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Torque Tables

For Spiral Wound Gaskets, ASME


B16.5
Class 150

Gsk. ID
Contact
(inches)
Gsk. OD
Contact
(inches)
Gsk. Area
Contact
(Sq. in.)
No. of
Bolts
Size of
Bolts
(inches)
Max.
Torque
per Bolts
@ 60 ksi
Bolt
Stress

0.5

0.75

1.25

1.5

2.5

Nom. Pipe Size (inches)


3
4
5
6
8

0.75

1.25

1.88

2.13

2.75

3.25

6.13

1.25

1.56

1.88

2.38

2.75

3.38

3.88

4.75

5.88

0.79

1.13

1.53

1.67

2.39

3.01

3.50

5.15

7.47

12

12

12

16

16

20

20

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.63

0.63

0.63

0.63

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.88

0.88

1.13

1.13

1.25

60

60

60

60

60

120

120

120

120

200

200

200

320

320

490

490

710

710

1000

7.19

10

12

14

16

18

20

24

9.19 11.31 13.38 14.63 16.63 18.69 20.69 24.75

8.25 10.38 12.5 14.75

16

18.25 20.75 22.75

27

9.02 12.88 18.25 22.21 30.37 33.07 44.51 63.88 70.36 91.45

(ft lb)
Comp.
per
Bolt @ 7560 7560 7560 7560 7560 12120 12120 12120 12120 18120 18120 18120 25140 25140 33060 33060 43680 43680
60K
(ft lb)
Max.
Gsk.
Comp. 38503 26712 19713 18119 12637 16125 13861 9406 12974 16071 11253 7945 13584 9933 11995 11884 10940 12415
Available
(psi)
Min. Gsk.
Comp.
10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 9406 10000 10000 10000 7945 10000 9933 10000 10000 10000 10000
Recomm.
(psi)
Minimum
Torque
per
16
22
30
33
47
74
87
120
92
124 178 200 236 320 408 412 649 572
Bolt (ft
lb)
Max.
Gsk.
Comp.
30000 26712 19713 18119 12637 16125 13861 9406 12974 16071 11253 7945 13584 9933 11995 11884 10940 12415
Recomm.
Avail.
(psi)
Prefer'd
Torque
47
60
60
60
60
120 120 120 120 200 200 200 320 320 490 490 710 710
(ft lb)

55740

12190

10000

820

12190

1000

Tables are based on the use of bolts with a yield strength of 100,000 psi.

Class 300

Gsk. ID
Contact
(inches)
Gsk. OD
Contact
(inches)
Gsk. Area
Contact
(Sq. in.)
No. of
Bolts
Size of
Bolts
(inches)
Max.
Torque
per Bolts
@ 60 ksi

0.5

0.75

1.25

1.5

2.5

Nom. Pipe Size (inches)


3
4
5
6
8

0.75

1.25

1.88

2.13

2.75

3.25

6.13

1.25

1.56

1.88

2.38

2.75

3.38

3.88

4.75

5.88

0.79

1.13

1.55

1.67

2.38

3.03

3.53

5.15

7.52

12

12

16

16

20

20

24

24

24

0.5

0.63

0.63

0.63

0.75

0.63

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.88

1.13

1.13

1.25

1.25

1.25

1.5

60

120

120

120

200

120

200

200

200

200

200

320

490

710

710

1000 1000 1000 1600

7.19

10

12

14

16

18

20

24

9.19 11.31 13.38 14.63 16.63 18.69 20.69 24.75

8.25 10.38 12.5 14.75

16

18.25 20.75 22.75

27

8.97 12.85 18.28 22.24 30.25 32.94 44.36 63.78 70.25 91.40

Bolt
Stress
(ft lb)
Comp.
per
Bolt @ 7560 12120 12120 12120 18120 12120 18120 18120 18120 18120 18120 25140 33060 43680 43680 55740 55740 55740
60K
(ft lb)
Max.
Gsk.
Comp. 38522 43079 31319 28994 30517 31983 41110 28139 19287 16166 16925 16502 23782 23102 26520 25133 20975 19044
Available
(psi)
Min. Gsk.
Comp.
10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000
Recomm.
(psi)
Minimum
Torque
per
16
28
38
41
66
38
49
71
104 124 118 194 206 307 268 398 477 525
Bolt (ft
lb)
Max.
Gsk.
Comp.
30000 30000 30000 28994 30000 30000 30000 28139 19287 16166 16925 16502 23782 23102 26520 25133 20975 19044
Recomm.
Avail.
(psi)
Prefer'd 47
84
115 120 197 113 146 200 200 200 200 320 490 710 710 1000 1000 1000

84300

22135

10000

723

22135

1600

Torque
(ft lb)
Tables are based on the use of bolts with a yield strength of 100,000 psi.

Class 400

Gsk. ID
Contact
(inches)
Gsk. OD
Contact
(inches)
Gsk. Area
Contact
(Sq. in.)
No. of
Bolts
Size of
Bolts
(inches)
Max. Torque

4.75

5.81

6.88

5.88

Nom. Pipe Size (inches)


8
10
12
14
16

18

8.88 10.81 12.88 14.25 16.25 18.5

8.25 10.38 12.5 14.75

16

20

24

20.5

24.75

18.25 20.75 22.75

27

9.43 11.97 16.27 22.68 30.92 40.56 41.56 54.17 69.33 76.39 91.40
8

12

12

16

16

20

20

24

24

24

0.88

0.88

0.88

1.13

1.25

1.25

1.38

1.38

1.5

1.75

320

320

320

490

710

1000 1000 1360 1360 1600

3000

per Bolts
@ 60 ksi
Bolt Stress
(ft lb)
Comp. per
Bolt @ 60K 25140 25140 25140 33060 43680 55740 55740 69300 69300 84300
(ft lb)
Max. Gsk.
Comp. Available 21329 16807 18540 17493 22600 21988 26826 25588 23991 26485
(psi)
Min. Gsk.
Comp. Recomm. 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000
(psi)
Minimum
Torque per
150 190 173 280 314 455 373 531 567 604
Bolt (ft lb)
Max. Gsk.
Comp. Recomm. 21329 16807 18540 17493 22600 21988 26826 25588 23991 26485
Avail. (psi)
Prefer'd
Torque
320 320 320 490 710 1000 1000 1360 1360 1600
(ft lb)
Tables are based on the use of bolts with a yield strength of 100,000 psi.

118800

31194

10000

962

3000

2885

Class 600

Gsk. ID
Contact
(inches)
Gsk. OD
Contact
(inches)
Gsk. Area
Contact
(Sq. in.)
No. of
Bolts
Size of
Bolts
(inches)
Max.
Torque
per Bolts
@ 60 ksi
Bolt
Stress
(ft lb)
Comp.
per
Bolt @

Nom. Pipe Size (inches)


4
5
6
8

0.5

0.75

1.25

1.5

2.5

18

20

24

0.75

1.25

1.88

2.13

2.75

3.25

4.75

5.81

18.5

20.5

24.75

1.25

1.56

1.88

2.38

2.75

3.38

3.88

4.75

5.88

18.25 20.75

22.75

27

0.79

1.13

1.55

1.67

2.38

3.03

3.53

5.15

9.43 11.97 16.27 22.68 30.92 40.56 41.56 54.17 69.33

76.39

91.40

12

12

16

20

20

20

20

24

24

0.5

0.63

0.63

0.63

0.75

0.63

0.75

0.75

0.88

1.13

1.25

1.25

1.38

1.5

1.63

1.63

1.88

60

120

120

120

200

120

200

200

320

490

490

710

1000 1000 1360 1600

2200

2200

4000

6.88

10

12

14

16

8.88 10.81 12.88 14.25 16.25

8.25 10.38 12.5 14.75

16

7560 12120 12120 12120 18120 12120 18120 18120 25140 33060 33060 43680 55740 55740 69300 84300 100800 100800 138240

60K
(ft lb)
Max.
Gsk.
Comp. 38522 43079 31319 28994 30517 31983 41110 28139 21329 22102 24381 23112 28840 27486 33353 31127
Available
(psi)
Min. Gsk.
Comp.
10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000
Recomm.
(psi)
Minimum
Torque
per
16
28
38
41
66
38
49
71
150 222 201 307 347 364 408 514
Bolt (ft
lb)
Max.
Gsk.
Comp.
30000 30000 30000 28994 30000 30000 30000 28139 21329 22102 24381 23112 28840 27486 30000 30000
Recomm.
Avail.
(psi)
Prefer'd
Torque
47
84
115 120 197 113 146 200 320 490 490 710 1000 1000 1223 1542
(ft lb)
Tables are based on the use of bolts with a yield strength of 100,000 psi.

29080 31669 36298

10000 10000 10000

757

695

1102

29080 30000 30000

2200

2084

3306

Class 900

Gsk. ID
Contact
(inches)
Gsk. OD
Contact
(inches)
Gsk. Area
Contact
(Sq. in.)
No. of
Bolts
Size of
Bolts
(inches)
Max. Torque
per Bolts
@ 60 ksi
Bolt Stress
(ft lb)
Comp. per
Bolt @ 60K
(ft lb)

Nom. Pipe Size (inches)


8
10
12
14
16

3.75

4.75

5.81

6.88

4.75

5.88

6.67

9.43 11.97 16.27 20.45 24.88 37.43 40.87 47.05

8.75 10.88 12.75

14

8.25 10.13 12.25 14.5 15.75

18

20

24

16.25

18.25

20.5

24.75

18

20.5

22.5

26.75

68.44

67.51

80.86

12

12

16

20

20

20

20

20

20

0.88

1.13

1.25

1.13

1.38

1.38

1.38

1.5

1.63

1.88

2.5

320

710

1000

710

1360 1360 1360 1600

2200

4000

4400

8800

25140 43680 55740 43680 69300 69300 69300 84300 100800 138240 159120 257520

Max. Gsk.
Comp. Available 30142 37059 37264 32213 40660 44575 37024 41254
(psi)
Min. Gsk.
Comp. Recomm. 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000
(psi)
Minimum
Torque per
106 192 268 220 334 305 367 388
Bolt (ft lb)
Max. Gsk.
Comp. Recomm. 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000
Avail. (psi)
Prefer'd
Torque
318 575 805 661 1003 915 1102 1164
(ft lb)

42847 40396 47140 63699

10000 10000 10000 10000

513

990

933

1381

30000 30000 30000 30000

1540

2971

2800

4144

Tables are based on the use of bolts with a yield strength of 100,000 psi.

Class 1500

Gsk. ID
Contact

0.5
0.75

0.75
1

1
1.25

1.25
1.56

1.5
1.88

2
2.31

2.5
2.75

3
3.63

Nom. Pipe Size (inches)


4
5
6
8
4.63 5.63 6.75
8.5

10
10.5

12
12.75

14
14.25

16
16

18
18.25

20
20.25

24
24.25

(inches)
Gsk. OD
Contact 1.25 1.56 1.88 2.38 2.75 3.38 3.88 4.75 5.88
7
8.25 10.13 12.25 14.5 15.75
18
20.5
22.5
(inches)
Gsk. Area
Contact 0.79 1.13 1.55 2.54 3.16 4.78 5.88 7.37 10.31 13.58 17.66 23.84 31.25 37.43 35.55 53.38 68.44 75.51
(Sq. in.)
No. of
4
4
4
4
4
8
8
8
8
8
12
12
12
16
16
16
16
16
Bolts
Size of
Bolts
0.75 0.75 0.88 0.88
1
0.88
1
1.13 1.25 1.5 1.38 1.63
1.88
2
2.25
2.5
2.75
3
(inches)
Max.
Torque
per Bolts
@ 60 ksi 200 200 320 320 490 320 490 710 1000 1600 1360 2200 4000 4400 6360 8800 11840 15440
Bolt
Stress
(ft lb)
Comp.
per
Bolt @ 18120 18120 25140 25140 33060 25140 33060 43680 55740 84300 69300 100800 138240 159120 205380 257520 315540 379440
60K
(ft lb)
Max. 92331 64405 64964 39650 41821 42081 44971 47429 43239 49651 47083 50742 53079 68010 93024 77188 73765 80403
Gsk.
Comp.
Available

26.75

100.09
16
3.5

26000

52500

83927

(psi)
Min. Gsk.
Comp.
10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000
Recomm.
(psi)
Minimum
Torque
per
22
31
49
81
117
76
109 150 231 322 289
434
754
647
684
1140 1605 1920 3098
Bolt (ft
lb)
Max.
Gsk.
Comp.
30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000
Recomm.
Avail.
(psi)
Prefer'd
Torque
65
93
148 242 351 228 327 449 694 967 867 1301 2261 1941 2051 3420 4815 5761 9294
(ft lb)
Tables are based on the use of bolts with a yield strength of 100,000 psi.

Class 2500

0.5

0.75

1.25

1.5

Nom. Pipe Size (inches)


2
2.5
3
4
5

10

Gsk. ID
Contact
0.75
1
1.25 1.56 1.88 2.31 2.75 3.63 4.63 5.63
6.75
8.5
10.63
(inches)
Gsk. OD
Contact
1.25 1.56 1.88 2.38 2.75 3.38 3.88 4.75 5.88
7
8.25 10.13 12.25
(inches)
Gsk. Area
Contact
0.79 1.13 1.55 2.54 3.16 4.78 5.88 7.37 10.31 13.58 17.66 23.84 29.10
(Sq. in.)
No. of
4
4
4
4
4
8
8
8
8
8
8
12
12
Bolts
Size of
Bolts
0.75 0.75 0.88
1
1.13
1
1.13 1.25 1.5
1.75
2
2
2.5
(inches)
Max. Torque
per Bolts
@ 60 ksi
200 200 320 490 710 490 710 1000 1600 3000 4400 4400 8800
Bolt Stress
(ft lb)
Comp. per
Bolt @ 60K 18120 18120 25140 33060 43680 33060 43680 55740 84300 118800 159120 159120 257520
(ft lb)
Max. Gsk.
Comp. Available 92331 64405 64964 52141 55255 55338 59417 60524 65394 69970 72071 80101 106207
(psi)

12
12.5

14.5

42.39
12
2.75

11840

315540

89325

Min. Gsk.
Comp. Recomm. 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000
(psi)
Minimum
Torque per
22
31
49
94
128
89
119 165 245
429
611
549
829
1325
Bolt (ft lb)
Max. Gsk.
Comp. Recomm. 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000
Avail. (psi)
Prefer'd
Torque
65
93
148 282 385 266 358 496 734 1286 1832 1648 2486 3976
(ft lb)
Tables are based on the use of bolts with a yield strength of 100,000 psi.

Torque to Stress Bolts


The torque required to produce a certain stress in bolting is dependent on several conditions, including:

Diameter and number of threads on bolt


Condition of nut bearing surfaces
Lubrication of bolt threads and nut bearing surfaces.

The tables below reflect the results of many tests to determine the relation between torque and bolt stress. Values are based on steel
bolts that have been well-lubricated with a heavy graphite and oil mixture.
A non-lubricated bolt has an efficiency of about 50% of a well-lubricated bolt. Also, different lubricants produce results that vary from
50% to 100% of the tabulated stress figures.

For Alloy Steel Stud Bolts (Load in pounds on stud bolts when torque load is applied)

1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16

5/8

3/4

7/8

Nominal Diameter of Bolt (inches)


1 1-1/8 1-1/4 1-3/8 1-1/2 1-5/8

Number
of
20
18
16
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
8
8
8
8
Threads
(per inch)
Diameter
at Root
0.185 0.240 0.294 0.345 0.400 0.454 0.507 0.620 0.731 0.838 0.963 1.088 1.213 1.338
of Thread
(inches)
Area
at Root
0.027 0.045 0.068 0.093 0.126 0.162 0.202 0.302 0.419 0.551 0.728 0.929 1.155 1.405
of Thread
(sq. inch)
S 30,000 psi
Torque
4
8
12
20
30
45
60
100 160 245 355 500 680 800
T (ft lbs)
30,000 psi 810 1350 2040 2790 3780 4860 6060 9060 12570 16530 21840 27870 34650 42150

1-3/4

1-7/8

2-1/4

2-1

1.463

1.588

1.713

1.838

2.088

2.3

1.680

1.980

2.304

2.652

3.423

4.2

1100

1500

2000

2200

3180

44

50400 59400 69120 79560 102690 128

Compression (lbs)
45,000 psi
Torque
6
12
18
30
45
68
90
150 240 368 533 750 1020 1200 1650 2250 3000 3300 4770 66
(ft lbs)
45,000 psi
Compres- 1215 2025 3060 4185 5670 7290 9090 13590 18855 24795 32760 41805 51975 63225 75600 89100 103680 119340 154035 193
R sion (lbs)
60,000 psi
E Torque
8
16
24
40
60
90 120 200 320 490 710 1000 1360 1600 2200 3000 4000 4400 6360 88
(ft lbs)
S
60,000 psi
Compres- 1620 2700 4080 5580 7560 9720 12120 18120 25140 33060 43680 55740 69300 84300 100800 118800 138240 159120 205380 257
S
sion (lbs)

For Machine Bolts and Cold Rolled Steel Stud Bolts (Load in pounds on stud bolts when torque load is applied)
Nominal Diameter of Bolt (inches)
1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8
1 1-1/8 1-1/4 1-3/8 1-1/2 1-5/8 1-3/4 1-7/8

Number
of
20
18
16
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
7
6
6 5-1/2 5
5
4-1/2
Threads
(per inch)
Diameter 0.185 0.240 0.294 0.345 0.400 0.454 0.507 0.620 0.731 0.838 0.939 1.064 1.158 1.283 1.389 1.490 1.615 1.711
at Root
of Thread

(inches)
Area
at Root
0.027 0.045 0.068 0.093 0.126 0.162 0.202 0.302 0.419 0.551 0.693 0.890 1.054 1.294 1.515 1.744 2.049
of Thread
(sq. inch)
7,500 psi
Torque
1
2
3
5
8
12
15
25
40
62
98
137 183 219 300 390 525
(ft lbs)
7,500 psi
S Compres- 203 338 510 698 945 1215 1515 2265 3143 4133 5190 6675 7905 9705 11363 13080 15368
sion (lbs)
T 15,000 psi
Torque
2
4
6
10
15
23
30
50
80
123 195 273 365 437 600 775 1050
R (ft lbs)
E 15,000 psi
Compres- 405 675 1020 1395 1890 2340 3030 4530 6285 8265 10380 13350 15810 19410 22725 26160 30735
S sion (lbs)
30,000 psi
4
8
12
20
30
45
60 100 160 245 390 545 730 875 1200 1550 2100
S Torque
(ft lbs)
30,000 psi
Compres- 810 1350 2040 2790 3780 4860 6060 9060 12570 16530 20760 26700 31620 38820 45450 52320 61470
sion (lbs)

2.300

563

17250

1125

34500

2250

69000

Troubleshooting Leaking Joints


One of the best methods for determining the cause of joint leakage is the careful examination of the gasket where the leakage
occurred.

Observation

Possible Remedies

Select replacement
material with improved
corrosion resistance.

Select replacement
material with better cold
flow properties.

Select replacement
material with better load
capacityi.e., more
dense.

Select replacement
material with better load
carrying capacity.

Provide means to prevent


crushing the gasket by use
of a stop ring or redesign
of flanges.

Gasket badly corroded

Gasket extruded excessively

Gasket grossly crushed

Gasket mechanically
damaged due to overhang of
raised face or flange bore

Review gasket dimensions


to insure gaskets are
proper size.

Make certain gaskets are


properly centered in joint.

Select softer gasket


material.
Select thicker gasket
material.

No apparent gasket
compression achieved

Gasket substantially thinner


on OD than ID due to
excessive flange rotation or
bending

Gasket unevenly compressed

Reduce gasket area to


allow higher unit seating
load.

Alter gasket dimensions to


move gasket reaction
closer to bolts to minimize
bending movement.
Provide stiffness to flange
by means of back-up
rings.
Select softer gasket
material to lower required
seating stresses.

Reduce gasket area to


lower seating stresses.

Make certain proper

sequential bolt-up
procedures are followed.

around circumference

Gasket thickness varies


periodically around
circumference

Provide reinforcing rings


for flanges to better
distribute bolt load.
Select gasket material
with lower seating stress.
Provide additional bolts if
possible to obtain better
load distribution.
If flanges are warped,
remachine or use softer
gasket material.