. P YO D ALA:
GI3 or AVCO PGWN nose cone.

(be-

cisely Guided Re-entry Test Vehicle. )


C O r n C T O R:

Prime DAC F i r s t Stage

- DAC

Second Stage

- AGC

FOR REFElWTCE, CIm: DAC drawing 5696816.

SYSm1: S OT O : P IS R bESSION :

Thor Able I & Thor Able 1 1 1

A i r Force/N..SA ( ~ b l e I); TULSA ( ~ b l e ILL)


For L u n a r and ,Space Probes, and f o r Orbiting an Instrumented S a t e l l i t e

DESCRIPTION: modified The ~ m 8 1 2 - 6i s a DM-18 by ~ y r o relocation and removal of t h e nose cone and guidance,
and Able I 1 (1launch). 1

It i s used as
Both a r e four-

the f i r s t stage f o r Able I (3 launches) stage vehicles; both a r e STL projects. The f i r s t stage i s parered by a 143-3 Basic engine of 150,000-pound thrust,
and two vernier engines, each having a

t h r u s t of 1,000 pounds. The Able I uses t h e AGC AJ10-41 prol3ulsion system, with no guidance i n t h e second stage; a spin-stabilized ABL X-248 s o l i d propellant t h i r d stage a n 6
an injection roclret i n the fourth stage.
'-

The Able ;I11 has an AGC AJ10-101A propulsion system with no guidance, a spin- stabilized AJ3L ~ 2 4 8 - ~s4 l i d proo pellant motor; and an ARL IJSS 420 s o l i d propellant motor, with optional gruund cmmnd f i r i n g capability; a s second, t h i r d an2 fourth stage respectively. PAnom : Military payloads and Explorer,
VI ( ~ b l e 111).

Both STL instrumentation

packages.

>IODEL :

D I . I L ~ ~(continued) ~-6

C TT CO : OEAT X
PrW-e

- DAC Second Stage - AGC Third Stage - ABL


F i r s t Stase Fewkh Stage F R RlZEE2TCE, CITE: O
QIC drawing

- STL

- Thiokol (Thor able I)


- AEIJ ( ~ h o Able 111) r

5696314 ( ~ o n f)

MODEL :

~ ~ ~ 86~ 2 1
Thor Able NASA Solar Orbit S a t e l l i t e

SYSTEM: S O S R: P NO
14ISSION:

I V

DESCRIPlTON : The ~~181.2-6~a DM-~&I ie modified by t h e addition of f i n s and t h e r e m o d of t h e nose cone and guidance. It i s t h e f i r s t - s t a g e booster of a three-stage vehicle (one launch). The m i n engine develops a 150,000-pmd thrust, and t h e two vernier engines each have a t h r u s t of 1,000 pounds. s The second and t h i r d s t ~ e a r e i d e n t i c a l t o the Able I11 configuration but trith SI'L-supplied radio guidance i n the second stage.
?I-iMX)AD :
-.

STL instrumentation pac l r e e . CO~ITRACTOR : Prime

F i r s t Stage

- DAC Sec~nd Stage - AGC


- ABL
R/XM

S ; m

Third Stage

ASSOCIATE COPTRACTOR:

FOR R Z R D C , CITE: EET TE

DAC dravinll; 5696814- 501 ( c o d . )

M DL : OE
fxs'IEM:

DM-19
Thor Delta

SPONSOR: IIISSION:

NASA
Diverse Orbital and Space Probe Missions

DESCRIFTION: The f i r s t stage of the three-atage Dl>!-19 vehicle i s a modified D ~ I - 1 8 ~ r i t h ~, the nose cone, guidance and gyros removed;

and the f i n s and interstage t r a n s i t i o n


section added. The main engine develo3s

a 150,000-pound thrust, and has tvo vern i e r engines, each having a t h r u s t of 1,000 pounds. The system uses RP-1 f'uel an6 l i q u i d oxygen.
The second stage i s povered by an
AGC AJ10-U.8 l i q u i d propellant propulsion

system; and includes BTL radio guidance, a new f l i g h t c o n t r o l l e r using bEG gyros, coast phase a t t i t u d e control system, and

a spin table. pellant.

It uses UD1;IK o r 1KDW.A pro-

The t h i r d stage i s an ABL X-248-A5 solid propellant motor tfiich i s spinstabilized during powered f l i g h t . P Y O D: ALA Various e a r t h s a t e l l i t e s and space probes

C TT A T R : OTX CO S

Prime llAC All Stages 33AC

MODEL :

DM-19 (~ont inued)

ASSOCIATE CONTRACTORS: R/T;IAA, AGC, BTL and ABL


FOR REPERENCE, CITE: DAC drawing 5843787 (conf. ); Doughs Reports SM- 35567, 5h1- 38447,

SM-36022 (all cod.).

MODEL :

134.21 Thor Agena B

SYSTEM:
SO S R P NO : MISSION:

A i r Force, NASA
Orbit of Recoverable Research Capsules

DESCmION : The DM-21 i s a DM-1& with nose fairing removed; the guidance section replaced by a shorter and l i g h t e r transition section. pounds. The propulsion system produces a thrust of approximately 170,000 The system uses R J - 1 f u e l and
.

liquid owgen. Second stage i s a bckheed BAC 8036 Agena B, similar t o the Agena A, but tri%h longer propellant tanks and an i n - f l i @ t r e s t a r t capability.

--

PAYLOAD :

(AF) Recoverable research capsule


or non- recoverable payload; (NASA) various space s a t e l l i t e s proposed. C N R C O S: OTATR Prime

- LMSC F i r s t Stage - DAC Second Stage - LMSC


R/>IAA Originally a modification of the

ASSOCIATE C W R C O S O T A T R:

~14-18A, a netr drawing "packaget' was released t o create the DM-21 as a basic booster f o r space applications a s differentiated from the IOC.
.

HOD= :

DM-21 (continued)

FOR m C E , CITE: DAC drawings 5 m 2 , 5864277; D c x g l a s Report SM-38447 ( ~ o n f)

..

M DL O E: S SE : YT M SPONSOR: MISSION: DESCRIPTION:

DM-21. Thor Ables t a r ARPA; Army; Navy; A i r Force; NS AA Orbit of Various W t h Satellites

The DM-21A i s e s s e n t i a l l y a DM-21

with a new adapter section, forward of t h e t r a n s i t i o n section, t o accept t h e Ablestar.

It is used a s a first s t a g e
The main engine and

of a two-stage vehicle.

develop a t h r u s t of 150,000-pounds, t h r u s t of 1,000 pounds

t h e two v e r n i e r engines each develop a

Fins were used

only f o r t h e f i r s t launching. The second s t a g e is an AGC AJ10-ldc with an i n - f l i g h t r e s t a r t c a p a b i l i t y . Aerospace-AGC guidance system i s used.

The

PAYLOAD:
Navigational a i d s a t e l l i t e and Communications s a t e l l i t e ( ARPA and ~ a v y ) composite--(~avy)

A N N A - - ( A M ~ ~ , Navy, NASA, A i r ~ o r c e )
C N R C O S: OTATR Technical Management System Engineering F i r s t Stage Second Stage

- Aerospace
Corporation

- AF:SSD

DAC

AGC

ASSOCIATE CONTRACTOR : R/NAA

F R REFERENCE, CITE: O DAC drawing SM-38447.

5844451; Douglas Report

,SYS'JmI:

Thor AVT, cclmmonly called "Big Shot" (formerly Super Shotput )


IIASA

SPONSOR:
IC SSIOfiT:

Test of Communications Balloon I n f l a t i o n i n Stiborbitaf B a l l i s t i c Flight Bath.

DESCRIPTION : The DSV-2D i s a modified DM-21 trith an e q u i p e n t ccpnpartment, forward of t h e t r a n s i t i o n section, which supports t h e payload. It i s a single-stage vehicle. The main engine develops a 167,000-pound verniers, each develop thrust, and the t ~ m

a t h r u s t of 1,000 pounds.
The e q u i p e n t ccunpartment contains motion picture and t e l e v i s i o n cameras t o record balloon i n f l a t i o n . The IIA-92 fairing shrouds t h e payload. N guidance o i s used. The coast phase a t t i t u d e control systems i s enrployed during both TV and motion picture camera operation time.
PAYLOAD :
A-12 Spacecraft, including an Echo

I1 cani-ster, i n f l a t a b l e passive communi-

cations balloon (~runtmn). C N R C O S: OTATR Prime DAC

FOR m C E , CTTE:

MC dra~ring5884020.

M DL O E:
SYSTESI:

D V -3 S Thor Delta NPSA:GSFC Diverse Orbital and Space Probe Missions

SPONSOR: MISSION:

DESCRIPTION : The first stage of a three-stage vehicle i s a modified DM-21 booster with t h e propellant d r i p shield removed, The t r a n s i t i o n section s t r u c t u r e is modified t o accommodate t h e interstage t r a n s i t i o n s t r u c t u r e attachment.
A pressure d i a -

phragm i s added t o protect the f i r s t stage e l e c t r i c a l components from t h e e f f e c t s of the second-stage engine exhaust. The tunnel i n s t a l l a t i o n is The MB-3 Block I1 modified t o accommodate t h e relocation of the r a t e gyros. engine has a t h r u s t of 170,000 pounds The two vernier engines each have a t h r u s t of 1,000 pounds. The system uses
R J - 1 f u e l and l i q u i d oxygen.

The second stage is powered by a


ffi~ AJ~O-118q u i d propellant propulsion li

system, has a coast phase a t t i t u d e cont r o l system and is controlled i n f l i g h t by a BTL 300 Series radio guidance system. The system used UDMH and WIFNA propellant and develops a t h r u s t of 7,575 pounds. The t h i r d stage is powered by an Allegany B a l l i s t i c s Laboratory (ABL) ~ 4 8 AD s o l i d propellant motor vhich is spin5M s t a b i l i z e d during powered f l i g h t . This motor produces 2800 pounds of t h r u s t .

I.IODEL( :
PAYLOAD:

Dm-3 (continued)

Various earth satellites and space probes.


CO?TRACTOR :

Prime IlAc All Stages DAC

FOR REFEREPCE, CITE: IlAC dra~sring5843727, and 1A20706; DS-2324.

MODEL:

DSV-3B Thor Delta N S : GSFC AA Diverse Orbital and Space Probe Miss ions

SYSTEM: SPONSOR:

MISS I O N :

DESCRIPTION: The f i r s t stage of a three-stage vehicle is a DSV-2A (DM-21)booster with the propellant d r i p s h i e l d removed. The t r a n s i t i o n section s t r u c t u r e is modified t o accommodate the i n t e r s t a g e , t r a n s i t i o n s t r u c t u r e attachment.
A pressure dia-

phragm i s added t o protect the f i r s t -

stage e l e c t r i c a l components from the e f f e c t s of the second-stage engine exhaust. The tunnel i n s t a l l a t i o n is modiThe system uses R J - 1 f u e l a.nd The MB-3 Block I1 engine f i e d t o accommodate the relocation of t h e r a t e gyros. l i q u i d oxygen.

has a t h r u s t of l70,OOO pounds 1,000 pounds

The two

vernier engines each have a t h r u s t of

The second stage is powered by a


AGC AJ10-118D l i q u i d propellant propulsion

system, has a coast phase a t t i t u d e cont r o l system, and i s controlled i n f l i g h t by a BTL 600 s e r i e s radio guidance system. The s t w e has been lengthened 36 inches over the DSV-3.A i n order t o increase t h e tank propellant capacity. The system uses UDMH and IRF'NA propellant and develops a t h r u s t of 7,575 pounds.

MODEL :

Dm-3B (continued)

DESCflIPTION:

( continued)

The third stage may be powered by either of two Allegany B a l l i s t i c s Laboratory (ABL) solid propellant motors, both

of which are spin stabilized.

One choice

i s the ~248-ADMwhich produces 2800 pounde thrust. The other i s the X258 with a
thrust of PAYLOAD: Various earth s a t e l l i t e s and space probes. C N R C O S: OTATR Prime

5080 pounds.

- DAC A l l stages - DAC


DAC Drawing ~121340 and 1 9 0 0 4276

FOR REFERENCE, CITE:


DS-2325.

M DL O E: SYSTEM: SPONSOR :

D V -2A S Thor Agena D

AIR FORCE
Earth Orbiting Satellites

MISS I O N :
BmCRmIoN:

The DSV-2A is e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same vehicle as t h e DM-21 with a t r a n s i t i o n s e c t i o n compatible with t h e Agena D. The propulsion system consisting of an MB-3 Block I1 main engine which produces a s t a b i l i z e d sea l e v e l t h r u s t of 170,000 pounds and two 1,000 pounds t h r u s t v e r n i e r engines operates on l i q u i d oxygen and R J - 1 . The second s t a g e is a Lockheed Model 30205 Agena D powered by a 16,000 pound vacuum t h r u s t B e l l 8096 l i q u i d propellant engine which burns UDMH and IRFNA and has an i n f l i g h t r e s t a r t capability stage. PAYLOAD: A.F. and N S s a t e l l i t e s AA COrnCTOR : Prime

BTL r a d i o / i n e r t i a l guidance

i f employed is located i n t h e second

-M

F i r s t Stage Second Stage R/NAA

- DAC

- LMSC

ASSOCIATE C N R C O S O T A T R:

BTL
F R REFERENCE, CITE: O DAC drawing 5864277;

DAC S p e c i f i c a t i o n DS -2344

M DL O E: S SE : YTM SPONSOR: MISS ION: D~CRIrnION:

DSV -6

Thor Ablestar
NAVY ATTD A I R FORCE

Orbit Various Earth S a t e l l i t e s

The DSV-6 is e s s e n t i a l l y a DM-21 with a modified t r a n s i t i o n s e c t i o n and an adapter s e c t i o n designed t o accommodate t h e Ablestar second s t a g e . The Rocketdyne 133 Blk I1 main engine develops a s t a b i l i z e d s e a l e v e l t h r u s t of 170,000 pounds and each of t h e t v o v e r n i e r engines produce 1000 poUlds thrust. Fins may be i n s t a l l e d on t h e e n ~ i n e e c t i o n s t r u c t u r e i f t h e rnission s profile so requires. The second s t a g e Ablestar is powered by a l i q u i d p r o p e l l a n t ffiC AJ10-104 using D R N A and UDMH

It

produces a vacuum t h r u s t of 7900 pounds and has an i n f l i g h t r e s t a r t c a p a b i l i t y .


An Aerospace

AGC guidance system i s

employed. P YLOAD: A Navigation S a t e l l i t e s CONTRACTORS: Technical Management System Engineering Corporation F i r s t Stage

- Aerospace

AF: SSD

- DAC Second Stage - AGC

ASSOCIATE CONTRACTOR :
R/NAA

FOR REFEEENCE, CLTE:

39735; DAC specification DS -2342


DAC drawing 1A

(c )

S SE : YT M SPONSOR: MISSION:

Thor Agena D

AIR FORCE
Earth Orbiting Satellites

DESGRXFTION: The DSV-2C i s e s s e n t i a l l y a DSV-2A with t h r e e (3) Thiokol B4-33-52 s o l i d propellant rocket motors mounted around t h e a f t end of t h e airframe. The s o l i d motors a r e jetisoned a f t e r burn out a t a time determined by range s a f e t y considerations. Minor changes i n t h e engine s e c t i o n s t r u c t u r e and i n t h e c o n t r o l c i r c u i t r y have been made t o accomodate t h e s o l i d motors. See d e s c r i p t i o n of DSV-2A f o r f u r t h e r information F R REFERENCE, CITE: O
DAC drawings LA 48435 and

LA 36317;

DAC s p e c i f i c a t i o n ~ ~ - 2 3 4 5)( c

SOL

n @bd p
1

From P C i 3 3 N N E L L
com;rP.omIrsrrorv

FROM: F l o r i d a Test Center External R e l a t i o n s , 269-4100 Ext 7313


DOUGLAS N E W S BUREAU

Februasy

1969

Santa Monlca, California 80408 ("3) 389-9311, extension 2666

,
.

---

- --T0S-c

---- .I

- . - -- -

SEQUENCE O EVENTS (Cont'dl F

DELTA 67
l a r e a r t h o r b i t.

..

SEQUENCE O EVENTS F

EVENTS +172.0 Yaw Rate 1 O f f


,

I
1

.U - 5 6 C
0.0 r2.0 t4.O +9.67

UrJS
Programer S t a r t (Stage I ) Roll Rate 1 On Pitch Rate 1 On Yaw Rate 1 On Pitch Rate 1 Off Yaw Rate 1 Off Roll Rate 1 Off P i t c h Rate 2 On
Arm S o l i d Motor Separation

*17S.O

~rteh ~rr r 1

on

+177.0

i s t a r t stage 11 Guidancn P i t c h Rate 1 Off


~ V C SChannel 2 I n i t i a t e

I
i

The 10s-G mission w i l l be the 67th f l i g h t i n the Delta propram.

Pri-

mary mission objective i s t o place the spacecraft i n the desired c i r c u -

i
I

A n Oxid Probe and TPS ,(Sequence 4) :End Stage I 1 Guidance 622.0 Cmand S C EO Swltch t o Coast Control Hydraulics O f f

10s-A through TOS-F spacecraft w r e launched frcm the Western Test Range u t i l i z i n g various D e l t r launch vehicle configurations.
I

TOS-G

+lO.O +45.0 t50.0 r64.67 +65.0

, w i l l bc launched fran the Eastern Test Range w i t h a DSV-3E t h r u s t

,
+570.0

augncnted Delta (TAD) configuration.

Sol i d notor Separation Roll Control Galn Change Pitch Rate 2 Off P l t c h Rate 3 On Roll Rate 2 On Yaw Rate 2 On S t a r t Stase I Guidmce Pitch Rate 3 Off Yaw Rate 2 Off Roll Rate 2 Off Resme Yaw Rate 2 Resume Roll Rate 2 Pitch and Yaw Control Gain Change Enable Pltch and Yaw Vernier Control Yaw Rate 2 Off Roll Rate 2 O f f

Turn Off BTL/WECO (Sequence 3): ,Coast Phase Pitch Rate 1 On coast Phase p i t c h Rate 1 o f f !Coast Phase Yaw Rate 1 On 'Coast Phase Yaw Rate 1 Off Spin Rockets , (Sequence 5)

The TOS-6 vehicle w i l l be launched f r a n Canplex 17, Pad B, on a launch azimuth o f 115 degrees. m d w l l l be r o l l e d t o a f l i g h t azimuth o f 108 degrees. F i r s t stage pwered f l i g h t time i s approrlmately 150 seconds
;

;
;

'

+80.0

with burnout o f the three s o l i d boosters occuring 39 seconds a f t e r


llftoff. Second stage powered f l i g h t duration i s approximately 368 LecA t h i r d stage s o l i d motor +90.0 +89.67

onds. f o l l a d by a 561 second coast phase.

burn time of approximately 30.8 seconds w i l l i n j e c t the spacecraft

!'

*1070.0

I n t o the fol1owit;g sun-synchronous o r b i t : Apogee Perigee Inclination 790 n.mi. 790 n.mi. (Nominal) (Naninnl)

' !

I (Sequence 6)
+1083.0 +1113.8 +1?28.0 +)230.0

! StapeRetros 111 Separation Bolts Fire


I11 Ignition

I I g n l t i o n Wire Cutters

i
i I
I
i

; -

..

... I

+100.0 +105.0 +124.0 +139.0 +l46.0

I !
i

i Stage

( s t a g e 111 B u r m t

i
I

101.80 e Nina1 (78.20 deg retrograde]

--

Uncage Stage I 1 Roll Gyro Enable Stage 11 I g n i t i o n and Pymtechni< Power M C Enable EO

I Payload Separation
I

OSY-3E Launch Vehicle


-*

1
I I

I
I !

Release Yo k i g h t

7-

I__

!
_.

E~~'BTLIWECO Guidance

+150.71

MC EO I S t a r t Stage 11 Programer Blow Blpst Bands

3RD STAGE

/
I

,154.0

1. Stage 11 tSeparation Engine S a r t


,

Sequence 1) +158.0 2ND STAGE GUIDANCE SECTION


i_

J e t t i s o n Fairing (Squence 2.) Yaw Rate 1 On

+159.0'

_--._--.-

PROPULSION SECTION

kd

ZND STAGE ADAPTER S E C T i i

OSV-3E VEHICLE DESCRIPTION

TRANSITION SECTION

'

CHARACTERISTIC Length- ft. FUELTANK

BOOSTERS
19.7 .2.6 Solid Thiokol TX-354-5 3 237.6 52,150 39 TP-HI036

SOLID

STAGE I Q/N 202251 59.6


8

STAGE I 1 jS/N 202251

STAGE I 1 1 JS/H 20240L

1
I

Olameter

ft..

Engine Type hnufactu%r Designation Nwnber o f Engines Specific lmpulse Thrust -'Pounds/Engim Thrust Duration

Liquid Rocketdyne M83-111 1 M.E. 252.4 170;000 150 1& -I LOX ="2 3O OO 2 V.E.

Liquid Aemjet

So1i d U.T.C.

CENTER BODY SECTION

273 J 7.?50 384

.
,

Sac.

P m p e l l m t o r Fuel Oxidizer 6ases a s Pnssuw

-.--.

Urn IRFNA

Hc.

GN2

PSI6

4350. 4000

3
Thor Launch Record, Weapon and Space Systems

THORLAUNCH RECORD
WEAPON SYSTEM DM-18 R&D DM-18A IOC DM-18C R&D TOTAL DEVELOPMENT TOTAL SUCCESS MALFUNCTION 12
% ! SUCCESS

DM-I$A

COMBAT TRAINING LAUNCHES CTL

TOTAL WEAPON SYSTEM

SPACE BALLISTIC DM-1812-1 DM-1812.4 DSV-2D DSV-2E ABLE RTV ABLE PGRTV AVT SPECIAL BALLISTIC TOTAL SPACE BALLISTIC

ORBITAL AND PROBE DM-1812-6A DM-1812-6 DM-1812-2 DM-21A DM-1812-3 DM-21 DSV-2C DM- 19 DSV-3A DSV-3B ABLE I & ABLE II ABLE IV ABLEII ABLE STAR

AGENA

TOTAL ORBITAL AND PROBE

DELTA

TOTAL SPACE

GRAND TOTAL THOR SYSTEMS

196

INCLUDES 14 PARTIAL SUCCESSES OF DM-18 AND DM-18A

SmUElPCE WEAPON OR SPACE RFSULTS NUMBER SYSTEM WS-315A WS-315A WS -315A WS-315A WS -315A US-315A WS -315A WS-315A WS-315A WS -315A WS-315A WS -315A WS -315A Thor Able WS -315A WS-315A Thor Able WS-315A Thor Able WS-315A WS-315A Thor Able Thor Able WS-315A Thor Able WS-315A WS-315A WS-315A WS-315A WS-315A Thor Able US-315A S

MODEL DESIGlOATION
DM-18

VEHICLE
SERIAL

PROGRAM OR PAYWAD Rim Rd9 Rrn R&D R&D R&D R&D


RdLb

DATE

LOCATION
OF

LAUNCH
AMR

M Ps M Pa
S

DM-18
DM-18 DM-18 DM-18 DM-18 DM-18 DM-18 DM-18 DM-18 DM-18 DM-18 DM-18 DM-1812-1 DM-18

AMR AMR
AMR
AMR

AMR
AMR

PS
8 F's

AMR
AR M
AMR

S PS PS M M S S S PS S

R&D R&D R&D


R&D

A m

R&D
Mv.

AMR AMR AMR


AMR

DM-18
DM-1812-1

R&D R89

AMR
AMR

m, m
R89 Adv. RlV R&D R&D

DM-18
DM-1812-1 DM-18 DM-18 DM-1812-6A DM-181.2-6~

AMR AMR
AMR

F s
I I
S M
S M S

AMR
AR M

AMR

DM-18~
DM-1812 -6A

AMR
AMR

S F ' S S

DM-18~
DM-18A DM- 18.A DM- 18A DM-18A DM-1812-4

roc
IOC IOC
CTL

AMR

AMR
AMFt

s
F3
11
M

PMR

O IC
FGRTV

AMR AMR
AMR

PS

m-18~

IOC

- Success

PS-Partial Success M-Malfunction O-Orblt R-Recovery

SEQUENCE NUMBER

WEAPON OR SPACE SYSm Thor A b l e I1 Thor A g e n a A Thor A b l e I1 WS -315A WS-315A Thor A b l e I1


% b r &an& 'a
A

RESULTS
S S-0
S

MODEL DESIGNATION

VEZICLE PROGRAM OR SERIAL # PAYIDAD

DATE

IXXI1ATIOM
OF

LALACE
AMR

DM-1812-4 DM-1812 -3 DM-1812-4


DM-18A

PMR
F RTV G
IOC IOC
AMR
AMR

S
S

DM-18A

AMR
AR M

S -R
9 -0

DM-1812-4 D~-18= -3
DM-18A DM-18A
DM- 1 8 A

Ern
CTL IOC IOC

rn
PMR
AMR

WS-315A WS-315A Thor A b l e I1 (WS -

S
S S-R S
S

( W s - 3 1 5 ~ ) ~ ~ - 1 5S ~ 5 ( W s - 3 1 5 ~ ) ~ ~ - 1 1S ~ 5

AMR AMR
AMR

DM- 1 8 A DM-18a-4 DM-18A DM-1812-3

roc
F RTV G
IOC

3 1 5 ~-115A~ )~

AMR

Thor A g e n a A Thor A b l e I1

PMR
PC RTV CTL
IOC IOC IOC IOC
AMR

DM-181.2 -4
DM-18A DM-18A

(WS - 3 1 5 ~ ) ~ ~ - 1 1 5 S A ( w s - ~ ~ ' ~ A ) w s - U ~ AS Thor A g e n a A


S

DM-1812-3
DM-18A

(WS 3 1 5 ~ ) W ~ - 1 1 5 PS ~

PMR AMR PMR AMR


AMR
AMR

(ws 3 1 5 ~ ) ~ ~ - 1 M 5 ~ 1 (WS- 3 1 5 A ) W s - 1 1 5 ~ S
(WS -

DM-18~
DM-18A DM-18A DM-18A

3 1 5 ~- ) 5 A~ S U~
S-0 S -0

CTL
IOC

PMR
AMR

( ~ ~ - 3 1 5 ~ ) W s - 1 1S ~ 5 Thor A b l e I11 Thor A g e n a A

DM-1812 -6 DM-1812 -3
DM-18A DM-18A DM-1812-3 IOC

AMR
P R M

(WS-315A)W~-115~ S
(WS 3 1 5 ~ -)1~ 5 ~ PS 1~

err,
IOC IOC

Thor A g e n a A

S-0

( ~ - 3 1 5 A ) W S - l l 5 ~S

(ws-~~~A)~s-u~A S
(~~-315A)W~-115A S Thor A b l e I1
S-Succees

DM- 1 8 A

AMR F'MR PMR AMR


AMR

DM- 1 8 A
DM-18A

DM-181.2 -2
M - M a l f u n c t ion 0-Orbit R-Recovery

PMR AMR

PS-Parti a1 Success

EPN SEQUENCE W A O OR SPACE RESULTS S SE YT M NUMBER 65 66 67 68 69 70 Thor Agena (~~-315~)W~-115~


(WS 3 1 5 ~-115A~ ) ~

MODEL DESIGNATION DM-18A

VEHICLF: P O R M OR RGA SERIAL _# PAYLOAD


IOC

9-22-59 10-6-59

DT AE

( w S - ~ ~ ~ A-) l 5 A lWS

LOCATION OF LAUIVCH AMR


AMR

IOC
CL T

O IC
CTL
IOC

10-21-59 10-28-59 11-3-59 11-7-59

PMR
AMR
AMR

PMR
PMR
AMR

CTL

11-12-59 11-19-59 11-20-59 12-1-59 12-1-59 12-14-59 12-17-59 1-14-60 1-21-60 2-4-60 2 -9-60 2-19-60 2-19-60 3 -2 -60 3-11-60 4-1-60 4-13-60 4-17-60

IOC
IOC

Thor Agena A WS-115A

PMR
AM.

ws 1 1 5 ~ US-115A WS-115A Spec. Tat. Veh. W -115A S Thor Agena A Spec Tst S S M S S M S S-0 S -0 S-0 S-0 S S -0 S S S-0-R S-0 M-Malfunction O-Oribt

CTL CL T
IOC IOC

F'MR
AMR
AMR

CTL

PMR
P R M

. Veh

IOC

AMR
AMR

Spec Tat. Veh Thor Agena A WS-115A Thor Able IV Thor Able I1 Thor Able S t a r Thor Agena A Thor Delta Thor Able S t a r W -11'jA S Thor Agena A Thor Agnea A Thor Delta S-Success

IOC
CTL Tiros

PMR PMR
AR M

AMR
AMR

F'MR

- -

Echo CL T

5-13-60 6-22-60 6-22-60 6-29-60 8-10-60

AMR
AMR

PMR PMR
PMR

Echo I R-Recovery

8-12-60

AMR

PS-Partial Success

S G E C WEAPON OR S A E R S L S E UNE P C EUT NUMBER S SE YT M Thor Agena A Thor Agena A S-0-R S-0-R S S S-0-R
5-0

M DL OE DESIGNATION

VEAICLE P O R M OR R GA SERIAL # P YO D ALA

DT AE

8-18-60
8-18-60 9-13-60 10-4 -60

ILEATION

OF LAUNCH

237 262 246 293 186 253 297 249 283 296 267 258 298 261 313 243 300 307 302 303 276 CTL Tiros A-2 CL T

PMR
AMR

Thor Able S t a r M Thor Able Star D - 1 M2 A

F'MRAMR

w-115~ s
Thor Agena B Thor Agena B Thor Delta Thor Agena B WS-115A Thor Agena B Thor Agena B Thor Agena B Thor Able S t a r Thor Delta

10-11-60 10-26-60 11-12-60

PMR

m
F'MR

11-23-60
11-30-60 12-7-60 12-13-60 12-30-60 2-17-61 2-18-61 2-21-61

AMR
AMR

Thor Able S t a r M S-0-R S s-0 S-0 S-0 S-0 s-0

F'MR

PR M
F'MFt
PMR

PR M .

AMR
AMR

295 Explorer X(P-14) 3-25-61

w-115~ s
Thor Agena B Thor Agena B Thor Agena B Thor Agena B W -115A S Thor Able S t a r Thor Agena B Thor Delta, Thor Agena B Thor Agena B Thor Delta Thor Agene B W S

s
S S-0

CTL

3-29-61 3-30-61 4-8-61 6-8-61 6-16-61

PMR
PMR PMR
F'MR

s
s-0-I?

s s-0
S-O-R

CTL

6-20-61 6-28-61 7-7-61

PMR PMR
AMR
AMR

315 308
286 322 Tiroe A-3

s-0
M
S S-0 S-0-R S S-0-R

7-12-61
7-21-61

AMR

PMR

309

8-4-61 312 Explorer XII(S-3)8-15-61 323 165 310 324


CTL

PMR
AMR

-l l 5 A

8-30-61

9-6-61
9-12-61 9-17-61

PMR PMR
FUR

Thor Agena B Thor Agena B

s-0

PMR

SEQUENCE WEAPON OR SPACE RESULTS NUMBER SYSTFN 129 130 131 132

M DL OE D SG A X N EI N T O DM-21 DM-21 mi-21 DM-21


,

YEBICLE PROGRAM OR SERIAL& PAYUlAD

DT AE

10-23-61 11-5-61 11-15-61 XL-15-61

ICEATION
OF

LAUncH PMR FMR PMR


PMR
AMR

Thor Agena B Thor Agena B Thor Agena B Thor Agena B

S-0-R S-0 S-O S-0-R S S-0-R

328
329 330 326 305

10-13-61

133
134
'

Thor Able S t a r S-0

DM-21A

WS -115A
Thor Agena B Thor Agena B Thor AVT Thor Able S t a r
Thor Delta

DM-18A
DM-21

214
325 327

CTL

12-5-61

PMR

135

337
311 317 332 241 301 229

B&

12-12-61 1-13-62 Shot, 1 1-15-62 1-24-62 2-8-62 2-21-62 2-27-62

m
PMt
AMR

Tlroe A-4

AMR AMR

Thor Agena B Thor Agena B Thor Delta


W -115A S

PMR PMR
AMR

OSO(S-16)
CTL

'

.3-7-62 3-19-62 4-18-62

Thor Agena B Thor Delta Thor Agena B Thor B a l l i s t i c Thor Able S t a r Thor Agena B Thor Agena B Thor Agena B Thor B a l l i s t i c Thor Agena B
W -U5A S

331 320 Ariel(@C-1)(~-51) 4-26-62 333 314 334 336

PMR PMR AMR


PMR AMR

177 Spec B a l l i s t i c 5-2 -62


5-10-62 5-15-62 5-29-62 6-1-62 6-4-62 6-18-62
CTL

4-28-62

AMR PMR

335
199 343 269 321 193 339 340 195 316 O-Orbit

PMR PMR PMR


PMR

Thor Delta Thor B a l l i s t i c Thor Agena B Thor Agena D Thor B a l l i s t i c Thor Delta

Tiros A-5

6-18-62 6-19-62 6-20-62 6-22-62 6-27-62 7-8-62

PMR
AMR

FWR

PMR PMR
PMR

mx-1

7-10-62 R-Recovery

AMR

WEAPON OR SPACE RESULTS

SYSTm Thor AVT Thor Agena B Thor B a l l i e t i c Thor Agena B Thor Agena D Thor Agena D Thor Agena B Thor Agene 3 Thor Delta Thor Agena B Thor Agena D Thor Delta Thor Agena B Thor B a l l i s t i c Thor B a l l i s t i c Thor Agena D Thor Delta Thor Able Star Thor B a l l i s t i c Thor Agena B Thor Agena B Thor Agena D Thor Agena D Thor Delta Thor Agena D

M DL OE DFsIGNATIaW DSV-2D DM-21 Dm-2E DM-21 DM-21. DM-21 DM-21

VEHICLE

SERIAL #

PROCRAM OR
P m A D
Big Shot 2

DT AE

7-18-62 7-22 -62 7-2 5-62 7-27-62 8-1-62 8-28-62 9-1-62 g-27-62 9-18-62 9-28-62 9-29-62 10-2-62 10-8-62 10-15-62 10-26-62 10-26-62 10-27-62 1.0-31-62 11-1-62

IDCATION O LAUNCH F
AMR

PMR
PMR PMR
RR 4 PMR

PMR

DM-21
DM-19 DM-21 DM-21

m
AMR

PMR PMR
AMR

Dsv-y\
DM-21 DSV-2E D V -2E S IIM-21 D W3 E -A DM-2lA DEW-2E DM-21 DM-21 DM-21 DM-21 DSV-3B DM-21 DM-21 DM-21 Relay 1

PMR

PMR PMR PMR


AMR

AMR

11-5 -62
11-24-62
12-4 -62

12-12-62 12-13-62 12-14-62

PMR PMR PMR PMR PMR


AKR

PMR

186 187 188


189 190

Thor Agena D Thor Agena D Thor Delta Thor Agena D Thor Agena D Thor Agena D Thor Delta Thor Agena D Thor Delta Thor Agena D Thor Agena D

1-7-63
1-16-63 2 -14-63 2-28-63 3-18-63 4-1-63

PMR PMR
AMR

Dm -3B
DSV-2C DSV-2C DM-21 Dsv-3B Dl-21 DSV-3B Dsv-2C

PMR

m
PMR
AMR

191
192 193 194

Explorer 17
!Pelstar

4-2-63 4-26-63

5-7-63
5-18-63 6-12-63

195
1 %

DSV-2C

PMR AMR PMR PMR

APPENDIX 4

!Ikor-;Boosted Space S a t e l l i t e s and Probes

THQW-BOOSTED SPACE SATELLITES AND PROBES

DESCRIPTION EXPLORATION RADIATION BELTS

LUNAR PROBE THOR A L I BE THOR ABLE Ill

VENUS PROBE THOR ABLE IV THOR DELTA THOR A L BE THOR DELTA

BOQSTER

CONTRACTING AGENCY

IN ORBIT TO DATE

TMOR-BOOSTED SPACE SATELLITES AND PROBES

IONOSPHERIC

VAN ALLEN BELT RADIATION STUDY

GEODETIC

DESCRIPTION

WEIGHT

BOOSTER

THOR ABLE I1 THOR ABLESTAR

THOR ABLESTAR

PIGGYBACK THOR ABLESTAR

THOR ABLESTAR

PIGGYBACK THOR ABLESTAR

SPONSORING AGENCY

IN ORBIT TO DATE (FLASHING LIGHT EXPERIMENT ALSO CARRIED ON ONE

THOR-BOOSTED SPACE SATELLITES AND PWOBB

SYNCHRONOUS ORBITING SOLAR COMMUNICATIONS

DESCRIPTION

300 CIRCULAR THOR DELTA THOR DELTA THOR D L A ET

BOOSTER

THOR DELTA

THOR DELTA

CONTRACTING AGENCY

IN ORBIT T DATE O

THQR-BOOSTED

SPACE SATELLITES AND PROBES

Thor-Boosted Payload, Orbit, and Trajectory Data

THOR-BOOSTED P A Y LOAD, ORBIT, AND TRAJECTORY D A T A

59 B E T A 59 OAMMA 59 D E L T A 2 59 E P S I L O N 2 59 Z E T A 59 K A P P A 59 L A M B D A 60 A L P H A TlROS I 60 B E T A 2 60 GAMMA 2 60 D E L T A 60 E T A 1 60 E T A 2 60 THETA ECHO l 60 IOTA 1 60 KAPPA 60 MU 60 N U 1 60 OMICRON TIROS II 60 P i 1 60 SIGMA 60 T A U 6 1 EPSILON 1 61 Z E T A 61 ETA 'YCLINATION

21:49115 2-8-59 21118 4-13-59 14123 8-7-59

5 DAYS 3-5-59 13 D A Y S 4-26-JQ 090~8

95.9 MIN. 90.5 MIN, 766 4 MIN. 109.1 MIN. 95.3 MIN. 94.55 MIN. 103.66 MIN.
30.35,

86 525 123 111 135 22,850 113 1189 120 466 90 460 102 903 .8061* .9951

'0587

3-245 T-1300 5-245 T-1610

5 X 19 2 F T . 27 X 33 I N CAPSULE 26 X 29 I N 2 7 X 33 I N CAPSULE 2 7 X 33 I N CAPSULE 2 7 X 33 I N CAPSULE 27 X 33 I N CAPSULE 26 I N . SPHERE 42 X 19 IN. 36 IN. SPHERE 2 7 X 33 I N CAPSULE 36IN. SPHERE 20 IN. SPHERE

USAF

PMR BMR

USAF

AOENA

PRIOR T O 4 6 ~ , 9 J U L . 61

7610 .I306

T-142
S-195 s-30 T-1700 5-300 T-1700 5-300 T-1700 5-43.0 T-94.8 1-270 3-265 5-300 T-1700

19100108 ' 5 4 8 D A Y S 78~.94 8-13-59 2-11-61 19124141 62 D A Y S 8-1 9-59 10-20-59 20:28:41 11-7-59
I

USAF

THOR AGENA AGENA AGENA THOR AGENA

PMR
PMR PMR PMR

840.0

'0464
'0498

USAF USAF USAF

19 DAYS 11-26-59

810.64

19125:24 1104 D A Y S 11-20-593-8-60 13:00:07 3-11-60 11140:09 4-1-60 SOLAR ORBIT

'lo''
.,040
.0045

311.64 "'16 MIN. 95.84 92.31 MIN.

AMR lJSAF ABLE WEA. BUR US N A V Y USAF THOR ABLE

48941 51.28

AMR AMR
PMR

4-13-60 1210235 20120:37 11 D A Y S 4-15-60 4-26-60 05:54:08 6-22-60 05:54108 6-22-60 20137:54 8-10-60 09139143 8-12-60 19:58:07 8-18-60 22:13139 9-13-60 17:50:07 10-4-60 20:42133 1 1- 12-60 11113:03 11-23-60 20:21 12-7-60 20:36.51 12-20-60 20:25:02 1-1.'-61

--

207 409

,0269

~~~~
STAR

95 330 339 559 332 570 140 379 91 2 97 435 109 396 508 670

'0323
0194

96 D A Y S 11-14-60

66O.77 66977
820.85

101.60 M!N. 101 64 MIN. 94.13 MIN. MIN. 94.54 MIN. 94.23 MIN. 106.85 MIN. 96.45 MIN.

s-223

lJSAF AGENA THOR US N A V Y A B L E USAF STAR

AMR

,0308
'O3I9 ,0108 S-300 T-1700 T-137.4 5-300 1-1700

US N A V Y USAF

:STARb M R !y
AGENA DELTA THOR AGENA
A

2 7 X 33 I N CAPSULE 100 F T . SPHERE 2 7 X 33 I N CAPSULF

USAF
NASA ufAF
USAF US NAVY USAF USAF
NASA

PMR

29 DAYS 9-16-60 35DAYS 10-18-60

47O.22
790.65

AMR
PMR

0452
.0405

8oq9
28q3
810.86

5-300 T-505
5- 300 T-2100

51 IN. SPHERE

PMR
AMR

47 DAYS 12-24-60

L;yz

STAR

116 DAYS 4-2-6 1 34 DAYS 1-23-60

48O.34
800.82

p; ; ;
93.81 MIN. 92.98 MIN.

--

102 535 -- - -330 .0096 403 124 369 114 34 1 S

4.

THOR
AGENA

PMR AMR PMR PMR PMR PMR


AMR

1-280

----O

-- -

5-300 ~ T-2100~ ~
T-2100

5 X 25 FT.

.USAF

DELTA THOR
AGENA

---a-

820.80

-031 1 .0324 -0589


'0592

USAF

AGENA AGENA
A

36 DAYS 3-30-6 1
PERIHELION

80.91
800.74

i : '415 : . 173
97.86 MIN. 96.22 MIN. 134 578 94 539

5.300 T-2150 1-2100 5-304 T-2100

27 X 331N CAPSULE 5 X 25 FT.

IJSAF

426 DAYS 22.58 2- 18-61 4-20-62 03135:04 2-22-6 1

USAF USNAVY USAF

2som38

~~~~
STAR

TO ECLIPTIC

L APHELION

I N ASTRONOMICAL UNITS

81

THOR-BOOSTED PAYLOAD, ORBIT, AND TRAJECTORY DATA

EXPLORER XI1 6 1 UPSILON 6 1 PSI 6 1 OMEGA 1

03133 8-16-61 20:00:06 8.30-6 1

IlDAYS 9-10-61

33a'04

26.4 HOURS 91.51 MIN. 92.41 MIN.

156 41,600
82 282

,8525

T-83 1-30 5-2100 7-300 S-2100


I

26 X 5 H IN. 27X331N CAPSULE 27 X 3 3 l N CAPSULE

NASA USAF UsAF

A THOR AGENA AGENA

AMR

82~,14

.0292
'0025

PMR
PMR

19159123 90 DAYS 12-1 1-61 9-12-61

81q58

19 298

6 1 A-KAPPA 1

THOR-BOOSTED PAYLOAD, ORBIT, AND TRAJECTORY D A T A

62 C H I 1 62 C H I 2 OSCAR 2 62 OMEGA 62 A - A L P H A
TIROS E

6-2-62
Q-2-62

26 DAYS 6.2842 l9
6.21 .62

7~.26 78.26 82O.13 580.10 7s0.09 760.01 440.78

90-5
MIN.

90.5
MIH.

212 'I2
209

.0135 ,0137 .W29


.0251

10

I?**, 14*** 6" BOX

"OR AGENA AGENA AGENA

PMR
BMR

6-18-62 12: 19:Ol 6- 19-62


6-23-62

92.3
MIN.

204 212 318 525 163 122 372 513 3040

225

PMR AMR

10 D A Y S 7-7-62 18 D A Y S 9-14-62

100.5
MIN.

62 A - B E T A 62 A-GAMMA 62 A - E P S I L O N TELSTAR 1 62 A-E T A 62 A - T H E T A 62 A - K A P P A 62 A-SIGMA 62 A - U P S I L O N 62 A-CHI 62 A-PSI


TlROS F

89.6
MIN.

.W64 .0351 .2421

6-28-62

93.6
MIN.

170

NASA USAF

DELTA THOR AGENA DELTA

p.MR
PMR AMR PMR PMR PMR PMR PMR PMR AMR

08:85 7- 10-62

27 D A Y S 8-24-62 24 D A Y S 8-26-62 12 D A Y S 9-10.62

157.5
MIN.

NASA

DELTA

7-28-62
8-262

90.64
700.00

MIN.

120 210 112 224 97 221 182 370 111 367


378 399

.0123 -0157 .OlM .O221 .OM9 .0025

820.20

90.73
MIN.

-62

90.4
650.15

MIN.

IJSAF AGENA

USAF

THOR AGENA

IJSAF AGENA IJSAF E N A AG

9- 1-62 9-17-62 08:53 9-1 8-62 9-29-62


9-29-62

820-84

94.4
MI N.

USAF USAF
NASA CANADA NASA

63 D A Y S 11-1942

81q87
58O.29
800e52 650.41

93.4
MIN.

285 319

AGENA THOR AGENA THOR DELTA THOR AGENA AGENA T H OR DELTA AGENA TtiOR AGENA THOR DELTA THOR A TAR SB L E THOR AGENA

62 B - A L P H A
ALOUTTE

98.7
MIN

105.5
MIN.

540 552 104 21 0 152 53320 113 231 100 301 0

.oo17
.0148 -8947

PMR
PMR AMR PtAR
PMR

62 0 - B E T A 62 0-GAMMA
E X P L O R E R 14

15 D A Y S 10.14-62

90.32
MIN.

89

USAF
NASA

22:11:14 10-2-62
0-9-62

38 D A Y S 11-1 6-62

32O.95 810.96 71.44

36.25
HRS.

62 0 -EPSII-ON 62 0 - K A P P A 62 0 - L A M B D A E X P L O R E R 15 62 R-MU 62 0-OMICRON


62 B-RHO 1

90.95 147.98
MIN.

.016i .2920

10-26-62 22:15 10-27-62 10-31-62 11-5-62


1-24-62

28 D A Y S 12-3-62 19 D A Y S 12-1 3-62 4 DAYS 12-8-62

500'13
740.95

107.8
MIN.

'582 647 11 1 218 112 148 lo3 126 120 1525

.0068

90.72
MIN.

65q14
6S0.19 70.28

89.98
MIN.

.Old9 .0100 .0065 .I653

USAF
USAF
NASA AF, N A S A NAVY USAF

AMR AMR PMR PMR PMR PMR


1

62 8-SI GMA

12-4-62 12-13-62

89.2
MIN.

THOR IJSAFA G E N A USAF THOR AGENA AGENA

62 B - T A U 1

155.4
MIN.

THOR-BOOSTED PAY LOAD, ORBIT, AND TRAJECTORY DATA

6
Abbreviations

ABBREVIATIONS
ABL

ACSP

mm
AF:SSD

Allegany Ballistics Laboratory A.C. Spark Plug Division, General Motors Corporation Jisl Air Force I l s i e Training Center Air Force: Space Systems Division A e r o j e t General Corpora%ion Air Materiel C m d Atlantic Missile Range Applied Physics Laboratory, John Hopkins University Air Research and Developent Command Atlantic Research Laboratories Advanced Research ProJects Agency Applications Vertical Test Bell Aircraft Company Ballistic Nissile Division Ballistic Missile Office Bell Telephone Laboratories Control EZectronics Assembly Cambat Training Launch Douglas Aircraft Company Douglas 14odel Douglas Space Vehicle General Electric Company Ground Support Equipnt Goddard Space Flight Center Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Initial Operational Capability Internediate-Range Ballistic lblissile Inhibited Bed I3.mb.g Nitric Acid Lockheed Ilissiles and Space Company Loclcheed Missiles and Space Division Langley Research Center National Aeronautics and Space Administration Orbiting Solar Observatory

A m

&x!
AIR
APL
ARDC

ARL ARPA AVT EAC BMD BMO BTL CEA CTL DAC D1 l DSV GE GSE GSFC

In rl
IOC
m1 .

IR3?l!TA

U~Sc!

UeED LRC
IIASA

OSO

ABBREVIATIOlTS (~ont inued1


PecV

Ern
PMR
RAF

RCA R&D RT-1

R/NAA
RP-1
RTV

SAC SM
3 4

SSD STL TIROS


U1 Dm

UK
USAF

v m
1
r/JS

Pratt & Whitney Precisely Guided Re-entry Test Vehicle Pacific Missile Range Royal Air Force Rtzdio Corporation of America Research and Development Ramjet-1 Rocketdyne--Division of North American Rocket Propellant-1 Re-entry Test Vehicle Strategic Air Camand-USAF Santa Nonica Strategic 14issile Space Systems Division, Air Force Systems C o m n d Space Technology Laboratories, Inc Television and Infra-Red Observation Satellite Unsymmetrical Dhethyl-Hydrazine United Kingdom United States Air Force Vandenberg Air Force Base 'White Inhibited Funling Kitric Acid

XSM

Ileapons System EqerimentaL Strategic Missile

From MCDONNELL DOUGL


CORPORATlON

DOUGLAS NEWS BUREAU

Sanla Monica, California 90406 (213) 399-9311, extension 2566

DELTA VEHICLE LAUNCH RECORD


I S C a ; M H B May 13, 1950 Aug.12, 1960 Nov. 23, 1950 Mar. 25, 1961 JU~Y 12, 1961 Aug. 16, 1951 Feb, 8, 1962 Mar. 7, 1952 Apr. 26, 1952 June 19, 1962 July 10, 1962 Sept. 18, 1962 Oct. 2, 1952 oct. 27, 1962 Dec. 13, 1962 Feb. 14, 1963 April 2, 1963 May 7, 1953 June 19,. 1963 JU~Y 26, 1953 Nov. 26, 1963 Dec. 21, 1963 Jan. 21, 1964 Mar, 19, 1964 Aug. 19, 1954 Oct. 3, 1964 Dec. 21, 1964
Jan. 22, 1965 Feb. 3, 1965 Apr. 6, 1965 May 29, 1965 July 1, 1965 Aug. 25, 1965 Nov. 6, 1965 Dec. 16, 1965 Feb. 3, 1966 Feb. 28, 1966 May 25, 1966

Echo Echo I TIROS I1 Explorer X (P-14) TIROS 111 Explorer XI1 (s-C) TIROS IV OSO I Ariel-I (UK-1) TIROS V Telstar I TIROS VI Explorer XIV (s-3~) Explorer XV (s-3~) Relay I Syncom I Explorer XVII Telstar I1 TIROS VII Syncom I1 Explorer XVIII (IMP-1) TIROS VIII Relay I1 Beacon Explorer (s-66) Syncom I11 Explorer XXI (IMP-2) Explorer XXVI (~nergetic Particles ~xplorer-D) TIROS IX OSO I1 Early Bird Explorer XXVIII (IMP-3) TIROS x OSO-C Explorer XXIX (GEOS I) Pioneer VI (solar orbit) ESSA I ESSA I1 Explorer XXXII (~trnosphere ~xplorer-B) Explorer XXXIII (AIMP) Pioneer VII (solar orbit) ESSA I11 (more)

failed successful successful successful successful successful successful successful successful successful successful successful successful successful successful successful successful successful successful successful successful successful successful failed successful successful successful successful successful successful successful successful failed successful successful successful successful successful successful successful successful

: DELTA VEHICLE LAUNCH RECORD


a

PAGE 2 RESULTS --successful successful successful successful successful successful successful successful successful successful successful successful successful successful successful successful successful failed successful
LAUNCH DATE -.

DELTA ------

NUMBER

MISSION --Intelsst IIA Biosatellite (BIOS I) Intelsat IIB ESSA IV OSO 111 Intelsat IIC ESSA V Explorer XXXIV (IMP-6) Explorer XXXV (IMP-5) ( lunar orb1 t ) Biosatellite (BIOS 11) Intelsat IID OSO IV ESSA VI Pioneer VIII (solar orbit) (TTS-1piggyback satellite placed in earth orbit) Explorer XXXVI (GEOS B) Explorer XXXVIII (RAE-A) ESSA VII Intelsat I11 Pioneer IX (solar orbit)' (TETR communications satellite placed in earth orbit) HEOS-A ESSA VIII Intelsat I11 (Atlantic) OSO V ISIS-A Intelsat 111 (pacific)
a

42 43 44 45 4 6 47 48 49 50
b

Oct. 26, 1966 Dec. 14, 1966 Jan. 11, 1967 Jan. 26, 1957 (WTR) Mar. 8, 1967 Mar. 22, 1967 Apr. 20, 1957 (WTR) May 24, 1967 (WTR) July 19, 1957 Sept. 7., 1967 Sept. 27, 1967 oct. 18, 1967 NOV. 10, 1967 (WTR) Dec. 13> 1967 Jan. 11, 1968 (WTR) July 4, 1968 (WTR) Aug. 16, 1968 (WTR) Sept. 18, 1968 NOV. 8, 1968

51

52
53

54 55
56 57 59 59 60
61 62

63 64 65 66

successful successful successful successful successful successful

Dec. 5, 1968 Dec. 15, 1968 (WTR) Dec. 18, 1968 Jan..22, 1969 Jan,.29, 1969 (WTR) Feb. 5, 1969

(WTR--Western Test Range--all other launches from Cape ~ennedy)