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Atul J. Patel, M-Tech(CAD / CAM),

U. V. Patel college of engg.,

Ganpat University, Kherva, Mehsana

U. A. Patel, Asst. Prof.,

U. V. Patel college of engg.,

Ganpat Uni., Kherva, Mehsana

Patel., A. R., Reader

Mech. Engg. Dept., Fac. of Tech. & Engg.

The M. S. Uni. of Baroda, Vadodara

ABSTRACT

Paper present investigation of a flow induced water hammer. Objective of the paper is to

analyze the effect of suddenly stopping or accelerating a fluid by closing and opening a

valves. For the different stem position of the valves one gets the different plots of pressure

with respect to time and space. Paper also discusses in detailed what are the effects of the

pressure. Simulation of different opening and closing times of a simple valve is also treated

for different stem positions.

The classical formulation of water hammer problem was applied and a numerical code is

developed using MATLAB software. Then, the effect of closing of the valve at different times

and different stem positions is analyzed as a special parameter to find the maximum pick

and drop in the pressure and also control the maximum pressure.

The method chosen to solve the system of equation is the MacCormak technique. This

numerical technique discretized the resulting partial differential equation in the space and

time domain. For transient part the method of characteristic is applied, this is the preferred

method to solve the time integration. Limitation of this technique is when nonlinear terms are

included, therefore the MacCormak predictor corrector method is used to solve for the

nonlinear terms. On the base of the predictor-corrector formula a generalized MATLAB code

is written which is used for to find out the different pressure levels at different stem positions

with respect to time and space.

NOMENCLATURE:

1 INTRODUCTION

Present work deals with the water hammer induced transient flow analysis. Here a

generalize code which is written using Matlab. A simple one dimensional system is

considered for the analysis. Similar technique can also be extended for two dimensional

system.

Purpose of investigation is to analyze transient flow to study the effect of suddenly stopping

or accelerating a fluid by closing and opening a valves. For the different stem positions of

the valves, different plots of pressure with respect to time and space are obtained. Model

used for this is a simple pipeline that connects two reservoirs. Simulation of different opening

and closing times of a simple valve is also treated for different stem positions.

The classical formulation of water hammer problem was applied and a numerical code has

been developed. The effect of closing the valve at different times and different stem

positions is analyzed as a special parameter to find maximum rise in the pressure and also

control the maximum pressure.

In this project work certain classical equations that describe this problem are adopted form

the literature published by Chaudhry and et.al.

[15]

. In this investigation the different formulas

are given and also some non linear terms are included.

Commonly in the case of a valve, a discharge a coefficient of pressure drop is applied to

represent frictional losses. A simple valve can be idealized as a flow orifice; therefore

modeling the same can be represented with a flow orifice study. Thus, the coefficient of

discharge for the valve case is assumed the same as in the orifice. For the case of flow

through an orifice Sisavath and et. al.

[37]

develop different models, the application of this

model can be extended to pressure drop in a valve. For the case of friction losses due to

shear stress the most useful model is the frictional loss, which depends on the velocity

(Darcy-Weisbach formula).

For the piping system one need to consider certain assumptions, on the base of that we

have taken some of them like pure liquid all the time without presence of air or bubbles is

made, therefore the cavitations effect is not considered in the present model. Under this

assumption, the study of air valve

[38]

and entrapped bubbles

[14]

are not considered. Further

to this a pipe with thick wall is considered.

The method chosen to solve the system of equation is the MacCormak technique. This

numerical technique discretized the resulting partial differential equation in the space and

time domain

[39]

. For the transient part the method of characteristic is applied, this is the

preferred method to solve the time integration

[15] [40]

. Limitation of this technique is when

nonlinear terms are included, therefore the Mac-Cormack predictor-corrector method is used

to solve for the nonlinear terms. Problem is formulated on the base of the predictor-corrector

formula and a generalized MATLAB code is written to obtain different pressure variation for

the different stem position with respect to time and space.

2 GOVERNING EQUATION

Under typical operating conditions of the piping system, it is necessary to analyze the

transient condition by solving the Navier-Stoke equation and the momentum equation.

In order to derive the mathematical model for this problem some simplifications will be taken

into account, considering axisymetric flow, no shearing and 1D model. Under these

assumptions it is possible to neglect the viscous term in the momentum equation, but the

friction losses is intended for using unsteady model. Another consideration is that the fluid is

essentially compressible and the pipe is considered flexible. The derivations of these

equations are straight forward and can be found in standard references

[15] [16]

.

2

0

p V

a

t x

+

(1)

1

0

2

fV V

V dp

t dx D

+ +

(2)

Where f is the friction factor. Bergant and et al

[17]

based on experimental results recommend

the original Brunoe model as an effective model. Brunoe

[18]

model for the friction factor is:

q

kD V V

f f

V V t x

_

+

,

(3)

Where

q

f

is the quasi-steady friction factor, which is plotted for different Reynolds number

(Re / ) VD v and relative roughness /

s

e k D from the Moody diagram. Also the relative

roughness can be tabulated for different pipe diameters and materials. The coefficient k is

called the Brunoes friction coefficient. It can be predicted analytically using Vardys

[19]

shear

decay coefficient C*.

*

2

C

k

(4)

The Vardys shear decay coefficient C* is given by:

0.00476 Laminar Flow (5a)

0.05

log(14.3/Re )

7.41

Re

Turbulent Flow (5b)

3 BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

As mention earlier the objective of the investigation is to analyze the effect of opening and

closing a valve located in a pipeline, therefore the following boundary condition assumption

is made; Independent of flow oscillation is assumed that the reservoir of the pipe line will

maintain constant level, thus maintaining constant inlet hydraulic pressure Pi The boundary

condition is expressed mathematically as under

n inlet i

p gH P (6)

Where the subscript n indicate time at the instant n. Therefore, the boundary condition for

the velocity at the valve, under steady state conditions, is known and also the volumetric

flow rate. Using the discharge coefficient, the volumetric flow rate can be given as

0 0 0

2 /

valve d

Q C A p (7)

Where the subscript 0 refers to steady state conditions, Cd is the discharge coefficient and

A0 is the area of open valve. An schematic of the model with it corresponding boundary

conditions is shown in Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Transient Flow Model

The volumetric flow as a function of valve steam depends on the type of valve and is

specified by the manufacturer. Commonly the volumetric flow plotted as a percent of the

maximum volumetric flow at the acting pressure of the system

[20] [41]

Fig. 2 shows a typically

close-open curve

[42]

for a valve. Fig. 2 indicated the flow position at different stem position of

the valve. This is a general diagram which is used here as a reference.

Fig.2 flow position V/s stem position

From the figure there are no of relationships of the flow position at the time of different stem

positions are given. Here we assuming the last relationship which is valid for transient

conditions, the velocity at the valve at time n is:

0

( ) 2

n n

T

n valve d v

p

A

V C F l V

A

(8)

Where, F(l) is the percent of caudal obtained from Fig. 5.2 and l the stem position. AT the

area of valve totally open and A0 the area of the valve partially open, according with the stem

position l. As an initial condition a constant velocity profile and pressure in the pipe is used:

0 initial

V V

, and

0 initial

p P

(9)

4. NUMERIC DISCRETIZATION

The system of equations to solve is:

2

0

p V

a

t x

+

(10)

1

0

2

fV V

V dp

t dx D

+ +

(11)

( , 0)

initial

V x V (12)

( , 0)

initial

p x P (13)

( , ) p inlet t P (14)

( , ) V valve V (15)

Then, for the spatial and temporal discretization the MacCormak is used. The MacCormak

method is a two step predictor corrector finite different. The MacCormak method can solve

linear partial differential equations (PDE), nonlinear PDE and system of PDE

[39]

.

In the MacCormak method, the predicted provisional values are obtained using first order

forward difference approximations. In this formula first of all we have to solve the eq. 10

means we have to use the first order forward difference and by using this formula we have

the following relationship for pressure. We have to follow the same methodology for the eq.

11 and get the same function for the velocity. This is the predictor formula for the system.

) (

1 2

1

n n n n

i i i i

t

p p a V V

x

+

+

(16)

( )

1

1

2

n n n n n n

i i i i i i

t t

V V p p V f V

x D

+

+

_

,

(17)

In the second final step, a first order backward difference approximations based on the

provisional values is used. This is the corrector formula.

) (

1 1 2 1 1

1

1

2

n n n n n

i i i i i

t

p p p a V V

x

+ + + +

1

+

1

]

(18)

( )

1 1 1 1

1

1

2 2

n n n n n n n

i i i i i i i

t t

V V V p p V f V

x D

+ + + +

,

(19)

The Predictor-Corrector method comprises two parts: a predictor formula which generates

an estimate of a new value for the dependent variable and a corrector formula which aim to

improve upon the predictor value. We can use the small step size in the predictor corrector

formula and because of that we can get the more accurate results, therefore this method is

perfect for our piping system.

The Mac Cormak method is conditionally stable and convergent. The stationary condition

given by the Courant number less than one. For this system of equation it is necessary to

satisfy the courant conditions in the two equations.

2

1

1

t

Cn a

x

and

1

1

t

Cn

x

(20)

Here, when x is imposed, the t can be found as a last equation.

Generation of pressure wave with respect to time and space in a small simple pipe

5. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

It is observed from the figure that pressure levels at the time t = 0, is all same. With the

transient condition applied the pressure in the pipe increases, after certain lapse of time.

This lapse is attributed to the inertia of the pipe. With the passage of time the pressure

variation in the pipe increases. This variation is same for all the length of the pipe and

changes only with the time. This change is very high in the vicinity of the length where valve

is located. This is attributed by a pressure wave for a very short span of the pipe.

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