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INVESTIGATION OF WATER HAMMER PHENOMENA FOR A SIMPLE

PIPE SUBJECTED TO SUDDEN CLOSING OF VALVE


Atul J. Patel, M-Tech(CAD / CAM),
U. V. Patel college of engg.,
Ganpat University, Kherva, Mehsana
U. A. Patel, Asst. Prof.,
U. V. Patel college of engg.,
Ganpat Uni., Kherva, Mehsana
Patel., A. R., Reader
Mech. Engg. Dept., Fac. of Tech. & Engg.
The M. S. Uni. of Baroda, Vadodara
ABSTRACT
Paper present investigation of a flow induced water hammer. Objective of the paper is to
analyze the effect of suddenly stopping or accelerating a fluid by closing and opening a
valves. For the different stem position of the valves one gets the different plots of pressure
with respect to time and space. Paper also discusses in detailed what are the effects of the
pressure. Simulation of different opening and closing times of a simple valve is also treated
for different stem positions.
The classical formulation of water hammer problem was applied and a numerical code is
developed using MATLAB software. Then, the effect of closing of the valve at different times
and different stem positions is analyzed as a special parameter to find the maximum pick
and drop in the pressure and also control the maximum pressure.
The method chosen to solve the system of equation is the MacCormak technique. This
numerical technique discretized the resulting partial differential equation in the space and
time domain. For transient part the method of characteristic is applied, this is the preferred
method to solve the time integration. Limitation of this technique is when nonlinear terms are
included, therefore the MacCormak predictor corrector method is used to solve for the
nonlinear terms. On the base of the predictor-corrector formula a generalized MATLAB code
is written which is used for to find out the different pressure levels at different stem positions
with respect to time and space.
NOMENCLATURE:
1 INTRODUCTION
Present work deals with the water hammer induced transient flow analysis. Here a
generalize code which is written using Matlab. A simple one dimensional system is
considered for the analysis. Similar technique can also be extended for two dimensional
system.
Purpose of investigation is to analyze transient flow to study the effect of suddenly stopping
or accelerating a fluid by closing and opening a valves. For the different stem positions of
the valves, different plots of pressure with respect to time and space are obtained. Model
used for this is a simple pipeline that connects two reservoirs. Simulation of different opening
and closing times of a simple valve is also treated for different stem positions.
The classical formulation of water hammer problem was applied and a numerical code has
been developed. The effect of closing the valve at different times and different stem
positions is analyzed as a special parameter to find maximum rise in the pressure and also
control the maximum pressure.
In this project work certain classical equations that describe this problem are adopted form
the literature published by Chaudhry and et.al.
[15]
. In this investigation the different formulas
are given and also some non linear terms are included.
Commonly in the case of a valve, a discharge a coefficient of pressure drop is applied to
represent frictional losses. A simple valve can be idealized as a flow orifice; therefore
modeling the same can be represented with a flow orifice study. Thus, the coefficient of
discharge for the valve case is assumed the same as in the orifice. For the case of flow
through an orifice Sisavath and et. al.
[37]
develop different models, the application of this
model can be extended to pressure drop in a valve. For the case of friction losses due to
shear stress the most useful model is the frictional loss, which depends on the velocity
(Darcy-Weisbach formula).
For the piping system one need to consider certain assumptions, on the base of that we
have taken some of them like pure liquid all the time without presence of air or bubbles is
made, therefore the cavitations effect is not considered in the present model. Under this
assumption, the study of air valve
[38]
and entrapped bubbles
[14]
are not considered. Further
to this a pipe with thick wall is considered.
The method chosen to solve the system of equation is the MacCormak technique. This
numerical technique discretized the resulting partial differential equation in the space and
time domain
[39]
. For the transient part the method of characteristic is applied, this is the
preferred method to solve the time integration
[15] [40]
. Limitation of this technique is when
nonlinear terms are included, therefore the Mac-Cormack predictor-corrector method is used
to solve for the nonlinear terms. Problem is formulated on the base of the predictor-corrector
formula and a generalized MATLAB code is written to obtain different pressure variation for
the different stem position with respect to time and space.
2 GOVERNING EQUATION
Under typical operating conditions of the piping system, it is necessary to analyze the
transient condition by solving the Navier-Stoke equation and the momentum equation.
In order to derive the mathematical model for this problem some simplifications will be taken
into account, considering axisymetric flow, no shearing and 1D model. Under these
assumptions it is possible to neglect the viscous term in the momentum equation, but the
friction losses is intended for using unsteady model. Another consideration is that the fluid is
essentially compressible and the pipe is considered flexible. The derivations of these
equations are straight forward and can be found in standard references
[15] [16]
.
2
0
p V
a
t x


+

(1)
1
0
2
fV V
V dp
t dx D

+ +

(2)
Where f is the friction factor. Bergant and et al
[17]
based on experimental results recommend
the original Brunoe model as an effective model. Brunoe
[18]
model for the friction factor is:
q
kD V V
f f
V V t x

_
+


,
(3)
Where
q
f
is the quasi-steady friction factor, which is plotted for different Reynolds number
(Re / ) VD v and relative roughness /
s
e k D from the Moody diagram. Also the relative
roughness can be tabulated for different pipe diameters and materials. The coefficient k is
called the Brunoes friction coefficient. It can be predicted analytically using Vardys
[19]
shear
decay coefficient C*.
*
2
C
k
(4)
The Vardys shear decay coefficient C* is given by:
0.00476 Laminar Flow (5a)
0.05
log(14.3/Re )
7.41
Re
Turbulent Flow (5b)
3 BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
As mention earlier the objective of the investigation is to analyze the effect of opening and
closing a valve located in a pipeline, therefore the following boundary condition assumption
is made; Independent of flow oscillation is assumed that the reservoir of the pipe line will
maintain constant level, thus maintaining constant inlet hydraulic pressure Pi The boundary
condition is expressed mathematically as under
n inlet i
p gH P (6)
Where the subscript n indicate time at the instant n. Therefore, the boundary condition for
the velocity at the valve, under steady state conditions, is known and also the volumetric
flow rate. Using the discharge coefficient, the volumetric flow rate can be given as
0 0 0
2 /
valve d
Q C A p (7)
Where the subscript 0 refers to steady state conditions, Cd is the discharge coefficient and
A0 is the area of open valve. An schematic of the model with it corresponding boundary
conditions is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Transient Flow Model
The volumetric flow as a function of valve steam depends on the type of valve and is
specified by the manufacturer. Commonly the volumetric flow plotted as a percent of the
maximum volumetric flow at the acting pressure of the system
[20] [41]
Fig. 2 shows a typically
close-open curve
[42]
for a valve. Fig. 2 indicated the flow position at different stem position of
the valve. This is a general diagram which is used here as a reference.
Fig.2 flow position V/s stem position
From the figure there are no of relationships of the flow position at the time of different stem
positions are given. Here we assuming the last relationship which is valid for transient
conditions, the velocity at the valve at time n is:
0
( ) 2
n n
T
n valve d v
p
A
V C F l V
A
(8)
Where, F(l) is the percent of caudal obtained from Fig. 5.2 and l the stem position. AT the
area of valve totally open and A0 the area of the valve partially open, according with the stem
position l. As an initial condition a constant velocity profile and pressure in the pipe is used:
0 initial
V V
, and
0 initial
p P
(9)
4. NUMERIC DISCRETIZATION
The system of equations to solve is:
2
0
p V
a
t x


+

(10)
1
0
2
fV V
V dp
t dx D

+ +

(11)
( , 0)
initial
V x V (12)
( , 0)
initial
p x P (13)
( , ) p inlet t P (14)
( , ) V valve V (15)
Then, for the spatial and temporal discretization the MacCormak is used. The MacCormak
method is a two step predictor corrector finite different. The MacCormak method can solve
linear partial differential equations (PDE), nonlinear PDE and system of PDE
[39]
.
In the MacCormak method, the predicted provisional values are obtained using first order
forward difference approximations. In this formula first of all we have to solve the eq. 10
means we have to use the first order forward difference and by using this formula we have
the following relationship for pressure. We have to follow the same methodology for the eq.
11 and get the same function for the velocity. This is the predictor formula for the system.
) (
1 2
1
n n n n
i i i i
t
p p a V V
x

+
+

(16)
( )
1
1
2
n n n n n n
i i i i i i
t t
V V p p V f V
x D
+
+
_

,
(17)
In the second final step, a first order backward difference approximations based on the
provisional values is used. This is the corrector formula.
) (
1 1 2 1 1
1
1
2
n n n n n
i i i i i
t
p p p a V V
x

+ + + +

1
+
1

]
(18)
( )
1 1 1 1
1
1
2 2
n n n n n n n
i i i i i i i
t t
V V V p p V f V
x D
+ + + +


,
(19)
The Predictor-Corrector method comprises two parts: a predictor formula which generates
an estimate of a new value for the dependent variable and a corrector formula which aim to
improve upon the predictor value. We can use the small step size in the predictor corrector
formula and because of that we can get the more accurate results, therefore this method is
perfect for our piping system.
The Mac Cormak method is conditionally stable and convergent. The stationary condition
given by the Courant number less than one. For this system of equation it is necessary to
satisfy the courant conditions in the two equations.
2
1
1
t
Cn a
x

and
1
1
t
Cn
x

(20)
Here, when x is imposed, the t can be found as a last equation.
Generation of pressure wave with respect to time and space in a small simple pipe
5. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
It is observed from the figure that pressure levels at the time t = 0, is all same. With the
transient condition applied the pressure in the pipe increases, after certain lapse of time.
This lapse is attributed to the inertia of the pipe. With the passage of time the pressure
variation in the pipe increases. This variation is same for all the length of the pipe and
changes only with the time. This change is very high in the vicinity of the length where valve
is located. This is attributed by a pressure wave for a very short span of the pipe.
Reference: