CONTINENTS AND THEIR SIZE

CONTINENT Asia Africa North America South America Antarctica Europe Australia SIZE IN SQUARE KILOMETRES 44,004,000 30,190,000 24,210,000 17,833,000 14,000,000 10,493,000 7,713,000

FACTS ABOUT ASIA
ASIA Area : 44,874,000 sq. km. Greatest distances : East-West : About 9,700 km; North-South : About 8,690 km. Coastline : 129,077 km. Population: 3,557,000,000; Density : 79 people per sq. km. Elevation: Highest : Mount Everest, 8,848 m above sea level. Lowest : Shore of the Dead Sea, about 399 m below sea level. Physical features : Chief Mountain ranges : Altai, Elburz, Himalaya, Hindu Kush, Karakoram, Kunlun, Qilian, Qin Ling, Stanovoy, Tian Shan, Yablonovyy, Zagros. Chief Rivers : Amur, Brahmaputra, Euphrates, Ganges, Huang, Indus, Irrawaddy, Lena, Mekong, Menam, Ob, Salween, Tigris, Xi, Yangtze, Yenisey. Chief Deserts : Gobi, Karakum, Kyzyl Kum, Rub al Khali, Taklimakan. Number of countries: 49.

FACTS ABOUT AFRICA

Africa

Area: 30,247,000 sq. km. Greatest distances : North-south : 8,047 km. East-West : 7,564 km. Coastline : 36,888 km. Population :731,000,000. Density : 25 people per sq. km. Elevation: Highest : Kilimanjaro in Tanzania, 5,895 m above sea level. Lowest : Lake Assal in Djibouti, 155 m below sea level. Physical features: Chief mountain ranges : Ahaggar, Atlas, Drakensberg, Ruwenzori, Tibesti. Chief rivers : Congo, Limpopo, Niger, Nile, Orange, Zambezi. Chief lakes : Albert, Chad, Nyasa, Tanganyika, Turkana, Victoria. Largest deserts : Kalahari, Namib, Sahara. Number of independent countries: 53

FACTS ABOUT NORTH AMERICA

NORTH AMERICA

Area: 24,227,000 sq. km. Greatest distances (mainland) : North-South : 7,200 km. East-West : 6,400 km. Greatest distances (including islands) : North-South : 8,900 km; East-West : 8,900 km. Coastline : About 300,000 km. Population: 458,000,000. Density : 19 people per sq. km. Elevation: Highest : Mount McKinley in Alaska, U.S.A., 6,194 m above sea level. Lowest : Near Badwater, Death Valley, U.S.A., 86 m below sea level. Physical features: Chief mountain ranges : Alaska, Appalachian, Cascade, Coast, Rocky, Sierra Madre, Sierra Nevada. Chief rivers : Arkansas, Colorado, Columbia, Fraser, Mackenzie, Mississippi, Missouri, Nelson, Ohio, Rio Grande, St. Lawrence, Yukon. Chief lakes : Athabasca, Erie, Great Bear, Great Salt, Great Slave, Huron, Michigan, Nicaragua, Ontario, Superior, Winnipeg. Chief deserts : Chihuahuan, Colorado, Great Basin, Mojave, Painted, Sonoran, Vizcaino, Yuma. Chief waterfalls : Niagara, Ribbon, Silver Strand, Takakkaw, Yosemite. Chief islands : Cuba, Greenland, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Newfoundland, Puerto Rico, Vancouver. Number of independent countries: 23

FACTS ABOUT SOUTH AMERICA

Area: 17,832,000 sq. km. Greatest distances :North-South : 7,645 km. East-West : 5,150 km. Coastline : 32,000 km. Population: 335,000,000 . Density : 19 people per sq. km. Elevation: Highest : Aconcagua in Argentina, 6,959 m above sea level. Lowest : Valdes Peninsula in Argentina, 40 m below sea level. Physical features: Chief mountain ranges : Andes, Brazilian Highlands, Guiana Highlands. Chief rivers : Amazon, Madeira, Magdalena, Orinoco, Paraguay, Parana, Pilcomayo, Purus, Sao Francisco, Uruguay. Chief gulfs : Darien, Guayaquil, San Jorge, San Matias, Venezuela. Chief islands : Falkland Islands, Galapagos Islands, Marajo, Tierra del Fuego. Chief lakes : Maracaibo, Mirim, Poopo, Titicaca. Largest deserts : Atacama, Patagonia. Highest waterfalls : Angel, Cuquenan. Number of countries: 12.

SOUTH AMERICA

FACTS ABOUT ANTARCTICA

ANTARCTICA

Area: About 14,000,000 sq. km. Greatest distance : Antarctic Peninsula to Wilhelm II Coast, about 5,550 km. Coastline : About 31,900 km. Elevation: Highest : Vinson Massif, 5,140 m above sea level. Lowest : Sea level. Physical Features: Chief mountain ranges : Antarctic Peninsula, Ellsworth, Prince Charles, Trans antarctic, Whitmore. Chief glaciers : Beardmore, Lambert, Rennick, Support Force. Chief ice shelves : Amery, Filchner, Larsen, Ronne, Ross

FACTS ABOUT EUROPE EUROPE
Area: 10,459,000 sq. km. Greatest distances : East-West : About 6,400 km. North-South : About 4,800 km. Coastline : 60,973 km. Population: 713,000,000. Density : 68 people per sq. km. Elevation: Highest : Mount Elbrus, 5,633 m above sea level. Lowest : Shore of the Caspian Sea, 28 m below sea level. Physical features: Chief mountain ranges : Alps, Apennines, Balkans, Carpathians, Caucasus, Pyrenees, Sierra Nevada. Chief rivers : Danube, Don, Elbe, Rhine, Rhone, Seine, Thames, Volga. Chief lakes :Caspian Sea, Ladoga. Chief islands : Balearic Islands, Britain, Corsica, Crete, Faroe Islands, Iceland, Ireland, Malta, Sardinia, Sicily. Number of Countries: 47

FACTS ABOUT AUSTRALIA AUSTRALIA
Area: 7,713,000 sq. km, including 67,800 sq. km for Tasmania. Greatest distances (mainland) : East-West : 3,983 km. North-South : 3,138 km. Coastline : 36,735 km, including 1,254 for Tasmania and 821 for offshore islands. Elevation: Highest : Mount Kosciusko (2,228 m). Lowest : Lake Eyre (16 m below sea level). Population : 2001 population--19,268,000. Population density : 2 people per sq. km. Distribution: 85 % urban, 15% rural. Political subdivisions: Six states, two mainland territories, and eight external territori

OCEAN

Ocean is the great body of water that covers more than 70 per cent of the earth's surface. The ocean contains 97 per cent of all the water on the earth. The ocean serves as a source of food, energy, and minerals. Ships use the ocean to carry cargo between continents. Scientists called oceanographers work to discover the secrets of the sea. They study how the ocean moves and how it affects the atmosphere. Oceanographers work on board ships and submarines, often using sonar and other equipment.

PRINCIPAL OCEANS AND SEAS OF THE WORLD
NAME AREA IN THOUSANDS OF SQUARE GREATEST DEPTH IN FEET

Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Arctic Ocean Mediterranean South China Sea Bering Sea Caribbean Gulf Of Mexico Sea of Okhotsk East China Sea Hudson Bay Sea of Japan North Sea Black Sea Red Sea Baltic Sea

165,384 82,217 73,481 14,056 2,505 2,318 2,269 1,943 1,544 1,528 1,248 1,233 1,008 575 461 438 422

36,198 30,184 26,400 17880 15,900 18,090 16,800 25,197 14,360 11,400 9,800 850 13,123 2,170 7,360 7,370 1,440

Interesting Facts about Oceans
Life began in the ocean according to most scientists. Fossils of one type of sea worm show that this organism has remained unchanged for over 500 million years. There is a bit of "ocean" inside us. The body of an adult male contains about 18 litres of salt water. The composition of this fluid is similar to seawater. The ocean floor is in constant motion. The floor of the Atlantic spreads about 2.5 centimetres every year, widening the ocean basin. The Pacific floor spreads even faster, about 13 centimetres every year. But its basin does not widen because the edges of its floor sink under the continents. Giant kelp, a large brown seaweed, may grow up to 60 metres long, forming great underwater forests in the ocean. A tsunami--a powerful wave caused by an earthquake--can reach a speed of 970 kilometres per hour and travel across an entire ocean. The world ocean would rise about 60 metres if the Greenland and Antarctic icecaps were to suddenly melt. New York City would be submerged, with only the tops of the tallest buildings above water.

FACTS ABOUT INDIAN OCEAN

Indian Ocean

Area: About 74,000,000 sq. km. Greatest distances: North-south--9,880 km. East-west--10,000 km. Average depth: 3,840 m. Greatest depth: 7,125 m, in Java Trench. Surface temperatures: Highest--32 degrees C, in Persian Gulf and Red Sea during July. Lowest--below -1 degree C, near Antarctica during July. Tides: Highest--11 m, Collier Bay, Australia. Lowest--60 cm, near Fremantle, Australia

FACTS ABOUT PACIFIC OCEAN PACIFIC OCEAN
Area: About 181 million sq. km. Greatest distances: North-south--about 15,450 km. East-west--about 24,000 km. Average depth: About 3,900 m. Greatest depth: 11,033 m, in the Challenger Deep. Surface temperatures: Highest--28 degrees C, near the equator in August. Lowest--1 degree C, in the polar region in winter. Tides: Highest--9.1 m, near the west coast of Korea. Lowest--0.3 m, at Midway Island

FACTS ABOUT ATLANTIC OCEAN ATLANTIC OCEAN
Area: About 93 million sq. km. Greatest distances: North-south, excluding the Arctic Ocean--17,500 km. North-south, including the Arctic Ocean--21,400 km. East-west--8,800 km. Average depth: 3,700 m. Greatest depth: 8,648 m, in the Puerto Rico Trench. Surface temperatures: Highest--about 30 degrees C, near the equator in summer. Lowest--2 degrees C, in Antarctic regions in winter. Tides: Highest--over 15 m, in the Bay of Fundy, Canada. Lowest--averages about 0.6 m, in the Gulf of Mexico.

FACTS ABOUT ARCTIC OCEAN ARCTIC OCEANArea: About 14,090,000 sq. km.
Greatest distance: About 4,235 km, between Alaska and Norway. Average depth: 1,205 m. Greatest depth: 5,450 m, north of Svalbard. Surface temperature: Lowest-- -2 degrees C, in January. Highest-- -1.5 degrees C, in July.

FACTS ABOUT ANTARCTIC OCEAN ANTARCTIC OCEAN
Surface temperature: The ocean has a fairly constant temperature of -2 °C. Scientists disagree about the location of the northern limit of the Antarctic Ocean. Most place it between 40° and 60° south latitude. According to most definitions, the narrowest point is about 1,100 kilometres, between Antarctica and the tip of South America. The surface near Antarctica freezes in winter, and breaks into pack ice in summer. Flat-topped icebergs from 150 to 300 metres thick drift north of the pack ice.

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