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GEIRID FISKESJO:
C-banded male meiotic chromosomes of Achefa domesticus (Received October 31, 1973) Staining of centromeric heterochromatin with C-bands observed in mitotic X-chromosomes as Giemsa was first presented by PARDUE GALL exemplified by the spermatogonial prophase and and (1970) and JAMES (1970), and the method was anaphase shown in Fig. 2 e and f. In addition to later simplified by ARRIGHIand Hsu (1971). the darkly stained centromeric region, the teloFurther modifications of the C-banding method mere and a small subtelocentric region in the were performed by SUMNER, EVANS and BUCK- short arm regularly show dark coloration. That LAND (1971), and by SUMNER (1972) who referred C-bands may occur not only at the centromeric to the method as the BSG-technique. regions but also at other sites has been observed These C-banding procedures have proved to be by SUMNER, EVANSand BUCKLAND human in useful for demonstrating the centromeric hetero- chromosomes (1973), and in hedgehogs by GROPP (1972). In plants, the centrochromatin in mitotic chromosomes of plant and NATARAJAN (SARMA and NATARAJAN VOSA 1973) and meric heterochromatin demonstrated by C1973; banding procedures more often seems to be animal materials (e.g. GROPPand NATARAJAN 1972; EVANS,BUCKLAND SUMNER and 1973). localized at other sites of the chromosomes than C-banding has also been applied on meiotic in the centromeric regions, preferentially at the chromosomes in plants (NATARAJAN NATA- terminal ends (SARMAand NATARAJAN and 1973; RAJAN 1972) and animals (CHANDLEY and SCHWEITZER VosA 1973; VOSA and MARCHI 1973; FLETCHER MACGREGOR, 1973; HORNER, OWEN 1972). and PARKER 1973; MANDAHL, corn.). pers. The present study demonstrates that the Institute of Genetics, University of Lund, Sweden BSG-technique may be also used for the meiotic chromosomes of a different type of material: the male meiosis of an insect, the house cricket, Literature cited ARRIGHI, E. and Hsu, T. C. 1971. Localization of F. Arheta domestirus. heterochromatin in human chromosomes. - CyrogenetFollowing the BSG-technique exactly, with ics 10: 81-86. two minutes treatment in Ba(OH),, it was CHANDLEV,C. and FLETCHER,M. 1973. Centromere A. J. possible to localize the centromeric regions in staining at meiosis in man. - Humangenetik 18: 247252. different stages of meiosis, with the diplotene GROPP, and NATARAJAN, A. T. 1972. Karyotype and A. stage giving the best results. A diplotene compleheterochromatin pattern of the Algerian hedgehog. ment consisting of the univalent X-chromosome Cpgenetics II: 259-269. and ten autosomal bivalents, given the serial EVANS, J., BUCKLAND, A. and SUMNER, T. 1973. H. R. A. Chromosome homology and heterochromatin in goat, numbers 1-11, is presented in Fig. 1, a and b. sheep and ox studied by banding techniques. - ChromoThe positions of the centromeric regions, as soma 42: 383-402. determined in the present study, are in agreement JONES,K. W. 1970. Chromosomal and nuclear location of with the mitotic karyotype described by NILSSON mouse satellite D N A in individual cells. -Nature 225: 9 12-91 5. (1968). The numbering of chromosomes is acA., DASKALOFF, ENELL, S. 1973. S. and A. cording to the system used by LIMADE FARIA, LIMA-DE-FARIA, Amplification of ribosomal DNA in Acheta. I. The DASKALOFF ENELL(1973), where the Xand number of chromomeres involved in the amplification chromosome is placed as number one. process. - Herediras 73:99-1 18. H., C. H. The BSG-technique, contrary to classical MACGREGOR, C., HORNER, OWEN, A. and PARKER, 1973. Observations on centromeric hetero1. stainings, elucidates the structure of the univalent chromatin and satellite DNA in salamanders of the X-chromosome already at pachytene. Fig. 2 a-d, genus Plethodon. - Chromosoma 43: 329-348. show pachytene X-chromosomes that contain NATARAJAN,T. and NATARAJAN,1972. The heteroA. S. chromatin of Rhoeo discolor. - Hereditas 72:323-330. two or more darkly stained regions. Usually B. two such regions, one darker than the other, are NILSSON, 1968. Achera domesticus (Orthoptera). Some cytological observations. -Ann. Agr. CON. Sweden 34: situated at the ends of the oval-shaped X-chromo437-464. some. These regions may correspond to the PARDUE, L. and GALL,J. G. 1970. Chromosomal M.
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Fig. l a and b. - a: A diplotene cell. b: The bivalents and the X-univalent in the same cell numbered according to the mitotic idiogram reported by NILSSON (1968). Because o differences in the degree of contraction, there may be some difficulty to distinguish between certain bivalents such as 3 and 4 as well as f 8 and 9.

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Fig. 2a-f. a-d: Pachytene X-chromosomes; e: prophase of a spermatogonial mitosis; f anaphase of : a spermatogonial mitosis. See text.
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localization of mouse satellite DNA. - Science 168: 1356-1358. SARMA, P.and NATARAIAN, A. T. 1973. identification N. of heterochromatic regions in the chromosomes of rye. - Herrditas 74: 233-238. ScHwEiTzER, D. 1973. Differential staining of plant Chromoscma 40: 307chromosomes with Gicrsa. 320. SUMNER, T. 1972. A simple technique for dcmonstratA. ing centromeric heterochromatin. - Exp. Crll Rcs. 75: 304-306. SUMNER, T., EVANS,H. J. and BUCKLAND, A. 1971. A. R.
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New technique for distinguishing between human chromosomes. - Nature New Biol. 232: 31-32. VOSA, C . G. 1973. Heterochromatin recognition and analysis of chromosome variation in SciNa sibirica. Chromosoma 43: 269-268. VOSA, C . G. and MARCHI, 1972. Quinacrine fluorcsP. cence and Giemsa staining in plants. - Nature New Biol. 237: 191-192. Geirid Fiskesjo Institute of Genetics S-22362 Lund, Sweden

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