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For Indonesian learners of English, being able to speak the language is a dream come true. Many language learners regard speaking ability as the measure of knowing a language. These learners define fluency as the ability to converse with others, much more than the ability to read, write, or comprehend oral language. They regard speaking as the most important skill they can acquire, and they assess their progress in terms of their accomplishments in spoken communication. Language learners need to recognize that speaking involves three areas of knowledge:
Mechanics (pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary): Using the right words in the right order with the correct pronunciation Functions (transaction and interaction): Knowing when clarity of message is essential (transaction/information exchange) and when precise understanding is not required (interaction/relationship building) Social and cultural rules and norms (turn-taking, rate of speech, length of pauses between speakers, relative roles of participants): Understanding how to take into account who is speaking to whom, in what circumstances, about what, and for what reason.
In the communicative model of language teaching, instructors help their students develop this body of knowledge by providing authentic practice that prepares students for real-life communication situations. They help their students develop the ability to produce grammatically correct, logically connected sentences that are appropriate to specific contexts, and to do so using acceptable (that is, comprehensible) pronunciation.
Goals and Techniques for Teaching Speaking
The goal of teaching speaking skills is communicative efficiency. Learners should be able to make themselves understood, using their current proficiency to the fullest. They should try to avoid confusion in the message due to faulty pronunciation, grammar, or vocabulary, and to observe the social and cultural rules that apply in each communication situation. To help students develop communicative efficiency in speaking, instructors can use a balanced activities approach that combines language input, structured output, and communicative output. Language input comes in the form of teacher talk, listening activities, reading passages, and the language heard and read outside of class. It gives learners the material they need to begin producing language themselves. Language input may be content oriented or form oriented.
Content-oriented input focuses on information, whether it is a simple weather report or an extended lecture on an academic topic. Content-oriented input may also include descriptions of
learning strategies and examples of their use.
Form-oriented input focuses on ways of using the language: guidance from the teacher or another source on vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar (linguistic competence); appropriate things to say in specific contexts (discourse competence); expectations for rate of speech, pause length, turn-taking, and other social aspects of language use (sociolinguistic competence); and explicit instruction in phrases to use to ask for clarification and repair miscommunication (strategic competence).
In the presentation part of a lesson, an instructor combines content-oriented and form-oriented input. The amount of input that is actually provided in the target language depends on students' listening proficiency and also on the situation. For students at lower levels, or in situations where a quick explanation on a grammar topic is needed, an explanation in English may be more appropriate than one in the target language. Structured output focuses on correct form. In structured output, students may have options for responses, but all of the options require them to use the specific form or structure that the teacher has just introduced. Structured output is designed to make learners comfortable producing specific language items recently introduced, sometimes in combination with previously learned items. Instructors often use structured output exercises as a transition between the presentation stage and the practice stage of a lesson plan. textbook exercises also often make good structured output practice activities. In communicative output, the learners' main purpose is to complete a task, such as obtaining information, developing a travel plan, or creating a video. To complete the task, they may use the language that the instructor has just presented, but they also may draw on any other vocabulary, grammar, and communication strategies that they know. In communicative output activities, the criterion of success is whether the learner gets the message across. Accuracy is not a consideration unless the lack of it interferes with the message. In everyday communication, spoken exchanges take place because there is some sort of information gap between the participants. Communicative output activities involve a similar real information gap. In order to complete the task, students must reduce or eliminate the information gap. In these activities, language is a tool, not an end in itself. In a balanced activities approach, the teacher uses a variety of activities from these different categories of input and output. Learners at all proficiency levels, including beginners, benefit from this variety; it is more motivating, and it is also more likely to result in effective language learning.
Strategies for Developing Speaking Skills
Students often think that the ability to speak a language is the product of language learning, but speaking is also a crucial part of the language learning process. Effective instructors teach students speaking strategies -- using minimal responses, recognizing scripts, and using language to talk about language -- that they can use to help themselves expand their knowledge of the language and their confidence in using it. These instructors help students learn to speak so that
Minimal responses are predictable.a script. doubt. apologies. 3. Developing Speaking Activities Traditional classroom speaking practice often takes the form of drills in which one person asks a question and another gives an answer. As they develop control of various clarification strategies. without having to simultaneously plan a response. Having a stock of such responses enables a learner to focus on what the other participant is saying. Such responses can be especially useful for beginners.the students can use speaking to learn. Recognizing scripts Some communication situations are associated with a predictable set of spoken exchanges -. and other functions that are influenced by social and cultural norms often follow patterns or scripts. invitations. The question and the answer are structured and predictable. 1. whatever the participants' language skill levels. often idiomatic phrases that conversation participants use to indicate understanding. Through interactive activities. One way to encourage such learners to begin to participate is to help them build up a stock of minimal responses that they can use in different types of exchanges. Greetings. and other responses to what another speaker is saying. instructors can create an authentic practice environment within the classroom itself. So do the transactional exchanges involved in activities such as obtaining information and making a purchase. Using minimal responses Language learners who lack confidence in their ability to participate successfully in oral interaction often listen in silence while others do the talking. instructors can give students practice in managing and varying the language that different scripts contain. Using language to talk about language Language learners are often too embarrassed or shy to say anything when they do not understand another speaker or when they realize that a conversation partner has not understood them. and by responding positively when they do. agreement. Instructors can help students develop speaking ability by making them aware of the scripts for different situations so that they can predict what they will hear and what they will need to say in response. . The purpose of asking and answering the question is to demonstrate the ability to ask and answer the question. Instructors can also give students strategies and phrases to use for clarification and comprehension check. By encouraging students to use clarification phrases in class when misunderstanding occurs. and often there is only one correct. In these scripts. the relationship between a speaker's turn and the one that follows it can often be anticipated. 2. Instructors can help students overcome this reticence by assuring them that misunderstanding and the need for clarification can occur in any type of interaction. students will gain confidence in their ability to manage the various communication situations that they may encounter outside the classroom. compliments. predetermined answer.
In contrast. In another variation. so there must be some polite negotiation to arrive at a mutually convenient time for a meeting or a conference. while in the other the man is wearing a jacket. In real communication. Each partner has pages from an appointment book in which certain dates and times are already filled in and other times are still available for an appointment. and they cooperate to find all the missing details. such as conveying a telephone message. in one picture. Structured Output Activities Two common kinds of structured output activities are information gap and jigsaw activities. Differences in the activities depicted lead to practice of different verbs. but similar items differ in appearance. each participant has information that the other does not have. a man walking along the street may be wearing an overcoat. the purpose of real communication is to accomplish a task. and shape lead to adjective practice. a feature the activities have in common with real communication. students complete a task by obtaining missing information. However. Authentic communication involves an information gap." Answers would be limited mostly to time expressions like "at 8:15" or "at ten in the evening. The two partners are not permitted to see each other's timetables and must fill in the blanks by asking each other appropriate questions. quantity alone will not necessarily produce competent speakers. For example. In both these types of activities. participants may have to clarify their meaning or ask for confirmation of their own understanding. Information Gap Activities • Filling the gaps in a schedule or timetable: Partner A holds an airline timetable with some of the arrival and departure times missing. In addition. size. Differing locations would probably be described with prepositional phrases. with communicative output activities that give students opportunities to practice language use more freely. However. to achieve their purpose. For example." Completing the picture: The two partners have similar pictures. Partner B has the same timetable but with different blank spaces. The features of grammar and vocabulary that are practiced are determined by the content of the pictures and the items that are missing or different. Differences in number. In this respect they are more like drills than like communication. the open times don't match exactly. or expressing an opinion. To create classroom speaking activities that will develop communicative competence. instructors need to incorporate a purpose and an information gap and allow for multiple forms of expression. information gap and jigsaw activities also set up practice on specific items of language. Instructors need to combine structured output activities. Jigsaw Activities . no items are missing. The features of language that are practiced would include questions beginning with "when" or "at what time. participants must manage uncertainty about what the other person will say. • These activities may be set up so that the partners must practice more than just grammatical and lexical features. each with different missing details. obtaining information. the timetable activity gains a social dimension when one partner assumes the role of a student trying to make an appointment with a partner who takes the role of a professor. which allow for error correction and increased accuracy. Of course.
Students first work in input groups (groups A. students reconstruct the complete story by comparing the four versions. In a jigsaw activity. Each group receives a different part of the total information for the task. students work in groups of four. so that the partners have to negotiate among themselves to agree on a satisfactory sequence. he returns with the empty bowl to the kitchen and finds that he left the container of ice cream. • In one fairly simple jigsaw activity. As they become comfortable. The four recordings all contain the same general information. he serves himself several scoops of ice cream. on the kitchen counter. they can move on to true communicative output activities. B. This structure controls the number of variables that students must deal with when they are first exposed to new material. C. and D) to receive information. In these activities. not in extended discourse. each partner has one or a few pieces of the "puzzle. The puzzle piece may take one of several forms. when the input is given in the form of a tape recording. Partners may not show each other their panels. eliciting what they already know and supplementing what they are able to produce themselves. however. • With information gap and jigsaw activities. resolve a problem. or complete a task. However. structured output activities lead students to practice specific features of language and to practice only in brief sentences. now melting. If an activity calls for language your students have not already practiced. It may be one sentence from a written narrative. C. Groups A. and the participants' social roles are irrelevant to the performance of the activity. they feature information gaps that must be bridged for successful completion of the task. Such an organization could be used. B. These pictures have a clear narrative line and the partners are not likely to disagree about the appropriate sequencing.Jigsaw activities are more elaborate information gap activities that can be done with several partners. Communicative Output Activities Communicative output activities allow students to practice using all of the language they know in situations that resemble real settings. and use the information they received to complete the task. in which case no two partners hear exactly the same conversation. where authentic communication allows speakers to use all of the language they know. B. structured output situations are contrived and more like games than real communication. Each student in the group receives one panel from a comic strip. Together the four panels present this narrative: a man takes a container of ice cream from the freezer. but each has one or more details that the others do not. students must work together to develop a plan. you can brainstorm with them when setting up the activity to preview the language they will need. You can make the task more demanding. It may be a tape recording of a conversation. Also. by using pictures that lend themselves to alternative sequences. C. for example. Like authentic communication. In the second stage. and D each hear a different recording of a short news bulletin. Students then reorganize into groups of four with one student each from A. instructors need to be conscious of the language demands they place on their students. It may be one panel from a comic strip or one photo from a set that tells a story. Structured output activities can form an effective bridge between instructor modeling and communicative output because they are partly authentic and partly artificial. . The most common types of communicative output activity are role plays and discussions. he sits in front of the TV eating his ice cream. More elaborate jigsaws may proceed in two stages. and D." and the partners must cooperate to fit all the pieces into a whole picture.
a group opinion. Do not expect all students to contribute equally to the discussion. Allow students to work at their own levels: Each student has individual language skills. give feedback on grammar or pronunciation problems you have heard. They have to use language that is appropriate to the situation and to the characters. and a specific role to play in the activity. the role relationships among the students as they play their parts call for them to practice and develop their sociolinguistic competence. or news about mutual friends. Do not correct their pronunciation or grammar unless they specifically ask you about it. an individual approach to working in groups. Weighty topics like how to combat pollution are not as engaging and place heavy demands on students' linguistic competence. plans for a vacation. To succeed with role plays: • • • • • • • Prepare carefully: Introduce the activity by describing the situation and making sure that all of the students understand it Set a goal or outcome: Be sure the students understand what the product of the role play should be. a schedule. Do topical follow-up: Have students report to the class on the outcome of their role plays. succeed when the instructor prepares students first. Offer choices: Let students suggest the topic for discussion or choose from several options. or some other product Use role cards: Give each student a card that describes the person or role to be played. Students are likely to be more motivated to participate if the topic is television programs. Give students time to prepare: Let them work individually to outline their ideas and the language they will need to express them. like role plays. Students usually find role playing enjoyable. Be present as a resource. Brainstorm: Before you start the role play. Also.In role plays. but students who lack self-confidence or have lower proficiency levels may find them intimidating at first. Do linguistic follow-up: After the role play is over. Discussion does not always have to be about serious issues. not a monitor: Stay in communicative mode to answer students' questions. Keep groups small: Less-confident students will feel more able to participate if they do not have to compete with many voices. or to use every grammar point you have taught. have students brainstorm as a class to predict what vocabulary. For lowerlevel students. To succeed with discussions: • • Prepare the students: Give them input (both topical information and language forms) so that they will have something to say and the language with which to say it. Because role plays imitate life. grammar. and then gets out of the way. . the cards can include words or expressions that that person might use. • • • Discussions. This can wait until another class period when you plan to review pronunciation or grammar anyway. students are assigned roles and put into situations that they may eventually encounter outside the classroom. the range of language functions that may be used expands considerably. and idiomatic expressions they might use. whether a plan.
and create a supportive atmosphere that allows them to make mistakes without fear of embarrassment. not more than 8-10 minutes. Allow them to stop sooner if they run out of things to say. Tegal. Through well-prepared communicative output activities such as role plays and discussions. Do not expect all of them to contribute equally to the conversation. Keep it short: Give students a defined period of time. for discussion. This can wait until another class period when you plan to review pronunciation or grammar anyway. give feedback on grammar or pronunciation problems you have heard. Maret 26. Allow students to participate in their own way: Not every student will feel comfortable talking about every topic. This will contribute to their self-confidence as speakers and to their motivation to learn more. such as a letter to the editor.• • • • • • Set a goal or outcome: This can be a group product. 2011 . Use small groups instead of whole-class discussion: Large groups can make participation difficult. Do linguistic follow-up: After the discussion is over. Do topical follow-up: Have students report to the class on the results of their discussion. or individual reports on the views of others in the group. you can encourage students to experiment and innovate with the language.
POPUP: SAMPLE INFORMATION GAP ACTIVITIES .
ARABIC CHINESE FRENCH GERMAN ITALIAN RUSSIAN SPANISH .
POPUP: SAMPLE ROLE PLAY ACTIVITY ARABIC CHINESE FRENCH GERMAN ITALIAN RUSSIAN SPANISH .
If you know of a resource that should be added. (1991). Brown. Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language . Theory construction in SLA: Complementarity and opposition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition. D. 13 (4). (1994).BACK TO STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING SPEAKING SKILLS ON TO USING TEXTBOOK SPEAKING ACTIVITIES Resources We update this page regularly. 493-511. please contact us. • • • • • • • • • • • What Language Teaching Is Teaching Goals and Methods Planning a Lesson Motivating Learners Assessing Learning Teaching Grammar Teaching Listening Teaching Speaking Teaching Reading Teaching Writing Teaching Culture Resources: What Language Teaching Is Beretta. A.
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