Medical Terminology

The Basic Structure and Analysis of Medical Terms

By E. Suryadi Madarina Julia
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ONCOLOGY: Cervix Sarcoma
Sarcoma of the cervix therapy Sarcomas of the cervix show a variable and generally poor response to radiotherapy. If possible therefore, surgical removal is indicated if the disease is localized to the pelvis. This may vary from simple hysterectomy to total pelvic exenteration. Chemotherapy has not proved effective in these tumor The signs and symptoms of recurrent malignant disease are: 1. Positive cytologic examination 2. Palpable tumor in pelvis or abdomen 3. Ulceration of cervix or vagina 4. Unilateral lower extremity edema 2 5. Supraclavicular lymphadenopathy

(Adopted from: Gordon Reeves & Ian Todel. 1996: Lecture Notes on Immunology.pp: 258)
1. Abnormal proliferation of the cells of the immune system takes many forms, e.g. leukaemia, lymphoma, myeloma, macroglobulinemia and heavy chain diseases. Cryoglobuminemia and amyloidosis are also associated with the abnormal production of proteins involved in the immune respons.
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2. The monoclonal gammopathies are caused by the uncontrolled proliferation of a single clone of plasma cells (in myelomatosis) or B Lymphoblasts (in macroglobulinemia). In macroglobulinemia the excess production of pentameric IgM is associated with hyperviscosity and cryoglobulinemia. In myeloma the monoclonal immunoglobuline can be of class IgG, IgA, IgD, IgM, or monomeric IgM. Decalcification, hypercalcemia and bone pain is mediated by cytokine release initiated by the abnormal plasma cells and agents that inhibit IL-6 are under investigation for treatment of myelomatosis. 4

Medical Terminology
Our sessions : The structure and analysis of medical terms Roots, prefix and suffix in medical terms The basic of medical terminology Two practical sessions
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History
a vocabulary from ancient Greek and Latin Ancient doctors, e.g. Hippocrates:
epilepsy, dysentery, asthma, diarrhea

New advances in medical science – new terms derived from everyday vocabulary,
e.g. cyt – kytos (hollow container)-cell
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Why do we need to learn medical terminology ? To speak and to write exactly Health professional around the world use medical vocabulary to speak and to write exactly International language 7 .

How do we learn medical terminology? like learning other languages: memorize the vocabulary!! logical language: → most terms can be broken down into its basic component parts and understood → “basic word structure” 8 .

Medical Terminology The basic of medical terminology 9 .

Basic Word Structure PANCYTOPENIA PREFIX COMBINING WORD VOWEL ROOT SUFFIX COMBINING FORM 10 .

Prefix and Suffix 11 .Medical Terminology Commonly Used Roots.

WORD ROOT FOUNDATION OF THE WORD GASTER =GASTROS ROOT (stomach) 12 .

PREFIX WORD BEGINNING EPIGASTRIC PREFIX (above) 13 .

SUFFIX WORD ENDING GASTRITIS SUFFIX (inflammation) 14 .

COMPOUND WORD TWO OR MORE WORD ROOTS ELECTROCARDIOGRAM GASTROENTERITIS WORD ROOTS 15 .

LEUKOCYTE LEUKOCYTOSIS LEUKOCYTOPENIA SUFFIX or COMPOUND SUFFIX FORM 16 .

PANCYTOPENIA PAN : all CYT : cell PENIA : deficiency DEFICIENCY OF ALL CELLS (deficiency of all types of blood cells) Correlate an understanding of a word with basic anatomy. and disease process of the human body 17 . physiology.

LEUKEMIA LEUK (root): white EM (root): blood IA (suffix): state (noun) EMIA (compound-suffix form): state of blood “white blood” malignancy of white blood cells 18 .

The origin of a medical term Greek noun or adjective Greek verb Latin noun or adjective Latin verb Influence how it was used in modern medical term 19 .

ys) nephros – nephritis neuron – neuritis leukos – leukemia tachys – tachypnea glykys -. e.glycemia 20 . on. s.Greek nouns and adjectives (1) Root of a noun or an adjective is found by dropping the ending (os.

Greek nouns and adjectives (2) … when a suffix begins with a consonant attached to a root ends with a consonant. a combining vowel is needed leukocyte neurogenic nephroblast 21 .

and not GASTROIC LEUKEMIA. and not LEUKOEMIA 22 .so…drop the combining vowel before a suffix beginning with a vowel GASTRIC.

but… retain the combining vowel between two roots in a word GASTROENTERITIS ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM 23 .

somatotroph hemoglobin. stomatos macrosomia. dermatos hypodermic. stomatitis 24 . hematology tracheostomy. dermatology soma.Greek nouns and adjectives (3) Some words may come in two combining forms: derma. somatos haima. haimatos stoma.

Greek Verbs gignesthai gen(e) .gen lyein tome graphein rhein ly(s)tomgraphrhepathogenesis hematogen hemolysis cholecystotomy cardiograph diarrhea. leukorrhea 25 .

Latin Nouns Combining form of a noun is found by dropping the ending (a. um) fistula – fistulectomy vagina – vaginoplasty lympha – lymphogen ileum – ileostomy cerebrum – cerebrovascular palatum – palatorrhaphy 26 .

Tissue Tissues may have different terms in normal and diseased states NORMAL: LATIN WORD DISEASED/ ABNORMAL: GREEK WORD 27 .

normal and abnormal TESTIS UTERUS VAGINA OVARIUM TUBA NASUS ORIS HEPAR orchitis endometritis colpitis vaginitis oophor/o Oophoritis salphynx salphyngitis rhin/o rhinitis stomat/onep Stomatitis hepat/o hepatitis 28 orch/o metr/o colp/o .

normal and abnormal REN COR PULMO CORNEA AURIS CEREBRUM nephr/o cardi/o pneum/o kerat/o ot/o encephal/o nephritis carditis pneumonitis pneumonia keratitis otitis encephalitis 29 .

Tissue ADIPOSE TISSUE Fascia adiposa LIP/O : FAT – Lipolysis – Lipogenesis – Lipodystrophy – lipoma 30 .

os radius.Tissue OSSEUS/OS Os femur. os pallatum. medulla osseum OSTE/O : BONE – Osteogenesis imperfecta – Osteoblast – Osteomyelitis 31 .

Tissue NERVUS Nernus ischiadicus. axillaris NEUR/O : NERVE – neuralgia – neuropathy – neuritis 32 . n.

rectus abdominis MY/O MYS/O: MUSCLE – myopathy – myositis – Myoglobin – Myofibra – Myocardium – Myometrium 33 . m.Tissue MUSCULUS Musculus pectoralis major.

Tissue CARTILAGO Cartilago thyreoidea. cartilago septi nasi CHONDR/O : CARTILAGE – chondrodysplasia – Achondroplasia – Osteogenesis enchondralis – Chondrogenesis 34 .

Tissue CUTIS CUTANE/0 Intracutane. subcutane DERMIS DERMAT/O : SKIN – dermatitis – leukoderma – epidermis – dermatology 35 .

Tissue VASA VASCUL/O vascularisation. avascular ANGI/O : BLOOD VESSEL – angiopathy/ vasculopathy – angiography – Angiogram – angioma – Vasculitis 36 .

SANGUINIS HEM/O =HAIMA EM HEMAT/O: BLOOD – hematology – hematopoiesis – anemia – cholesterolemia – hemoglobin 37 .Tissue SANGUIS.

Color= chrom LEUK/O : ALBUS : WHITE ALBINO. CORPUS ALBICAN LINEA ALBA LEUKOCYTE LEUKOCYTURIA LEUKOCYTOSIS LEUKEMIA LEUKODERMA LEUKODYSTROPHY LEUKOPLAKIA LEUKORRHEA FLUOR ALBUS 38 .

Color = chrom MELAN/O : FUSCUS : BLACK MELANOCYTE MELANOBLAST MELANOMA MELANURIA MELANIN MELENA 39 .

Color ERYTHR/O : RUBRO : RED CORPUS RUBRUM NUCLEUS RUBER ERYTHROBLAST ERYTHROCYTE ERYTHROCLAST ERYTHEMATOUS ERYSIPELAS ERYTHREMIA ERYTHRODERMA 40 .

Color CYAN/O: BLUE CYANOTIC CYANOSIS CYANOPHIL CYANOPSIA CYANOLABE glaucos : bluish green Griseus : bluish grey 41 .

Color CHLOR/O:CHLOASMA : GREEN CHLOROMA CHLOROPHYL CHLOROPSIA CHLOROLABE 42 .

COLOR GRISEUS = POLIOS = PHAIOS =GREY Substantia grisea Poliomyelitis 43 .

Color XANTH/O: FLAVUS: LUTEUS: YELLOW CORPUS LUTEUM XANTHOCHROMIC XANTHOCHROMIA XANTHELASMA XANTHOMA XANTHOPSIA 44 .

Body activities Audio = acouo = to hear Opsia = opia = blepo = to see Phagien = to eat Dipsa = to drink Phrasis = to speech Laleo = to talk Gradior = to walk Halo = pneu = to breathe Oureo = to urinate Ergo = to work Sedeo =sella = to sit Osme = bromo =to smell Mnena = memory Palpo = to touch Kineo= moveo = to move Gustatus = geuma = to taste Hypnos = somnus = sopor= to sleep Glutio = to swallow Defaecatio= chezo = to 45 defaecate .

Qualitative Measurement Major= magnus = mega = great Minor = parvus = small Breve = short Longus = long Durum = hard Mollis = soft Bradys = tardus = slow Tachys = celer = fast Poly = multi = many Oligos = few = rare Asthenia = weak 46 .

prefix – Location retr/o supra/super /ultra epi extra par/a peri end/o – ento .en eso intra infra/ sub ect/o exo ec 47 .

prefix – Location mes/o Circum/peri 48 .

upwards Cata = downward 49 . to the other side Inter = between. over Ana = upon. among Dia = complete = through Per = through.Prefix others Ante = before Meta = behind Trans = beyond.

exotoxin Periosteum. endoderm encephalitis endometrium vs. etc. pericardium Circumoral. circumductio retroperitoneal 50 suprarenal. . parametrium endotoxin vs.prefix – Location examples: ectopic pregnancy ectoderm. mesoderm.

prefix .number A/AN NULLI WITHOUT LACKING DEFICIENT ANEMIA APLASTIC ANEMIA ANALGESIA NULLIPARA 51 .

½ hemi semi prefix .number HALF PARTIAL HEMIPARESIS HEMIPLEGIA HEMIHYPERTROPHY SEMICOMATOSE 52 .

prefix .mono MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY MONOPARESIS MONONUCLEAR CELLS UNICELLULAR UNILATERAL 53 .number uni .

number PRIMIPARA.st 1 primi prefix . PRIMIPAROUS PRIMIGRAVIDA PRIMITIVE PRIMORDIAL GERM CELLS 54 .

number BI .prefix .DI(PLO) BICUSPID VALVE BICEPS BIFURCATIO DIPLOCOCCUS DIPLOID 55 .

TRI : → TRICUSPIDALIS.TETRA : → TETRAPARESES. MULTIGRAVIDA • 3 .prefix . TRI IN DIE • 4 . MULTINUCLEAR GIANT CELLS.PENTA : PENTAMER 56 .number • MULTI – MANY : → MULTIPARA. TETRAPLEGIA • 5 .

negative sense ANTI (ANT): CONTRA = AGAINST. OPPOSED • ANTIBIOTIC • ANTIHISTAMINE • ANTITOXIN 57 .

anhidrosis 58 . DEFICIENT Anaerobe. malaria A. anemia. AN = ABSENCE OF SOMETHING.MAL = BAD Malnutrition.

abnormal DYSMENORRHEA DYSPEPSIA DYSTROPHY (DUCHENNE MUSCULODYSTROPHY) DYSURIA 59 .negative sense dys : difficult. painful.

below normal HYPOGLYCEMIA HYPERGLYCEMIA HYPOTHYROIDISM HYPERTHYROIDISM HYPOTENSI HYPERTENSI HYPODERMIC 60 . over hypo: under.hyper and hypo hyper : beyond normal. excessive. deficient.

fast brady: slow tachycardia tachypnea bradycardia bradypnea 61 .tachy and brady tachy: rapid.

asis. ia. osteomalacia hypertrophy ectasia arteriosclerosis • • • • • • state. esis.suffix – noun a. ism. sis. us: dyspnea. condition nephrolithiasis erythema hyperchromasia diuresis synergism hydrocephalus 62 . sia. ema. rhinorrhea anemia. asia. y.

disease fibroadenoma adenocarcinoma glioma edema lymphoma 63 endometriosis .m a oophoritis endometritis colitis ulcerosa hepatitis carditis dermatosis inflammation tumor.suffix – noun osis Abnormal condition itis oma.

Suffix NOUN .ADJECTIVE NOUN cyanosis anemia nervus sclerosis stenosis paralysis ADJECTIVE cyanotic anemic nervous sclerotic stenotic paralytic 64 .

SUFFIXES -ALGIA = PAIN -CELE = HERNIA -CENTESIS = SURGICAL PUNCTURE TO REMOTE A FLUID -PENIA = DECREASE -DYNIA = PAIN -LYSIS = DESTRUCTION = BREAKDOWN -MALACIA = SOFTENING -OPSY = TO VIEW -POIESIS = FORMATION -PLASIA = DEVELOPMENT 65 .

Others SUFFIXES -PATHY = DISEASE -PEXY = FIXATION -STASIS = STOPPING. CONTROLING -SCOPE = INSTRUMENT FOR EXAMINATION -PTOSIS = DROPPING 66 .

67 .What are we going to discuss in this session? ABREVIATIONS IN MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY SINGULAR-PLURAL CLINICAL TERMS/ PHRASES etc.

4.Abbreviations 1. 5. 6. 3. Measurements Chemical Diagnoses Procedures Health Professions Charting 68 . 2.

Abbreviations Measurements g or gm mcg tsp kcal mMol/L g/dL mg% BMI gram microgram teaspoon calorie mMol per liter gram per deciliter miligram percent body mass index 69 .

kalium) 70 .Abbreviations Chemical O2 (oxygen) CO2 (carbon dioxide) NaCl (sodium chloride) RL (Ringer Lactate) K (potassium.

Abbreviations Diagnoses CP (cerebral palsy) AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) ALL (acute lymphoblastic leukemia) CVA (cerebrovascular accident) CVD (cardiovascular disease) DHF (Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever) 71 .

Abbreviations Procedures (1) radiology IVP: intravenous pyelography ECG: electrocardiography USG: ultrasonography MRI: magnetic resonance imaging CT-SCAN (CAT-SCAN): computerized axial tomography scanning 72 .

Abbreviations Procedures (2) laboratory 2 hr pp (2 hour post prandial blood glucose) LDH (lactic dehydrogenase) CK (creatine kinase) LFT (liver function test) RFT (renal function test) 73 .

nose.Abbreviations Health professions MD (medical doctor) ENT (ear. throat) OB (obstetry) GYN (gynecology) 74 .

left eye) tid (tri in die.Abbreviations Charting ex/ exam (examination) Dx (diagnosis) Tx (treatment) Rx (prescribe) BP (blood pressure) iv (intravenous) OS (oculus sinister. thrice a day) 75 .

Rules for commonly forming plurals ending is um us a ex/ix change to es a i ae ices 76 .

Examples of plurals is to es SINGULAR anastomosis metastasis epiphysis prosthesis PLURAL anastomoses metastases epiphyses prostheses 77 .

Examples of plurals um to a SINGULAR bacterium diverticulum ovum PLURAL bacteria diverticula ova 78 .

Examples of plurals us to i SINGULAR calculus bronchus bronchiolus nucleus PLURAL calculi bronchi bronchioli nuclei 79 .

Examples of plurals a to ae SINGULAR vertebra bursa bulla PLURAL vertebrae bursae bullae 80 .

Examples of plurals ix or ex to ices SINGULAR apex varix PLURAL apices varices 81 .

Clinical Terms/ Phrases
Ana/mnes/is: history of symptoms examination: physical examination of signs Dia/gnos/is therapy/ treatment Pro/gnos/is

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diagnosis/diseases (1) related to organ system/ tissue
inflammation: rhinopharyngitis, cystitis tumor/ cancer: hepatocellular carcinoma, osteosarcoma, melanoma maligna, neurofibromatosis condition: mitral stenosis, arteriosclerosis, nephrolithiasis, dysenteri, hemothorax syndrome: nephrotic syndrome, hepatorenal syndrome, AIDS
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diagnosis/diseases (2) related to the causing factors
organism:
– Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) – Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS) – Chikungunya Fever – Diphteria (C. diphteriae) – Tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis)

toxin:
– tetanus (tetanin – C. tetani) – botulism (botulinum – C. botulinum)
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diagnosis/diseases (3) named after the person who found it signs: – Turner syndrome – Biot respiration – Spleen Schuffner 1-8 disease: – Duchenne muscular dystrophy – Becker muscular dystrophy – Hashimoto disease – Grave’s disease – Neurofibromatosis von Recklinghausen85 .

therapy/ treatment Causative/ Curative: address the cause of the disease – aimed at curing the disease Symptomatic/Palliative: address the symptoms of the disease – aimed at making the patients feel better Ex juvantivus: a try out 86 .

excision . ileostomy ectomy (resection= to cut out): nephrectomy. nephrostomy.surgical procedures tomy (to cut): pyloromyotomi. splenectomy. palatorraphy. Plasty (to improve): vaginoplasty 87 incision vs. gastrectomy rraphy (to sew): herniorrhaphy. osteotomi stomy (to make an opening): tracheostomy.

prognosis dubia ad malam dubia ad bonam five years survival rate of 80% fatality rate remission rate cure rate 88 .

migraine. lethargy. sopor. vertigo 89 . coma shock headache/ cephalgia: tension headache. chronic degree of consciousness: compos mentis. soporocomatous. stupor. cluster headache.other terms acute vs.

HEMATOMA 90 . ILIUM HEPATOMA vs.Aware of spelling and pronunciation problem 4 pronounced alike – different spelling 4 may give wrong diagnosis CYSTITIS vs. CYTOSIS ILEUM vs.

URETHRA ureteritis urethritis 91 .Aware of spelling and pronunciation problem similar pronunciation URETER vs.

alveolus 92 .diminutive suffix (1) culus –venter – ventriculus. ventricle –vasa – vasculus –vesica – vesiculus. vesicle olus –arteria – arteriole –alveus -.

globule illa –fibril -fibrilla ellum –cerebrum .diminutive suffix (2) ulus –calcis – calculus –globus – globulus.cerebellum 93 .

How do we analyze a medical terms? break it down into its component part find the meaning of every part Read the meaning from the suffix back to the first part of the word 94 .

PANCYTOPENIA PAN (prefix): all CYT (root): cell PENIA (suffix-form): deficiency DEFICIENCY OF ALL CELLS (deficiency of all types of blood cells) 95 .

ELECTROCARDIOGRAM ELECTR (root): electricity CARDI (root): heart GRAM (suffix): record The record of the electricity of the heart 96 .

GASTROENTERITIS GASTR (root): stomach ENTER (root): intestines ITIS (suffix): inflammation Inflammation of the stomach and intestines 97 .

Read the meaning of medical terms from the suffix back to the first part of the word PANCYTOPENIA ELECTROCARDIOGRAM GASTROENTERITIS 98 .

ASYNERGY A (prefix): without SYN (prefix): together ERG (root): working Y (suffix): noun-suffix without synergy without working together 99 .

etc. 100 . liposarcoma. chondrosarcoma.OSTEOSARCOMA OSTEO (combining form): bone SARCOMA (suffix-form): tumor of the tissue – SARC (root): tissue – OMA (suffix): tumor tumor of bone tissue lymphosarcoma.

RETROPERITONEAL RETRO (prefix): behind PERITONEUM (root–peritonaion): to stretch over AL (suffix): adjectival suffix behind the peritoneum Peritoneum is a serous sac that lines the abdominal cavity 101 .

Fleischer RM. F.. 2nd ed.A Davis Company. Medical Terminology.B. The Language of Medicine. Inc. Medical Terminology. 1988 102 . John Wiley & Sons. A Programmed Text.Further Readings Chabner DE. 1981 Dunmore CW. 1985 Dennerll JT. 5th ed. W. Saunders Company. Exercises in Etymology.

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