APPLIED SOCIOLOGY
A TREATISE ON THE CONSCIOUS IMPROVEMENT OF
SOCIETY BY SOCIETY

BY

LESTER

F.

WARD

L'application est la pierre de touche de ADOLPHE COSTE toute doctrine.

GINN & COMPANY
BOSTON

NEW YORK

CHICAGO

LONDON

WITH THE

PUBLISHERS*
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COPYRIGHT, 1906

BY LESTER

F.

WARD

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

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is and the reader be put in position at least to understand the work. nor of the possibilities of conscious effort.PREFACE This work and its predecessor. it insists upon the power to act. and the Outlines of Sociology. Until there is is movement Movement the condition to achieve- ment. in the measure that it approaches completeness. If there is one respect in which it differs more than in others from rival systems of philosophy it is in its practical character of never losing sight of the end or purpose. without having recourse to the equally false conIt ception of a power to will. whether or not he accepts its general conclusions. The central thought is that of a true science of society. make up a more comprehensive system of social philosophy. With a clear of the logical relations of these three terms in the arguconception ment the entire scheme and scope of applied sociology will unfold. The Psychic Factors of Civilization. will . and. and achievement the means to improvement. but progressive in the sense that each successive volume carries the subject a step farther with a minimum of repeti- tion or duplicate treatment. and which a too narrow conception of the law of cosmic evolution serves rather to increase than to diminish. capable. provided guided by intelligence. It is this mobilization of the army of achievement which it is sought to express in the title of Part there can be no achievement. Should any reader acquaint himself with the whole. It would remove the embargo laid upon human activity by a false interpretation of scientific determinism. of being turned to the profit of mankind. Pure Sociology. It aims to point out a remedy for the general paralysis that is creeping over the world. and these. It is a reaction against the philosophy of despair that has come to dominate even the most enlightened scientific thought. constitute together a system of sociology. I. he will find it not only consistent with itself. it is proclaims the efficacy of effort. with Dynamic Sociology.

Librairie Universitaire. F. March 30. pubwork. but only through its socialization. not be attained directly. with its virtual failure so. practical I take great pleasure in acknowledging my indebtedness to M. H. has only confirmed the view there set forth that ends canthe universal of science. although they have been years of great social unrest. Welter. and I sincerely hope that this may have some effect in making this work known to a larger circle of readers. and that therefore the real method that and problem of applied sociology still remains the distribution of the intellectual heritage bequeathed to all equally by the genius of mankind. lisher of M. charts. L. La Genese des Grands Hommes. 4. WASHINGTON. but only through means. and it will be said that little advance is made beyond the position taken in Dynamic Sociology. for his courtesy in permitting the use of the valuable maps. It has also become more and more apparent cannot be secured through the increase of knowlimprovement edge. W. And to do every attempt to take a step forward. Odin's great Rue Bernard-Palissy.iv PREFACE The small claim made for applied sociology at the present stage of the science will probably disappoint many. and tables of Chapter IX. 1906 . but the world has made little progress in the past twentythree years. Paris.

fication of Presup- Modi- phenomena. Utility of science. Answers the questions What. Benefits of interference. n CHAPTER How II THE EFFICACY OF EFFORT The ence. Applied sociology versus 5 the social art SUPERIORITY OF THE ARTIFICIAL Illustrations Language as an example. The fundamental Faire marcher Social 13 initiative. improvement. Egalitarian. CHAPTER III END OR PURPOSE OF SOCIOLOGY PROGRESS VERSUS EVOLUTION Views of Herbert Spencer. laissez faire school. Subjective. Justice as an example . illogical. and How. . Its relation to happiness. of hedonism 18 . Alleged evils of interferfallacy. Why. The paradox Definitions of progress in earlier works. 3 must be understood before they can be modified APPLIED SOCIOLOGY Answers the question What for. poses an acquaintance with pure sociology. Science versus art. Social achievement.CONTENTS PART I MOVEMENT I CHAPTER RELATION OF PURE TO APPLIED SOCIOLOGY PAGE General remark . 3 PURE SOCIOLOGY tures. Essentially practical. Relates to Anthropocentric. Stability of social strucSocial structures Applied sociology rests on pure sociology.

Of Huxley. political. Perpetustruggle for existence. Spiritual pleasures. The summum bonum 28 THE CLAIMS OF FEELING Philosophy of ism. modern degeneracy. Pain economy. This will be simply another step in the same direction be attained. Wholly artificial THE OLIGOCENTRIC WORLD VIEW Confined to the intellectual aspect. 21 warded DEFINITION OF JUSTICE Enforces artificial equality. A form 22 of social interference. Apotheosis of genius. . Cruelty of nature. Greatest good to the greatest number. It belongs to applied sociology 26 THE NEW ETHICS How safety. Purpose of applied sociology to harmonize achievement with improveAchievement never duly reTheory of natural inequality.vi CONTENTS WELTSCHMERZ PAGE Pessimism Position of Gumplowicz Views of the socialists. Disappointed Struggle for political freedom Difficulties of this Social freedom in process of attainment hopes. Savages not happy. Asceticism. it differs Its from the old. Not philan- thropy. happiness. Primitive ethics concerned only with race Aim of the new ethics. Fear of nature. . Sociology 23 opposes it SOCIAL VERSUS POLITICAL JUSTICE Social justice still to Only civil and political justice thus far attained. Not a question of intelligence or social worth 25 SOCIAL FREEDOM National freeThe three kinds of freedom national. Ethics of function ally at war . 29 . social. The Eudemonism. 24 SOCIAL Happiness an active state. No attempt yet made to cure 19 ACHIEVEMENT VERSUS IMPROVEMENT ment. WELFARE Normal exercise of the faculties. PuritanSubjective trend of modern philosophy. The luxury of altruism. Pursuit of Utilitarianism. Long resisted and denounced. Ennui. dom. how attained. Its removal The deficit of life. : problem. Feeling versus function. license.

effective. Idea of cause.. Causes of 51 52 Spiritual Beings. Beliefs rest on Grow out occidental ideas. Trance. The ameliorative function of society. Thought. IV PAGE SOCIAL ACHIEVEMENT The social The parable of Saint-Simon. to be must be possessed by society 40 INTERPRETATION OF HISTORY Historical materialism and intellectualism. Reflections. Fetishism. Echoes. of desires.. The simplest All motion ex- Anthropomorphic. Multiplication of spirits. Social intelligence CHAPTER V WORLD VIEWS In what sense ideas rule the world... Death. 50 ANTHROPOMORPHIC IDEAS How the animal mind differs from the rational mind. Religious Ideas. Universality of the belief Objective inEffect of the . VI TRUTH AND ERROR Based on interest. fluences. Economic interpretation of history. Ideological interpretation of history 40 RECONCILIATION OF THE ECONOMIC AND IDEOLOGICAL INTERPRETATIONS OF HISTORY Views of Comte and Spencer.. minimum definition of religion. 45 CHAPTER Primitive reasoning. Social 37 integration. Metamorphosis. Dominated by fear . The illogical inferorder. De Greef on the influence of ideas. World ideas.. World views due to economic The study of mind versus conditions. Idea Forces. 41 Public opinion Volkergedanken. in spirits. Confusion of ideas on the subject Beliefs. belief in spiritual beings. ence. Insanity Ancestor-worship.. to natural laws. Oriental and the study of matter .. Dreams. Belief versus opinion. Tylor's How explained . Delirium. Shadows. Zeitgeist.CONTENTS v ii CHAPTER Usually denied. 44 interest. phenomena always regarded as subject Animism plained as voluntary.

conceptions of adequacy. The church. 68 TRUTH Error a kind of contagious disease. Fear of spiritual beings. truth instead of error. Imperfect Adequacy of causation. but not necessarily to improvement. Truth not assimilated 84 POSSESSION OF Truth a sure antidote to error.. Persecution. Ignorance Error necessary Reason untrustworthy doxes of nature. Egypt. The real moral progress. Mental dualism. Monotheism. races. Scientific faith. Self-mutilation. by the lowest Costly tombs.. Polytheism. Pyramids of practised Superstition. Prevalence of error in civilized Error more dangerous than ignorance. ship. Metempsychosis. Examples 85 . Religious ideas and structures exclusively Error a product of reason. Dualism 53 RELIGIOUS STRUCTURES Ecclesiastical institutions. Causality. Material civilization on the whole progressive. . Human progress has consisted in slowly shedding the primitive error 80 CHAPTER VII SOCIAL APPROPRIATION OF TRUTH Truth leads to achievement. Censorship of the press.. Sacrifices. TRUTH The law Credulity of great of causation. Asceti- Resistance to truth. phenomena mortality. Not Waste Other of property at funerals. Identity of matter and spirit. Science explains phenomena and dispels error. men. Im- Origin of gods. examples. Paraversus error. Zoolatry. Spiritual beings the principal false causes.viii CONTENTS PACK of nature. World views should embody communities. May error ever be useful? . Witchcraft. Opposition to science. Evolutionary teleology. False causes. Origin of the priesthood 62 ERROR human. Theological conceptions. Continuance theory. Truth should be made attractive. Science corrects its own errors. Russian and German censorandrocentric world view. cism. Obscurantism. False views of motherhood . The charm of error. The Indexes of prohibited books. 65 Consequences of Error.

The intelligent and unin- telligent classes of society. Prevailing classes possess the The Helvetian doctrine False appearances. Social heredity. The lower classes victims more Dependence of the lower upon the upper 90 of error than of ignorance. as the higher. Effect of the 115 ." Statement of the egalitarian doctrine. Distinguished from ability. same degree of native intellectual capacity Difference consists wholly in the equipment. ix Perception. Intelligence. all. Equalimain problem. truth. Latent in genius ability. Capacity of the human mind greater than supposed. Effect of race mixture. . zation of intelligence the Reforms emanate from Intelligence rules. Moral attributes involved . classes INTELLECTUAL EGALITARIANISM The lower heritage. position." The " submerged tenth. 95 serfs. Intellectual capacity of outlying learned even by primitive men. the intelligent class. Impotence of the unintelligent class. Difficulties of the subject. men. The most important knowledge is of concrete facts Abstract reasoning. step. The fourth estate originally slaves and Evolution of the third estate. POTENTIAL ACHIEVEMENT Natural inequalities. Mobilization of society All races capable of receiving 101 PART II ACHIEVEMENT VIII CHAPTER Need of increased achievement. Race equivalency. etc. Capacity for Truth. sophisms. intelligence. Class distinctions wholly artificial All capable of occupying the highest social All important truth Truth no greater burden than error. Error due to conclusions drawn insufficient knowledge. Rise of the Proletariat. The social The intellectually disinherited. Hereditary genius environment Alleged irrepressibility of genius. Race differences all mainly a question of social efficiency. easily races. That of the proletariat simply another Intellectual versus emotional development.113 POTENTIAL GENIUS Definition of genius.CONTENTS RELATION OF KNOWLEDGE TO TRUTH Knowledge from defined. 97 within the grasp of Education of nature. All practical truth within the reach of all Evils of wrangling. The alleged "ultrarational sanction. Mathematics no test of mental capacity.

elements. and by synthesis. 135 : by thesis. Supposed proofs of the irrepressibility of genius.X Nature. Neglected factors. by hypoth135 thesis. Synergy 130 THE AGENTS OF CIVILIZATION The agents of civilization are men. Ward's Dynamic Sociology. The stirp. of great men. transforms it. Role They are few in number. Atavism. Ribot's Candolle's History of the Sciences and of Gallon's English Psychological Heredity. Effect of the environ- Local distriRepresents opposition. thesis. Works of Lombroso. Papers by William James. The environment passive. men no of thought. John Fiske. Effect of crossing strains. Effect of the policy of The agents of civilization not men of action but persecuting great men. Public officers a leisure class 132 THE LITERATURE OF OPPORTUNITY Includes that of both heredity and opportunity The Method of Discussion. to achievement IX OPPORTUNITY A social force to be utilized. Fallacy involved. Use of the statistical method. The liberation of The actual versus the possible 122 CHAPTER Genius a fixed quantity. The statistical method The Discussion. Works of Francis Galton. His primary His subsidiary Scientific De Men. Odin's Genesis . Power of nurture Adaptation. Mutation. and Grant Joly's Psychology of Great Men. High official position test of greatness. Men of action always present. CONTENTS PAGE Claims for heredity. Men Allen. of hereditary genius. Genius cannot be increased. Atavistic explanation Stirpiculture or eugenics. tion the product of human CivilizaHero-worship versus nature. The post-efficients of achievement. Heredity beyond the reach of human control 1 16 Nurture. Mutual repulsion. Relative claims of genius and circumstances. Latent genius. Primary 129 means R6LE OF THE ENVIRONMENT Conflicting schools. of Science. ment. Man action. Doctrine of hereditary genius not sus- tained by the facts. The three methods esis.worship. Their absence conceivable. Impossibility of proving the contrary. Competition in nature. in plants. Jacoby's Selection in Man. Examples. bution of plants.

By provinces. Breton. Celibate clergy. Prevalence of the well-to-do. Genius Gauls. Parallelism of the economic and social Gallon's questions and environments. ditions of France. . Coste. Failure of his theory. Effect of family celibacy. of Genius xi Robertson's Economics Cooley's Genius and Fame. Number of French men of letters. Number of men of letters per city. Belgians. By regions. Rich and poor compared. Comparisons of for other countries . Lorraine. Effect of religious persecution. Spencer. Density of populaNeglected factors. His illogical speculations. of the statistics life. Most great men of history wealthy. Ligurians. Races speaking other Basque. Climate. Views of Comte. Great prevalence of city-born. statistics. talent. German. 100. Italian languages than French. Classification of enThe fallacy of statistics. Merit. Leisure secured by Discussion Statistics of the subject. 137 ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS De Candolle on the influence of the environment. Result still negative. 169 The Economic Environment. Iberians. Percentage of urban population.CONTENTS of Great Men. Odin's Wide-spread belief that most great men are born in the country. Tabular view by departments. Scope of Odin's work. Small effect of the physical environment 148 Race influence on genius. Difficulty of determining the economic factor. Races of France.and country-born. Distribution of men of letters according to physical conditions.000 inhabitants. Great men who were sons of Protestant clergymen. Tendency of biographers Economic condition of great to exaggerate the hardships undergone. academicians. Regions outside of France. Numerical insignificance of the latter. Effect of different religions on the proCatholicism and duction of great men. His disDiscussion of Jacoby's table. not perceptibly affected by this race distribution. . 161 The Local Environment. Genius equal in all races Belgium. The real environmental Influence of great cities. Number born in chateaux. Physical con. Genius is in things 198 The Social Environment. Mesology. tables. Cimbrians. Durkheim. Women of letters. with Odin's table. parison appointment. Wealth no bar to genius. Similar results factors. Christianity and Judaism. Classification of occupations. Jacoby's ComTabular view. French men of letters. Protestantism. Jacoby. Discussion of the tables. . tion. The Ethnological Environment. His twenty causes favorable to the development of men of science. Flemish. Alsace156 The Religious Environment. . . vironmental factors. and genius 145 The Physical Environment.

cenary biographical schemes.. Paris and the chateaux. number by Odin's tables. Gallon's 224 THE RESOURCES OF SOCIETY Native ability uniformly distributed. Society should undertake the work. How the local. of cities in proportion as False views prevailing Influence All environments favorable due to their educational facilities. artificially increased a hundredfold. they are educational. . They are all neglected factors . Especially to scientific invesDefects of biography. at will Possibility of creating men of genius 21 1 demonstrated Odin's method should be extended to Prospective Investigations. Negative effects of environThe movement should be Sporadic character of achievement. Odin's table of educated and uneducated men of letters. Suggestions as to procedure. There are ments. Nu- List of uneducated men of letters. False views of Spencer and Ribot. Their pernicious effects. Similar results for other countries Number . Numerical relations of the different station. of genius in society. other countries and other kinds of genius. : 204 The Ediicational Environment. Appeals to curiosity. all gradations in human abilities. Biography a form of history. Ignores causation. classes. estimate of the Most of it latent. It can control the educational envieconomic. . The maximum The different environments considered. relative to population.xii answers. the test of the possible Society cannot control the local. Other institutions that might conduct it. Great range in fecundity. Number as shown Great inequalities of the local environment indicate of men possibilities Compared to mineral resources. economic. Preponderance of men of high social Numerical insignificance of the laboring class. Proof that the fecundity of society in men of genius can be ronment. Similar results for other countries. What women may contribute. merical insignificance of the latter. Shown that other environments were substitutes for the educational. CONTENTS PAGE Odin's classification. Mertigators. and social environments.. The Carnegie Institution of Washington 221 CHAPTER X THE LOGIC OF OPPORTUNITY The factors recapitulated. and social environments become educational. Deals with heroes as exceptional beings. uniform and universal 224 THE FALLACY OF HISTORY Definition of history..

Washington. Privileged Men. letters. Leibnitz. Not 251 Alleged Self-made Men. number yan. Broca. Buckle. Adversity not needed as a spur to activity 243 EDUCATION AS OPPORTUNITY Education essential to a literary career. A certain amount of leisure will always be devoted to achievement. Kidd 246 SUCCESS IMPLIES OPPORTUNITY All who have attained eminence have had their opportunity.. Condorcet. For a scientific career it Views of should take the form of training. authors. sheet of paper. dance of native capacity. Other much genius is latent proofs. Other examples. Serious investiga- tors needed 241 LEISURE AS OPPORTUNITY Leisure a means of education. fortuitous circumstance constituted the opportunity of 252 Typical examples. that some The eighteen indigent French men of letters. Veblen's use of the expression. Genius present in all Classes. The dynamic quality of leisure. Inadequacy of facilities for research. Jefferson. Examples Opportunity versus accident and luck. 242 Only a small part of it utilized Mr.. Darwin. All men capable of doing Its value proportional to intelligence. Descartes.CONTENTS The fallacy of history is xiii the same as that of statistics and of super' PAGE stition 234 Relativity of Genius. 236 These prove that genius exists in all classes. The horrors of ennui. Examples. Smith Hobbes. All work mental.. D'Alembert. The sixteen uneducated Moliere. The leisure class. itself The true. Comte. . Routine work important. Kant. Macaulay. Harvey. Napoleon. facts prove that tific The same . The prevailing point of view false. They have . The The Bun: Haydn. Appearance of transition grades. Burns. Case of Herbert Spencer Their relative abundance. wide-spread belief that opportunity presents Involves the fallacy of history once to all. Helvetius. Anthology of education. Rousseau. AbunComparison with soil. 239 Not Genius but Achievement. This the tendency of all science Rise of great men from obscurity. Newton. small. Galileo. Examples : subject greatly exaggerated. French men of Shown each. Shakespeare. Mazzini. . Galton. Comparison of the mind at birth to a blank R61e of experience. Scaliger. How leisure has been attained. Why genius seems to be on the decline. The Instinct of Workmanship. Cooley's Adam lists. Corneille. Number of sciengood work.

them. The series of neglect of means. Mind without nature. The initial means. Mill. Language of varied. potential to applied sociology. The economic end. How Science and art in advance of popular knowledge. Topinard. Wild men. They require that opportunity be brought to of giving exceptional persons a chance. Society incapable of appreciating achievement. pursuits Economy in working in harmony with Mediocrity should not be ignored. least equal achievement. Helvetius. de Candolle. Conflicting views. experience. outlook the prime 274 essential EQUALIZATION OF OPPORTUNITY Differences in tastes greater than in talents. izations Equalization of intelligence the means Equalization of opporto all other equal- 276 PART III IMPROVEMENT XI CHAPTER RECONCILIATION OF ACHIEVEMENT WITH IMPROVEMENT Achievement versus improvement Actual achievement belongs to Does civilization improve society ? pure. raising The expression defined. Kidd. talent 261 THE POWER OF CIRCUMSTANCES False popular ideas. Metaphorical Con- tents of mind. An Of peoples. illustration. contents. Mind includes Mind not its the same as brain or intellect. The public interested only in the practical advantages of science 285 . The finest types of genius will not work against opposition. The "exImportance " ceptional man Society makes no effort to utilize exceptional theory. sus moderns The factor opportunity Ancients ver- 267 The Mother of Circumstances.xiv CONTENTS PAGE done the work of the highest grade. ful Adaptability to distasteone's tastes. usually from the The economic standpoint. tunity a means. plea for equal opportunity Views of Sumner. Ends attainable only through means. Intel- ligence. Haste to deal with ends to the Gunton. means to the ultimate end. uncivilized Effect of children of civilized parents among different environments in civilized countries. Experience contents of the mind. Similarity of intellects. Circumstances determine the infinitely Views of Adam Smith. Improvement should at society improves.

Former treatment of the two methods. ment must be very general.CONTENTS <r XV ETHICAL CHARACTER OF ALL SCIENCE The coldest thinking leads to the warmest The purpose of science. Parts which are not. Smith. They should be taught in their Natural natural order The six sciences which embrace all truth. 300 practical. If society cannot assimilate the present output what could it do with a greater? would increase the evil. Grant dealt with in earlier works. Restricted meaning given The word " education. DesEmployment feeling. Comte. Ratzenhofer. Social environments wholly artificial. How general includes the special. fails to assimilate intend to improve. of the indirect method. Increased satisfaction is improvement. They Unreasonable demands for methods. The most general knowledge the most Should be presented causal connection. Minds possessing general truths can dispose of special ones The Order of Nature. The share of each is the whole estate. Subject Allen's criticisms. Present treatment analytic. Adam Schaeffle. Worms. The are equitably divided. All entitled to share alike. Har- mony Positive education 296 ADMINISTRATION OF THE SOCIAL ESTATE The problem that of finding the heirs to human achievement." Little use to suggest methods. Huxley. Causality. Fallacy of overproduction. The latter need not be attended to. to it. synthetic. inequalities The "exceptional man" principle artificial. sciences are so many general truths. More consumers wanted. in its logical order. Cunningham. cartes. Views of Bacon. Durkheim. Equal opportunities would secure bring Consumption of intellectual as of material products yields satis- faction. TreatCertain to be disappointed. is The logical order that of The Pedagogic value of the principle. The several All objections based on the current false The great need is a market for achievement. This would about the reconciliation of achievement with improvement 292 CHAPTER XII METHOD OF APPLIED SOCIOLOGY are always subject to trial. Malthus. Coste. Social Parts which the social heritage has been distributed. Classification. philosophy of genius. continuity. Those who achieve Espinas. Why society achievement Altru- ism an unreliable principle Power alone effective 287 ASSIMILATION OF ACHIEVEMENT A plausible objection. The case similar to that of economic production. . this.

education Reading. . institutions. Illogical use of ethics hierarchy. Current fallacies and social forces contrasted. their refutation. Value of knowledge progressively is to distribute existing knowledge. altruistic. Pictures of the future. The problem simply animals. Danger Certainty of misinterpreting ress. Inhabitants of the slums the intellectual equals of the higher classes. 302 Recapitulation of the method. The Diffusion of Knowledge. Ethics now chiefly confined to the phenomena of . meaningless expressions. How intellectual altruism is manifested. Moral reforms. In both their systems ethics is simply applied sociology. sciences fall under these. If solved they would not stay solved Why then discuss equalization intelligence all solved them? Because this. Society Its function cannot be expected to increase the amount of knowledge. Other canon. Dangerous in the hands of a greater as universality is approached. Criminals are the Irra- Difference wholly in the environment. Mathematics and writing. Slums unnecessary. privation The economic struggle for existence. Educational value of mathematics and history exaggerated. tional Ten. Value of Education of the dangerous classes. of underestimating the future. Dangers involved in Utopias it. . CONTENTS PAGE Should be studied Neglect of this in that order. Report of the Committee of The Erroneous conceptions.317 Privative Ethics. practical problem. Vague. of these inequalities the only remedy that sociology can offer . Insufficiency of educational education. Wild men. The instruments of Exceptions. False views of education. conferring of knowledge not considered a part of Definitions of education. few. It belongs to the new ethics. All reformatory schemes based on the The removal supposed permanence of existing intellectual inequalities. calculus logic. geniuses of the slums. The real moral prog- Looking backward 314 ETHICAL SOCIOLOGY Not a science of the by Comte and Spencer. Yet this is not recognized as a problem. this is expected. must be tamed while young. The recognized problems are insoluble. Private institutions of learning.xvi order in which they stand. science. ingenuity like wild calls for social 307 CHAPTER The of If XIII PROBLEMS OF APPLIED SOCIOLOGY the only live problem It is a other problems would solve themselves. methods employed. Mind essentially Most disputes arise over things known to some. Man's control of physical and of .

Increased consumpNormal versus ostentatious consumption. activities. Positive Society ethics represents a pleasure Positive Ethics. Fallacy of overproduction. economy. . life. Statistics. Treatment of the subject in earlier works This its systematic place. Other things to struggle for. Normal exercise of the faculties. on negative and privative ethics. Such decline favors the law of conquest and subjugation. causes. upon material largely secured tion. Extent to which production should be increased. Superficial character of this view Social classes that Competition on a higher plane becomes emulation. Their legitimate power the true Chiefly due to hard social conditions. The standard of living requires to be raised. Consumption is New wants and their satisfaction. cratic and democratic legislation. Vast possibilities of both human achievement and social improvement 326 THE PRINCIPLE OF ATTRACTION Applied sociology capable of reduction to rigid scientific principles. Geologic time limits. Demand for through conditions. Dependence of human happiness restraint. Reproduction in inverse ratio to intelligence. Social exper- imentation and invention of 331 Attractive Labor. Mortality of rich and poor The surplus appear to die of disease. Action at a distance. Supposed necessity for the motive of gain. extent society is Private altruism no remedy. These both temporary phases. are now free from the economic struggle The biologic law. Prevailing idea that the majority of mankind are weaklings. Demands freedom from material goods. Really killed by privation Statistics. enjoyment. Comparison with the planet Mars. responsible for privation. Attraction invention. Greater state. of the odium Views of Fourier. tion the real desideratum. fullness of No necessary limit to the duration of this higher Youth of the planet. now in a pain economy. . The fundamental principle of physical investigation is attraction. Function of the fine arts. AutoEfficiency of social organization. A low birthrate a mark of civilization. This increased produc- Inadequacy of existing wealth. Mill. Comte. labor. Cause Can be secured through social action 334 Attractive Legislation. restore the normal fecundity of the race Removal of these would To what remedy Little attention 318 Attention chiefly centered paid to it. common to all phenomena. Metaphysical versus practical uses of the word.CONTENTS -The xvii P ' competitive system. Underlying Efforts to prevent decline in population. Conditions to social inventiveness. Constitutes the basis of Applicable to animal Psychics. Creates a surplus only to destroy it. Positive ethics a permanent phase. Spencer.

of social welfare. of Letters . 153 Map showing the Fecundity of the seven recognized Regions of France in Men of Letters 155 Map showing the Relative Fecundity of the Urban and Rural Population of France in Men of Letters 192 PLATE IV. Map Map showing the Fecundity of the Departments of France in Men of Letters in 151 PLATE II. Relief of privations.xviii Scientific CONTENTS PAGE legislation. Its equitable distribution. social efficiency. Avoidance of compulsion. properly sociological experimentation and invention. and Memoirs. Articles. Chart showing the Relative Fecundity of the Urban and Rural Population of France in Men of Letters 194 . with critical Authors and Titles of Works. Legislation is Removal of social Increase Organization of happiness. friction. Conservation of social energy. showing the Fecundity of the Provinces of France Men PLATE III. Sociological laboratories. quoted or and explanatory Notes 341 367 Index LIST OF PLATES PLATE I. Social improvement Enhanced 337 List of cited. PLATE V. Increased production. .

.APPLIED SOCIOLOGY PART I MOVEMENT Agir par affection agir. et penser pour AUGUSTE COMTE.

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they begin really to understand themselves. it may be well briefly to define the two branches with the special object of rendering this distinction clear. Before proceeding. sociology at length. the causes. Not only is a mantle of charity thrown over everything that exists. qui e'tudie la forme des phe'nomenes respectifs. The terms "pure" and "applied" should be used sense in social science as in all in the same Any apparent differences should be such only as grow out of the nature of social science as the most complex of all sciences. to set forth the principles of applied other sciences. et une partie applique'e e'tudie leur forme concrete et de'taille'e. tend de plus en plus a s'introduire dans le domaine des sciences sociales. therefore. LEON WINIARSKY. It is important. It is It simply a scientific inquiry into the actual conalone can yield true social self-consciousness. but a forces have rational basis is now for the first time furnished for considering to what extent and in what manner things that are not in all respects what they would like to have them may be put in the way of 3 . and How. and the principles of sociology. and especially of the essential distinction between pure and applied sociology. by furnishing the facts. It is a means of self-orientation. what molded them into their present shape and character. such as virtually to preclude all blame. and according to what principles of nature the creative and transforming processes have operated. answers the questions What. Why. therefore. to gain at the outset a clear conception of what is meant by these terms. When men know what they are. pure. accepted dans les sciences physiques. La distinction rigoureuse entre qui ces deux parties.CHAPTER I RELATION OF PURE TO APPLIED SOCIOLOGY Toute science a deux parties la plus ge'ne'rale et abstraite : une partie rationelle. PURE SOCIOLOGY Pure sociology dition of society. and hence the most difficult to reduce to exact formulas.

APPLIED SOCIOLOGY will [PART I bring them more into harmony with the At least it thus. In most such cases those who imagine themselves to be sufferers from their presence believe that certain others have them under their control and might alter or abolish them if they were willing to do so. Applied sociology. therefore. without such knowledge. rests upon pure sociology. after ceasing .' 4 such modification as desired state. Such knowl- edge includes an acquaintance with the history of the structures to be affected. though they cannot be changed by the methods usually applied. attempt to Any do this must be based on a full knowledge of the nature of such structures. tures. may be at least gradually transformed by indirect methods and the adoption of the appropriate means. and the further truth is revealed that in most cases such structures. In this way an enormous amount of energy otherwise wasted can be saved and concentrated upon the really feasible. are supposed capable of easy alteration. and only thus. otherwise the structures could never have come into existence. but which. it presupposes it and proceeds entirely from it. This history must go back to a time when the structures were not injurious but useful. The names of institutions change. becomes possible to between those social conditions which are susceptible distinguish of modification through human action and those that are practically unalterable or are beyond the reach of human agency. In the prosecution of such a research it will not do to be deceived by names. It must go back to the period of their stimuli. If it has any scientific character at all. the most important lesson that is pure sociology teaches But it that of the great stability of social strucalso teaches that few if any social structures are wholly incapable of modification. sometimes. But by far the most important is effect of the knowledge furnished that of showing the difficulty of modifying by pure sociology certain conditions which are not absolutely unalterable. otherwise its failure is certain. the source of the greater part of the bitter class In other words. In so far as the idea of reform inheres in applied sociology it can bear no fruit except it so proceeds. This is animosity in society. development in response to external and internal Such a period there must have been in every case. Reform may direct be defined as the desirable modification of social structures.

Why. Applied soci- ology looks beneath was is their origin. causes. end. and the realization of the warmest sentiments is only possible through the coldest logic.CH. and what all this With such data the question of their modification through the conscious action of society can be intelligently considered. and principles. acquiring forms descriptive of their real or supposed evil character. the latter with The one treats the subject-matter of . reform No institution is an unmixed evil. But both the defenders and the assailants of such institutions usually neglect their history and the causes that created them. they cannot be immeditheir true nature. or purpose. Most of those (such as slavery. it can only be satisfied by dispassionate inquiry. All this would mean a complete change in the whole method of reform. many would gladly see abolished entirely. ately abolished or abruptly changed. as is usually the case. method to advocate and of the However ardent the desire for may be. The hortatory method deals with theses and for example) that antitheses. Only the latter method is it possible to arrive at the truth common to by both. and How. deals with facts. But the method of passion and vituperation produces no effect. so applied sociology aims to answer the question What for. and learns from pure sociology what what has been their complete history. while the scientific method deals with syntheses. are defended by some. Reforms are supposed to emanate from the red end of the social spectrum and to be the product of its thermic and not of its luminous rays. Only thus can a rational basis be reached for any effective action looking to the amelioration of social conditions. The former the object. APPLIED SOCIOLOGY Just as pure sociology aims to answer the questions What. I] RELATION OF PURE TO APPLIED SOCIOLOGY 5 to be longer in harmony with social conditions. It is characteristic of the unscientific scientific method to investigate. There either is or has been good in everything. and if. With the idea of reform has always thus far been associated that of heat rather than light. the way is made plain for the adoption of indirect means that will secure their gradual transfor- mation and the elimination of their anti-social elements.

However theoretical pure sociology may in some of its aspects. In pure sociology the desires and wants of men are considered as the motor agencies of society. The former relates to the past and the present. Sociology is old anthropocentric theory which taught that the universe was specially planned in the interest of man is not only false but pernicious in discouraging human effort. with what ought to be. in applied sociology it is the success of such efforts in supplying human wants that is taken into account. ethical considerations. viz. applied sociology may be said to deal with social utility as measured by the satisfaction of desire. collective well-being. scientific anthropocentrism is highly progressive. In applied sociology they are considered as sources of enjoyment through their is similar to that between production economics. applied sociology is essentially practical. 431. All applied science especially so. while in pure sociology the constructive direct effects of human effort only were dealt with. It relates to feeling. In other words. But true. artificial takes account of Applied sociology phenomena consciously and intentionally improvement is social. In applied sociology the only one of these effects considered is the one that was there put first. While pure soci- ology treats of the "spontaneous development of society." 1 The subject-matter of pure sociology achievement. although 1 very imperfectly adapted to p. the only one of the three effects upon which it was. the latter to the future. directed by society to bettering society. The distinction and consumption in In the analysis of a dynamic action made in Chapter XI of Pure Sociology. the other its use. found necessary to dwell was the direct effect of the action in transforming the environment.6 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART I be sociology. Indeed. since it teaches that the universe. tive. satisfaction. Improvement is social achievement. that of satisfying the desire of the individual. is Achievement is individual. It may In pure sociology the point of view is -wholly objecbe said to relate to social function. The is necessarily anthropocentric. In applied soci- the ology the point of view is subjective. that of applied sociology is improvement. ." applied sociology "deals with artificial means of accelerating the spontaneous processes of nature. It has to do with social ideals. man's Pure Sociology.. with It appeals directly to interest.

No science can be applied unless it rests on exact mechanical princiIn Pure Sociology (Chapters IX-XI) it was shown that ples. Jeffersonian sense precisely. that. men applied sociology is entirely analogous to other applied sciences. Applied sociology aiming to secure this right for all men have an equal right to the exercise and enjoyment of the faculties is egalitarian to the extent of It is not only equally. from God to nature. sociology does rest on such principles. Applied sociology assumes that these principles are true. follow that the reader must all accept as true the principles laid down in that work. if and ignoring or despising the great mass that have not proved inherent superiority. though it is a sense akin to that. Pure science produced the first change of front.. is at least oligocentric in power of man concentrating all effort on a few of the supposed elite of mankind scientific. from other applied sciences in emMost of the philosophy which it is not actually pessimistic in denying the to ameliorate his condition. all that they have. however. and cannot even be understood by one not acquainted It does not. viz. but pancentric. anthropocentric With a few such exceptions. from nature to man. Applied sociology is concerned with enforcing this truth. Applied science constitutes a second change of front. Throughout the theochiefly logical and metaphysical stages of human thought philosophy was interests. considered later. and this work is therefore based on that one with that. Nature is seen to embody utilities and effort is directed to the practical realization of these.. and all that is maintained here is that this work cannot be understood unless the principles set forth in that one are also understood. viz. growing out of the nature of the science (and in this respect it does not differ from other sciences). absorbed in the contemplation of the alleged author of nature. Applied sociology bracing claims to be all differs men instead of a few. whatever may be the differences in their faculties.. He may be clearly question their validity to any extent. but their The it question of superiority in general will be may be said here that from the standpoint of applied sociology all men are really equal.CH. Nor is this in the viz. I] RELATION OF PURE TO APPLIED SOCIOLOGY 7 can be so adapted by man himself. . But they may understood without being accepted.

But it seems to me that they are even more justifiable. Doubts as to the validity of this principle have been less freely expressed than in case of the one last considered. Applied astronomy is not navigation. Still. and with- out expectation of any practical result. Applied physics is not manufacture. Applied chemistry is not agriculture. are well worthy of attention. or engineering. Comte did not illustrate this as fully as he should have done. is in their applied stage it becomes almost essential for the student to apply the principles directly to nature. But are these forces more useful to earth to yield its man than those which have caused the and have produced domestic now. we cereals fruits and animals? And may well doubt whether even electricity has proved a greater boon. but from books. If it is art it is not science. field studies are of the highest importance. A a discipline that can be taught more or less fully in a class-room.8 Science is APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART I is never exactly the same thing as art. or on a small scale. even in the pure stage. while that of physical phenomena seems . In this way preparation may be made for all the practical arts. for practice only. One was that the practical applications of the sciences increase with their fall complexity. But the applied sciences thus taught are not the arts themselves. and object-lessons. In most sciences. Comte laid down two principles. but this is almost always done in miniature. it depends here very much upon the point of view. with the modern discoveries in bacteriology and kindred branches bringing their incalculable benefits to man. surveying. Applied biology leads to a great number some of which are of very recent origin. and science. however much they may short of universality. The modification of social phenomena has proved very difficult. of arts. This was long rejected with disdain and the superior utility of the physical forces over any of the applications of vital phenomena was pointed to as its conclusive refutation. which. whether pure or applied. not necessarily from books. The other principle was that phenomena grow more susceptible to artificial modification with the increasing complexity of the phenomena. but his main conclusion from it was that social phenomena are the most susceptible of all to modification. Applied science therefore not the same as art. lectures. Applied mathematics is not mensuration.

stood. the modifiability of phenomena it is in direct proportion to their complexity. though applicable to human uses in nearly all its depart- ments. Nearly all branches of physics have proved useful. But the degree to which the application of a science to human uses becomes possible. disprove it. desirable. if they ever are. has probably thus far contributed less in this direction than has physics as a whole. the results their study promises in the direction of their modification in the interest of man are beyond calculation. Thus No may be regarded as open to discussion. Chemistry. . assuming them equally well underthan the simple ones . fully stated. but there are great possibilities in astrophysics. nor civic or social reform. Psychology is now almost exclusively a pure science. That sociology may become an applied science no one will dispute who believes that it is a science at all. regarded as the farthest possible removed from any practical utility. would be that. And most although its difficult fully to phenomena are the most complex of all and the understand. But applied sociology is not government or politics. when understood. or prominent depends rather on the nature of the science than on its position in the hierarchy. but until the discovery of the X-rays spectrum analysis remained a pure science. and its possibilities are immense. he constantly insists on their of comprehension. Sidereal astronomy has remained for the most part a science of pure contemplation. The real reason why attempts to modify social phenomena have so often It is failed is equally impossible to modify physical phenomena before they are understood. on the contrary. I] RELATION OF PURE TO APPLIED SOCIOLOGY But this is a superficial view. but the departments now found to be a century ago. but no one dares to say that it will always remain such. In this respect bac- the most useful are the ones that were unknown teriology may be compared to electricity. 9 comparatively easy. It does not itself apply sociological principles. The principle under consideragreater difficulty tion. I am myself disposed to accept it with certain reserves but this is not the place to discuss it in full. Comte did not say that the complex sciences were more understood easily that the phenomena were not understood. has yet been made either to confirm or to adequate attempt stated. Biology has already been mentioned.CH. and long remained fields of mere idle curiosity. .

it is with his system as a whole. as I have repeatedly shown. While the advocates themselves do not attempt. and not is not scientific. They can have only the most general bearing on current events and the popular or burning questions of the hour. tions more or less radically to produce these changes. But the statistics show that the socialist vote is increasing in all countries where it is made a political issue. ings is A on them. [PART! It is how they may be that it applied. and a long struggle follows. in it. is a science.10 it APPLIED SOCIOLOGY seeks only to show art. strives In so far as they actually succeed in this they The changes are voted or decreed and the to realize them. and the time may arrive when the party will come into power somewhat generally. and large vested interests. They all seek to bring about modi- They would change human instituand abruptly. . this is more clearly seen than in new countries. It Much to be found even in his Syn- thetic Philosophy. In old settled countries with definite class interests. But in The principles can consist this it must be exceedingly cautious. but rather in conflict harmony with The same may of course be said of nearly the whole social reform movement embraced under the general term " socialism. except in a few cases on a small scale. especially to take sides becomes a politician. only of the highest generalizations. only reflects his prejudices and his feelings. they seek to create a public sentiment in favor of such changes sufficiently general to secure them through state legislation. The sociologist who undertakes to discuss these. prescriptive rights. This is on account of the stability of social structures. certain not an The most claims to do to lay down general principles as guides to social and political action. fications in social structures. accomplish their end. But often the institutions fail to yield even to the power of the state. Moreover. But all know in how few cases the social reform party acquires political control." and including the Utopian schools as well as the practical ones Fourier as well as Karl Marx. abandons his science and large part of Herbert Spencer's writof it is of this character. and hence it is in these latter that social reform movements are most successful. such as France is now having with the parochial schools.

but it will not grind corn. but they only constitute data for his science. anarchism. I] SUPERIORITY OF THE ARTIFICIAL all this is politics. though a greater source of danger. sociology. The sociolono more quarrel with any of these movements than he has It is art lican. Water. light. There are some illustrations of the superiority of the artificial outside of the arts proper. Although it pervades all space. it may by artificial devices be made to propel and even to guide them. but vessels by the use of the proper artificial tiplied a thousandfold. produces no appreciable effect except in its where the effect is destructive The whole of its beneficial influence is due to artificial devices. SUPERIORITY OF THE ARTIFICIAL Applied sociology proceeds on the assumption of the superiority In this. RepubHe observes them all. stone. These have been secured through the prolonged study of both the pure and the applied science. wood. As it blows over the sea. heat. and the English language in particular. it violent manifestations as lightning. coming in almost inexhaustible quantities from the mountains or highlands of the interior of large continents. have . and socialism are programs of political action. Tory. negative or positive. The last-named element represents the most extreme case. however.CH. with any other political parties. By the adoption of the proper artificial means it may be made to grind corn. electricity. 1 1 But gist has and not science. and belong to the social art. All that he objects to is that any of these things be called Misarchism. of everything in its way. as he does all social phenomena. What is the meaning of applied science if it of the artificial to the natural. though be useful in many ways. Democrat. may that blows over the land. be not that artificial it teaches how natural modified by means so as ? to render phenomena may be them more useful or less injurious to man The wind sometimes destructive. Modern languages generally. it does not differ from any other applied science. metals. clay. Whig. They are not scientific theories or principles and do not belong to social science. is useful even within the banks of rivers. One only need be mentioned. means its usefulness can be mulsame is true of every other element The in nature.

A single example may also be adduced the domain of collective telesis. On this and capable of expressing much arbitrary word or a symbol is an finer shades of artificial account they are more plastic meaning. It It is a tool of the mind. But natural or animal justice is of course no justice at all. but was only possible through the constant exercise of the telic faculty of man. such. and all justice is artificial. It this has all always been at was the product of individual telesis. In the animal world or less use of the principle we see concalled natural justice. the conquest of nature as sketched in the nineteenth chapter of Pure Sociology was mainly a genetic process. like everything else in language.1 2 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART I their individual guages. There is no natural justice. may be said that such words. In fact. This constitutes one of the best illustrations of the principle under consideration. and are therefore genetic products. arts. and it is especially appropriate here as belonging strictly within the field of applied sociology. statesmen. Society has also made more is of the superiority of the artificial. for example. . But an product. devised by the genius of man. stant illustrations of what commonly and jurists. and work in the formation of language as in in other civilizing processes. are unconsciously developed. They have words more arbitrary than those of the ancient lanless intrinsic meaning and consist more com- pletely of mere symbols. but the absence of justice. but it forms no entire exception to other - as pottery. This may be admitted. and philosophers habitually contrast this with what they call civil justice.

and undesired. In the eleventh chapter of Pure Sociology it is shown that the most important principle of social dynamics is effort. as they usually say. because people wish that it should. unintended. which would have it little to do with applied sociology. No one has gone to the extreme length. It then goes by the name of the doctrine of laissez faire. The usual form of stating this doctrine is that the interest of the individual is the same as that of the and therefore the public interest is only secured by the free activity of the individual. but they extend to include all collective action except that which is mani- festly essential to the protection of society.CHAPTER II THE EFFICACY OF EFFORT Progress is not automatic. is A certain it is school maintains that all such effort ineffectual . The social development that results from it is spontaneous. But its dynamic effect. JOHN MORLEY. that in the nature of interfering with the forces that are causing natural or spontaneous social development. It is rarely stated in so general a form and is usually narrowed down to the question of interference by the state with the efforts of individuals. is unconscious. in the sense that if we were all to be cast into a deep slumber for the space of a generation. from the standpoint of pure sociology. and is therefore detrimental. of defending criminal action under this rule. Applied sociology assumes that effort is consciously and intentionally directed to the improvement of social conditions. however. or the " the activities ment is condemned as involving interference with 13 . even in the moderate degree in which it does grow better. The world only grows better. the state. we should arouse to find ourselves in a greatly improved social state. the qualification called the law of "equal freedom" is always made. The defenders of this doctrine have not been content to limit it to the ordinary cases of interference with the activities of individuals. All initiative on the " governpart of society or. and therefore public. and take the right steps to make it better.

fatal to their fundamental position. has given rise to a sort On of scientific pessimism. This of course involves the admission of the efficacy of effort. the only rational attitude would be to smile at it the same as as simply wasted effort on the part of deluded people. But the defenders of laissez faire almost uniformly take another step. Those who take the narrower view and society' to ameliorate its condemn the condition do not content themselves with denying all efficacy in such efforts. and insist that the interference which they condemn is preventing in some way the successful operation of the benign tendencies of spontaneous natural law. APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PARTI the part of scientific men the study of evolution in general. the complete To have simply inefficacy. The prolonged contemplation of purely spontaneous processes evolving highly developed products leads to complete distrust of all claims on the part of man to any power to accomplish similar results. may have beneficial as well as injurious maintained the futility. But this has never been the attitude of the laissez faire school. and injurious and pernicious in reduces them to demonstrating that the admitted effects must necessarily be injurious. because it robs its adherents of all hope in alteration of the course of nature with respect to any conscious man. we smile at the man who spends his whole life in try- ing to invent perpetual motion. i. The latest teachings of modern science have thus thrown a sort of pall over the human mind and a philosophy of despair. of social action would have been hardly worth the trouble of condemning it. It is not difficult to prove that social effort effects. This would at least be logical and would compel the advocates of social initiative to prove that such efforts may be successful.e. It is so glaringly obvious that no human effort can create even the simplest form of organic life that the conclusion is at once drawn that all attempts to transform nature are vain and visionary. The main and really difficult task of proving the efficacy of social effort is therefore already performed by the laissez faire school. it may be introduced a new philosophy. If it were always wholly without effect and things remained precisely the same after as before.I4 of individuals. artificially called. They have always condemned . and social evolution in particular.. and denies efforts of the efficacy of effort.

or as it may be called. as everybody knows. than the sum total that has resulted from the admittedly frequent mistakes that society has its made For in its it interest. and it is more or less useful still. pointed this out or know of no one who has attempted to show as a part of the argument what the beneficial effects of social action have been. in view of the general inertia and conservatism of mankind and of the advantage which long tenure and the command of national resources secures to the ruling class. The The It was primarily directed against the pretensions of a class. To a large extent all. This is proved by the doctrine was entire history of legislation during that period. that class may continue in power long . the great prominence which the individualistic philosophy has assumed. Indeed. It looks at only one side of a two-sided fact. There could be no greater From mistake than this. undoubtedly salutary at the outset. the fundamental.CH. though by no means those of the counts of its indictment are admitted by who believe in social action. class of ideas trine in it is commonly supposed that the general which it rests has become the prevailing docupon these countries and America. action taken by that class can be called social action only in all the sense that under circumstances "the powers that be" actually represent society. since the time of the French physiocrats. While probably the great majority of intelligent persons either avowedly or tacitly subscribe to the doctrine in its main aspects. warmth and mischievous effects has been drawn up and is constantly No better arguments could be desired by the defendappealed ers of social action. and their influence for immeasurably greater. Most. opinion is everywhere opposed to it. II] THE EFFICACY OF EFFORT action with 15 social mence list usually denounced it with vehecalculated to do great harm. subconscious. it is arguing without an opponent. The fact is that the laissez faire doctrine is of its an ex parte doctrine. The facts on the other side are almost too familiar to be enumerated and set off against the above- mentioned of evil list. especially in France and England. That they do so represent it in one sense must be admitted. They good are far is more numerous and important. although. is attempts to control social phenomena in such mistakes that constitute the whole I indictment of the laissez faire school. a long as something to.

in ultimately embodying itself in the state. placed them in the hands of a class. and state action. and no such step is taken until the demand is practically unanimous and irresistible. in the long run at least. The civilized world. It was egoistic and had become well-nigh intolerable. is democratic. but strongly call for social action would probably admit the it has no influence on. The fundamental error of the modern laissez faire school has been that of confounding the present state of the world with the state of the world in the eighteenth century. society is naturally conservative. Now ever since society thus took the reins into its it own hands. has ever been reversed. The very ones in who most laissez faire doctrine in the abstract. mistaking it for the usurpations of a ruling class. undertaking various enterprises. From the date of this triumph of society over a class. and tak- and far more than during the previous period when control one after another a great array of industries and functions that had hitherto been intrusted to indi- ing over into viduals. from the management of the public finances to the transmission of letters. assuming responsibilities. and messages. Scarcely a step taken in this direction. its virtually is social action in a nearly literal sense. which the new economy was aimed was and not few individuals. economy of laissez faire. social initiative them when it conflicts with their Nor can it be said that all this has been fruitless. and overlooking the fact that this direction is it is true social action. its own Economists who have been studying only the political economy of the close of the eighteenth century are alarmed at this. though not without a largely the action of a relatively violent revolution in France.1 6 it APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART I after The social action against has ceased to represent society in a more literal sense. interests. state action in these countries and in those that have grown out of them has approximated true social action as nearly as could well all be expected. laissez passer was much nearer to the social idea of the time. The new social. Indeed. by whatever name governments may be called. packages. and the greater part of them . Every step taken in response to a public demand. and it succeeded. it has steadily been taking the initiative.

B. and without the recognition of which there could be no science of applied sociology. These are held up as the sufficient proof of the evils of social initiative. 332. pp. once also left to "private enterprise. 4 This expression is probably as old as the laissez faire of De Gournay. L'fivolutionnisme des idees-forces. and that its achievements are already multitudinous and full A of the utmost importance. however. p. p.CH. Philosophie. II. p. Social achievement has been the con- dition to individual achievement. Paris. 257. p. Ixxix. Fernow in his address as vice-president of Section I 8 Ludwig a. 44." What the laissez faire economists have done is to go over the long series of these social of relatively failures or to achievements and cull out a relatively small number unimportant ones which they declare to have been be doing harm to society. as not accomplishing their purpose.d. 334 Science. Stein. Justice. 1898. Springfield meeting. Alfred Fouillee. syst. Vol.. Bd. E. Vol. at and all forms of achievement are once the products and the proofs of the efficacy of effort. . American Association for the Advancement of Science. stands that of faire marcher^ which has always been a policy. 27). Berlin. IV). Introduction. .S." 3 Over against this doctrine of laissez faire. and one of the supposed fatal blows against the movement is the number of laws that have actually been repealed. August 30. XLIV. 1895. pp. 26 (Abdruck Archiv f. of the 1895 ( see tne Proceedings. 258). It was revived in this sense by Dr. Some of them are doubtless failures. Do not these rather show the of society in promptly correcting its mistakes are found to be such ? wisdom when they and candid survey of this field. 1890. shows that society has always been marching forward in the one irreversible direction. 1 2 Herbert Spencer. which is now only a doctrine. N. Histoire generate de la civilisation en Europe. The l which seeks to check this natural flow of social energy has been appropriately called "moral curare" 2 " " miserable laissez-faire and "social Nirvana. Wesen und Aufgabe der Sociologie. I have met with it several times (see Guizot. II] THE EFFICACY OF EFFORT 17 have proved so obviously beneficial that they are looked upon as much in the light of social necessities as is the public administra- tion of criminal law. not always in precisely the sense in which it is used here.

nobody professes to doubt that. Vol. rightly understood.CHAPTER III END OR PURPOSE OF SOCIOLOGY I think I do not err in assuming that. paucis vivit genus. I never heard . in the increasing security of person and property . . forth as it we possess a power of bettering things. Finally. social progress consists in those changes and variety of the : of structure in the social organism which have entailed these consequences. The current conception is a teleological one. it is and to train all our intellect and energy to this our paramount duty to use supreme service of our kind.. And they are thought to constitute progress simply because they tend to heighten what 1 is human happiness. most men are agreed that the proportion of good and evil in life may be very sensibly affected by human action. April 18 1857. Westminster Review. however diverse their views on philosophical and religious matters. its Law and Cause. LVII (N. 1 i. considered apart from our interests. Humanum LUCANUS. HUXLEY. The phenomena are contem- plated solely as bearing on human happiness. pp. Learned dissertations have been written to prove that the idea of progress. The word progress is ambiguous. we must inquire the nature of these changes. in the widening freedom of action enjoyed whereas. XI). the subject-matter of applied sociology " " improvement. This is the burden of the argument of Spencer's well-known essay on Progress. is a purely objective conception and has no reference to the production of more agreeable states of feeling in the beings considered. to my knowledge. But rightly to understand Progress. PROGRESS VERSUS EVOLUTION We is have already seen that while the subject-matter of pure is sociology achievement. so far .S. Only those changes are held to constitute progress which directly or indirectly tend to heighten human happiness. He says : Social progress is supposed to consist in the produce of a greater quantity articles required for satisfying men's wants . or diminished and it would seem to follow that good must be similarly susceptible of addition or subtraction. either organic or social. anybody doubt that the evil may be thus increased. 445-446. Vol.

pp. Sociology." I should say that development or evolution would here suit the case better. thinks that future so remote as to be outside of considerations. for example. and shown that perfection of structure is only a means to the ulterior end of converting the maximum quantity of inorganic into 1 It seems to be a question of the proper meaning organic matter. the condition of the world will continue to grow worse indefinitely. pp. Helvetius. Some sociologists even incline to that view. but same class of ideas. to the ultimate Pure Sociology. It belongs to pure sociology. and as misery increases with social and intellectual development. clearly expressed by Kant. 113. Vol. 174." or the formula that to get happiness one must forget it." and says that "this law of organic progress is He the law of all progress.) deny that there is any remedy for the woes of the world. Hartmann. Durkheim. but most other writers of his school do very emphatically deny it. 114. then applied sociology does not deal with progress. Schopenhauer. Hartmann. to the effect that the poor. Spencer objected. and social progress may still have as at least one of 2 its definitions the one I gave it in Dynamic which is practically that to which Mr. and undeveloped classes of society are happier than citations the rich and intellectually endowed. p. and others. II.III] WELTSCHMERZ 19 goes on to show that "organic progress consists in a change from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous. etc. 161. while admitting the possibility of some amelioration in the condition of mankind in the remote future. Vol. Tolstoi.CH. It would be easy to fill a volume with from Adam Smith. Gumplowicz. lowly. WELTSCHMERZ pessimists (Schopenhauer. usually ascribed to belongs to the John Stuart Mill. 67 ." If this and not the other be the true definition of progress. which they admit to be The taking place. 1 all practical like the speculations 2 relative I. In dealing with that branch I have even gone farther than Spencer. of the word "progress. The "paradox of hedonism. . Comte. It will be seen that Spencer did not deny that structural progress may be attended by an increase in agreeable states of sentient beings including men.

astronomical. as letters from him state. whereby. Jahrgang. also. V. is only his public declaration. for the reason. while the unfavorable remain the same. them. Just as the speculative philosophers us that with refinement of phys- and mental constitutions the capacity for pain is increased more rapidly than the capacity for pleasure. but differ from them chiefly in believing that the bad state of things can be remedied by their various specifics. 248-249. and I admit the force of them. that it might do harm. the world grows worse. Nos. still it must be candidly admitted to be bad enough. Even this. is no argument against a few sincere trials of them could be made ical to enable scientific sociologists to tell watch the result. as all must freely confess. pp. however. so that the pain element constantly gains upon the pleasure element and the world grows worse. But 1 Die Wage. but declines to Esoterically utter his whole thought to the world. as he says. he goes almost as far as Hartmann. 282-284. It is not probable that any or all of them would have the desired effect if tried. and I can almost agree with Huxley that if there really is " no remedy. and while the case is by no means as bad as it is represented by either class. 1902. and while there are many other considerations which greatly diminish the effects ascribed to these causes. 16 and 18.20 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [FART I withdrawal of the sun's heat and the secular destruction of events that private all life. it would be better if some "kindly comet could pass by and sweep the entire phantasmagoria out of existence. is and each school claims that its own par- not only a certain cure but the only cure. at least at it present. or cosmical speculation about 1 may happen millions of years hence. nothing increases. socialists The admit the most that noble motives. and would be well if That. and also because he admits the possibility that he may be wrong. so the socialists tell us that the increase of wealth is attended by social conditions the increase of poverty the rich grow richer and the poor poorer. and society does not seem to be ready to give any of them ticular specific a trial. is claimed by the pessimists. . while the number who have . I am familiar with all the arguments of both of these classes of people. Unfortunately there are many of these. April 13 and 27. and the number who have diminishes. a sort of geological.

has not arrived at that state of self-consciousness at which it has ever seriously considered the question. inequalities that this at length gave later it way This to the power is of cunning.CH.. its then find the remedy for woes. and that still became intelligence in general that last. Some savage races are scarcely more advanced. it determined is the place of individuals in society. Civilized races are waking up to these purely physical matters. We ceed . maintained. are told that no scheme for the equalization of men can sucthat at first it was physical strength that determined the . I 21 while I all would really remedy the that there is no remedy. If all this achievement which constitutes civilization has really been wrought without producing any improvement in the condition of the human race. ACHIEVEMENT VERSUS IMPROVEMENT would never have taken any interest in sociology if I had not conceived that it had this mission. With this information to start 'with he is in position to consider his future. lies in the fact that achievement is is not socialized. it is time that the reason for this was investigated. The purpose of applied sociology is to harmonize achievement with improvement. If this is must amount to complete race consciousness. It teaches man what he is and I how he came to be so. It is in the same state as a race of animals relative to its true condition. Applied sociology includes among The difficulty its main purposes the investigation of this question. Ill] ACHIEVEMENT VERSUS IMPROVEMENT do not think that any or evil. . They social matters. The problem therefore that of the socialization of achievement. Pure sociology gives mankind the means of self-orientation. science. itself of of the social panaceas proposed do not agree with the pessimists tried to cure I deny that society has ever It the disease called WeltscJimerz. With a clear comprehension of what constitutes achievement he is able to see what will constitute improvement. are in a state of absolute lethargy with regard to What the human race requires is to be awakened It will to a realization of its condition. viz. This must be something more than the feeble plaints of It a few individuals. ever brought about it must be by the same instrumentality that produced all other steps in human progress.

in the long run. or abilities.22 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART I now. in the most civilized races and the most enlightened communities. Those who maintain that existing social inequalities are natural and proper and the result of the recognition by society that intelligence. badly organized society. forever. The existence of civil justice in human society has already been alluded to as an illustration of the superiority of the artificial over the natural. and is as it should be. going back to natural justice. is the natural state. it would naturally who by which be held that there would be great injustice in robbing those their superior wisdom had achieved the great results upon civilization rests and distributing the natural rewards among inferior persons who had achieved nothing. It is moreover affirmed that being natural there is no possibility of altering it. The this. This. All would assent to And yet this is in fact practically what has been done. They work for all mankind and for all time. and all they ask is that all mankind shall forever benefit by their work. starting from the standpoint of achievement. if rewarded. But no one would insist that these fruits should all go to those who had made them possible. it comes in here as a proof of the inconsistency of inequalities. to the law of the strongest. Of course all this falls to the ground on the least analysis. As its importance is admitted by all. The rewards for their achievement have fallen to persons who have achieved nothing. whole history of the world shows that those who have achieved have received no reward. For example. the true reason why some occupy lower and others higher positions in the natural strata of society. all the popular reasoning about social I After all that has been said about justice. They have simply most part profited by some accident of position in a complex. The fruits of achievement are incalculable in for the amount and endure soon pass away. are. that prevails in the animal world. deserves to be thus they only knew it. Their authors are few in number and They would be the last to claim an undue share. have . or superiority of any kind. it is said. whereby they have been permitted to claim and appropriate the fruits of the achievement of others.

It confounds two also always permeated by totally different things. and other policies involving the same principle are attacked as the first being invoked against them. simply because civilized nations. legal. aspect. never yet seen a statement of the real principle that underlies nor a truly philosophical or fundamental definition of justice. Ill] THE OLIGOCENTRIC WORLD VIEW 23 it. " moral. The principle underit lying is lost sight of. I use the word but nevertheless in its true sense. the fact enforcement of justice by society has always been resisted by the strong and denounced as an outrage upon their right to reap the fruits of their superior physical or intellectual power. the strong are forcibly shorn of their power to exploit the weak. It is no longer so denounced.CH."" The words " superior and " inferior " always mean . ities would and The same reasoning which defends existing social inequalAs a matter of logically condemn all civil justice. or political justice. the same principle Thus the claim that the superior members of society justifies the social inof the misery of the world does not make up most in any respect from the claim of the physically strongest men a barbaric race to seize and possess the handsomest women and With the progress of civilization society interfered in this policy and set up in its place what is known as civil. It is forgotten that its adopwas the result of a prolonged struggle. and a wholly artificial institution. of history. intelligence of certain equalities that differ in was attacked. for no word has been so thor- In modern times social oughly perverted as the word inequalities are always looked upon as essentially intellectual inequalities. which is a reversal of the law of nature the finest oxen. It lays is the whole stress on the intellectual aspect and ignores the moral " moral " in a somewhat unusual sense. at least in the abstract. The true definition of justice is that it is the enforcement by society of an artificial it By equality in social conditions which are naturally unequal. it is it has become the fixed and settled policy of all Whenever any institution becomes thus settled tion accepted as a matter of course. THE OLIGOCENTRIC WORLD VIEW All reasoning on such questions another vice.

Person and property are tolerably It was a great step in social achievement. for the reais sons given. and threatens to end in wide intellectual and social demoralization. It is true that pure sociology takes account of human achievement. art. All science. Sociology is submay recognizes the intellect as the most effective of all it as only a agencies. vast as its influence has been in securing man's moral advance. and sociology proposes to hold it to its primary purpose as a means to its primary end. The entire philosophy of the present age revolves about these distinctions as their pivot. and that is sociology. All be regarded as objective. of talent. but the principle involved is the same. has no right to call itself aristocentric. The rule. It must fairly well its under establish social justice. of mental brilliancy. . It is a very different thing from social justice. literature centers on the intellectual. But society must take another step in the same direction. The attempt to do this will be attacked and denounced. The worst is that such only are considered as deserving of anything. There is an apotheosis of genius. is exceedingly mischievous. because potential ability is given no chance to assert itself. It is the out-Nietzscheing of Nietzsche. of ability. They can be removed by an extension of the same policy by which the former were removed. The effect is to limit the number even of these. only one science that does not breathe this spirit. but is it There looks upon It other sciences jective. means to the end improvement. as was the other. SOCIAL VERSUS POLITICAL JUSTICE Now the justice of which we have been speaking. All attention concentrated upon a few exceptions. civil and political inequalities of men have been safe removed by it. Its point of view is precisely the opposite. The present social inequalities exist for the same reason that civil and political inequalities once existed. This oligocentric philosophy. is after all only civil and political justice. which. So steeped is the public mind in this world view that all who do not display these qualities are wholly lost sight of.24 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART I intellectual superiority and inferiority. but the intellect was created by the will as a servant of the will. the well-being of its possessors.

Ill] SOCIAL WELFARE 25 And it after social justice shall have been attained and shall become the settled policy of society. so far as exercise is these can be separated. But everybody knows that a state of inactivity. faculty. Every desire is at always bottom the result of some cause that temporarily prevents the norfaculty. physical. and their joint normal what constitutes happiness. and the same is true of all. mental.') Complete depri- vation would of course be immediately fatal. i. ^Taking all the faculties together. Let us look more closely into the nature of The welfare or happiness of mankind consists entirely in the freedom to exercise the natural faculties. whatever degree of happiness men enjoy is due to the power to exercise their faculties and to no other source. becomes ennui. Love. so long as unsatisfied. while the deprivation of is such normal exercise what constitutes misery. is the deprivation of the entire reproductive system of its normal functioning. have grown out of the enslaved and overworked condition It may of the mass of mankind during such a prolonged period of human negative state history.CH. the normal exercise of any faculty is and necessarily attended with pleasure. no matter what. These are the types of the whole list. SOCIAL WELFARE social justice. beyond that needed to recuperate from the effect of previous fatigue. spiritual. to exercise the faculties The problem therefore manifestly is how to secure to the mem- bers of society the maximum power of exercising their natural . and drives the sufferer to some form of activity. The physiology of it is that the only source of pleasure is the exercise of Conversely. On the other hand.e. no one will any more dare to question than to question civil justice.. is is All want is deprivation. some mal exercise of a holding of operation. the with- whatever Hunger necessary to set the system into healthy the deprivation of the stomach of the food upon which it expends its energy. a state more intolerable than fatigue. and the real misery of the world is due to the partial deprivation of the power of men by which nature has endowed them. The old idea that happiness is a a state of rest or repose is completely exploded.

was the consolidation of the amalgamating group into a national unit capable of withstanding the encroachments and attacks of other outside groups. as was 'shown in that chapter. It is even independent of their capacity to enjoy or to do with the relative superiority or suffer. which they are capathe politico-military organization. bond- Ultimately. and stern military domination. The salient features of such an organization. The conquered chiefly in race. is age. But it involves the elaboration of the crude and antagonistic materials into the only kind of order or organization of ble. Until this is attained none of the subsequent steps can be taken. and the struggle for political freedom begins.26 faculties. deriving from the exercise of their faculties it aims only to enable to have. It is wholly of the question of their intelligence or ability or social independent value. and social freedom. viz. them to enjoy such faculties as they may happen SOCIAL FREEDOM From this subjective side the whole upward movement of society has been in the direction of acquiring freedom. They secure the first great national freedom. we shall see that it exhibits three somewhat distinct stages. as set forth in the tenth chapter of Pure Sociology. It matters not how much satisfaction they are capable of . following upon conquest and subjugation. itself But individual liberty is at its minimum. fundamental the ruling class or ectoderm. The first and prime requisite during the early efforts at nation forming. which may be called in their historical order national freedom. It is APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART I a purely subjective problem and has nothing to inferiority of men. slavery. political freedom. the proletariat or endoand the business class or mesoderm of the primitive state. derm. are extreme inequality. It is during this stage that the industrial system is sketched on the broad lines of social cleavage. which always far outnumbers all other elements. These form a strong bulwark and enable the inchoate state to defend against hostile elements from without during the subsequent stages in social assimilation. caste. as . If we look over the history of this movement. resulting in the three great social tissues. prerequisite..

this is in large measure attained. on the contrary. serfdom. people rule themselves by their sovereign votes. These questions cannot come into the political . feudalism. all-absorbing issue. This stage is that of social freedom. and all political freedom was attained. well-being. despotism. They are largely economic forces guided by the acute sagacity of individual interest. gained the ascendant. Social freedom remains to be achieved. holds. struggle. These were always conspicuous and locally circumscribed. otherwise called bourgeoisie and third estate. events have proved that there remains another step to be taken. nobility and priestly rule the middle or business class. monarchy in its true sense. And yet never in the history of the world was there manifested greater The unrest or greater dissatisfaction with the state of things. with the overthrow of political oppression and the political freedom. this was the great. the world would enter upon the great millennium of universal prosperity.CH. are hidden and universally diffused through the social fabric. which it still fell . Another stage must be reached before any considerable degree of the hopes that were entertained can be realized. and happiness. nobility and the priesthood has been broken. and down to the middle of the nineteenth century. One after another the bulwarks of oppression slavery. As sages predicted. The world is to-day in the throes of this third Military and royal oppression have been overthrown. serfdom. The power of the Slavery. The forces that prevent social freedom. feudalism. Ill] SOCIAL FREEDOM 27 the history of the world shows. But this was far from being the case. have disappeared. important did this issue seem that throughout the eighteenth century and down to near our own time it was confidently So attainment of believed that. The civilized world is democratic. National freedom and political freedom have been achieved. They give rise to questions escape so recondite and obscure that the clearest thinkers differ as to their solution. matter to deal with the state is much more difficult and was a comparatively simple and the ruling class. Throughout antiquity. the Middle Ages. no matter by what name its governments are called. But the problem of social freedom It subtle than either of the others. and they detection and elude pursuit.

from I Primitive ethics. 426. Their study and solution belong to applied sociology. and the other speakers with parture new one accord dealt with different methods of relieving human suffering and promoting human welfare. t Ibid. went expecting to hear all about right and wrong. prose.. and chief props to exploitation and cloaks to hypocrisy from which mankind has had The new ethics has for its maximization of pleasure. The conrace. . Jourdain talked to last talked applied sociology. happiness or misery. p. Felix Adler doctrine in a masterly way. as the word " moral " implies. has enjoined has proved one of the liberty. as I reI member." about conscience and the categorical imperative. 1 aim the minimization of pain and the For the present it is obliged to devote 2 Pure Sociology. this congress In fact. 419. about duty and " the ought. THE NEW ETHICS I was once invited to attend a meeting of the Ethical Association. as first unconsciously as M. Dr. I was agreeably disappointed. as had. and in its place It has been set up the false dogma of abstract right. to have shown. and was confined exclusively to considerations of safety or And even throughout the widening circles of ethical salvation. p.e. although its expounders know nothing of these things. making a wide defrom the conventional ethics. is derived from primitive ethics. i. breathed the unfolded the spirit of the new ethics. In short. with those social restraints to conduct which the group sentiment of race safety had established for the preservation of the existence of the had nothing to do with sympathy or feeling. dualism 2 there was no essential change in its character.28 arena until there is APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART I a certain harmony or consensus of opinion concerning them. It was a great relief and a hopeful sign of the times. especially wrong. It ventional ethics upon which we are all brought up. restraint and curtailed human to suffer. but is a degenerate corruption of it in which all connection with its original matrix has been lost sight of. The only science that can deal with them is sociol- ogy.. Every paper. 1 was simply race morality. they are the proper subjects of scientific investigation. It do with custom.

recognizes that the summum bonum the social weal. and a pharisaical idea that he is better than other men. and this pleasure is the motive from which the action proceeds. kind of good that that have will prevent the recurrence of the conditions deals with made it necessary. According to that there are two kinds of conduct ordinary moral conduct. which is called benevolence. beget egotism and give the doer of good deeds an exalted opinion of himself. just here that applied sociology takes up the subject and seeks to show its full significance for the future of mankind. as light is vouchsafed. and may be called the luxury of altruism. Most philanthropy is also mere temporary patchwork which has to be done over and over again. . not dynamic. The new ethics. Although the orthodox thought of all ages and races has clung to the doctrine of origin restraint The and sought to hush every whisper that feeling has any 1 Page 126. In other words. to labor for It that end. It does not aim or desire to do that ing in the world so great that it : . conditions and causes of It inquires into social conditions will and seeks to introduce modifications that and render their recurrence impossible. It is not less egoistic from being It is apt to altruistic. It is static. has its egoistic return in the form of a high moral satisfaction. it is a great pleasure. which does more than duty requires and confers benefits upon others for which no equivalent is rendered.CH. Most philanthropy belongs rather to the old conventional ethics of which it is a sort of annex. and aims. As already applied sociology. goes to the root and evil. THE CLAIMS OF FEELING and true nature of feeling were fully treated in Pure and something was said of feeling as an end. which has been described as among the most exalted of sentiments. is it is prevent existing evils It is dynamic. This last. 1 It is Sociology. said. Ill] itself chiefly to THE CLAIMS OF FEELING the former of these objects. is 29 of suffer- The amount must necessarily receive the chief attention. By this it is not meant to imply that the new ethics is the same as philanthropy. which does not go beyond the performance of duty and conduct of a superior order. on the contrary.

The frequent recurrence of such aberrations and wayward tenden- makes this association of pleasure with evil permanent. attention is concentrated on the former and the satisfaction is not attended to. seen that this class increases with the psychic They are chiefly those pleasures that I have characterized as "spiritual. and the evil effects are intimately associated with it. tion in is Over against the philosophy of restraint in which func- everything there has dared to arise a philosophy of license of feeling are allowed. while they do not lead to the performance of any function. are way antagonistic. In cases where function normally follows the satisfaction of feeling. as shown. and that there are thousands of pleasures which. though normally securing the performance of function. and often does defeat such performance. and the idea becomes general that all pleasure is bad.30 rights whatever in its APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART I own name. But the fact in no sense opposites. development of man. It rests on the false cies assumption of the necessarily antagonistic character of feeling and function. still. Pure Sociology. But in the contrary cases. To the gradual recognition of this truth is due the fact that since the origin of human records there has been going on a slow movement in human thought 1 looking more and more to the p. which the claims In the treatment of feeling in its relations to function it was shown that the two things are in and of themselves utterly unlike. breaking through As the rational faculty matured it began to be applied to this problem. This is the true explanation and origin of all asceticism. still do not in any way interfere with any of the operations of It is also existence. . attention is specially directed to feeling." without giving that word any occult or mystic implications. and were treated in the fifteenth chapter of Pure Sociology. 126. 1 or in any They bear no resemblance to each other. that the satisfaction of feeling. gave rise to a false may conception of the nature of feeling. it has always been these barriers and spontaneously realizing itself. They constitute in the main the sociogenetic forces or attributes of the soul. where the gratification of desire endangers or prevents the functional effects. Rational analysis shows that there is no such necessary relation.

greatest happiness of the 7 He is usually credited with the maxim. up. 7 Works." doubtless be found scattered at rare intervals through the literature the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries to the effect that pleasure is not bad in itself. 1764. 592). XLI 5 6 Concerning Moral Good and Evil. 1898. 1843. Tome IV." was opened best which the greatest numbers. and the 1898. 1720. No. p. English Reprints. sums all 1 which. June. the general result toward which these influences are tending. London. but he greatest number. Sir Thomas More in describ- ing pleasure 4 Other passages might forbydclen whereof cometh no harme. Ill] THE CLAIMS OF FEELING 31 a movement which I have recognition of. Paris. 14. Vol. but the predominating sentiment was of Utopians says that "they thinke no kinde of a gloomy asceticism. Art. 3 4 21 1 (GEuvres. Compare also an earlier statement in the Political Science Quarterly. Bentham is commonly regarded as the founder of utilitarianism. Utopia (Robinson's translation). 220. 1869. 1 characterized as "the subjective trend of modern philosophy. Prop. January. 95. 219). typified by such writers as Pascal. though liable to be both misunderstood and abused. p. Les passions de 1'ame. and this continued to prevail far into the nineteenth century. p." Jeremy Bentham crys" The tallized the maxim into the form. 4. No. Ethics. 535. Cesare Beccaria. fittingly described ately to set apart ation. All know what a strong hold it had on the minds of the early settlers of by our word "puritanism. an ethical doctrine.CH. the claims of feeling. Vol. p. American Journal of Sociology. 2 in. Annales de 1'Institut international de sociologie. by Francis Hutcheson. 2. Dei Delitti e delle Pene. Vo1 - x > P- J 42 - . business and professional men have considered it proper deliberAmerica. p." 2 and Spinoza 3 echoed his this sentiment. No." 5 The side is " That action expressly attributes it to Priestley and Beccaria. X. 1895. any portion of their time for pleasure and recreThis they have been practically driven to by the alarming prevalence of brain exhaustion and nervous breakdowns. (Opera. p. when logically defined." Descartes declared that the passions "are all essentially good. Ill. 1882." It is still and it is only within recent years that very strong everywhere. The way to a new philosophy from the moral said. who procures the greatest happiness for same sentiment is embodied in the saying of Beccaria> "/# mas& sitna felicita divisa net maggior numero.

The apparent peace in nature is an thing Behind and below it is the ever-present "struggle for illusion. we have in this last term the true basis of the subjective movement in philosophy. and intellectual ones. Some are fleet of foot or swift of wing. esthetic. and the survivors. ining cluding the moral. lives in a pain economy. no wonder that animals are " wild. in order to hold their buffets of the world. They do not suffer from imaginary evils. Function is everyand feeling nothing. and that it may not greatly lessen their enjoyment of life. the term "eudemonism" to the whole range of pleasures. "The greatest good to the greatest in the phrase the true policy of democracy. and they may not vividly remember the pains In fact. sight." If we allow popular tized by posits Declaration of Independence of happiness" as one of the "inalienable Our " usage to restrict this term to the satisfaction of the coarser." phrase. before the age of reproduction. and more essential desires. In every case the great majority succumb. The animal world existence. the natural race of creatures. political much used number. or smell. The entire utilitarian philosophy is stigmarights the moral philosophers as " hedonism. to starvation. and still . therefore. more and follow Epicurus in applyphysical." They resort to every conceivable device to escape these dangers. to disease. as is well known. others have wonderful powers of concealment. are incessantly threatened with the same fate. others have delicate senses of hearing. they fear the ones they have never experienced as much as those they have actually suffered. fact But turn as you may. throughout their entire lives." has passed into a United States as embodying "the pursuit of mankind. Their mental states are chiefly controlled by previously experienced.32 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY The maxim above considered. instincts made up it of the inherited experiences of their ancestors. It is. to enemies. remains that in nearly every own against the to a thousand individ- somewhere from ten uals have to be born for every one that lives out its normal period of existence. they do not anticipate those of the future. and nature through innumerable instincts aids them in their efforts. I I am admit not disposed to exaggerate the meaning of this that animals are largely unconscious of any struggle. or to the elements. still [PART I further shortened to the form.

musk-sacs. . feigning. 100). they were afraid of everything they were afraid of animals. painful period. imitative coloring. all the members of primitive Bagehot well says: " Dryden had a dream of an early age when wild in woods the noble savage " but " when lone in woods the cringing savage crept would have been ran. and are thus denied all the enjoyments of a life in the open daylight and sunshine. as hares. Even if devouring the other half. The most deluded people in the world are the sentimental poets who " paint the poor Indian " and the native races of countries where civilized man has displaced them All as having been robbed of a paradise of freedom and joy. in their wild state of nature. and are prohibited by a vast network of ceremonials and prescriptions from any true liberty of movement or action. independent of the countless organic armors. nos kernels ennemis. some. not the very beginnings of an epicurean life. and of possible " the inroads from far tribes. bristles." more like all we know of that early. and all the shells. has perhaps been too frequently dwelt upon. and deception. savage races are abject slaves to a thousand delusions and superstitions.. and no one dares to infract the laws of a remorseless custom that hedges in society. So far as the vestiges inform us. It was full of fear. but it still stands in all its sullen hideousness before the defenders of a moral order. bare. Nearly all animals are always on the alert. above all things. Ill] THE CLAIMS OF FEELING endowed with numberless All this is 33 others are arts of imitation. All are constantly ready to fly at the least sign of danger. sleep with their eyes open. but their mind within was as painful to them as the world without. there would remain the fear of men. These multitudinous prohibitions and restraints are enforced by the severest penalties. of certain attacks by near tribes. 1 Voltaire. In the human It is race the case is not so much better as many a great mistake to imagine that savages are happy suppose. Not only had they no comfort. they were frightened of . Thousands are nocturnal in order to evade diurnal devices for protection.CH. " ces monstres. But. and even those that prey upon others must themselves watch them stronger or more cunning ones deprive there were no other animal to fear. Le Chapon et la Poularde (Dialogues. spines. p. forms of enemies." J This fact that one half of the animal world lives by lest of their spoils. etc. no convenience. ink-bags.

P. eclipses. so not too 3 in primitive man. Terror. glancing rivers. Martyrdom of Man. 1877. P- The 333 2 Origin of Civilisation and the Primitive Condition of Man. they are unusual. second edition. If they are adverse to him. The author last much to say that is earlier work. in is the perpetual nightmare of existence. New York. he is cast down. We know very few races in a stage so idyllic that the era of conquest and subjugation has not* already been ushered in. flattered. which is often intense. Richard Maurice Bucke. awaken in him no enthusiasm. the brighter aspects of nature. 1879. from which we derive such a large proportion of our happiness. fear quoted. Prehistoric Times. Bart." 4 This dread of nature was described by Humboldt in an eloquent passage which I have 5 Dr. New York. Sixth edition revised (edition de luxe). 1904. 55. the horrible dread of unlife.34 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART I world". is almost always at war." or even to imagine. state of peace is almost unknown. indeed. 6 Dr. " It is says. is not beautiful to him. and all that to us in nature is so beautiful. On the other hand. p. New York. 449. an known evil hangs like a thick cloud over savage and embitters impossible. by Sir John Lubbock. the tremulous condition of the savage mind yet the traveler can see from their aspect and manners that they "It . truth in the following words this : The aspects of nature have no moral significance for him [the savage] except in a bad sense. New York. Pure Sociology. New York. 109. lake expanses. 1871. They fancied there were powers behind it which must be pleased. to his pursuit of food." To : As in the animal world. 1876. night. tempest. Vol. 4 Winwood Reade. earthquakes. Bucke has accurately expressed reproduced more than once. every pleasure. 1 the same effect Sir John Lubbock said " No savage is free. All over the world his daily life is regulated by a complicated and 2 apparently most inconvenient set of customs (as forcible as laws). Lord Avebury). 6 Dynamic Sociology. soothed. p. If the aspects of nature are favorable no more. p. is the most prominent of the moral functions in the mind of the savage. and this very often in a number of hideous ways. he is satisfied. Man's Moral Nature: An Essay. Sunshine. the spectacle of nature filled them with awe and dread. too." says Reade. p. 684. I. (the Right Hon. Storm. flowers. "to describe. and all the darker phenomena of earth and air fill him with vague fear. 284. p. The A 1 Physics and Politics. dwell in a state of never-ceasing dread. If fi Primitive man. Every tribe is thirsting for the blood of other tribes.IS 2 - . he is terrified.

When it is not open is internecine strife. The powers that be are ordained of God and Social political oppression is defended as the decree of the nation. If we give the pains the minus and the pleasures the plus sign. and mankind has been perpetually rent by every form of warfare families. all these. the claims of function are the only ones recog- Those of feeling are either totally ignored or vehemently denied. expressed or implied. toil. poverty. war is the prevailing condition. as in the animal world. It was doubtless the sense of this truth that prompted Kipling to speak of "the desert where there is always war. and population must be kept up or the race is endangered. there is no spot so remote and sequestered that it may not at any moment become the scene of a sanguinary battle. Throughout nized. only one way of meeting this argument. by any semblance of peace. the pains exceed the pleasures. external and internal. the clash of clans and the feuds of fort are There is always turmoil and trouble. All wars are holy wars waged to save a chosen race or people from outcast races and peoples. and peace and comunknown. Toil and poverty are the consequences of population. Everywhere and always it is function that is appealed to. Fear and terror are instruments for the preservation of the race. is jeopardized.CH. which gle for existence is Excessive not masked. by the terms of the definition. squalor. If a man in his business is There . and economic inequalities are declared to be natural and hence necessary to be endured in the interest of social order. the algebraic sum is minus. No matter how sparse the population. the reason. stages and conditions of pain economy. animal and human. always being that otherwise existence and if existence is lost all is lost. Codes of custom and oppressive ceremonials are the means of prohibiting deviations from the path of race safety." All through the various stages of barbarism that follow those of true savagery. and misery stare the observer in the face in every corner of the earth. Even after the advent of an industrial stage of " society the exploitation of the weak by the strong causes a strug" on the part of the great mass of mankind. In a pain economy. it strife. Ill] THE CLAIMS OF FEELING 35 gates of Janus are always open. Moral and religious teachers preach resignation to all the woes of life.

but for a worse than nothing. who see no the absence of is all hope that remedy for the state of things. and that it consists in the recognition of the claims Without a surplus of agreeable over disagreeable feelWith such existence is worthless or worse than worthless. I believe that there a remedy. not simply for a zero. may be it looked is being con- What value then has existence in a pain economy that such strenuous efforts should be made to preserve it ? It is a great struggle. Existence If its debits exceed its credits. he concludes that he is upon as a business. Consciously or unconsciously. and then of it accumulating the maximum possible surplus. a minus quantity. way of first getting rid of this long-standing deficit. In a remedy can ever be found. The is kernel of the whole question therefore ? Can a remedy be found. a perpetual and hopeless deficit. ducted at conducting his business at a loss. a way out of pessimism of feeling. this logic is. For one.36 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART! finds that the debits regularly exceed the credits. this is the reasoning of the whole pessimistic world. . ing a surplus has a value exactly proportional to the amount of The purpose of applied sociology is to point out a that surplus. a loss. faultless. a nothing.

la nation deviendrait un corps sans ame. La Parabole. and although each step can in result of individual achievement." Nearly subscribes to the sentiment embodied in that document. it is the common social attitude of scientific at all. everybody and I for one certainly do. therefore the offices held France perdait subitement ses cinquante premiers savants. Si la 1 premiers artistes. Si elle venait au contraire & perdre tout son personnel officiel. les jures. " Saint-Simon. mais il n'en resulterait pour le pays qu'un faible dommage.CHAPTER IV SOCIAL ACHIEVEMENT I have never yet had the good fortune to hear any valid reason alleged why that corporation of individuals we call the State may not do what voluntary effort fails in doing. elle serait decapitee. shown to proceed from an earlier step without would have been impossible. Lettres de Henri Saint-Simon a MM. ses cinquante premiers cultivateurs." pp. ses 37 .Simon intended and expected this inference to be drawn and made a part of the case he was present- ing. cette evenement affligerait les Fran^ais parce qu'ils sont bons. the date. and his name. and all the circumstances are in most cases definitely known. still this particular step. nearly every case be which it In view of this. Civilization is to all external appearances almost exclusively the Almost every great advance can be directly referred to some one or more individuals whose genius and industry have made it possible. 1-8 i(CEuvres de Saint-Simon). either from want of intelligence or lack of will. This inference is that because all the public officers that he names might be suddenly blotted out of existence without materially affecting the march of civilization. that there has been any achievement men to deny and any allusion to social action of a useful or progressive character is apt to provoke a smile. ses cinquante cinquante premiers fabricants. It is possible that Saint. was actually taken by somebody. But the great majority supplement their assent to its letter by an inference which is wholly unwarranted. HUXLEY. The extreme presentation of this view found its 1 expression in the celebrated "parable of Saint-Simon. however short.

in fact. the protective and the ameliorative. and be supplied. . its has always sought to do so in the measure of power to. belonged to pure sociology to point out certain of the great typical steps in social achievement. these offices and performing these public functions can be spared without serious loss is that their places can be filled without diffiwhich are under their direction will culty and the social operations go on as before. can have no other object functions are than its own preservation and advancement. considered as an active agent. with reference to the past. It is the task of applied sociology to indicate as fully as the data of the science will permit how much farther society cah and should go. mainly shown that. over and above the this establishment and maintenance of the social order as a condition to all individual achievement.38 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART I for civilization. No individual ever limits his activities to the simple sphere of self- preservation. it does not differ from an individual. and their loss as individuals could not in one sense men of science. Social achievement has consisted in the establishment of a social order under and within which individual achievesocial order. This is as far as pure sociology can go in this direction. are the original geniuses who are building up the civilization They of the world. This is not the case to the same extent with the letters that he sets over against them. society had done considerable original work looking to its own betterment. It was was attempted. Society. art. Its reduced to two. ment can go on and It civilization is made and possible. Every individual himself in every possible way. But society must be looked upon in the light of a conscious individual. In so far as it is conscious and in proportion to the completeness of its consciousness. is always seeking besides to benefit Society should do the same. and. But it must not be forgotten that all these men labor within the and that without the help of the social order they could do nothing. by them and the duties they involved have no value or significance This inference is false. The current philosophy limits it to the first and denies to it the second. and carried to its logical conclusion it amounts to saying that the whole social order is use- The reason why the particular men at any moment holding less. The difference is clear and the contrast is striking.

Evolution takes place in the social world according to the same laws as in the organic world. efforts contribute This is somewhat individuals they find that the objects they have set out to attain a higher intelligence than they possess they proceed to require inform themselves and put themselves in possession of the requisite intelligence. An otherwise with society. dergone and is undergoing a series of steps in integration correso much sponding to those of the nervous system of animals. integration. . When Intelligence is a compound of capacity for knowledge individual at this stage necessarily possesses the requisite capacity for knowledge. as in the individual.CH. It is all progress in the integration of the nervous system. to increasing its may not by its own own intelligence. so social integration has been and will continue to be attended with increasing social consciousness and intelligence. even of the lowest creatures possess- a measure of the degree of integration that has taken place in the nervous system. And just as increasing brain development has been accompanied by increasing individual consciousness and intelligence. If we conceive social intelligence to have reached the stage at which it can grasp this truth. society has unNow. we may suppose society seriously to ask itself the question whether it what do. From this to the most highly developed human brains there are only differences of degree. This is to power ing it. 39 depend what brain society do this will understand The extent to which it will upon the collective intelligence. to that of acquiring knowledge. is The brain Brain power is a product of organic itself. IV] SOCIAL ACHIEVEMENT itself. without dealing in any fanciful analogies. That degree of social consciousness which enables society to perceive that it needs greater intelligence in order to further its own interests is the homologue of native capacity in the individual. and the problem of increasing social intelligence is reduced. so that the act of acquiring It is not intelligence is reduced to that of acquiring knowledge. is to the individual. and knowledge.

1901. The first has been unhappily called "historical materialism." used by Dr. the most profound and important thoughts of any age or people. sane persons of mature minds. all The highest and brightest it be actually possessed by society. Edward A.. held at Paris in September. et qu'il Phomme agit selon sa pensde bien plus souvent ne le croit lui-meme. 1 Rene Worms. January. Vol. p. But any idea that permeates the whole mass and becomes the thought of society itself sways the mass and shapes the action of society in its entirety. aout-septembre. Philosophie des sciences sociales. INTERPRETATION OF HISTORY Two history. No thought has any appreciable social effect except i. De Greef in a paper read before the fourth congress of the Institut International de Sociologie. They do not belong to the world. I. have scarcely any influence upon the world. must themselves think it. p. 40 .CHAPTER V WORLD VIEWS C'est 1'esprit qui gouverne. p. 96 annee. Ross appears to have been the first to use the term " intellectualism " in this sense in English (American Journal of Sociology. 548).e. 135. ideas. 1903. The whole of society. Tarde had " " previously designated it as the thise intellectualiste (Revue internationale de sociologie. but this true only of world ideas. 1904. This is because such ideas are always confined to a very few of the most developed minds and are not shared by the mass of mankind. it otherwise is socially ineffective. Dr. IX. distinct modes have been adopted of interpreting human the material and the intellectual." As the antithesis of this the other has been called " historical intellectualism. 664). There is supposed to be no way by which they can be conveyed to mankind at large. GUIZOT." J The proper name for the first is "the economic interpretation of history. is It is often said that ideas rule the world.

like so Only to a very few has it occurred other apparently conflicting doctrines. Lib. etc. was one of those who opposed this view. 165. 69. VI. p. agitat molem" still sociologists are usually content to quote the well-known passage in Comte's Virgil uttered the Herbert Spencer. but they have for the most part constituted two schools of thought so different that neither has seemed to have any knowledge that. " Ce n'est pas aux lecteurs de cet ouvrage que je croirai Vol. The social mechanism does not rest finally upon opinions but almost wholly upon character. Decem- ber 30. that Vol. though far from being a historical materialist. 1902. the defenders of the one denying all weight to the other. 1896.. line 727. VIII. 1 Tome 2 8 ^neid. p. delivered at Washington. they may many both be true. 40-41. V] INTERPRETATION OF HISTORY 4! of 1 It was also made the title 1906. and although " mens 2 words. is the ideological interpretation of history. Paris. and that a full analysis of both might show that there of the other. Although ideas make it is possible to carry back the general proposition that or rule the world as far at least as Plato. p. que tout le mecanisme social repose finalement sur des opinions. since expanded into a book by that title. 1874. other words. London. to which ideas serve only as guides. E." Harriet Martineau translated this as follows " It cannot be necessary to prove to anybody who reads this work that Ideas govern the world. The proper name for the opposite doctrine. the address of Dr. I. pp. 15). ou. 1830. . I. 1901. A. These two views. Seligman as president of the American Economic Association. as follows: it in the parallel Ideas do not govern and overthrow the world: the world is governed or overthrown by feelings. and published in the Annales. all social mechanism rests upon opinions" (London edition. en d'autres termes. 4 Essays. exists some common ground upon which both may stand. have usually been regarded as wholly opposed. " In his " Reasons for dissenting from the Philosophy of Comte Positive Philosophy.CH. 3 he quotes this passage and sets over against column his own view. jamais devoir prouver que les idees gouvement et bouleversent le monde. or throw it into chaos in : . R. 4 . when thought of together at all. corresponding in form to this.

One at least of his clearest position. What appeared to Spencer. pp. tively that constitute the thought. and they do govern the world and. that the affections. expressions of this view It is as follows : is to be found in the Positive Philosophy. presents to us at the outset a fundamental Psychology. in the most unequivocal manner. the view expressed in the first volume is shown by the fact that he virtually reasserts the latter in the fourth volume in 1839. This view. Although the preponderance of the latter has . aberration . all the different metaphysicians have nevertheless been agreed to proclaim it as their principal point of departure. and the "ideas" or "opinions" to which he and positive ideas respec- thought of the world during each of these stages. 460). in which he first sets forth his quoted celebrated law of the three stages (trots etats) in the development the.. Vol. 1838. and a failure to grasp and meaning of Comte's philosophy. and the various affective faculties have been almost entirely neglected by them. been maintained. The passage first occurs in his opening lecture. the inclinations. by a false appreciation of the relations between the affective and the intellectual faculties. and has appeared to others to be the opposite view. have governed it throughout the history of these stages. viz. published a confusion of ideas on the part of the critic. . and inferred that Comte had later abandoned his original In both he was mistaken. 542-543. and which constitutes the foundation of 1 Philosophic positive. and always subordinated to the intellect. and he then supposed that this must have been in his Positive Polity. Now such a conception represents precisely the reverse of the reality. . that the feelings and passions of mankind have constituted the motor forces of society. That Comte did not consider this as inconsistent with. the 1 passions. . on the contrary. is also true. The apparent inconsistency is due to (p. For daily experience shows..42 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [FAKTI He did not know till he was afterwards told that Comte had expressed a view practically identical with his own as quoted above. metaphysical. which Comte entertained from the first. The mind (esprit) has become the almost exclusive subject of their speculations. Ill. not only for animals but also for man.. 'spirit of human refers are the theological. or as an abandonment of. and does not in any way conflict with the other. They are world ideas or world views. or ideology. constitute the principal motor forces {mobiles) of human life. of course from widely divergent points of view.

usually lag far behind facts. It might have been named A Plan for tJie Conversion of Positive Ideas into : do so was the supreme desideratum. do not answer to this description. and Ideas. the same that and to a less extent metaphysical ideas. 1903. lagging behind the facts. Paris. only De Greef is trolling influence of ideas. in Comte's sense. pp. In Comte's mind to make them ence final scheme. I have always defended. another writer who affects to repudiate the conand he has placed himself on record as a defender of historical materialism. 882. theories." 1 Here the fallacy is clear. represent true world conceptions. the Politique Positive. calls The effective ideas are the historical school. is neither more nor less my entire philosophy. decembre. A whatever the practical difficulties in the way of its superficial minds will deny its ultimate possibility. ization. with certain reserves. By ideas he means advanced ideas. . La Sociologie economique. Theological ideas especially. He has " do not belong to that ancient school which recently said ideas (or the Idea} govern the world maintains that feelings : We . 53. 883. made especially so by the last remark. and scarcely more in our time. p. Post. and the Ratzenhofer them social ideas. and emotions exert an effect more intense and more general than ideas ideas. was aimed at the accomplishment of this end. do not know what he means by their They are always far in advance of realVb'lkergedanken of Bastian. and than the theory of social forces underlying It represents the dynamic agent. and correctly says that " the successful heroes of history are only the personification of political and social ideas that have sprung 1 Revue Internationale de sociologie. especially in his day. But positive ideas. . . and their to govern mankind was just what Comte so power clearly saw. . lie annee. the I very opposite of theories. 1904. ries. and what he regarded as his greatest achievement. and still more. as he says "theo. in World more popular language. or. or.CH. His Plan for making Scientific TlioitgJit as Universal as Religious Thought has been. But Comte is not the only one who has conceived this idea. realization. Dr." while the ideas that rule the world are universal ideas. V] INTERPRETATION OF HISTORY is 43 his Politique Positive. They are entertained by only a small fraction of mankind and they have but a feeble influin controlling human action. .

. world. but of ideas that embody feelings (enveloppant des sentiments}. 2 ." 1 The sum of such ideas in any country at any given time constitutes the Zeitgeist. etc. . 1898. 173-174. This is true of even the most advanced " " does not countries. " Discussing Comte's statements and Spencer's Comte. are hors concours. schism. but such ideas as those of democracy of in government. Fouillee. and therefore the phrase public opinion the idea. 1 . is suggestion to the contrary but to be exterminated. they say. so far as I am aware. M. not a force but only a guide. it may This is the second stum- The that answered with in Pure Sociology. . he says There of is : intelligence. They are settled. but works show that he conceives them some- criticism. he may fail inserted at this point. of thought. and any social heresy. Paris.. p. author " of the phrase " idea forces (id/es-forces]. 244. in his report on the Bordin prize. public opinion is concerned with all the questions dividing political parties and religious sects. 2 and if all question was definitively was said there may be considered as it. went back to the idealistic And again. made the analysis of many what passages in his in that sense. Public opinion means the sum total rather of the express questions which are under discussion. Le Mouvement positiviste et la conception sociologique du monde. no moral sentiment. 1896. has not. published as an appendix to the work is these that constitute true idea forces. question. not to be discussed Idea Forces. human society . for example. bling-block in the present discussion. If the reader is not familiar to understand what follows. Leipzig.44 from the political APPLIED SOCIOLOGY and social [PART I needs of a people. no human art. pp. or discussion. It : . industry. he says philosophy when he said that ideas and opinions governed the But it is not a question of pure and abstract ideas. of the separation of church and state. then. Die sociologische Erkenntnis. Pages 472-4748 Alfred Fouillee. intelligence which is the superior and directing element ." 3 above quoted. In the United States. The author the history of society is controlled (rtgtte) by the history of the memoir has not seen to what extent this Gustav Ratzenhofer. monogamy. It is that part of human thought which lies below all doubt. them which I give in that section. or science without it is. If intellect is be asked how ideas can move anything.

They are absorest ? lute and independent of is proof. are the bulwarks of race safety. do they World views grow out Here we reach the kernel But what ings. Mr. No. He lias not examined. p. then. Upon what. cause. The resultant actions are ideo- motor actions as distinguished from censori-motor actions. is transformed into motion. not analytic. or settled opinion. by its very definition of value. 364. are simply feelings prompted by ideas instead of by external stimuli. 1 All this is very fine. . The difference between belief and opinion is Belief might be defined as fixed popular usage. are said to lead or rule the world are simply beliefs. but it is in- tuitive truth. But no one imagines that pure ideas act upon the march of mankind it is clear that the ideas must become feelings in order to be . Now sires . and therefore we need to inquire specially into the nature of beliefs. says this school. mind. and no one can say it is not true. is based on history desires and their satisfaction. or Ibid. The idea forces. Beliefs rest on interest. In these the evidence all is not thought of. or prompt. and may be regards very feebly held. is to indulge in poetry. of our problem. at least in amount gard of the evidence upon which it rests. V] BELIEFS 45 question of the social value of intelligence is essential. it is feelings. You cannot argue They are the conditions to group as well as to just this individual salvation. of feel- They men out of them. it is not ideas that lead the world. light. or occasion emotions.. while in opinion a certain of evidence is implied. This cannot be said of beliefs. 1 Every belief embodies a desire. the objections of the contemporary naturalist school. But to say that ideas give rise to feelings. effective . This is very nearly true. become heat. the "weight" of evidence in their favor being nearly balanced by that against them. interest ? It \& feeling. is to say what everybody can verify in his personal say that an idea envelops an emotion It leaves only a vague sense of truth in the To experience. then. Spencer at the head". but there is also embraced in it a certain disreslight.CH. as he should have done. It may be said that the universal world ideas which Beliefs. Opinions admit of comparison as their strength depending upon the evidence. it is element of interest that links beliefs to de- and reconciles the ideological and economic interpretations of for economics.

Paris. of desire. a judgment or a design. of which the avoidance of pun- only a form. ishment is positive and negative this only renders them more typically economic in their character. The force lies in the desire. The fact that the interests involved are sometimes transcendental interests and become increasingly so with the intellectual development All interest is essentially economic. 1895. also pp. Tarde. of the race. belief. relations of belief to desire than them an important role in But Tarde has perhaps more fully illustrated the any other author. and seen in all this. . does not affect the All conduct enjoined by religion not the most primitive but also the most highly developed religions only aims at the satisfaction of desire. to produce effects. for economic considerations are always both in this sense. And if in the higher religions the positive interests come to predominate over the negative ones. 2<= edition. 60. : Laying the usual stress on imitation and invention. This view of the question has not been wholly overlooked. What is invented or imitated is always an idea or a wish. 159. cf. in which is expressed a certain amount of belief 2^6. then. They are demands for satisfaction. he finally asks "But what is the substance or the social force by which this act is done ? . their true light religious interests are as completely economic as the truth of so-called material interests. though always reducible to the indicative form. 157. . is essentially an imperative. in which he ascribes to human history. Dr. is not a force. and the sum total of the influences. considered as a purely intel- And here phenomenon. The reverse is much nearer the truth. . acting a group or an individual. . That proposition. lectual the secret of power The belief or idea. 1 Les Lois de 1'imitation. are the . substance and the force. De Greef himself has written a clever book on Political Beliefs and Doctrines." 1 1 G. leads to the conclusion. or idea upon that a certain proposition is true. internal and external. The belief does not cause the desire. and prompts certain actions regarded as essential to the preservation of the individual or the group. .46 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY In this lies [PARTI its rather a great mass of desires. we must be careful not to invert the terms. Desires are economic demands arising out of the nature of man and the conditions of existence. Belief and desire. p.

* but this is practically the idea conveyed by it in Tarde's philosophy. with the historical materialists. PP.CH. Les Lois sociales. takes pains to explain its meaning. G. comparable to Fouillee's icties-forces. 1897. 256. 1880 Croyance et le Desir. in Germans translate Tarde's word croyance by their Weltanschauung. however. What we beliefs are dealing with. therefore. p. 8 Paul Earth." Revue philosophique. constituting the age and people in which they prevail. is those ideas. using the term "economic" in its widest sense. though he uses the composite or mixed expression "intellectual force" (intellectueller Trieb}. and in harwith which all activity takes place. 31. Lyon-Paris. in which the et le Desir et la Probabilite de leur mesure. are entertained by all its members without any attempt to inquire into their objective truth. p. Tarde. to we understand their nature. PP. V] BELIEFS 47 M. . provided that they govern the world or whether we ascribe this power to the underlying feelings.5> I2 > J 3' J 5' 2 4 281 . 1895. the economic conditions themselves.2 3S~3^par 1 " La Croyance aoiit et . Leipzig. 1895. Ratzenhofer. Die Philosophic der Geschichte als Sociologie. This may seem to be mony the reverse of the case of true idea forces as defined. Tarde developed principal sociological articles in his ideas on this subject before any of his works appeared and published them in two iSSo. 212. or which have been created by the economic conditions of existence." Essais et Melanges sociologiques. or even. These last are the final form into is is which the whole thought of the crystallized in the human mind. 2 It is significant that the them frequently. " La septembre. p. all the more as it was the great error of the period of scientific culture just passed through to believe in a power of ideas in themselves. Paris. nomena The true order of the phethat the conditions arouse the feelings and the feelings create the ideas or beliefs. being regarded as essential to the safety or existence of the group or of society. He says : It is necessary to explain at the outset the meaning of the intellectual impulse in the social process. * Die sociologische Erkenntnis. and to give to knowledge and reason in social development a 4 meaning which they cannot possess. 1 He returns to these works. opinions. and is whether we say immaterial. Paris. 1898. and which. forces They become social it by embodying the feelings that created them. 2 See especially La Logique sociale.

Asia has pinned its faith exclusively to mind and exists in an atmosphere of pure thought. wants. so these world ideas must and do suggest and thus create the particular impulses that constitute the immediate motor forces of every act. The difference in the two civilizations is wholly due to the difference in their world views. therefore. There are many ways by which this might be illustrated.. its immediate cause. necessarily precede the ideas still it is the latter that determine action. then called an ideo-motor action. In every other intellectual faculty that we might compare they are at least fully equal to the best minds of the western world. i. But while it is true as stated that the eco- nomic conditions create the feelings which in turn determine the character of the thought of a group or a people. 255.e. a desire. in this faculty the Orientals have always proved themselves the superiors of the European races. beliefs. really truly philosophic generalization. This is the well-understood difference between and occidental civilization. 1 matter is dynamic. but now every intelligent or wellread person A knows better. But. however. course knew better even then. In the exercise of the pure is intellect. true idea forces. as I have shown in Pure Sociology. with the result with which all are familiar. feelings opinions. These are. And as a feeling. A single example. world conceptions. as no action can be performed without a motive. Here are two great classes of people conducting themselves in almost diametrically opposite ways. will suffice. and this alone explains the ries 1 Pages 20. Half a century ago this difference was popularly explained by saying that Asiatic oriental few of peoples were intellectually inferior to European peoples.48 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART I idea produces the feeling which prompts the action. 32. and which is the faculty most vaunted as indicating the superiority of the human race to the brute creation what is called abstract reasoning but much more and also the superiority of man over woman. desires. 254. and the purely eco- Now although the economic impulses nomic interpretation of history is utterly inadequate. . Europe has to a large extent during the last three or four centu- been acting upon a belief in matter. when it comes to the stage of action it is these fixed and settled ideas that dictate that action.

lead. Ten years ago two members of this race made" discoveries that revolutionized the classification of plants every other department. 1 that ideas do really simply and solely a better example is needed to show and move the world. but this is a Mongolian race. but now we have views we had no such a proof. I do not refer merely to the military power thus acquired. p. V] BELIEFS between oriental 49 civilization. but there is science in which this race does not now excel and not a department of is not march- ing abreast of the rest of the scientific world. has always been the first changed belief with the requisite to national greatness. No make. If this had happened in India it would have been ascribed in and opened up new understand they are doing splendid work vistas in botany.CH. and there is nothing to which the result can be attributed but change in their world views. especially in the practical sciences and their application to the arts. difference and occidental Until experimental proof that a change in the world lately would produce a change in the civilization. 319. whatever views we may entertain with regard to war. 1 and I to Aryan blood. mankind can only be put into the right mental attitude economic conditions and all else can be safely left to take care of themselves. and has acted upon the most astonishing results. One Asiatic race has awakened to the truth that the eternal study of mind does not yield national strength and that the study of matter does yield it. . which. and that if I called attention to this in Pure Sociology.

century and possessing the best part of the knowledge of nature. The non-rational being from which man descended could see. man. AVERROES. We can suppose him to take the same notice of them and no more. are probably useful. durch die der Weg zur Wahrheit geht. although all SCHILLER. But inchoate man certainly did sprouts and there at length reach the stage at which he could think. hear. of this slowness itself in shaping ideas. It was a differential process. Before the state of rationwas reached all the other faculties were well developed. But at last we have in view a rational being in the it 50 . What a dog thinks when he bays the moon we do not know. or whether he really thinks at all. however feeble It is difficult to conceive of the thinking may slowness of this dawning of the rational faculty and of the effect his have been. and smell as well as the most enlightened person in the world of intelligence as All the phenomena of nature were therefore appealing to him as strongly as they appeal to civilized men.CHAPTER Es gibt nothwendige VI TRUTH AND ERROR Irrthiimer. In seinen Gottern malt sich der Mensch. taste. is in a favorable position for picturing to Any one living in the twentieth himself the natural course that the human mind must pursue in its development out of an original state of complete non-rationality through all the stages of rationality up to that of such a degree he himself possesses. WEISMANN. All religions are false. with which we are familiar. as do the animals to-day. and society that has thus far been brought to light. and the kinetographic picture of which we form necessarily leaves long intervals unrepresented. The ality senses were quite as keen as they are now. like all the other genetic processes of nature. perhaps more so. feel. arise But the germ of reason at last gradually dim ideas of the meaning of phenomena.

attitude toward nature. IV. ." l 1 Philosophic positive. But. Animals act naturally in the presence of phenomena. in like all a pain economy. A standing beside the track as when standing on the track. and the ruling motive was fear. Comte remarked that " for all orders of phenomena whatever. and about which the savage reasons with sufficient clearness to avoid danger in most cases. VI] full ANTHROPOMORPHIC IDEAS 51 presence of nature. body now has conceiving of this because they are not rational beings in the sense of even the most primitive men. He still considered nature solely from the standpoint of his interests. while a human being will stand beside the track as the train passes wholly without fear. p. It must not be supposed that this being begins at once to philosophize or even really to contemplate nature. his chief business was self-preservation. His primary ANTHROPOMORPHIC IDEAS It is difficult for one with such an acquaintance as nearly every- of the causes of the ordinary natural phenomena to form an idea of a human being or race of men utterly devoid of The study of animals does not help much in all such knowledge.CH. animal considers nature solely in relation to its wants and The prehuman creature did the same. Vol. therefore. and the earliest man could only take a short step beyond this. was fear of it. instead of being attributed to the arbitrary will of supernatural agents. the simplest and commonest facts have always been regarded as essentially subject to natural laws. The their satisfaction. 491. They are controlled entirely by their wants and fears and do about what is naturally expected of them horse has the same fear of a railroad train when in each case. A fact as simple as that a train cannot well leave the rail would probably be within the comprehension of primitive man. as animals in general. just emerging from the animal stage. It was even then. he was wild. The difference is due to the presence in the latter of a rational faculty and its absence in the former. the economic conditions that shaped his thought. and then much more than at later stages. and there are thousands of natural phenomena coming within that class. Living wild animals do.

Men and animals were constantly moving their own limbs and going from place to place. It is therefore natural. Ever and anon lines of fire streak the horizon accompanied by loud detonations and . the primitive man could not avoid reasoning about them. branches torn from trees. As regards all the more obscure phenomena. as animals seem to ignoring them. While most objects seemed to be at rest. from observation of self. changing their form at every movement and assuming fantastic shapes. such as wind.52 But this is APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PARTI true only of simple phenomena. or water in brooks. still the latter are as much inferences from human move- The quite correct. that all motion should be explained on the same principle as animal movement. it was inevitable that This is all nature should be regarded as animated. All this seemed perfectly intelligible. the sun. as the effects of gravitation on stones loosened on a hillside. the basis of the universal class animism of savage philosophy. The waves dash upon the shore. such. but the wind is invisible. Ideas of this is are called anthropomorphic expression although inorganic movements are assimilated to animal movements. and was in fact unavoidable. ideas. It was easy to move a small object with the effort to explain the to the hand. The clouds fly across the sky. The fact first to appeal mind was that of movement. night and day. In short. Most Reason begins to work upon surrounding phenomena and to interpret them in terms of self. there were many that were in motion at least a part of the time. as it was clearly within the power and experience of every living thing. instead of selves to them. or simply adapting themdo. and stars. phic. or activity. It is here that religion and science are said to have a common base in the phenomena of nature. The reasoning in both cases proceeds but in the one case the inference is true early religious ideas are anthropomor- and in the other it is false. but nothing is there to make it do so. But this was the only kind of activity that could be explained by the primitive mind. but the power behind them is unseen. because. for example. Religious Ideas. The river rolls on forever past the camp. trying to explain them. The leaves and grass tremble and quake in the wind. ments as are the former. to swing a branch or a club. to roll or throw a stone. moon.

This conception is the essence of fetishism. very brief sketch is all that is needed here. Tylor's "minimum definition" of religion is the belief in spiritual beings. at least. In A simplest form the problem is to explain the conception of spirit as it exists in the minds of primitive men. and it is safe to conclude that it is a conception at which all minds must necessarily arrive under the conditions of existence to which every race of men has been subjected. and the idea of causes of the belief in a spiritual existence and spiritual beings are twofold. They must be living beings. not simply primitive beliefs.CH. or belong to two somewhat different groups. Out of this grew other religious ideas. ensouled. in the sense of affecting each individual personally in The primary such a manner as to lead him to the conclusion that he possesses an invisible or intangible double or spiritual part. the therefore themselves earliest all form of religion in the sense of a belief. He and others have traced the origin of such a belief. describes a great arc above. but the whole series of theological conceptions and all beliefs respecting soul and spirit. Every day a round blazing orb rises out of the sea or the plain. One of these groups of causes may be distinguished as subjective. endowed not only with but with some degree of intelligence similar spontaneous activity to his own. and while we know that he does not wonder at it any more than a rustic wonders at a rainbow. but the moon changes its form and times of appearance. for a portion of the time. still he tries to explain it and has very little difficulty in doing so. mostly without a shelter by day and lying out under the canopy of heaven by night. We find it in tribes so its widely separated as to preclude the possibility of derivation. and occasionally a tree near by is riven into fragments. and changing All these elements of nature. sees all this much more vividly than civilized man. to be capable of moving their forms. The moon and the stars do the same at night.e. Given these conditions and an spiritual existence is a incipient rational faculty logical necessity. VI] SPIRITUAL BEINGS 53 a prolonged roar. and plunges back into the earth on the opposite side. Spiritual Beings. which. i.. and some of the stars wander. The savage. must be alive. is detached and separated from his original .

even that of the cultured Greeks and Romans. is He some way is readily perceives that he is the cause of it. delirium. a double. only far it more distinctly. epilepsy. existing independent of himself and of human beings in general. echoes. swooning. or belonging to him. in the face of appearances to the contrary. but devoid of flesh and blood. and death. There is no degree of intellectual power conceivable which. Others who inform him that all the lineaments are his own. He sees all the images of others. And thus we find throughout all When form see it the savage looks into a pool of still water he sees this other self there. thickness. unaided by science. reflections. In contemplating his shadow the savage has no conception of the nature and effect of light. He can only conclude that there in him. the terms "shadow" and " " spirit inextricably confounded. There is no greater mistake than to suppose that well-developed mental faculties are any help in understanding such things. The other group of causes may be called objective. It is difficult for the well-informed reader to conceive how utterly devoid the savage mind is of all knowledge of the true nature of any of these phenomena. is But when he plunges his hand into the pool there nothing . and changing its shape with the which it altitude of the sun or the angle of the object against cast. The enlightened world understands them simply and solely because it has been taught what science. which agree in respects with the originals. that it is in a product of himself. or moving as he moves. which can go out and another part of space from that occupied by his real original occupy another self.54 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART I corporeal self. dreams. He simply sees his own form. without substance. To the subjective group belong shadows. by perspective. would be capable of furnishing a correct interpretation of any of them. The phenomena of this latter class have already been alluded to. trance. something mythology. insanity. Instead of being a mere now possesses color and recognizable features. being calculated to lead the primitive man to the conclusion that there are intelligent agencies which are devoid of any material attributes. has laboriously investigated and explained. more or less distorted tangibility. a spirself. itual nature.

it is his own voice uttering his own words. meets other men and other scenes. that exorcism practically constitutes the healing art of all and receive primitive peoples. The lessons from sight are confirmed by those from sound. and witnessed Suppose that disease lays him low. and this conception does not differ in any essential respect from that of spirit. It is true that animals and inanimate objects also cast their shadows and reflect their human but every one knows that these.CH. and yet he cannot doubt that he is its author. And thus it happens. He performs strange actions. SPIRITUAL BEINGS 55 What he sees must be immaterial. The reasoning is rigidly logical from the premises. suffers. which others subsequently describe to him. warrior sleeps. He awakes. chieftain shouts in a A from the surrounding hills. or enjoys pleasures never before tasted. are endowed by savages with a double existence and images . performs feats of prowess. mountain gorge and his whoop is repeated It is not an answer. Catalepsy. In trance the spirit assumes another state. one knows. felt the pleasures. and every cirhis other self The cumstance place. has seen the objects. far more so than much of the reasoning of the higher races. insanity. as well as beings. the events enacted in his dream. performed the deeds. VI] there. It must be through which he has the power of speaking. lain quietly in one and he knows that he has himself experienced them. as every class. He knows that he is not himself far up on the rocky cliff whence the sound proceeds. and the conclusion is natural that the spirit of another must have entered into and possessed him. Again he wanders. and pathologic states affecting the mind fall under this general this explanation. Both he and his friends know that he would not himself have acted thus. which by practice and fasting may sometimes be voluntarily superinduced. experiences. and we thus . but from a distant point. a spiritual part. and while sleeping he wanders far away. fever racks his brain. but he may not be able to recall these scenes and states. and he becomes delirious. tells him that he has all this time Yet he recollects all these exploits. He is obliged to conclude that the immaterial part of himself has actually been absent. Hence we find that everywhere efforts are made to drive out the evil spirit.

The double has gone. namely. to the savage mind. The inference is common that it has gone to take possession for the time being of some other body. in so far as these differ. Con- The ceiving.56 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY This [PART is I have the widespread phenomenon known as ecstasy. They are usually supposed to remain near the spot where they left the body or where the body is finally placed. and to them are attributed most of the misfortunes that befall the living. and especially cataleptic trance. and . and there is usually nothing to indicate where it has gone or what it is doing. All space thus becomes filled with myriads of spiritual beings. Of this we have a survival in modern mediumship. The belief of an after-life in general is due to the simple fact that from identical phenomena the reasoning faculty. which is everywhere the same. that the spirit remains near the scene of its career during life. But swoons. the necessary conclusion which the primitive man must draw. with innumerable they could not stop short of peopling every spot With few exceptions these spirits are spirits. The latter is supposed to go away. gone ? this time never to return. very easy and natural. the manes of departed men. Death is simply a permanent swoon. as savages do. from the phenomena which nature spiritual existence It is always presents. and the transition from this to death is. Where has it This question is variously answered. will uniformly deduce the same conclusion. may have considerable duration. that of the continued existence after death of the incorporeal part of man. there is In the complete trance. These all point to one notion common to all races. idea of the survival of the spirits of individuals that die could not fail to exert a profound influence upon the living. and an immense number and variety of mortuary and burial customs attest the universality of this general belief. but in most tribes of low rank the idea of any distant abode for these departed spirits is entirely wanting. as soon as he can reason at all. syncope. regarded as evil disposed. ex- plained as the intentional replacing of the one's own spirit by another presumably superior one. and in swooning or complete temporary aban- donment of the body by the soul. The above constitutes the genesis of the universal belief in a and a satisfactory explanation of its universality.

earthly exploits are more and more exaggerated. and are the invisible spectators of the doings of their former subjects. worshiped.CH. unacwith the operation of natural forces. Complete apotheosis is the ultimate result. A still more important consequence of this belief is that which follows on the death of great chieftains or mighty rulers. thus Have a rational basis for fetishism as well as for animal- We worship. They might in themselves seem adequate to account for such a belief and for its universality I . For a while elaborate ceremonies are performed over the tomb of the dead hero. As time goes on his in the next life. of basis and beginning The above a spiritual part in man. and of spiritual beings in general. This takes the form of ancestor-worship. implored. early man. The most fundamental of all such experiences are those connected with the power of spontaneous movement. They. since now. They are based on the individual's experience of his own powers. too. and propitiated under a variety of names. regarded by some as the of all theological conceptions. early ideas are necessarily anthropomorphic. and swelling the stream of eviconfirming dence poured into the receptive mind of untutored man. accounted for all quainted movements in the inanimate world on the principle of an indwelling consciousness. linger round the places of their glorious achievements. . until they become marvels and miracles. but to them we have now to add the have distinguished as objective. there was no lack of material for animating every object in nature. already seen. causes which Under the head of anthropomorphic ideas last treated a few of these influences were enumerated. VI] SPIRITUAL BEINGS 57 these have been feared. with the vast accumulating hosts of liberated human doubles. strengthening and the subjective causes. His weapons are usually buried with him to arm him His possessions are frequently placed in his grave to be used again too often slaves and wives are sacrificed to accompany him and minister to his wants. are fair samples of the subjective influences which have led the primitive man to a belief in the existence of spirit. The savage's As we have . The subjective influences that we have now We saw that passed in review were in perfect harmony with this belief.

the ease and interest with which amply law. that a logical mind which insists upon a strictly mechanical ante- cedent for the explanation of every phenomenon. life is ability APPLIED SOCIOLOGY to [PART I results of human reasoning is to inanimate objects. vanto this conception is Akin that of the morphosis which a certain class of ish and dissolve entirely. with its diluted and degenerate remains that are taught to our children in the nursery. and the mass of mythic lore and legend that makes up the early literature of every cultured nation. the Homeric and Ossianic poems. When we say that early man reasons logically. that all . This is not the " " or " rational. Not only can material objects move. intentional. even among somewhat advanced races. and this serves his purpose equally well. and whatever moves without being creature is supposed to be itself presumed power of metaphenomena led primitive man to ascribe to almost every object in nature. The activities of inaniattribute life to certain mate things are. He always demands a reason. moved by some living Hence one of the first move.58 idea of visibly alive. it must not be inferred that this involves a recognition of the laws of causation as understood by scientific men. generally conceived as conscious and as manifestations of will and intelligence. moreover. require and the great weft of mythology and folk-lore of such races the Arabian Nights' Entertainments. but it is rarely a true cause or causa efficiens. It is usua final cause or causa finalis. attests the adequacy of all it is all absorbed by the latter what may be distinguished as the logic of magic for minds not thoroughly trained in the logic of . Yet the efficient cause is . but they can also change. but it is rarely or " never what is technically called a " sufficient reason (ratio suffially the only cause and the sufficient reason is the only reason that modern science recognizes and this is now so well understood that it has become customary to call cient*)." and it logical primitive sense of either the term is not the sense in which it can be applied to the aboriginal mind The recognition of a will to move or a will to change is most minds. He indeed requires and insists upon a cause. and of man. become other things. or they can in some altered form or guise. reappear at will in the same or ceasing longer to exist.

The power seasons . It is typical of all these influences is that the embodiment of power without visible cause. wish by a spiritual agent. The savage knows nothing of causes except as they are exemWith this narrow induction he plified in his own muscular actions. Not a leaf trembles in the breeze. can only reason that all effects are produced by such causes. an invisible. VI] SPIRITUAL BEINGS 59 of natural objects to change their form at will is forced upon the mind of early man. not a wave washes the shore. and differ from the spiritual part of man only in being detached from the animal body. There exists. halos. The most The savage never is thinks of air as a material substance.CH. in a ments. tornadoes. . intangible. His reasoning is in all cases teleological. of reproduction in general. auroras. of these crude primitive concep- All the imaginary beings conceived as exerting this will power are highly anthropomorphic in their character. lightning flashes. and the dissipation of clouds . and wholly independent of the conditions that restrict the actions of embodied beings. meteors. Not less irresistible are . and stars the movements of the planets the appear. emerging of birds from eggs. ance of comets. phenomena all death. the slower processes of vegetable and animal growth and decay the . The formation and constantly the succession of daylight. rainbows. of wind. moon. To him it the expression of a purpose or simply a manifestation of will. indeed. tions. of moths from chrysalids the . but that in his mind it is the result of will. therefore. yolus and Neptune are but the refined embodimore civilized people. not occupying space. Hence the frequent identification of the terms "wind" and "spirit" (Trvev/jia). as well as of life and these must have rendered the conception of indefinite all transmutability at will throughout savage mind. and thunderbolts forced these ideas home with The a terrible sanction. nature a familiar one to the manifestations of power inherent in nature through earthquakes. the apparent revolutions of the sun. overwhelming evidence. conscious power. the changes of the moon . both of the subjective and objective kind. darkness. to show that a rational being placed in a world like this must necessarily conclude that there is such a thing as spirit.

since the spiritual naturally conceived as indestructible. most fully elaborated in his Phaedon. and spirit is conceived by Plato as A careful study of this question shows that this something wholly independent of time. and is capable under certain circumstances of quitting the body for a longer or shorter period. too. Plato's statement of it. intellectual development this gradually passed is totemism into the well-known metempsychosis. have spirits. The anomalous absence Hebrews was regarded by them of a belief in a continued personal existence among it the has been explained on the theory that it as barbaric. intelligent motive power of bodily action in each individual is in fact such a spirit. considering the premises. The ideas that grew up with regard to metamorphosis in nature. coupled with the belief that animals. in the two great religions latest to develop. and was rejected largely because formed a part of the religion of the Babylonians and Chaldeans. and that spirits may pass from one body into another. with whom they were at war and whom they took pains not to imitate in any respect. Most of the wide-spread animal a higher stage in probably due to this belief.60 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PARTI the proofs that the conscious. confine this to the two religions named not without being fully aware that learned men maintain that the doctrine was taught by Plato and accepted by many Greeks and Romans prior to the Christian era. or of abandoning the body altogether. it was never taught in crude form by the ancients. led unavoidably to the idea that the spirits of men might have At previously occupied the bodies of animals. is distinctly tinged with the Pythagorean element borrowed from India. It lost this character only when. They developed naturally along two somewhat different lines. The facts above enumerated constitute the basis of all religious ideas. the possibility of the origination some given point of time was coupled with the notion I of its infinite continuance after that point of time. Christianity and of a spirit at Mohammedanism. . from the standpoint of logicality. or far the reasoning was faultless. From part is that of a notion of the temporary continuance of the spiritual life to its permanent continuance is but a step. of entering another body temporarily or permanently. Thus doctrine of the transmigration of souls.

an intermediate stage of dualism. however. one of good or vight. and scarcely anything can be named that has not at some time and place been the subject of adoration. It is impossible to disentangle such intricate threads of number and evidence. in so far as true. or gods. These fetishistic religions were followed in more developed races by those in which a great multitude of deities presided over the different objects of nature and finally over all the varied fields of human activity. But animals. VI] SPIRITUAL BEINGS 61 The other. links the objective closely to the ishing their subjective movement. With all the vicissitudes of human history this cannot be successfully done. and the Christian Satan seems to be a mere modification of Ahriman. The more The striking inanimate objects are early personified and deified. The general direction was that of dimin- increasing their power. plants. and the other of evil or darkness.CH. Such was polytheism. and it can only be regarded as indicating the theoretical course of the progress of theological conceptions. is attested by the Persian religion. . Mr. This. of which the Greek theogony presents us with the most elaborate example. since the gods are then simply the disembodied spirits of the great chieftains and heroes of each race of men. in which the spiritual power was somewhat evenly divided between two great antagonistic deities. But here and everywhere there is seen a tendency toward the establishment of a hierarchy of superior and subordinate deities. or objective. and while there is much to be said for this view. it is that in the total absence of ancestor-worship there would probable still be no lack of all manner of deities in any race of men. Attempts have been made to trace this tendency through successive stages in which the inferior deities were gradually eliminated until only one supreme being remained. line along which the early religious ideas developed took the form of creating a great number of powerful spiritual beings. and sunis worship one of the most widely diffused religions of the world. That there was. Spencer has argued that the basis of the whole is to be found in ancestorworship. most striking of all objects in nature is the sun. and stones are also worshiped. stocks.

the origin and nature of which we have now to is " sacerdotal institutions " consider. in any of the great more or I do not mean that a church neces- such as those to which the name is now applied. the and nothing to which this term will apply occurs either in any stretched in order to less civilized Asiatic peoples.62 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY RELIGIOUS STRUCTURES I [PART I prefer this expression to that of "ecclesiastical institutions. for its air etymology connects it with worship in the open beneath the shade of the oak. and " a phrase that possesses the requisite breadth for embracing this vast field. deserves the appellation " ecclesiastical only within restricted areas and during a comparatively brief period. properly applies to the entire religious organization of the world. and watch and A . economy. from the simplest to the most complex and elaborate. because men worshiped long before they learned to construct even the simplest forms of shelter. comfly. which are so for like reasons. nor." used objectively and historically. We fears. Early worship was of course in the open air. plete slave to these fears. fear of wild animals. is and always has been a prey to innumerable Fear of nature at large and the elements. to cringe and cause him perpetually or fight if brought to bay. This is " therefore the proper substitute for the word " church in any work that seeks to portray the religious movement of the world.. beauty. The term "priesthood. he scarce ever enjoys a moment of peace. as he must. and fear of other men make him wild like the wild beasts. and elaborate design. sarily implies a building primitive race of men. taking the whole world and all time into the account. living. indeed. and stripped of that depreciatory tincture that a single sect has sought to give it." because the meaning of the latter phrase requires to be so greatly make it include the earliest forms. in a pain have already seen that primitive man. But it is also true that religious organization. And not only among rude peoples but among some far advanced temples of worship preceded domestic habitations and far outstripped them in size. These are true religious structures. It implies existence of something that can be properly called a church.

gods. unknown to animals. capricious. or. they are invisible. as the inventive faculty develops. From the other sources of fear there are modes of escape. by constructing rude habitations and the simplest forms of clothing. himself by the exercise of his reason. one would surely have the from purely egoistic motives if from . Their acts are arbitrary. are as nothing the fear of compared to another source. This mediator must be a man. It amounted almost to a case of economic demand and incessant. But from what way promising source could relief be conceived to come? The only possible hope is some means of learning the wishes of spirits. Their will is unknown.CH. When we reflect that even in the most enlightened countries in the twentieth century divine healers and self-styled prophets readily attract multitudes of adherents _and believers. which are common to him and the animal world. The assaults of men he can meet with counter-assaults. deities. supply. But from spiritual powers there is no escape. Some wit. intangible. and inscrutable. In such a dire predicament relief it is easy to see that anything in any would be eagerly seized upon. Is it possible that there are any men who differ from the rest of men in possessing this gift or power? Under such circumstances the slenderest claim to such a prerogative would be eagerly listened to. The demand for a mediator was intense and Such a demand could scarcely remain unsupplied. From the elements he can protect himself to some degree by rinding or digging holes in the earth. Wild animals he can learn to destroy by contriving weapons and snares. or rest. and the most powerful or best equipped can escape. Though ever present. and there is no conceivable way of averting their wrath if once it is directed against a hopeless mortal. Religion is a product of reason. This great overshadowing awe he has created for spiritual beings. otherwise he could not also communicate with men. we can imagine the credulity of primitive men in constant terror of dire visitations from malignant spirits. and adapting conduct to such wishes. and unpredictable. But made known? Only by some mediator gift or how can those wishes be who is endowed with the power of communicating with them. or true happiness. No creature devoid of reason can become the victim of it. VI] RELIGIOUS STRUCTURES 63 But all these sources of fear combined.

Penalties more terrible than the group transgressors could inflict must be threatened against those who would disrupt society. The those putting forth such claims are recognized just at this stage that the they can warn men more respectable of by the group. which at the outset meant the more complete performance of function and the greater certainty of selfpreservation. But the politi- It is clear that at that was weak or scarcely existed. of race safety rose against this. It is reason of its members is group most needs help. and that was the fear of the gods. and such is the nature of the human mind that it can and does create within itself a conviction that it actually is in communication with such beings. The growing leading them more and more astray from the path of race safety. and began to guide desires tive of men to the satisfaction of which were disconnected with function and even destrucit. But whatever the motives. this of offended deities or disembodied would be listened to. tribe. It is doubtful whether any one claiming divine inspiration ever did so in pure fraud. But when we remember that all were alike under the spell we can well imagine that the egoistic motive was not the only one. The only motive to which there was any use of appealing was fear. and that with these gifts against acts that excite the divine wrath. that they know or can learn the will of spirits or gods.64 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PARTI no other. The group sentiment it. But there was one source of fear sufficiently terrible to be effective. There is at bottom an unqualified belief in the existence of supernatural beings. It established but was powerless to arrest customs calculated could the obser- to preserve the existence of the group. and the number of was large. This faculty was created as a guide to the better satisfaction of desire. but how vance of these customs be enforced? stage neither moral suasion nor argument could avail. But it soon overstepped the narrow limits of this primordial duty. the fact is that there always have been men in every group. or race who insist that they have relations with the spiritual world. Those therefore claiming to possess the divine favor and who were willing to use their power . to claim the power of communicating with the invisible world. If there was any one capable of assuring the wayward that their course would bring cal organization down upon them the wrath spirits.

it serves to is show the futility of most abstract theories. including the prehuman ancestor of man. Error is a pure product of reason. Such was the still origin of sacerdotal institutions in all societies at all or religious structures. the existence of both being. 65 were welcomed and given every opportunity to exert their influence in the most effective manner. there being no objective truth corresponding to spiritual beings. more But this is only ignorance. Religious ideas and structures are an exclusively human because an exclusively rational condition. The whole animal world is with- Animals. which have existed developed. In short they were erected into a priesthood and enabled to cooperate with the political power. VI] in the interest of ERROR group safety. it is perhaps idle to speculate. This may be ful a shock to some minds. It consists in phenomena due to insufficient in because appearances knowledge. out either. it seems to follow that error may be useful. ^uman it being. ERROR the religious ideas thus far considered consist entirely of error. cannot even conceive of of rational beings in a world like ours the development of a race We without having to pass through the whole religious stage as described. as we have seen. whatever it might be. have been had there been no religious ideas and no religious structures. but injurious. and as religious structures are based directly and exclusively As upon religious ideas. if possible. we have no What the course of human evolution would support any theory. of from an effort on the part of a rational a false interpretation It could not be avoided being to interpret phenomena. because there are no facts to our case upon observed facts. a necessity in the nature of things. in preserving the social order. and which continue to exert an influence at least equal to that of any other class of social structures. such as that truth Until always necessarily userid ourselves of these and error necessarily rest we and are content to real standing in court. are as completely devoid of all knowledge of the laws and principles of nature as was the most primitive so.Ca. or. nature are always different from the reality . if the latter really served the useful purpose above described. It arises is not error.

" and need not go again over that ground. That reasoning from inadequate data been seen by the greatest logicians. Original edition. were it not. 124-125. independently of all the freaks into which the passions of man almost constantly allure him. etc. even if proved by the clearest reasoning. and imploring their aid. There does not exist a religious system nor a supernatural extravagance which is not based on ignorance of the laws of nature. the ignorance which makes him the opinionated slave of custom and the continual dupe of those who wish to deceive him. Leipzig. p. Hartenstein. 1873. pp. Paris. 2 3 4 I. 47-53. attribute of man? 4 of the reason are is That these errors due to the attempt to N phi- losophize about nature and these well stated by Condorcet.66 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART I and usually nearly or quite the opposite of it. . Kritik der reinen Vernunft. 1809. the man derives great advantages from his well-developed human species generally considered experiences at the same time great inconveniences from them. II. I say. All errors in politics or in morals have philosophical errors as their basis. without documentary evidence capable of fully supporting the deduction. even the meanest. in turn are founded on physical errors. 2 Lamarck saw the same I truth when he said: could show that while intellectual faculties. But in consequence of the facts there enumerated and innumerable others that might be set down. Paris. pp. 1802. Vol. 315-316. Recherches sur 1'organisation des corps vivans. it is of the non-rational absolutely impossible for a race of beings to emerge out and pass into the rational state without accumu- lating a vast load of error. addressing to them his prayers. The inventors and defenders of these absurdities could not foresee the future development of the human mind. were it not that his reason has led him into the most revolting errors. for these considerations. 3 In an earlier work he wrote : Were it not for the picture that so many celebrated men have drawn of the weakness and lack of human reason were it not that. 186. since we actually see him so debase himself as to worship animals. is always misleading has says: Thus Kant There have been so many unfounded assumptions of the possibility of extending our knowledge through pure reason that it has to be made a general rule thoroughly to distrust it and to believe or accept nothing. should we feel authorized to raise any doubts as to the excellence of this special light which is the .. 1868. ed. I dealt with this truth 1 " in Dynamic Sociology under the head of the paradoxes of nature. pp. Philosophie zoologique. Persuaded that men 1 Vol.

not because they always reason (urtheileri) correctly. says : last cited. speaking of these misleading beliefs. on the same page as that speaking of the dread of sorcerers or wizards. . 162. 2 .. 1 Sir John Lubbock (Lord Avebury). are melancholy in the extreme. in a charming said : little book written in his leisure hours. p. truly False ideas in a healthy brain which has no opportunity to correct them. Paris. Ibid. During this stage the primitive man no more tends to confound animate and inanimate than inferior creatures do. disproportionate ideas in a weak brain incapable of experimentation. 68. 449. Prehistoric Times. remarks: These cannot be primary beliefs. and the crimes which they are led to commit. New York. If in his first efforts at interpretation. Kritik der reinen Vemunft. it must be that some introduces a germ of error which develops striking experience misleads him into an erroneous set of interpretations." 4 And Spencer. p. foolhardy conduct and 3 approaching insanity. Paris. Vol. 67. he forms conceptions inconsistent with this preestablished distinction between animate and inanimate. but must be secondary beliefs into which the primitive man is betrayed during his early attempts to understand the surrounding world. The incipiently speculative stage must come after a stage in a stage in which there yet exists n6 sufficient which there is no speculation language for carrying on speculation. . . 1900. p. 152. may lead to blind. 5 In explanation of the demonstrated fact that "fetichism arises only when a certain stage of mental and social evolution has been " reached. VI] ERROR 67 knew at their time all that they could ever know. p." 1 6 2 8 4 Tableau historique des progres de 1'esprit humain. 146. Coste. the horrible tortures which they sometimes inflict on themselves. they confidently rested their illusions upon the general ideas of their country and their age. of these terrible enemies. 2e ed. and would always believe what they then believed. 342. Dieu et 1'Ame.. may engender sophisms of action. p." the same author says that in proportion as the reasoning faculty is good will be the number of erroneous conclusions drawn from erroneous premises. p. 8 6 Principles of Sociology. 1903.CH. 1904. 244. Savages never know but what they may be placing themselves in the power The mental sufferings which they thus undergo. but because they do not reason at all. I. to fanaticism As further distinguishing ignorance from error Kant says: "the senses do not err.

the Tasmanians. the Dakotahs in Africa. of the consequences of the universal belief in spiritual beings can be attempted here. if it occurs not general enough to be specified in the accounts given of them. the Inland Negroes. but many works The most shocking of all these consequences un- have appeared since that time. i. undequaque se ostendunt . to false conclusions drawn from inade- quate premises. questionably is the wide-spread custom of sacrificing human victims I dealt with this general as well as at the funerals of chieftains. the Caribs. 2 Vol. . instar labyrinth! est ubi tot ambigua viarum. by the New Caledonians. 287-292. tarn obliquae et implexas naturarum spirae et nodi. are really due to error. tarn fallaces rerum et signorum similitudines. 1869. by the Chinooks. of ancient America that arrangements for the future convenience of the dead . Praefatio. . I. intellectui humane contemplanti. and most extensively It was. 205). 2 and referred to some of the sources of information relative to the latter. Works. with their rudimentary social This practice develops as society advances through organizations.68 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART I Bacon beautifully expressed the hopeless condition of the primi1 tive intellect in this vast maze of nature. the Australians. and the reader with a penchant in that direction can now follow it to almost any desired length. is accompany dead husbands. evils unknown to animal races. But it is a practice shown us by more advanced peoples: in Polynesia.. and the theory of another life becomes more definite. Only a brief and partial enumeration Consequences of Error. store- house of this class of survey of this field shows that this horrid practice is comparatively rare among the very lowest races. pp. Spencer says: its earlier stages. Among the Fuegians. (Instauratio Magna. and no attitude is more unphilosophical in dealing with the subject of primitive error than the attitude of censure or condemnation. by the Congo people. 1 jEdificium autem hujus universi structura sua. however. by the Fijians. p. Vol. . and occasionally by the less barbarous Tongans in America. the Coast Negroes. The works of Letourneau alone furnish an almost inexhaustible facts. with this special subject in Dynamic Sociology. II. The important point is to show that the greater part of the evils from which the human race has suffered. and reaches its maximum in races quite well A advanced toward or fairly into the status called barbarism.e. the Andamanese. but all in most cases they are already so familiar to well-read persons that a mere mention of them is sufficient. the sacrifice of wives to at all. in the considerably-advanced societies by the Dahomans.

and their ing that number was often such that the 8 enough had gone at present. it is said. Garcilasso says that a dead Ynca's wives " volunteered to be killed. the Almost all the religious festivals of Mexico required human sacrifices. As Spencer says: The .VI] CONSEQUENCES OF ERROR 69 were carried out with the greatest care. amounting sometimes.. . were immolated on his tomb. 8 4 ibid. . was the god of war. Vol." is it officers were obliged to interfere. . to 200 " his attendants and favorite concubines.. 104. 104. and amounted " and in Peru. and occasionally anxious.. p. . . Paris.. to die. as several historians affirm. par Charles Letourneau. Letourneau says : god of the Mexicans. intensity of the faith prompting such customs." 4 but ix is perfectly true from our present one has well said that there are 1 Principles of Sociology. sufficient to form a little lake of human blood capable of floating a favorite god. : . the great ferocious Huitzilopochtli. .CH. Philosophic positive. V. we shall the better con- ceive on finding proof that the victims are of ten willing. Speaking The of these same ancient Mexicans. but also in the sense that it development Some is shared by every member of the group without exception. Comte has been criticized for saying that fetishism represents "the most intense theological state. pp. say- the sense that a typical world view. 1892. On the occasion [Huitzilopochtli]. By the Mexicans " the number was proportioned to the grandeur of the funeral. 36 ed. . This belief exists in all no dissenters among savages. by means of which they were capable of elaborating a systematic doctrine relative to the spirits of took place in conconsequence of the fully the dead. 2 Letourneau speaks of vanced state of Mexican this as taking place " in spite of the adcivilization. 205.. d'apres 1'Ethnographie. . Vol. It is universal not only in human races at the proper stage in the of the rational faculty. p. boat. i. l to a thousand. died. when an Ynca sometimes. never was religious madness more bloody than in that At every great event it was necessary to murder many thousand country slaves. 291. 39." of the victims . at Mexico. in developed reasoning powers of that people. p. I. 2 La Sociologie Spencer." It really sequence of that advanced state. not less than 80. 204-205. .000 of the dedication of the great temple to that divinity human victims were sacrificed. universal belief This body of doctrine is crystallized into a that these spirits exist and will follow their master into the next world and there minister to his wants.e.

as I then stated. This practice also lasted much longer in the history of the mental development of a people than that of sacrificing. because is it often being regarded as sacrilegious to make any further use of a man's property after he has passed away. which APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PARTI is that from which Comte viewed it. public or private. in fact a more serious evil than the sacrifice of human victims. But. In some parts of China. partly as a substitute. Like everything else in savage life. whereas sacrifices are mainly confined to royal funerals. The practice of placing the belongings of a dead person in his is grave for his use in the next world is a simple corollary from the of primitive peoples relative to the nature of general reasoning the soul. too shocking or terrible to be shrunk from if dictated by the logic of the dominant idea. for example. 293-296. Dynamic Sociology. and this waste of property may be regarded as a survival of the barbaric practice of burying or destroying all the property of a dead person. it was carried to the greatest extremes and ultimately resulted in some tribes in an enormous destruction of property. is determined by them. warriors and rulers.yo point of view. Long after the latter has been discontinued the former is kept up. and which have gone on accumulating to the present time. In many cases all that a man has is either buried with him or destroyed in one way or another. Indeed. . which is simply to illustrate the legitimate it is consequences of universally accepted errors. Another direction which this same class of primitive logic took was that of the erection of costly tombs for the remains of great This has also been an almost universal practice. and one that extended far down into the latest stages of barbarism. will suffice for the present purpose. pp. and no act Every act. Vol. it practised by persons of all classes. a wealthy family sometimes completely ruined by a costly funeral. The few examples that I culled in 1883 J from the great mass that had been collected at that date. existence of a people. and we find it persisting among half-civilized peoples down almost to our own is time. the funerals among civilized peoples are often extravagantly expensive. as the Such ideas are an integral part of the mental context shows. These tombs are scattered 1 all over the world and are often about II. they permeate the society and sway the entire mass.

There has been. who. and says: the one memorial is associated the name of Cheops. labor thus withdrawn from and of course involving a corresponding amount productive industry Egypt represent the highest point to which this practice was ever carried. if they had read his works at all. With called. had read them 1 An Autobiography. whether these figures are or are not correct. 403-404. them. however. treat in this Under the head of Consequences of Error I had planned to work somewhat at length some dozen other illustrations. stages attained by peoples. as he is now Shufu or Koofoo a king who. if we may believe Herodotus. and upon their significance from the economic and socio- standpoint. ought to be numbered among the few most accursed of men. Vol. . This chronological would not wish to imply that but simply to the successive chronology. or. this king. kept a hundred thousand men at work for twenty years building his tomb and who. VI] CONSEQUENCES OF ERROR 71 of all that remains of an extinct civilization. In his autobiography he visit to describes his them. An enormous amount labor has been expended upon. it and I have decided that heads. must have imposed forced labor on enormous numbers of men for periods during which tens of thousands had to bear great pains. will This I be sufficient simply to enumerate the principal shall do in something like the order in which the practices occur in the course of the general development of the reasoning powers and intelligence of mankind. all I for of which I but realize that this have been collecting materials for many years. while most of the data are accessible to the reading public. Those who visit them are usually profoundly impressed of misery among the people. The pyramids of with them as achievements of rarely reflect logical human art at so early a period. for they are neither more nor less than the tombs of the great kings of that country. but I relates to historical by persons who. Comte has been severely attacked order it is also the logical order. would unduly expand this chapter. . and thousands upon thousands died of their sufferings. New York. irrespective of the absolute times at which such stages were reached. reflected upon the conditions that could have brought such remarkable objects into existence. Herbert Spencer. one exception to this in the case of Mr. If the amounts of misery and mortality inflicted are used as measures. as we might expect of him. 1904. pp. held in such detestation by later generations that statues of him were defaced by 1 them. II.CH. By Herbert Spencer.

1869. sought by 1 As Sir it is pleasure to self. In all such discussions it is necessary to abstract the conditions or states of selves mind and consider them by them- and independent of dates and other human events. mourners cutting and gashing themselves with whatever sharp in It instruments they 2. performed chiefly at funerals. and as it continues on through all the stages of barbarism into that of civil- ization. " APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART I and who accused him of maintaining that the " three followed one another in strict chronological order. it contains an element of hope. and probably real. the real end 1 and Hartmann declares that it is 14. Superstition. fill the minds It also serves as an effective bar to all intellectual or material progress. Asceticism. London. this latter aspect becomes more serious. . Utopia (1516). Thomas More admitted. 116. but it savagery and is scarcely It was reserved for a high is based. and repeatedly explained that two or more of the great leading world conceptions always coexisted. upon the belief in spiritual beings and a future spiritual existence. state of intellectual development.72 carelessly. alleged at least. as truly as human sacrifice. not only in different parts of the world but also among the same people and even in the same mind. Self-mutilation. 1. No. may possess. But by its use here it is meant to group a great mass of customs and practices which do not usually involve the destruction of human life. but usually consists in the angry gods. p. This is a wide-spread custom. use. He stages made no such claims. Though based like the rest mainly on fear. This is unknown in possible in any stage of true barbarism. Murray's English reprints. may be mentioned 3. and believed some way to please the departed spirit or appease takes a variety of forms. In the following enumeration this is all that is meant by the order in which the practices or customs are arranged. or often prolonged for days as a token of grief. that the chief objection to the construction of railroads in China was that the noise and jar of the trains would disturb the dead. As an example the fact. but which have for their under it principal effect to restrict the liberty of action and of men with a thousand ungrounded fears and terrors. This term is much too general for convenient It really embraces all the forms of error that have been or are to be enumerated.

in 1901 the number was 23. a witch having been burned at Camargo in 1860. 1902. leopards. and it would be easy to fill a volume with their recital. 373. The milder forms that have long prevailed in the leading civilized countries. peoples like those of India becomes a serious matter when in more civilized it makes vermin. Statistics of mortality from these sources are annually collected. but the tendency was to limit it more and more to women. and is still practised in Mexico. pp. called puritanism in America. VI] CONSEQUENCES OF ERROR 1 73 have been thoroughly egoistic.worship. A suit was brought in 1902 at Chicago against a woman for bewitching another and causing her hair to fall out. 2 Witchcraft was fully believed in by Luther. In the Middle Ages it took the form of witchcraft and lasted until into the eighteenth century. The horrible self-tortures that practised by thousands of people in all ages under this delusion have been vividly portrayed. II. 366. 1 Witchcraft. The logic of these practices grows out of the belief in the transmigration of souls through the bodies of these animals into those of men and back from men to animals. the tiger. and 3000 more each souls of men. year. and the high rewards offered by the British government seem scarcely to tempt the superstitious natives of that country. while Tigers. and hyenas destroy between 2000 The cobra. it is not over now. but it still continues. Reference was made to this in Dynamic Sociology (Vol. Bd. bears. p.166. but is comparatively harmless. 271). and dangerous wild beasts sacred and interdicts their destruction. II.621 persons died in India from snake bite alone. Indeed. Both sexes have this power. which is itself a form of animal. serpents. . The belief in the 2 Philosophic des Unbewussten. barbarous 4. and other dangerous snakes and animals are sacred and occupied by the ject their spirits into other persons power of certain persons to proand "possess" them is almost universal among all but the most enlightened peoples. 5. Some form of sorcery is believed to be practised by all savage and barbaric races. but they must fall far short of the true figures. 24. wolves. In 1899. Animal totemism among savage and tribes. See the newspapers of about July 29. Zoolatry. are dangerous to health and destructive of happiness and of progress.CH. the leopard.

difference of belief is a mark of civilization. but in the face of it the world still clings to hundreds of scarcely less absurd ideas.. and the persecuting country its vigorous and virile i. The thousands of witches who have been put to death. cution. people A no differences of opinion is degenerate and must take More serious probably for mankind at any other one of the consequences^of error. error.e. Resistance to Truth. though most of them are incapable of leading to such shockI ing consequences. often only slightly. object is to reduce a civilized to the elements.. and Lafitau.74 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART I fact Melanchthon. make belief absolutely uniform. 7. often burned at the stake or horribly tortured. confine this for the present to religious perseheretic is a A person a somewhat. notaSpain. The condition of a savage people. Their persecution. as in the case of the Inquisition. and wholesale destruction.e. 60. and was declared to be a 1 It is now completely discountenanced by Blackstone. to the persecution of so-called heretics. must therefore have all been innocent victims of this hideous error that seized and held fast the would suppose that a minds of men through so many centuries. there are no differences in the belief of savages. Book IV. therefore. the truth to emerge at 1 all from the mass of p. and it has always happened that the dissenters were the more civilized. i. means the slaughter all of the elite of mankind. is the opposition that error always offers to the advance of truth. Persecution. 6. different religious belief from a larger body of persons in the country in which he lives. bly in that tolerates This has been repeatedly done. . who has and who have acquired power over the lives and liberties of citizens. and they all agree was any such thing as the bewitching of one person by another. because. One fact like this would cause everybody to doubt every opinion held without the most convincing proof. by all that there never enlightened persons regardless of their creed. The Commentaries. as we have A just seen. and history has recorded the consequences. Those is who can escape emasculated of to fly to other lands. In the earliest stages there was no possilarge than bility for a second or lower place. This is confined to what are called civilized countries. John Wesley. or perhaps than all of them combined.

epilepsy. no specialist in any of those sciences of the . delirium.CH. and intelligence in inorganic nature. Astronomy has taught the nature of the heavenly bodies and the laws of their motions. and psychiatry and although many things are still obscure in relation to them. saw that the whole mass of primitive error was the result of a false interpretation of natural phenomena. . chiefly in peoples that ethnologists class as civilized. Persecution for belief. most of which involved persecution. And so with is the whole series of physical phenomena upon which primitive built his superstructure of life. The true interpretation We . ever thinks of calling in the aid of indwelling spirits to account for any of the facts. man will. a greater or less reduction in the amount of error in the belief. Lightning is as well understood as are any of the manifestations of electricity. therefore. . and was usually practically the reverse of the prevailing false interpretation. pathology. All the steps toward truth were taken at later stages. was first form that resistance to truth assumed. however nant or orthodox slightly the belief may differ from the domi- a step toward the truth. echoes were explained on the now familiar principles of acoustics dreams. is the is heresy. and gases in nearly nothing like the primitive idea of spirit. Every heresy. same phenomena was the work of thousands of patient investigators continued through centuries. which was considered under the last head. The most of them may be included under the general designation of opposition to science. dense mass of primitive error which All this truth that science revealed had to struggle against the it was destined to overthrow. insanity. VI] CONSEQUENCES OF ERROR all 75 error was accepted by without any single one ever so much as thinking of questioning it. The present head meant to include other forms. Thus shadows and reflections were found to be due to the nature of light and the laws of radiation after the science of optics had been founded. but is a mixture of uniform proportions. All the anthropomorphic ideas upon which primitive error rests are dispelled by science. but some of which were somewhat independent ot persons. trance. and even death are explainable on natural principles contained in the sciences of psychology. Air is understood. physiology.

38. by John William Draper. There has never this to But for anything that No amount it is of demonstration would avail. to hold for their utterance. for these reasons. and the greater part of intellectual energy has been diverted into safer but compara- men from tively useless channels. The discoverers of truth have been the victims of all forms of persecution. be true it would be neceswas absolutely demonstrated This has never been the case. so familiar are their works. 2 This opposition to science in rendering may be supposed to have some value necessary that the discoverers of truth assure themselves beyond a peradventure of the correctness of their position before venturing to promulgate their ideas. and the truth revealed has been formally condemned and anathematized. No. 1875 (International Scientific Series. There is always an abundance of legitimate This was shown in Pure Sociology under the head CEuvres de Descartes. The history of the later phases of this opposition to the progress been so ably presented by numerous writers that it would be superfluous to enter into it here. 1 ented all The chief effect was that of deterring taltrying to discover truth. 47. pp. sary to suppose that would be accepted. History of the Conflict between Religion and Science. New York. Paris. 1897. it. 2 . fifth edition. in two volumes. It cannot be true because opposed to the current world view. A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom. Truth has never been welcome. Some have partially excused it on this ground. by Andrew Dickson White. Those who believe things because they are impossible are not going to 'believe anything because proved. this kind of illegitimate opposition to the But there opposition to 1 is no need of discovery of truth. on to them. but suppressed it ideas. because the world would only punish them Nearly everybody acted upon this principle. been any attempt to verify discovery. 1844. I scarcely need draw special attention to the contributions of science has of two Americans it to this subject. 12). even if space would permit. New York. and either refrained from investigating or from promulgating new Descartes wrote his Traite du Monde. The opposition has always been dogmatic. and its utterance was for ages fraught with perFontenelle advised those who possessed new truths sonal danger.76 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART I and the resistance was enormous.

In the kind of opposition to science that we have been considering it is all loss and no gain. and most of the progressive literature of that period was rendered inaccessible to the general public. p. . Usually a part is confirmed and a part rejected. But for several centuries it was effective in the Catholic Church. This is head of resistance to truth. 2 . and might have been treated under the general 8. another form of persecution. pp." * 77 of How There is no danger any error in science gaining a permanent foothold. within the church it is itself it is somewhat With the Greek Church more serious because sanc- tioned by the government of the nation of which that is the state church. .. only a little more subtle than the form last considered. but so far as the former is concerned it is now chiefly a churches. Obscurantism. but at all all that any rate the opposition is always compelled to admit true and the original discoverer is compelled to abandon that is not true. vi] of " CONSEQUENCES OF ERROR Science Advances. it is only a case of this latter. Still. Indeed. But by it is meant certain refined phases of this resistance practised by nations claiming to be civilIts principal method consists in the prohibition or suppression ized. . rire. The difference is the amount of established is truth contained in the discovery. 1773. 62). iv. Vol. those that dissent from the current world views are the ones that contain truth. London. both the CathoIt is still practised by both these lic Church and the Greek Church. it is reinvestigated by others and either confirmed or rejected. I. Every proposition is immediately doubted and attacked. Cf. "it is only in the prohibited books found. For it is with books as with men . 6. of matter poun effective. In other words. 1 This Index : Pages 8-12. etc.CH. 1'Homme. that the truth It is As 2 Helvetius said in a book that he refused is to publish during his lifetime. There are glance over the papal Index Librorum to be found the majority of the works that the world recognizes as great or epoch-making. This has been chiefly practised by the Christian church. books and writings and the general censorship of the press. but it is attacked with the legitimate weapons of scientific experimentation and not with the rack and thumb-screw. " Ce n'est trouve la verite" plus maintenant que dans les Livres defendus qu'on " Le bon livre est presque partout le livre defendu (De on ment dans les autres." to interesting Prohibitorum.

and that the reason assigned is as follows " Condemned and publication forbidden by the : am Committee of Ministers. In the light of prevailing political opinion the ministers would scarcely dare to assign political reasons. 1 Zola. If it is feared that they may tend to render the people discontented with their lot or dissatisfied with the government. in the darker ages of the world. In a free country any such attempt at obscurantism is in the nature of an advertisement. 86 in the list. he having obtained a copy He informs me that Dynamic Sociology is No. schau containing the article out. 1891 [Old Style]. 1891. is it human progress has been and retarded by cutting off the light and not allowing being greatly to penetrate into places where it would be seen and welcomed if it cannot be doubted that it could be admitted. March rankest materialism. in the darker lands. . The Russian government publishes a similar Index. This was attempted in Germany at the time of the publication of Frederick's diary with rather unsatisfactory results. and it is to be hoped that the time will soon come when it will be no longer possible to dam up the stream of truth. Nevertheless. The reader may remember The book is saturated with the the account given in the preface to the second edition of the seizure of the Russian translation. etc. and I have recently amused myself in scanning the pages of the latest volume. Ribot. and still at present. at least in other countries than Germany. Lecky. One of its numbers has the books condemned between 1872 and lately appeared containing It contains works by Herbert Spencer. where political liberty has not yet been achieved. I have never doubted that many of the books condemned by the Russian censors were so treated on account of other than religious sentiments contained in them. it is easy to find passages that can be objected to on religious grounds. Probably thousands read it that never would have done so if it had not been prohibited. Ernst Haeckel. indebted to Mr. The numbers of the Deutsche Rundcame to America with the pages cut I went to a bookstore and bought for ten cents a small duodecimo pamphlet containing the English translation. made The by not allowing great mass of the people effective are thus effectually prevented from ever reading a book. and to allege these as the reasons for prohibiting a work.78 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART I continues to be issued periodically. George Kennan for these facts. The prohibition is Russian translations to appear at all." 26. 1 I There are certain forms of falsehood which of the work.

33. can realize that And there 1 as this false world view prevails so universally as to ren- it a veritable world view is even to-day. never exaggerating the gains and often seeming to exaggerate the losses. They consist of erroneous world views which cannot be directly. other consequences of error which do not come exactly under this head. form any idea of what the human race would have been if a true womankind has had to endure in consequence of this the dwarfing and stunting influence that it We and der just conception of both man and woman had still still always prevailed. way The bad news was not given out. 1904." The official reports of the Russian generals in the war that has just been waged between Japan and Russia seemed to embody the proverb above quoted. This could always be depended upon. full history of this proverb. slander or a falsequelque chose?" makes a hood. No. There are. The driving in of pickets pre- ceding a battle was loudly proclaimed as a Russian victory. and the influence exerted by it is shown on pages 341-377. For a third edition. Among these I would put first. 241. that which I have described It is in Pure Sociology as the the terrible suffer- Androcentric World View. see King's Classical and Foreign Quotations. but which are often equally serious. VI] CONSEQUENCES OF ERROR 79 are justified on grounds not widely different from the Jesuitical doctrine that the end sanctifies the means. as Oliver Wendell Holmes said. There is an old French form says Calomniez. great deal of leeproverb which in its : It is A in proportion to its headway. 2 The theory is stated on pages 291-296. we something for applied sociology to do. London. but the examples given are sufficient to indicate its character. . il en restera a kind of obscurantism. or at least can only be partially. re- This enumeration of the consequences of error growing out of religious ideas might of course be greatly prolonged. 2 not so much ings that gigantic error as it is can scarcely has exerted throughout such a prolonged period.CH. ascribed to the belief in spiritual beings. p. On the Russian ports no dependence whatever could be placed. however. as having exerted the most baneful influence on the human race. but the defeat that followed was suppressed and the world did not learn the truth until the Japanese generals were ready to make their report.

been disproved. All this error of which we have been speaking may be under the laws of looked upon as so imitation so ably much social disease. but there is with the severest penalties that society can devise. L'Affranchissement de la femme. and she goes back and frantically recovers and embraces the body of her dead . Tarde. TRUTH Mr. A young woman has a child outside of wedlock it may have been the consequence of love as pure as ever animated the human breast.8o APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART I directly out of the androcentric world view and the founded upon it may be mentioned the prevailing error with regard to motherhood. 1903. 1 and the true explanations fact. and so it is. But all the science in the world has failed to remove any of the great world errors. worked out by M. to a great human error actions child. and noble of all human All due to a false world view. of natural See J. And just as the mission of medical science is to do away with disease and replace it by health. Robert G. and is passed on from mind to mind and from age to age. Novi- . condemned. to be punished holiest of duties. that this false theory of life entails The amount of misery upon humanity is beyond all calculation. Ingersoll. Paris. so the mission of social science is to do away with error and replace it by truth. The officers of the law discover ! hanging over the civilized world. 1 What a series of horrors imprisoned. he could improve the universe. natural. " " instead of replied that he would first make health catching disease. p. It may be said that this is the mission of all science. if he had the power. her and she is seized. The false ideas have. growing out of the most innocent. tried. is contagious. They still stand in the face of it and are shared by the mass of mankind. This assumed case has been nearly paralleled by a recorded cow. which. She is disgraced and drowns her offspring in a pool. The maternal instinct haunts her. The bringing of a new human being into the world is universally recognized as among the noblest and institutions As growing the proviso which is agreed to with equal unanimity that unless it takes place under the sanction of civil or ecclesiastical law it is not a duty but a crime. i. indeed. and hung. when asked if he could suggest any way by which.

deprived of all the materials upon which to exert themselves. Of course the most have already abrogated their reasoning powers entirely by accepting some creed. error that does the mischief. and aims only to " draw out " some supposed inherent powers or talents. The business world takes up the scientific discoveries and utilizes them. because the fact that his stitions. of false conceits.CH. The few that have begun to doubt their creed are looking for another. And yet these may be what pass for " educated persons. of superhim utterly uninteresting. but their credulity is as complete as ever. but all this has little social value. A self in almost completely alone in the world. Ignorance is comparatively safe. All the shores of the great ocean of time are strewn with these whitened skeletons of misguided . for. The great bulk of every population on the wholly emancipated person finds himglobe is steeped in error. They may think they are progressing. but they have no idea of the true significance of scientific discovery. VI] TRUTH 81 phenomena have been furnished. these native powers. ful Of course the great desideratum is to supply the data for thinkand to supply them to all mankind and not merely to a handof the Jlite. as we have already seen. the education that is afforded by the systems of the world not only does not furnish any knowledge but expressly disclaims doing th js. The number who know the truth is relatively insignificant even in the most enlightened countries. as a matter of fact. mind is moment any one begins to talk he reveals the a bundle of errors. Truth is Error charms. and they are utterly devoid of any knowledge by which to test the credibility " of their beliefs. It is but the problem is how to do this. and of prejudices that render The great majority are running off after some popular fad. It holds out all manner of false hopes. where with nothing to nourish the soul they perish and leave their bones to bleach upon the barren strand. are not merely useless but are in a high degree dangerous and pernicious. There is not one perhaps a whole city in which he lives with whom he can converse five minutes. a siren song that lures frail mariners upon desert isles. and the mass avail themselves of the resultant advantages. But. unattractive. ing. and the stronger the reasoning ties It is faculdis- astrous the erroneous conclusions thus working upon meager materials the more misleading and drawn are ior mankind.

crowding out and replacing the error that It is now fills the world.. All heresies have been attempts to get rid of some small part of the error of the orthodox type of beliefs. as who accept the ideological interpretation we have seen. part fully emancipated. from fetishism to monotheism. recognized by all of history. In this respect. which. The Protestant Reformation was another such a step. races. the dynamic quality of human . i. that world ideas are what determine and that action therefore depends upon the nature of these ideas. but there are There are many liberal minds among the Latin few Protestants.82 thought. speaking generally. contagious. because the latter are naturally more superstitious. The several steps in religious ideas. control human action As we have seen. throwing off all error at once as a snake casts its skin. does not conflict with the . is retro- Error believed with sufficient force to determine action gressive in its effects. to such a degree that it shall penetrate the whole mass of mankind. It is truth that should be made attractive. In other words. All progress in ideas has consisted in the gradual elimination of the error and substitution of truth. in its world views. It is characterFew are capable of istic of the human mind to take short steps. have been in this direction. The natural tendency of truth is to cause pro- gressive action. and we have enumerated some of the consequences of this error. A must be clung to and cherished a while longer. while the latter cling to the whole until they can hold it no longer and pass by a single leap from complete orthodoxy to complete freedom of religious thought. the peoples of the north of Europe differ from those of the south. The former are satisfied with the surrender of a part. Although these steps still and Thomas Paine may seem small to the they represent progress. economic interpretation. The principal quality of ideas as affecting action is the relative amount of truth and error that they embody. as some suppose. early ideas consist chiefly of error. alluring. APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART I Truth furnishes the only real hope. The deism of Voltaire was still another. and not. This is the true reason why the Reformation never could gain a foothold among the Latin races. The progressive character of any age depends upon the amount of truth embodied in its philosophy.e.

CH. VI]

TRUTH

83

is strictly proportional to the degree to which they harmonize with objective reality. It follows that all the progress that has taken place in the world as the result of human thought has been

ideas

due

to the truth that has

been brought to

light.

This accounts for
is

the relatively small amount of
cause.

human

progress that

due to

this

greater part, as shown in Pure Sociology, Chapter XI, has been of the purely unconscious, genetic sort, with which ideas have nothing to do. But most of the progress due to ideas

The

which merely produces material civilization through the conquest of nature, and does not penetrate to the lower strata of society at all. This is because the truth is posis

of that superficial kind

sessed by only a minute fraction of society. It therefore has great economic value but very little social value. What the progress
of the world would be no one can foresee, but
if

all

this truth

its effect
it.

were socially appropriated would probably be proportional to

the

number possessing

CHAPTER

VII

SOCIAL APPROPRIATION OF
The
totality

TRUTH
totality

knowledge.

of human BUCKLE.

actions

is

governed by the

of

human

human
son

That which the best human nature is capable of HERBERT SPENCER. nature at large.
le trQne, soit

is

within the reach of

Assis soit sur
cul.

sur un escabeau, on n'est jamais assis que sur

MONTAIGNE.

Nostra vero inveniendi scientias ea est ratio, ut non multum ingeniorum acumini et robori relinquatur sed quae ingenia et intellectus fere exaequet.
;

BACON.

The

sarily lead to improvement.

discovery of truth leads to achievement it does not necesJohn Stuart Mill has well remarked:
;

The words Progress and Progressiveness are not here to be understood as synonymous with improvement. It is conceivable that the laws of human nature might determine, and even necessitate, a certain series of changes in man and society, which might not in every case, or which might not on the whole, be improvements. It is my belief, indeed, that the general tendency is, and will continue to be, one of improvement a tendency toward a better and happier state. 1
;

have argued in favor of the general proposition that material civilization is on the whole progressive, using the term 2 "progressive" in the sense of tending toward improvement. The
I,

too,

survey

made

in

sociogenetic forces

the fifteenth chapter of Pure Sociology of the showed clearly enough that the human race is

improving along many lines, while the last section of that chapter, devoted to the sociological perspective, points out in what the real moral progress of mankind has consisted. Moreover, the section of
Chapter III of the present work entitled "The New Ethics," shows that the trend of things is in the direction of abandoning the old ethics of restraint and sacrifice and adopting an ethics of liberation

and
1

social betterment.

A

System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive,
II, pp. 175, 206.

etc.,

eighth edition,

New

York,

1900, p. 632.
2

Dynamic Sociology, Vol.

84

CH. vii]

POSSESSION OF

TRUTH
It is melioristic,

85
one

grand ennemi du mieux, cest le bien. But the spontaneous improvement of society, even when aided by science, is very slow. No one would disparage this discovery of new truth, but enough has already been discovered to
of the that le plus
dispel the greater part of the error in the world.
It is

The view is therefore not maxims of which is

at all pessimistic.

not that the

truth

is

not in the world, too, but that

it

is

not assimilated by
of

society at large.

Nothing can check the discovery

new

truth,

but with this the sociologist has nothing to do. He is only concerned with the social appropriation of the truth already discovered.

The new

truth being discovered leads to the further conquest of

nature, which belongs to pure sociology. Applied sociology aims at the complete social transformation which will follow the assimilation of discovered truth.

POSSESSION OF

TRUTH

None of the great errors of the world which are so effective in holding civilization back could stand for a moment if those who now entertain them were really in possession of the truth which is their
natural antidote.
It is said that

many

theless entertain these errors. " dualism " of the human mind which enables

well-informed persons neverThere is what has been called

some

to hold at

one and the same time wholly incompatible opinions. Kepler, for example, could believe that there existed in each planet a spirit
that unerringly guided it to revolve around the sun in an ellipse, its radius vector describing equal areas in equal times. Cuvier,

Richard Owen, and Louis Agassiz, with their profound knowledge
of the laws of
plan.

believed in special creation and a divine Kant, while forced to admit determinism in history and in
life,

still

society at large, taught free will for the individual. Dana said that "the evolution of the system of life went forward through the derivation of species from species, according to natural methods not

yet clearly understood, and with few occasions for supernatural intervention." 1 Faraday is reported as saying that he kept his
1

Manual

604.

Compare

of Geology, by J. D. Dana, second edition, New York, 1874, pp. 603also Am. Journ. of Science, third series, Vol. XII, October, 1876,

pp. 250-251.

86

APPLIED SOCIOLOGY

[PARTI

with

science in one pocket and his religion in the other. Descartes, In his Princiall his wisdom, was credulous in the extreme.
:

ples of Philosophy he said
I

do not doubt that the world was created
it

in the

beginning with as great

perfection as

now

already there; and but that the plants themselves covered a part of it, that Adam and not created children but with the age of perfect men, etc. 1

has, so that the sun, the earth, the moon, the stars, were that the earth not only had within it the seeds of plants,

Eve were

is based on the assumption that the uniwholly a product of the divine will, and that it might have been anything else than it is if it had been willed to be so. What

His whole philosophy
is

verse

Dr.

Asa Gray

lined

many truly great clearly conceived the invariability of nature's laws but could not wholly give up their supernatural beliefs.
by minds that

called "evolutionary teleology" 2 3 Descartes, and has been the refuge of

was

clearly out-

But the true motives underlying

all

these inconsistencies are

understand. In so far as they are honest and not due to fear of persecution (in which case they are not opinions at all but false statements of opinion), they are chiefly due to the mental atmosphere in which men live. In other
difficult to

much entangled and

words, they are due to the prevailing world views of the time. half -discovered truth is at variance with the world view. This
error, but
it

The
is

an

with

it,

cannot be given up. The truth must be reconciled or at least some modus vivendi must be devised that will

enable them to exist together. Persons holding truths under such conditions can scarcely be said to possess them. Their tenure is
so feeble that they can produce very
vital force,
little effect.

and the

slightest objection or opposition causes

They have no them

to be abandoned.

What

is

needed as a guide to action and a condition to progress

as well as to happiness is complete possession of truth, absolute faith in the laws of nature. The admission of the possibility of an

exception

is

fatal to all
If

improvement. stress and strain were arbitrary and might change
1

looking to an engineer were to suppose that the laws of
at

the calculations that can be

made

any moment,

2 8

Principes de la philosophic, Paris, 1724, p. 168. Darwiniana, Art. XIII. Discours de la methode, CEuvres de Descartes, Paris, 1844, pp.

28, 29.

CH. VII]

POSSESSION OF

TRUTH

87

he would never dare to build a bridge or a tower. But he has absolute faith in those laws, and he builds with confidence. So it
of life

must ultimately be with every act of life. The laws of nature and must first be learned as are those of stress and strain, and

then each step in conformity with those laws is certain. The most fundamental and important of all the laws of the universe is the law of causation. As has already been said in this
work, this law
is

men

it

is

also chiefly acted upon,

acted upon by animals. By the lowest races of and neither animals nor the lowest

savages err except under a changed environment which they no longer understand. Philosophy, i.e., the exercise of the reason, seems to ignore this law and leads to all the error that we have been

But really it does not ignore the law of causation ; invents false causes. Causes it must have, and if the true only causes are beyond its power to perceive, false causes are devised.
considering.
it

have also recognized the law of causation. the " sufficient reason." This they finally They simply contrasted with causation through will or design and made the distinction the same as that between efficient and final causes. But
later philosophers

The

called

it

in all cases causation

was recognized, and
writer,

it

is

in fact a condition

of

rejects the doctrine of thought. innate ideas in general, considers the idea of causation as innate. 1 This is virtually Schopenhauer's position, as set forth in his first
all

One modern

who

work devoted

to the subject. 2

In one of his latest works he says

:

My philosophy began with the proposition that there is nothing in the world but causes and effects, and that the sufficient reason in its four aspects is 3 simply the most general form of the intellect. What
there
is is

is

thus universal, therefore,

is

the faculty of causality, and

no occasion for trying to strengthen that faculty. What it needful to enforce is the distinction between true causes and

false causes.

stronger the faculty of causality, the greater will be the error in the absence of adequate data for exercising it. Most of the false causes invented to explain phenomena grow out
Gustav Ratzenhofer, Kritik des Intellects, Leipzig, 1902, II, III. Ueber die vierfache Wurzel des Satzes vom zureichenden Grunde, Rudolstadt, 1813. See p. 107. 8 Parerga und Paralipomena, seventh edition, Leipzig, 1891, Vol. I, p. 141.
2
1

The

88

APPLIED SOCIOLOGY

[PART

I

of the belief in spiritual beings.

peoples and by some

of the

easily traceable to this

Even those believed in by civilized most highly cultured among these are source. All superstition rests on this basis,
supernatural, for a cause of
is

for the events are alleged to take place without

therefore the cause

is

any natural cause some kind is

;

always assumed.

And what

of spiritual beings ? The are reduced to one, and it

a supernatural cause but the agency case is not altered when the spiritual beings
is

by a supreme intelligence

assumed that nature is presided over directing all movements and events.

of spirit precisely as conceived by the savage. Needless to say that if such were the case there could be no science, or that under such a world view, if
fully believed in, there
If
it

That intelligence must have the character

be said that

all

the science

would be no attempt to control phenomena. we have has grown up under this

it

world view, the answer is that this is because, as a matter of fact, has not been believed in. Since the scientific era began there
has been no such faith in the supernatural as exists among savages. Science was made possible by the diminution of this kind of faith

and the concomitant increase of faith in natural causes. The history of science shows that those who still possessed a large amount of the faith of primitive man opposed science and stubbornly resisted its advance. The history of the Middle Ages is that of a period during which faith in spiritual causes was almost as great as it is among primitive peoples. During that period there was practically

no

science.

The world emerged from
heresy.
truth.

As
It is

that condition through the growth of already remarked, heresy is a step out of error into " until doubt a form of doubt. As Buckle
said,
all

began

progress was impossible." Descartes, with

his credulity,

made

doubt the condition to the discovery of truth. But he excepted from doubt the very thing that he should have doubted most, viz.,
the supernatural.

Science became possible when doubt of the had become somewhat general, sufficiently so to check supernatural the persecuting spirit. It has advanced exactly in proportion to the spread of this class of doubt, which was in turn directly proportional to the spread of faith in natural causes. Both these move-

ments went on

in a

geometrical

ratio.

Science proved

itself

so

CH. VII]

POSSESSION OF

TRUTH

89

man that it was its own vindication. Its superiority made the object of imitation, and the faith in matter and force rapidly spread. It gave rise to industry and the use of mechanical appliuseful to
it

ances.

These obey exact and invariable laws, and familiarity with them accustoms the mind to expect like effects from like 'causes. This has no doubt been a powerful influence in the progress of rationalism, and the fact has been recognized by more than one
writer. 1
It is not, then,

denied that the world has already come a

long way out of the night of error into the light of truth. It rs only claimed that it still has a long journey before it on this same
road.

The

idea of causation which

it is

necessary to entertain in order

to secure progressive action on the part of man is first, that the cause of any phenomenon is a true cause, and second, that it is an

adequate cause.

A

true cause

is

an

efficient cause.

It is

and force must be conceived as impact or as pressure. If tears the branches from trees, unroofs houses, or fills the sails of vessels, it must be realized that air is a material substance that is set in violent motion by meteorological conditions and acts directly
upon other substances producing the observed
effects.
If

a force, the wind

we

can-

not see this so plainly in the forces of heat, light, electricity, and gravitation, our faith in them as true forces must not be diminished
thereby. This does not preclude us from speculating as to the true nature of these subtle agencies, only it must not carry us so far as
to invest

them with supernatural

attributes.

We

may even go

so
it

far as to maintain that matter is spirit, but not in the sense that
is

endowed with intelligence and will. The view that matter and spirit are the same is true monism and I believe it is true science, but it means only that the material world contains all the elements of intelligence and will, and can and does take that form when

organized in the appointed way and to the required degree. But will and intelligence themselves are subject to law and are in fact as rigidly determined as are the winds or the electric currents. 2
1

Adolphe Coste, L'Experience des peuples
;

et

les

previsions qu'elle

autorise,

395 ff. Thorstein Veblen, The Theory of Business Enterprise, New York, 1904, Chap. IX. 2 See the section Psychics in Pure Sociology, Chap. IX, pp. 150-159.
Paris, 1900, pp. 366,

90
With regard

APPLIED SOCIOLOGY

[PART

I

it

to the adequacy of causes, I cannot better illustrate than by a personal experience. When collecting around Fish Lake, Utah, in the Wasatch Range in 1875, a party of Pai-Ute Indians were encamped at the outlet of the lake. The chief was

sick,

and supposing
I

me

to cure him.

to be a "medicine-man," they appealed to promised to send him some medicine, gathered
in a cap

me

some

of the juniper berries

them, put the powder that it would be practically inert and certainly harmless. It was returned from fear that it might be poison. I told the messenger
that
I

abundant there, roasted and pulverized box and sent it to the chief, knowing

camp was

would throw it into the lake. The next morning the Indian in an uproar from fear that I had thrown the medicine
and poisoned
all

into the lake

the water of the lake.

Fortunately

I

had not yet destroyed it, and calmed their fears by letting them see me burn it up in the camp-fire. This little incident showed that those Indians had no conception of the quantitative relations
of cause

and

effect.

A

single

gram

of poison in a

whole lake would
I

have alarmed them as
I

much

as the half-ounce that

had prepared.

have often met people that showed the same inability to see that quantity had any relation to effect in the matter of poisons. This
is very largely true in other matters in undisciplined minds, and a large part of the error and consequent misguided action of mankind is the result of a lack of power to perceive the inadequacy of many

causes to produce the effects ascribed to them. The world must learn not only to distinguish a true from a false cause but also to

judge of the adequacy of a cause to produce an

effect.

RELATION OF KNOWLEDGE TO TRUTH
Both error and truth are in the nature of ideas, i.e., they are condrawn from facts. They are deductions. Error is false
is

clusions

deduction, truth
are in a sense

correct deduction.

Now

in

both cases the facts

therefore constitute knowledge. Phenomena are directly perceived by the senses, and the sensations they produce are at least real. The term "perception" in psychology

known and

should be so restricted that all perceptions would also be real, but the psychologists habitually expand the meaning of that term so as

but industrious and overworked. not confined to primitive man. it from This little is is same supplemented by a mass of error of other forms. and the mountain of error involved in the belief in spiritual beings is not the only error. proper. such as optical illusions. With the same reasoning power the truth or falsity of the conclusions will depend upon the amount of knowledge. as most of them This is do. mostly intellectual. it To realize the social import of this. is only necessary to contrast the members members of society classed as intelligent with that classed as unintelligent or ignorant. and the ignorant mass is made to bear the chief burdens. The others are as a rule well-to-do. and advantageous spontaneous classification of the popu- The control of society intelligent few. In democratic communities where the uninformed have votes deceive them and cause it is found easy to them to vote against their own interests . This is simply bad terminology. considered by many as a natural. False conclusions are always drawn The more complex and obscure knowledge and error has been the sole guide to action. the phenomena. lation. usually constituting at least three fourths or four fifths of the population. Of course these regu- lations are always in the interest of the intelligent class. But. often indigent. that of drawing false conclusions from insufficient is knowledge. and if they work at all. They have ruined the word "perception" and have no term for the simple fact. and also entirely in the hands of the the ignorant mass can only submit to whatever is regulations their superiors choose to impose. the greater the amount of knowledge required for this.. While that form of error still permeates the most advanced societies. VII] RELATION OF KNOWLEDGE TO TRUTH 91 to include considerable true reasoning. In general this condition of the of the called ignorance or lack of intelligence.CH. it is at the lighter kinds of labor. viz. as we have seen. In even the most advanced societies the latter always exceed the former numer- ically. for the simplest phenomena a small amount of knowledge is sufficient to insure correct conclusions and consequent safe actions. They are as a rule very poor. all due to the cause. But mankind has never waited for more knowledge. and then they prove that the faculty of perception is unreliable and leads to a great number of errors.

society possess a certain amount which serves them as It is for all a guide to conduct looking to their personal advantage. the answer is that intelligence shall rule. be specially noted that habitually looked upon as a natural and necessary condition of things. however sympathetic or humanitarian they may be and often are. any of these things. I have never met with but one is who took a different view of the subject. to look after their business interests." The of intelligent classes of modern knowledge of a highly practical character. tools. and susceptibility to decep- individual natures. and expressed his views in a book the publication of which during his lifetime he expressly prohibited. not only regards con- New temporary social inequalities as normal and unavoidable but sees the only possible mitigation of the attendant evils of them in the still more complete submission and resignation of the masses to "ultra-rational sanctions. and servants of the intelligent class. The uninformed class is regarded as an inferior class. who believes that the elite of modern society is intellectually inferior to that of antiquity and scarcely superior to that of the native Maoris of Zealand. Their stupidity. but this is required for the purpose. probably in all cases from persons who had never read the book. Among all the writers on social questions with whom I am acquainted. so that this vaunted right If it does them quite as much harm as good. It is to any one protests against is a law of nature that and this usually closes the all this is argument. and to forecast such future prospects as are needful in determining their action from day to day. the most part superficial knowledge. I have seen a number of attacks upon his doctrines. tion is a natural condition and something that could not be gullibility. Benjamin Kidd. that is They have the tools necessary to keep familiar with current events. They know enough of human nature to see how the uninformed class can be utilized in promoting their .92 and APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART I for the interests of the well-informed. and that writer almost wholly unknown. and who did so simply because this has become somewhat fashionable. It is assumed that their ignorance otherwise. it is true. who has perhaps the clearest insight of any living author into social conditions. and exploitation are supposed to be attributes inherent in their which render them the natural dupes. Mr.

have not been wholly fruitless. is due as much When any one talks with them he finds that their minds are full of false ideas. in some of which the terms in use are different from these. There is too much truth in the dictum that intelligence will rule. The unhappy condition of the lower classes of society to error as to ignorance. For these and other reasons for have never cherished much hope any permanent social reform so long as society consists of the an intelligent or well-informed two classes described in this section class and an ignorant or uninformed class. The lower classes are so unintelligent.. VII] interests. among them who would change it and there are always exceptional these relations and bring about a more equitable state of society. and should have the hearty support of all truly sympathetic persons. If an exploited social there is no way of equalizing intelligence. New York. 1898. and is In fact nearly all the real that has taken place in the considerable. and have no idea how to proceed in the effort to secure what they want. reform in this direction seems out of the question. They have complete control of the machinery of society and easily thrive on the productive labor of the much larger unintelligent classes. maladroit. . They are nearly all and are slaves to a creed and to the priesthood whom superstitious they are supporting out of their hard earnings in the condition of a leisure class. Their recent attempts to organize. Socialism. unorganized. RELATION OF KNOWLEDGE TO TRUTH They care nothing for reform except in their 93 own affairs and are usually quite satisfied with the existing condition of things. but it is painful to see them constantly resorting to violence and injustice. etc.CH. 37. amelioration. they Compare Sombart. condition of the lower classes has been due to this disinterested sympathy on the part of members of the upper classes who have more to lose than to gain by it. and generally inefficient that they cannot formulate a rational demand. Inequality of intelligence necessarily results in the cleavage of society into an exploiting and class. while emphasizing this fact. therefore. spirits But they are not all alike. which alienate thousands who are naturally friendly to I them. This is true for all religious sects. on their part to bring about an amelioration of their condition usually do them more harm than good. 1 From this source 38. 1 All attempts. pp.

But after all possible allowance is made for exceptional cases and enlightened communities. if not an "aristocracy of brains. Their outlook over the world is so narrow that they would not know where to go or what to do.94 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY same fears [PARTI are haunted and oppressed by nearly the and terrors as Indeed. He may be and often is sympathetic." or a future state of endless pain. They must stay where they are and do what they are bidden. because in the benighted state probably of their minds they are really dependent upon individuals of the upper class. but it has been the main dependin keeping the masses under complete spiritual subjection. Among may be specially mentioned undue faith in men. and although they may be in a country which does not allow slavery they are virtually slaves. that the savage. an exaggeration of the average condition of the civilized it most which knows cases of is those in which the line communities. and misery." at least an oligarchy of intelligence.. usually in the men that are chiefly exploiting them. toil. known all as "eternal damnation. are of course the result of the These . and between these and between the upper and lower classes is nearly obliterated there are all gradations. more ingenious priesthoods have invented at least one more terrible punishment than any savage priesthood has ever devised. but probably every one no exaggeration. the exploiter has scarcely any other course before him. On the other hand. the general fact remains that in the world at large a few dominate society and make false it. They could not take care of themselves without the help of a sort of master. for the later. make those below him them up in if as comfortable and rise happy as pos- But he cannot cause them to is because they have nothing to hold This of course lower classes they should be lifted up. viz. This diabolical doctrine has been the cause of more suffering than ence other religious errors combined. and tries to sible. best that this should be so. Great loyalty to some particular man of the upper class is the It is characteristic of nearly all the members of the lower class. in poverty. and narrow ideas which make the mass of mankind dependent upon a few enlightened citizens and keep them in subjection. in some respects by worse ones. false ideas of But the the lower classes are by no means others all religious errors.

but that all knowledge must be separately acquired by every individual. if we include in knowledge a familiarity with the tools of the mind and an acquired ability to utilize the products of human achievement. to the limited amount and emptiness of their minds poor quality of the knowledge they possess. Now.CH. The At Yet least I it will be almost unanimously rejected as altogether false. either false or practically useless as guides to action. it is only what I have called the intelligent class who really possess this heritage. It is true that all the members of society have the use to a certain extent of the products of past achievement. but I have shown in the same work (p. do not hesitate to maintain and defend it as an abstract propo- sition. But of course I lectual equality. that no part of the social germ-plasm passes from one individual to another. It was there shown that each age of the world's history stands on a platform erected by all past ages. These conclusions constitute their stock of ideas and determine their social condition. but in no other sense do those members stand on the elevated platform who do not actually possess the heritage of the past. as I have defined this term in Pure Sociology (Chapter III). They of course possess it possess enough of not possess it. Their conclusions are. most of them them dominion over those who do to give it in varying degrees. It is chiefly due entirely to difference in mental due to difference in knowledge. INTELLECTUAL EGALITARIANISM proposition that the lower classes of society are the intellectual equals of the upper classes will probably shock most minds. as a matter of fact. equipment. The social organization must be such as to infuse it into the members . we must understand what is meant by intelhave taken some pains to show that the difference two is in the intelligence of the classes in is immense. is What I insist upon is that this difference It intelligence not due to any difference in intellect. VII] INTELLECTUAL EGALITARIANISM 95 in a word. They reason as well as they can with the materials they have. as in the case of the savage. 573) that social heredity is not a process of organic transmission.

There must be laborers and unskilled workmen to do the drudgery work of the world. For the intellectual inheritance would bring with it the material inheritance and all the other advantages that are enjoyed rest are all intellectually disinherited. We are must be social classes. Not only are most of them otherwise incapable of solution.96 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PARTI of society as fast as they are capable of receiving it. stubborn error. been large enough to prevent their being lost. Every form of sophistry is employed to uphold this view. versal But here we encounter the great sullen. but this primary problem once solved all others will solve themselves. and unless it is infused it is not sion of transmitted. disinherited always include by the intelligent class. There are parts of the world in which this has virtually happened. The only way in which products of past achievement have been preserved has been through such a degree of social is organization as of the sufficient to infuse them into a certain number This number has always. This infuit is social transmission. Until this problem is is scarcely any use in trying to solve other problems. These constitute the intelligent class. in the historical races. members easy to imagine this great social duty to be neglected and all human achievement lost. something existing in the nature of things. But society has never and nowhere been so organized as to transmit the products of achievement to more than a small fraction of its members. But it is of society. and most or all human achievement has been preserved. There must be menial servants to wait upon us What would society do without the told that there . so uniand ingrained as to constitute a world view. that the differis ence between the upper and lower classes of society due to a difference in their intellectual capacity. The and while the intellectually and are nearly coextensive with the materially disinherited. and this is the way in which races degenerate. Of all that which towers above all others the problems of applied sociology is the problem of the organizasolved there tion of society so that the heritage of the past shall be transmitted to all its members alike. something preordained and inherently inevitable. the former is much the more serious condition. that they are a necessary part of the social order.

us. 1894. His ash-pan is the bulwark of capitalism. 2 Pages 447-448. there is no great truth in any department of science intellectual capacity of all is that did not at first have appearances against it. have learned to suspect everything Let us glance at some of the evidence in favor of the Helvetian doctrine and against the current belief. but our friend the scavenger played a prominent part therein. It is true that this view has appearances against it. reveals a lack of reflec- and an incapacity elsewhere. Rise of the Proletariat. but. culture and the opulence of British society " (Merrie England. and the doctrine upon which the applied sociologist must stand. But I begin to believe that the fear of the scavenger is really the source and fountain head. as I have often shown. that there could be no railroads in that country. for " " where are the hills to put the tunnels through ? As just remarked. His position was stated and briefly discussed in Pure Sociology. the life and blood and breath of all conservatism. we ought by this time to it that seems on the face of to be true. while clearly showing that the persons scavenger? who thus argue not only fear but believe that the lower classes are capable of being raised to their tion own level. Yet one would not suppose that the whole cosmic scheme revolved on him as on an at least axis one would not imagine him to be the keystone of European society his appearance and his wages would not justify such an assumption.Ca. Truly this scavenger is a most important person. 187-188). to which I would still but with these qualifications the doctrine of the equal men is a perfectly sound doctrine. only one man among all the thinkers of the world has ever thought or dared to combat this universal error. qualifications of it were made. for logical reasoning scarcely to be met with It recalls the remark of the Scotch engineer whom some fortune transported to the plains of Kansas before the days of Pacific railroads. 2 and certain adhere . and his besom the standard around which rally the pride and the 1 I harm no one : . . People's edition. by Robert Blatchford (Nunquam). pp. The history of social classes furnishes to the philosophical student of society the most convincing proof that the lower grades of mankind have never occupied those positions can scarcely refrain from quoting the following from a little book that it would to read " I have seldom heard an argument or read an adverse letter or speech against the claims of justice in social matters. London. The whole march of truth has consisted in substituting the hidden and obscure reality With this uniform trend of history before for the falsely apparent. VII] RISE OF THE PROLETARIAT 97 1 All of which. Good old scavenger.

A little later they were serfs bound to the soil. with these new battle-cries ringing in his ears. The movement that is now agitating society is different from any of the previous movements. bourgeoisie. When a new truth begins to dawn and replace an old error it is now always found that the weightiest facts in support of the truth have been furnished by the defenders of the error. Even at the close of the eighby teenth century. or serfs are The who for ages were slaves voters in enlightened states. but with the slow and . this great mass took the form of a proletariat. Benjamin Kidd : One of the most striking and significant signs of the times is the spectacle of Demos. Says Mr. the fall of the feudal system. but it differs from them only as they differed from one another. little consequence that they are seldom mentioned the great historians of Europe. and they are rising still higher. and the establishment of the industrial system. when the greatest of all political revolutions occurred.98 on account of APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART I any inherent incapacity to occupy higher ones. considered of so was only the third estate that was at all in evidence the business class. of the strongest believers in the essential distinction between social classes unconsciously arguing for intellectual egalitarianism. It is nothing less than the coming to class consciousness of the proletariat. gradually emerging from the long silence of social and political serfdom. Nearly all the facts needed to establish the gynaecocentric theory were drawn from writings specially And now we find one designed to support the androcentric theory. or social mesoderm. with the abolition of slavery. the fourth estate. Agassiz. Not now does he come with the violence of revolution foredoomed to failure. Finally. The best arguments for organic evolution were supplied by such anti-evolutionists as Baer. This class had been looked down upon and considered inferior. and Virchow. It has furnished the world's brains for two centuries. They have risen to where they can begin to see out. and only the lords spiritual and temporal were regarded as capable of controlling social it and national the top. is This class now at inferiority it is to be found in the poor remnant that still calls itself the nobility in some countries. Throughout antiquity and well down through the Middle Ages the great mass of mankind were slaves. and if there is any intellectual affairs.

and working classes are losing much of their old meaning. which by an obvious bid for the applause of the religious world he falsely calls religion. is that the result is caused by the growing strength and intelligence of the people's party which render the attack irresistible. 1 . and illiterate.e. currently offered. But we may readily perceive that the increasing strength and intelligence of the lower classes of the community is the result of the change which is in progress. and privilege are everywhere being broken through. retreat before the incoming people. 3 Social Evolution. though somewhat overdrawn. 1884.. but Kidd is it it so to to blinded by the current world view that he will not attribute the slowly growing intelligence of the masses. saying : Another explanation. 90. majestic progress which marks a natural evolution. But he attributes it all to such agencies and strangely confounds the ethical with the religious and superwill rise. be by itself the cause. . . He attributes the rise and spread of humanitarianism. . He flatly denies that intelligence has anything to do with the matter." to superstition. natural. therefore. common people. that amongst the more progressive nations such terms as lower orders. The power-holding classes are in quicker than ever before. and that it cannot. for we have universal suffrage. and the pace . and the barriers of birth. He . and repeats Comte's saying that 2 man is becoming more and more religious. full conscious All this is true. the stress severer. 300. p. 2 Testament d'Auguste Comte. by trimming his sails to catch every 1 Social Evolution. and properly enough emphasizes the truth that this growth of sympathy on the tional part of the upper classes has greatly accelerated the rise of the lower classes. VII] RISE OF THE PROLETARIAT He is 99 is no longer unwashed no longer muzzled and without political power. virtually arguing that the less rational the people are the faster they and ascribing all human i.CH. still. the masses of the people are being slowly raised. 8 ought perhaps to apologize for giving so prominent a place to a book which is so obviously written for applause. progress to the influence of "ultra-rational sanctions. 10. But. Kidd I has a really keen insight into social questions and has contributed much to their elucidation. p. class. . pp. 55. . The advance towards more equal conditions of life has been so great. on the other hand. but Mr. the pulses of life have not slackened amongst us the rivalry is keener. Paris. for we have universal education. He dimly perceives the fact that there has been emo- development as well as brain development. 176.

What of has actually taken place in the history of the world has slaves to that of been a gradual upward movement of the mass from the condition mere more or less skilled laborers with some general ideas about the land they live in and the world at large. than there has been between the other classes in the past. have been steps in a process of development. The essential fact. It has had a wide influence for both good and evil. however. enlightened countries only a completely "subBut there nevertheless exists in fact only a -com- This does not It only insists that intellectual inequality is common to all classes. and in at least one passage he practically admits their substantial equality with the upper classes in this respect : It is not yet clearly perceived by the people that there is not any more natural and lasting distinction between the educated and the uneducated classes of which we hear so much nowadays. and is as great among the members of the completely emerged tenth as it is between that class and the completely submerged tenth. pp. But he has not himself been able to shut his eyes entirely to the native capacity of the lower classes for education. They are all equally capable of it. privileged classes and common people. of the lowest stratum of society had been surrounded from their birth by exactly the same conditions by which the intelligent 1 dom Social Evolution. to state it more clearly. 234-235. Or. until from a state in which at least nine tenths were submerged there is now in pletely merged tenth. Citizen and slave.100 breeze." emerged tenth. . at all imply that all men are equal intellectually. and it is doing much to prop up and perpetuate the error we are here combating and to postpone the acceptance of the truth that is destined ultimately to replace it. is that there is no valid reason why not only the other partially emerged eight tenths but the completely submerged tenth should not all completely emerge. feudal lord and serf. they would have inevitably found themselves in that stratum and if an equal number taken at ran. he has APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART I made his book a tissue of inconsistencies. patrician and plebeian. leisured classes and working 1 masses. if the same individuals who constitute the intelligent class at any time or place had been surrounded from their birth by exactly the same conditions that have surrounded the lowest stratum of society.

Comte said At any given point in this slow. which is almost the same as the contrast between truth and error. In other words. sometimes clearly. depend entirely on environing conditions. LXI. Differences in native capacity exist and are as great as they have ever been pictured. cient to exclude any person from the highest social class. This brings us to the most important of Capacity for TrutJi.CH. 1869. and are in no sense due to differences in native capacity. few of at least own 1 peculiar method. . but they exist in all classes alike. all of which proves that it does not require any great or towering native abilities to enable an individual to maintain his place in the vanguard of society. but is readily adjusted to the feeblest shoulders and easily borne by all. The truth is no harder to carry than was the error in many ways it is the lighter load. 264. the 1 Novum Organum. p. Aph. the fact that the difference in the native capacity of individuals is never suffi-'. This has been perceived. dimly for the most part. does not remand him to a lower social class. The minimum for this. not be out of place. class distinctions in society are wholly artificial. Part II. but only to the class of dependents or wards of society. Bacon saw A it. because it shows that the social heritage is no such burden as to require an Atlas to holdit up. all the considerations involved in this problem.. natural abilities above the stage of pathological imbecility suffice Herein lies the hope of the world. and this. Vol. Speaking of positive ideas as con: trasted with theological and metaphysical ideas. Nothing short of congenital mental imbecility. spontaneous preparation. or idiocy can take an individual out of the social class to which his conditions of existence have assigned him. if a happy external circumstance succeeds in introducing positive conceptions before their time. it replaces. they would have constituted the intelligent class instead of the particular individuals who happen actually to constitute it. feeble-mindedness. I. It consists simply in the possession of the truth that has been brought into the world through the prolonged labors of thousands of zealous investigators. Works. as we all know. but never in such a broad and vital connection as to indicate that its utterers at all these adumbrations for his may grasped its momentous import. and which when possessed necessarily drives out the error which . viz. VII] class CAPACITY FOR TRUTH in fact IOI have been surrounded.

etc. I. Intellectual. 1867. 8 It is clear that. 62-63. one place exclaimed: "I am amazed at the limited conception which many educational reformers have formed to themselves of a human being's power of acquisition.. 6 Inaugural Address delivered to the University of St. 4 Education.. p. 7 The Monist.. once acquired. and which. which were only understood at first by men capable and proved by methods which are no longer above an ordinary intelligence. pp. Ibid.102 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PARTI eager haste with which they are everywhere welcomed sufficiently shows that the primitive attachment of our intelligence to theological and metaphysical explanations was due solely to the evident impossibility of any better nourishment. 1866. Andrews. 6 Philosophic positive. New York. p. 183. 153." 5 John Stuart Mill in Almost always this power of acquisition is confounded with the power which it required to discover the truth to be acquired. 1867. 7 Philosophic positive. p." 4 which is only a modification of Rousseau's education of nature. it discover. The same observation of profound meditation. 8 Tableau. as though the one bore any fixed relation to the other. 8 ! How much more true is this in our day The absurd idea of Herbert Spencer that education should " be a repetition of civilization in little. Moral. seems extremely easy to reach under We are astounded often to note the right sort of circumstances. p. Vol. February by John Stuart Mill. as daily experience both individual changed the inherent character of our true cerebral and collective shows. 1 Condorcet remarks that " the truths whose discovery has cost the greatest effort. are soon after developed may b*e applied to all the sciences. Rector of the University. p. Vol. 175. Vol. 13. VI. London. 2 1 i. p. . 173. and Physical. he knows how to handle the calculus with a facility then unknown. was combated by Comte in the following terms : although it is infinitely easier and shorter to learn than to would certainly be impossible to attain the end proposed if we were to require each individual mind to pass successively through the same stages that the collective genius of the human race has been obliged to follow. On this point Professor Ernst Mach says: that it required the combined labors of many eminent thinkers for a full century to reach a truth which it takes us only a few hours to master. VI. and had not at all appetites." 2 And even at the end of the eighteenth century he could say: To-day a young man on leaving our schools knows more about mathematics than Newton had learned by his profound studies or discovered by his genius. 629.

but fine-spun theory. and among a good deal of what I cannot but think mischievous nonsense about the One peculiar powers required by scientific investigators. is The information possessed by a country boy. hair-splitting metaphysical disquisition. . that any man possessed of average ability and somewhat more than average 1 perseverance. 2 Vol. that can concern the sociologist. 2 1 Popular Science Monthly. XVI. one would suppose that the faculty of adding anything whatever to natural knowl- edge was one possessed by extremely few persons. Ibid. It is largely "abstract reasoning. if he will. 300." by which is meant reasoning without anything to reason about. is capable. p. by which the mind is violently exercised over problems without objective content. Any truth that so subtle or involved that it cannot be grasped not only by the is This average mind but by minds of the minimum power. 612-613.CH. Helvetius maintained that all truth is within the reach of all men. sarily be material or concrete) is furnished to the mind it is not only readily perceived but easily reasoned about by all sane minds. provided their interest and attention can be concentrated upon it. He says: it hears a good deal talked nowadays of scientific research.. X. Most of this so-called knowledge so difficult to acquire is not in fact knowledge This is all or truth at all. VII] CAPACITY FOR TRUTH 103 But Professor Martin was of the opinion that even original research and discovery in science do not require talents above the average. on the contrary. And such knowledge and truth are always useful. The study of " is much more difficult than the study the so-called " humanities and yet the latter is much the more important. I believe. This is and ought to be difficult. is likely to be of little practical value as a guide to conduct and an aid to success in life. To listen to many. Capacity often falsely judged by testing the mind with classical and grammatical subtleties. because But as soon as a real something (it need not necesit is useless. Professor Joseph Leidy once said: of nature. Vol. gained by intelligent observa- is viewed by the so-called educated community as insignificant in comparison with that of the college boy who can relate stories from classical history of persons who never existed and tion of the birds or plants of his neighborhood. and mere mental gymnastic. is certainly true for all practical truth. of doing good original scientific work. pp. events that never occurred.

London. Allen rightly personal experience in the so Mr. about what has no concrete reasoning Most of Mr. : Mr. Galton's illustrations are drawn from this " writer of Galton's school. principal of the high school.e. I had "had no practical of teaching" geometry.C. in a department. engaged MR. . as Mr. of Professor Lester F. 309-310. with the request that he inform me whether Washington. was true of the pupils of this city. pp. what can that education will do with the less developed intellects of the ignorant Though. in much J. and to deter them from trying to do anything. Ward. but the first. Sir : Dear I 1 Mind. Wilson turned it over to Paul. it may be safely asserted that only three on an average can ever be taught really to understand. then superintendent of the public schools D. Superintendent of Public Schools. review of Dynamic Sociology. we do not say the fifth. April. still I was surprised at this statement that I copied it and sent it to work Mr. i. IX. Grant Allen. Yet few senior wranglers have ever attained to eminence. E. Paul's reply was as follows J. Ormond inferred. some might be taught is we expect masses ? 1 the case even in congenitally intelligent classes (relatively speaking). who had been actively teaching geometry for several years. in that of " abstract existence. A made this remark : intelligent In a class of fifteen boys of fifteen years old. 1884. and it certainly tends powerfully to discourage not only the unsuccessful competitors but all the noncompetitors. of it Wilson.. Of the remaining twelve. taken from the exceptionally English upper and middle classes. but without being able to repeat it with variations in the letters and three more would be incapable of repeating it at all in any way. does far more harm than good. A. in which this subject was discussed. have carefully read the letter ydu have referred to me. while many who were rated quite low have so attained. The chief laurels that have been won by wranglers have been in the field of mathematics. Vol. . not to speak of those who never had an opportunity to wrangle. in which he quotes the opinion of Professor Grant Allen relative to the ability of a number of boys of a given age. Mr. Mr. proposition of the it first book of Euclid. in a ORMOND WILSON.104 It is APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART I probable that all the university wrangling. When this six . which is supposed to test the relative abilities of students. so far by rote that they could repeat it three could probably correctly even if the letters in the figure were transposed learn it by heart.. even to the successful.

C. with which my own experience Dear Sir: Your favor of the I2th to advisable to refer and observation lead me fully to coincide. June It is 23. J- WASHINGTON." and that there would be none in the class " incapable of it at all in any way.CH. have been obtained by all of the class. thought Mr. and as a teacher for a period of seven years of both geometry and trigonometry. 1884. Only the brighter pupils. the principal of our high school. have pursued the study to the end. The pupils under my instruction in these branches answer the description of those in the class cited by Professor Allen. June E A PAUL - > Principal. and that the remaining three could all be taught " it so far as to be able to repeat it correctly even if the letters in the figure were transposed. to CAPACITY FOR TRUTH . though requests to drop certain other studies have been made freThis fact would seem to show that pupils have met with no special quently. Very 23. 105 understand the demonstrations of geometry and as you request my views on the subject. LESTER it me the above letter with the following note : F. Grant Allen was wholly mistaken with regard to the former. I should say that twelve could be taught really to understand any ordinary proposition of Euclid. I vividly recall that when myself a pupil in the . Paul. in our classes in geometry. WASHINGTON. D. repeating discouragements in the pursuit of the study. eighty-five girls All of those who have continued in school sixteen. Another evidence of the ability of our pupils to understand the truths of geometry and to follow the reasoning of a proposition is the uniformity with which they have worked out original demonstrations of theorems entirely new to them. I beg leave to say that my own experience as a student. does not enable me to concur in the opinion of Professor Allen. truly yours. Wilson sent MR. not probable that there is any such difference as this would between English and American pupils. 1884. B. not one even making request to give the study up. inclose herewith a statement of his views. to be sure. and that the truths of geometry are within the easy grasp of all normally developed minds irrespective of social station. but there have been numerous instances where demonstrations. and the only concluimply sion possible seems to be that Mr. ORMOND WILSON. WARD. have succeeded with the more difficult theorems. it is I I instant was duly received.C. some of course more satisfactory than others. Very truly yours. and were I to divide up a class of fifteen as he " " does. who and has been actively engaged in teaching geometry for several years past. VII] class." During the school year just closed there have been one hundred and fortyof an average age somewhat under five pupils sixty boys. Mr.

But the abstract sciences are not the proper test. All in motion or The knowledge of the environment." And I began to see. This comes from the observation of concrete is Everybody can see an object when can observe phenomena. there Still easier is it would be no difficulty in explaining the facts. chiefly of familiar things.. has taken the form of a belief in his mind. Civilization has and human achievement This knowledge is been brought about through human achievement. i. were day laborers living in remote.easy acquisition. it knowledge. consists almost entirely in knowledge. unaided . know of and out which he elaborates are precisely the things that the primitive man all the error of the world. If any one says that the savage cannot be made to accept the true mean- ing of facts.e. abundantly ample to understand the true meaning of facts when it is properly presented to him. at least of things that are within the range of the faculAll the important part of it is of. and the difficulty is not to explain the fact but to dislodge the belief. They were poorly clad and their parents quarters of the town. little frequented There were also in attendance some of the sons of the wealthy men of the place. If he could be taken before the formation of the belief. And I remember the genuine satisfaction " the rich that it afforded me frequently to see the poor boys "beat ones and "go to the head. that of the surrounding world. in relation. All were placed on a common level in the school. however. and the only test of merit was ability to recite the lessons given out. require a higher mental power. even at that of course tender age. objects knowledge of most worth this is is placed before him. child in an advanced and phenomena of nature to the There is nothing in any of them that transcends the powers of a child to grasp. The reasoning powers of the savage are much too keen for his good. but very little of it is such that it can be acquired by simple. and also the knowledge most easily acquired. talent for abstract thinking. this is because the false meaning. They are. ties of all men. but They Many minds possess very little all minds are capable of acquiring facts. The things most essential to sees.106 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART I public schools of my own village there were some boys in attendance who belonged to the lowest classes. to explain the facts social state. that all was not gold that glittered.

same sense as it is exists in the white race. black. but there seem to be great differences among these races themwhite race. i. and thence in comparatively recent times to America and Australasia. The difference between social classes is a difference only in the extent to which the social heritage has been transmitted. It not only appears to be false for any of them. and chiefly the so-called historical races. red. in the Doubtless within each such race. of the meaning of the phrase. and has had to be learned by systematic research in the face of false appearances. can be safely affirmed. not at all in the capacity to inherit. . receive the legacy .. chiefly of a different color from the other. yellow. of course. marked degree received the for there are social and who have not to any heritage of achievement which constitutes western civilization many. and chiefly with a white skin. or rather explanations. but the question whether it can also be posited as between the colored races and the Most persons will. from this point of view. has held closely enough together for all to profit by the achievement of any. intellectual equality. unhesitatingly reject such a proposition. can be said. or some shade between ? these. VII] CAPACITY FOR TRUTH Most of it is 107 observation. contrary to appearances. then. Hence it must be acquired by each separate individual. or that great stream of mankind that has swept from southern and western Asia and northern Africa across the whole breadth of Europe. What. Only occasionally has any one ventured to express a different view. whether Aryan or Semitic. although they may embrace the flower of the family. Society at present is organized under a sort of law of primogeniture. the rest are disinherited. Of this entire race at least it has been shown that intellectual equality in the sense explained can with safety be predicated. This great swarm of men. the specially favored. In defending the average intellectual equality of all men with the necessary qualifications. of the other races of men lying outside of this great current of culture. Social heredity differs from organic heredity chiefly in this fact. Only the first-born. only the civilized peoples of the world have been contemplated.e. so that it forms a continuous and unbroken line of social heredity and has maintained the continuity of the social germ-plasm. selves.CH.

IOS APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART I Except from the purely oligocentric standpoint. 8 2 . Daniel Folkmar. Paris. he said that the blacks are as much superior to the whites in feeling (sentiment} as they are below them in intelligence. this question is not the same as that of the relative worth of different races. May. have seriously proposed the mixture of races as a means of utilizing the intellectual gifts of a superior race in countries and in employments better suited to inferior races. Vol. 461. or for acquiring proficiency and distinction in any branch of European learning. ing view as to their great intellectual inferiority. black. American Journal of Sociology. p. p. Annales de 1'Institut international de sociologie. or noolatry. 733. 1903. namely that of intellect-worship. do not appear to show any intellectual incapacity for assimilating European ideas. p. Tome IX. 1 The whole question (Chapter IX) is by far the question is worthy of thorough scientific Politique positive. He says : Even those races which are melting away at the mere contact of European civilisation supply evidence which appears quite irreconcilable with the prevailZealand. pp. II. Paris. Le9ons d'Anthropologie philosophique. 273. Vol. 1900. as." 2 I have maintained that in the great final blending of all races into one " the less forceful elements will enter into it as modifiers. The great united world-race will be comparable to a composite photograph in which certain strong faces dominate the group. 67. but in which may also be detected the softening influence of faces final characterized by those refining moral qualities which reflect the soul rather than the intellect. They represent qualities that in moderate proportions will improve and enrich the whole." 3 But Mr. and yellow. p. equivalency of races from this point of Comte maintained the view. Classifying them " roughly into white. 152." x " Some anthropologists. VIII." and that "the yellow race seems as superior to the two others in activity as these are in intelligence and feeling. He argues with equipment. The Maoris in New though they are slowly disappearing before the race of higher social efficiency with which they have come into contact. 1903. 462. Kidd has called in question even the intellectual superi- much force that the great difference in the intellectual capacity of civilized and savapparent age races can mostly be explained as a simple difference in mental ority of the white race. * Social Evolution. for example. 4 His discussion of this ablest part of his book. Quatrefages.

much more and cannot be accomplished no matter Indeed. H. during which all primitive influences and tendencies how favorable the conditions may are definitively eliminated. tend really to strengthen the intellect. of course. broad ground. results would. p. and while there is no doubt that capacity. can be expected fully to prepare such a race for a comparison of its intellectual capacities with those of one now doubts that the Japanese at least are West. . really neglected. still this is such a small factor compared to the increased social efficiency may is almost be neglected. nothing short of the practical absorption of a race into another during a long series of generations. VII] CAPACITY FOR TRUTH 109 treatment based chiefly on the practical experience of educationalists who have devoted their lives to the education of the lower races. But the question is a complex one. Giddings. 328. than the European races.CH. 1 repeated social assimilations. be found to vary greatly with and different teachers would have contrary opinions The general investigator must therefore take very Not only must he generalize all the facts. And gained thereby. as shown by the which is a fair sample of the current reasoning It is on this question: to assert that the sometimes said that we ought not lower races have not the capacity for social evolution. New York. No intellectually equal to the peoples of the tion they introduced in the seventh century of our era. therefore. 2 1 2 Pages 212-215. abilities. Principles of Sociology. It is clearly here a simple question of equipment and not of mental What other races would be capable of. The different races. They are superior to the Chinese now only in the sense that having adopted western methods they have acquired greater social efficiency. be. warranted in saying that they have not the same inherent we do not know what they could They have been in existence. But the Japanese used to consider themselves inferior to the Chinese. The assimilation of an alien civilization involves in a single generation. if they were to introduce western civilization. all points. as explained in Pure Sociology. however. that it yet this prime factor is the one that following. whose civilizacivilized races. cannot be told until after trial. and have accomplished immeasurably less. F. 1896. much longer We are. because do if they had opportunity. but he must go farther and recognize that mere school study cannot cover on many points.

the greater part of both the error and its resultant institutions can that degree of liberation be attained which shall render possible the mobilization of society. chapters now completed aim at scarcely more than an enumeration of the principal conditions to social motion. cannot also be predicated of all races taken together. and it is still more clear that there is no race and no class of human beings who are incapable of assimilating the social achievement of mankind and of profitably employing the social heritage. which can be safely predicated of all classes in the white race. In The seven the present state of the world the wheels of human progress are in a large measure clogged by the various impediments and obstruc- These consist mainly in error in one or other of its many forms and in those repressive social structures which are its natural product. or in the black race. or social movement. each taken by itself.HO It is APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PARTI not therefore proved that intellectual equality. . Only through the removal of tions that have been described. in the yellow race.

ulli multumque nee nato post mille sascula adpraecludetur occasio aliquid adhuc jiciendi. SENECA. restat operis.PART II ACHIEVEMENT Multum adhuc restabit . .

.

are of such a character that they never enter the minds of "3 . There is a school of who maintain that such is the case. did ne'er unroll Chill .. it must be admitted that mediocrity is the normal condition. The question therefore is whether society has ever had maximum working efficiency. Rich with the spoils of time. view without ever suspecting that there can Appearances all favor it and it scarcely needs to be this Most of the paradoxes of nature. Or waked to ecstasy the living lyre. and working efficiency comparatively rare. froze the genial current of the soul. and if so. Some Cromwell. While applied sociology has to do with improvement rather than achievement. Some heart once pregnant with celestial fire Hands that the rod of empire might have sway'd. and especially through the multiplication of those who take part in the work of achievement. that with dauntless The little tyrant of his fields withstood. i. Some village Hampden. to what extent. still it is evident that improvement must largely come through a great extension of achievement. GRAY. defended. Penury repress'd And their noble rage. the truths of science. It is therefore of the utmost importance to inquire whether this is possible. and the mass of philosophers or has now its mankind entertain be any other. guiltless of his country's breast blood. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. But Knowledge to their eyes her ample page. Along with the intellectual equality recognized and demonstrated in the last chapter must go the frank acknowledgment of the great individual inequality existing in the mental attributes and capacities of the mem- bers of every class and group.CHAPTER Perhaps VIII POTENTIAL ACHIEVEMENT in this neglected spot is laid .e. Indeed.

This problem will form the subject of the next chapter. plex qualities. to have accomplished under different conditions and also with regard what other men would have accomplished under similar condi- tions. no corresponding opportunity. inquiring minds. if there be such. potential achievement implies potential ability on the part of individuals. But both character and conditions are so complex that Conditions that would effectually debar certain characters from achievement would be safe conclusions are very difficult to draw. so that what would be opportunity to one would not be opportunity to another. imitate and carry on the lost in the great potential geniuses. surmounted by other types. the spirit of scientific inquiry. but for many of the moral qualities exceptional opportunities may often be substituted. and a classieasily fication either of types of character or of conditions is next to impossible. and the investigation takes the form of an inquiry into the conditions under which As achievement is men work.114 the average APPLIED SOCIOLOGY man or of [PART II mankind in general. are all highly comThey all involve something more than the simple capacity for a given work. clear conceptions of the end and purpose. which there the work of individuals. perseverance.. requires penetration. ability. and are only suspected by exceptional. intellectual Genius. ingenious. application. to look behind ability for and below is and discover latent energies. and emancipation from the current conventional beliefs on the subject. and from the conditions under which they have worked draw inferences with regard both to what they would hopeless to search for them. efficiency. . It requires no great ingenuity to descant upon feats of genius and the achievements of those who have had both ability and opportunity.e. for such are the only ones who have achieved or who by any possibility can all this achieve. talent. resolution. For the intellectual capacity there is absolutely no substitute. prolonged attention. are wholly mass of mediocre people who merely static operations of society. ability in society The existence of latent belongs to this class. will. since he must restrict the inquiry to those who great have actually achieved. But i. As the unknown. Moral qualities must be present. it would be The investigator is therefore at a disadvantage.

It is only apparently true. for the very reason that he gives. proved his thesis. challenge the truth It is the current of it.. But genius is Ability is difference between genius and ability is the unknown quantity that we are seeking. Genius is the sum of intellect and fore is character. congenital.. hereditary. That of Galton is that genius is hereditary. and he did not need to defend regard this as at all essential to the other." as defined in Johnson's . viz. and thereto the use of genius in this broad sense. and I it so strenuously. viz. a work- ing hypothesis. but really false. which ability does not. 1892. to guide him in his labors. genius is much the better word.. Intelligence is intel- intellect plus character. almost a world view. can be the so designated. that the actual genius is the only genius. is qualified for Dictionary. lect plus something more than knowledge. while a large part of ability is acquired and not transmissible. now exists quite a literature of the i. London. Prefatory Chapter. as in doing so he 1 is practically arguing without p. Hereditary Genius.. ix. Notwithstanding the difficulty of the subject and the consequent defects in the evidence.CH. popular belief. i. Genius is intelligence.e.e. in the sense of " mental power I or faculties some disposition of nature by which any one peculiar employment.. In all considerations of human efficiency it has always been so intelligence plus character. he has. not agreeing with Galton that there is anything to be gained by substi1 tuting "ability" for it merely because some captious critic objects Indeed. The weak point not in this main issue. VIII] POTENTIAL GENIUS POTENTIAL GENIUS H5 " use the word " genius in the same sense in which Galton used it in his work. Of course each investigator has had a theory. Intellect has been called the coefficient of intelligence. as I believe. that it excludes the effects of education. . while ability implies in addition knowledge and experience. but in another collateral sufficiently in his argument if it is thesis. which he seems to think essentially bound up with I do not first. viz. The first thing to be determined is this inherent substratum that the search for it has enlisted a considerable number obvious that the of able investigators. until there subject. Hereditary Genius.

genius or no. We or timbre that those powers may possess. and simple as the sole and all-sufficient factor in We waive the whole question of transmissibility. has had a salutary effect.Il6 an opponent. an environment favorable to the exerin powers and adapted any given case to the particu- Nature. being simply the creations of this one in other words. capacity plus moral character (the term "moral" not being taken in the sense of goodness. This conclusion has been reached by directing the attention to another factor than simple heredity. opposed. all scientific truths in their infancy. are first. will consider first the claims that have been made for heredity pure achievement. . but have in fact disproved it. the truth of the existence of potential genius. and have as are led to the discovery of another recondite scientific truth. [PART II has stimulated others who would have it thought of questioning however. But unless the conditions for trial are present there of it is trial. " does not concern us here. and use the word " heredity rather for the purpose of emphasizing the idea that those qualities because it only are implied that have been implanted in the agent before his birth and belong to his naticre. It APPLIED SOCIOLOGY His defense of it. shade. Such investigations have not sustained it. little . we know can be no is trial. that cise of native lar quality. viz. It has been shown that about genius that fame." over against which he has happily set the word "nurture. is. Now he and those of his school maintain that this factor of heredity.. i. genius itself. to that of the environment. because all other factors or influences are merely apparent. and has led a few to investigate it by his own statistical methods. achievement. then. and that the apparent opportunities are only the necessary consequences of .. but of those elements of efficiency that were enumerated on page 1 14). is the only one that need be considered." as designating all other influences. Thus Gallon says : . or nature. otherwise probably never to think deeply about it.e. to the appearances. This is the sense in which Gallon uses the word " nature. opportunity. genius. achievereally very furnish no adequate index to it and that the only true test ment. and intellectual no means The two factors whether there be second. that genius creates its opportunities. success. and without trial under favorable conditions there of determining in no basis for judging.

for Of course example. All the appearances are in favor of it. but never mark when they are simply "hits. condition of things that is described in the story told of Diogenes the We Cynic by Diogenes Laertius. It would be impossible to prove that such was the case. It would be useless. is As in the faith in the precisely the same as that involved " Men mark when Bacon said. English Men of Science. 1874. etc." as Galton calls them. as a proof of the power of the " Where are the portraits of those who perished gods.. vi. VIII] NATURE 1 1 7 I believe. and power of working. the fact could are confronted by the same not be established in a single case. 1892. much more so in America than in England. 34. and shall do my best to show. it would be easy to fill pages with expressions of this general theory by hundreds of writers. a very fair proportion of those who survived and retained their health up to fifty years of age would. notably Scaliger. because it is. There cannot in the nature of things be an example on the other side. and everybody knows that such cases are common. . in spite of their vows. to assert that any particular person who never did attain to eminence possessed all the " pre-efficients. that if the "eminent" men of any period had been changelings when babies. p. they hit. Lord Eldon. going so miss. and virtually denies all influence whatever to the latter. 2 for doing so. and in fact always has been. and the only examples possible to collect are those that support it." And the fallacy involved in this faith in heredity gods. cannot comprehend how such a man should be repressed. London." " Men of mark " far as to say in 1 one of his articles devoted to the subject of twins p. who had risen from humble antecedents to considerable fame. Lord Tenterden. that when shown in a temple the votive tablets suspended by such as had escaped the peril of shipwreck because they had made their vows. Preface. he inquired. And no matter how many such there may be. eagerness to work. the general mental attitude on the subject." Galton lays great stress on the superiority of nature over nurture. notwithstand1 ing their altered circumstances. Lord Hardwicke. : 2 Hereditary Genius. On If the next page he says : a man is I gifted with vast intellectual ability.CH. have equally risen to eminence. London. He instances a considerable number of men.

Vol. no one seriously attainable without special natural be the other elements of success. grandsons. and then an indefinite line of persons maintaining this maximum and never falling below it. sons. fathers. Galton uses the statistical method.U8 " APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II that all this evidence leaves on the mind is one whether nurture can do anything at all. The tains some such whatever idea. aunts." then quite unnecessary that it be accompanied by any great stress that he lays on the judges of special England. so far as is therefore the :question at all. the Adamses. From the standpoint of heredity of course But is it altogether satisfactory? The this is the proper method. accompanied by some account in each case of their antecedents and successors in lineal relationship. XCII (N. maintains that true eminence gifts. daughters. This is not But. born for the most part to their profession and requiring only mediocre talents in its practice. That would be an entirely different world from what we have or tains. 1875. Vol. but all they can do is to hold such places. It certainly is true that cir- cumstances of birth do often enough put such men into high places. central figure must always naturally be the particular eminent man selected for the illustration. But in the great majority of cases the eminent man stands wholly alone.. neither his parents nor his children is 1 Frazer's Magazine. If this is " emisocial position and nence. XII). and is a point on which all are agreed. Most high places require no genius to fill them. seems to show that he enteris it powers. sisters. grandmothers. etc. there nence until the the Jussieus. The only serious question is whether there are not many possessing such natural gifts who are not eminent. as he mainwould always be an ascending series increasing in emimaximum was reached. may I am aware. but it then either declines slowly or cut off abruptly. He gives long lists of eminent men in various fields of achievement. pp. In a few cases the Herschels. granddaughters. from the one his tables represent. grandfathers. November. . the maximum is maintained during two or three generations. S. uncles. brothers. mothers. and sometimes cousins. 575-576. If genius were hereditary." 1 He seems of some wonder to have much of the time an imaginary opponent in his mind who maintains that under favorable conditions men who possess no The impression genius at all may rise to eminence.

too subtle for our clumsy methods. In his Hereditary Genius and English Men of Science Galton says very little about atavism. is Gallon Men of harmony. although he was one of the earliest writers to call special attention to it. working to prevent one-sidedness be little doubt. The most important of these omitted factors is that of the crossing of stirps. and the alleged proofs from them are often tion of that of worse than no proof at adequate is all. In a paper presented by him on June 13." he laid special stress on what he called the latent elements in heredity. The children of an eminent man are only half his. or at least a class. . This is the tendency of the if oligocentric world view. " On Blood " " Relationship. there can and Galton's devices could be applied there would be danger of producing a race. entitled Theory of Heredity. but prepared to express themselves in more or less remote descendants." "A 1 Cf. Pure Sociology. to the Royal Society of London. In of Science (pp. but it shows that some imporproves tant factors have been neglected in Galton's scheme. 1 It is much safer " " or "eugenics to trust these forces than any art of " stirpiculture that man is as yet able to apply. the chances are enormously against her being a genius too. Genius is not the only useful gift.CH. Their use simply pedantic. Half of every one of them belongs to his wife. pp. But there is a law of nature that partners choose their oppo- wife A his English not ignorant of this law. 1872. which bearing seem to show "that the love of contrast does not prevail over that sites. in all organic beings.VIII] NATURE 119 attaining to any eminence at all." The results are not striking and the induction is too narrow to be at all conclusive." The qualities considered are physical with the excep- "temperament. in cases where they are inThat there are forces of nature. 398. which happily cannot realize itself. And who is his ? person from an entirely different stock. but he questions it. Wells. 397. based on less than a hundred cases. In another paper. Statistics are akin to mathematics. 27-33) he gives some statistics on this point. all head and no body. such as that described by Mr. and argued from the facts of reversion and atavism that the greater part of the parental elements are latent in the germ. I do not think this wholly disthe transmissibility of talents. As geniuses are rare at best.

" and thus he anticipated by some eight years the principal theories of Weismann. and the theory advanced may be designated in general terms ovum The paper is as the doctrine of natural selection or survival of the fittest among the organic units constituting the stirp. which Weismann had overlooked. atavism. p. those that were not congenital in the ancestors. the theory accounts for reversion. V. delivered January 24. which are to be found. 11-71 (see pp. pp. 1891. in respect to the it of which is " " " employs the term stirp in a special sense. to express the sum-total of the germs.120 read before the APPLIED SOCIOLOGY Anthropological [PART II Institute of Great Britain on and which appeared in the Journal of the InstiNovember 9. of Washington. the other to . Vol. as he also anticipated Roux's doctrine of the struggle among the parts. gemmules. 329). train of facts in heredity that have so long puzzled the scientific investigator. . many possible to explain. tance. Galton lays much more stress on these latent elements than on the patent ones. in a broad and general way. as president of the Biological Society of Washington. in its earliest preembryonic an exceedingly luminous contribution to the stage. As the stirp contains organic units that have lain latent in previous generations and may become patent in the and the whole generation in question. and says : The facts for which a complete theory of heredity must account may conthe one refers to those inborn or congeniveniently be divided into two groups tal peculiarities that were also congenital in one or more ancestors. VI. or supposed acquired characters. in He the newly fertilized that is. to determine which shall become manifest in the offspring and which shall lie latent to appear or not in later generations. 1875. tute (Vol. but were acquired for the first time by one or more of them during their lifetime. I drew attention to these papers of Galton. 29-33). he expands the views previously expressed. by more than one theory based on the hypothesis of organic units." subject. or whatever they may be called. according to every theory of organic units. owing to some change in the conditions of their life. 1875. He appears to In an address l have learned of them only through 1 this address which I took pains Neo-Darwinism and Neo-Lamarckism. The first of these two groups is of predominant impor- number of well-ascertained facts that it contains. which he believes to be only "faintly heritable. Soc. and in an abridged form in the Contemporary Review for December. Biol. Proc.

should gain the ascendant and dominale Ihe producl. It is natural thai Ihe lalesl If combinalions due to such crosses should usually be so prepotent thai Ihe offspring generally resemble Iheir parenls more closely than any more remole anceslors." as Weismann says. somelimes exlending ihrough Iwo. Jena. as he so clearly defined lhal phenomenon. VIII] NATURE 1 2 1 to place in his hands. Whallions. but persist somewhere and are liable to reappear at any time. 1893. should Ihus have "new species" of planls and animals. me that Gallon might have presented Ihe subjecl of heredilary genius in a much more salisfaclory way if he had based his argumenl on Ihe conclusions reached in Ihese papers milled. VI. New York. is inslead of Irying lo prove that talenls are always direclly IransThe fads given in his books prove conclusively that this ment. It p. Ihere would have been no disappoinlmenl and Ihe resulls would have been aboul whal would be nalurally expecled. translation. In Ihe lighl of subsequenl invesligaand especially of Ihe researches of Hugo de Vries inlo Ihe behavior of planls. Eine Theorie der Vererbung. ever de Vries may believe lo be Ihe fundamenlal principle under- lying mulalion. 1 As Ihe producl of every union is a combinalion of Ihe Kap. not the case. . 1892. English Das Keimplasma. Ihe bearers of heredily are Iruly "immorlal. bul il is lo be expecled lhal occasionally some of the antecedent stirps. and is applying il lo olher and broader fields. and in human life we should somelimes have divergenl lypes of both body and mind. ihey are nol losl by every cross. 536 of the German. bul always ceasing lo do so very early in Ihe same line. 408 has appeared to of the English edition)." Ihe whole philosophy of heredily is receiving a new impelus. on which he bases his Iheory of "mulalion. Ihe Ihinking world is becoming convinced that atavism lies at the foundation of it.CH. holding over from Ihe earlier slages of one or Ihe olher of Ihe two lines thai blend at each of Iheir new We union. and in his Germ-Plasm 1 he acknowledged Gallon's services and also mentioned my address (p. and leave the reader disappointed with his arguBui if he had explained that the examples of towering talenls here and Ihere presenling Ihemselves in a single generalion. were due lo alavism. rarely Ihrough Ihree generalions.

There are many different ele- ments which might combine and produce a greater result than that which the combination of identical ones would secure. it is not difficult to account for all the genius the world has produced and for doubled intellectual elements. Nurture. The high qualities thus converging from the two lines need not be the same. immense range in the qualities of great minds. ultimately to come forth and exert their due influence upon the world. as it will come to the same thing in the end however we may shape events. This term will of course be employed in Galton's sense of all the elements of success not belonging to "nature. This view also has its hopeful or optimistic side. we should not expect long lines of geniuses.If this is the true explanation of genius. and we should have true geniuses. the product would be much more efficient than if it consisted of In this way. and perhaps in fact destined. for example. no matter how far back in its history. and the accumulations of un- numbered generations continue to exist. . and moral balance. albeit long latent. If. shooting up like rockets in a single generation and apparently sporadic and dis- appearing almost immediately. Galton seems to labor under a condition of chronic alarm artificial method of human all the race degenerate unless some propagation be adopted to prevent it.122 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY of both parents [PART II Anlagen either or both. . but liable. the We expect just what we in fact have. thus heightening those of the product. Another corollary from this theory of hereditary genius seems to be that we need not concern ourselves as to the result. although it is clearly a phenomenon of should heredity. it is liable to embody high qualities from In most cases such qualities come from only one side and are diluted by mediocre qualities from the other." because. occasional examples. lest It may turn out that his labors to this end will prove to have been vain. In very exceptional cases of this class the result may be something extraordinary. as we have seen. but in rare cases exceptional qualities may happen to converge from both. for. should chance to coincide with great power of will. sterling traits of character. considering the almost infinite possibilities of these combinations and permutations. high intellectual powers coming from one of the lines. nothing is ever wholly lost.

attracted my attention was the habitat of plants. I was particularly interested in weeds." so we may make the second em- the post-efficients of achievement. particular kinds of plants are to be found in particular habitats and not elsewhere.. some in shady places. some on hills." which he characterizes as a "convenient jingle of words. In other words they "love" their new.CH. I observed that certain exotics would not only overrun the waste places. artificial habitat better than their old natural ones. Introduced plants formed another subject for special study. or." 1 its meaning would be much too narrow. and yet there were indications that led me to doubt it. Comparing these with the same plants in their native habitats I found that they flourished much more luxuriantly as weeds than as wild plants. crowd out the native vegetation. VIII] NURTURE 123 separated from his phrase "nature and nurture. etc. but would often invade the pristine regions. social And so with man an adjustment of internal in his intellectual and development. There are no biologists who ascribe all effects to heredity. . and monopolize large areas. as we may say. It required no very strong reasoning to perceive that this was because in cultivated fields they were largely removed from the competition which exists in nature. 12. some in sunshine. so the second represents the environment. some along streams. some in dry ground. is heredity also In M. All recognize the role of the environment. They are "loving" these special situations. habitually described as least as being specially and I noticed that besides the well- known Old World weeds that constitute the pests of the farmer and gardener there are many indigenous plants that assume the role of weeds and overrun cultivated fields. And just as he makes the first of these words embrace brace all all the "pre-efficients. That any one should doubt this seems strange. Some grow in swamps. As the first represents heredity. and life itself is it is to external relations. That the environment represents opposition in the organic world I have always believed and have made several attempts to prove In my early botanical field studies the subject that most strongly it. As everybody knows. 1 I was greatly English Men of Science. Tarde's system the social homologue of imitation. or at adapted to them. while that of the environment is opposition. p. etc.

. 1 I brought in all kinds of wild plants and planted them in my garden (a very unfavorinterested in the account given buildings and having a poor the earth that clung to the roots of clayey soil). because it is The principle. These represented able place because much shaded by and I plants from nearly every kind of habitat. by which every individual. Vol. as soon as reached. I would propose. the whole aspect of our question is changed. It is this statical condition which is apt to be lost sight of in the modern philosYet. a comprehensive principle that applies not only to the whole organic world but also to man and human society. which were certainly very different from those to which they were After a number of years of such observations I felt something like a general law. 1876. . justified in formulating and my first serious contribution to botanical philosophy was devoted to the statement of this law supported by a few of the principal facts. New York. but I have fill continued to accumulate them ever since and could now easily a volume with them." Popular Science Monthly. This mutual repulsion results at length in a statical condition which is always brought about through the action of the and which. pp. repels the approach of every other and seeks the sole possession of the inorganic conditions surrounding it. and I observed that many different kinds of plants did well under these circumstances. in the light of these facts. it is impossible to account for the facts presented by the distribution of plants. accustomed. ophy of evolution. determines absolutely the exact place and degree of development of each species and each individual. Plants appear to be no longer in a state of Journal of Researches. however. and it will doubtless be found equally essential to the full comprehension of many other phenomena of nature. vital forces themselves. I do not see that I can better formulate the principle than by quoting from it : The modification of the adaptation theory. might be called the law of mutual repulsion. 1871. to the extent of its influence. 1 2 " . But when we recognize this law. without a clear recognition of this statical law. Notwith- standing the early date of that now wholly forgotten essay.124 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II by Darwin of the manner in which had invaded great tracts of country in South America the cardoon and almost completely replaced the native flora. The Local Distribution of Plants and the Theory of Adaptation. p. October. 119. always put my specimens on the garden soil to see what species would come up the next year from the contained seeds. it is important to state. IX. or rather the substitute for it which. . 2 If the reader is interested in the facts he can consult that paper. 676-684.

. ix) quotes a passage from Carlyle's Sartor Resartus which has approvingly Galton in his . the former state of quiescence. it will mold its own organism into harmony with those conditions. This need only exist so far as is necessary to render the life of the Beyond this the greatest inharmony and inadaptation may be conceived to reign in nature. and the roses reach those wonderful heights of development under man's care. and found is no evidence that it is best adapted to such a forces to which it is locality. in inorganic conditions. and thus : continue its existence . others are liberated .CH. fixity of . The power of self-adaptation is sufficient to habituate almost any species to almost any inorganic conditions. These data only prove that in the final balance of subjected it was assigned such a degree of development and such a habitat. . ment. no matter under what conditions it may be compelled. and this equilibrium is immediately disturbed. It stands in its fixed position. by the higher law of mutual repulsion. The most because he not only proves their friend. which restricts and determines its range. The chained very form. so much as the hostile attitude of other plants around it. and all move forward in the direction of least resistance. the cereals. . . There is no longer a necessary correspondence and correlation between organism and habitat. keeps within its own restricted not because it cannot live in other soils.. locked in the embrace of forces which permit it neither to advance nor retreat. The elements which itself. But let these statical conditions be once changed. Such is the state of equilibrium which is always and necessarily reached in a state of nature. whether it is required to adopt a more perfect or a less perfect form. therefore. whether by the advent of man or from whatever cause. Each individual is where it is and what it is by reason of the combined forces which hedge it in and determine its . no longer necessary that rhythmical (almost preestablished) harmony between species and environment. is is English Men of Science (Preface. but because prior occupants forbid it to come.. and again come. but wards off their enemies. It is not the special adaptation of a plant for the spot on which it grows. frequent and prominent cause of these disturbances of the natural The fruit trees. The law of adaptation may therefore be reduced to this that every plant possesses the power of self-adaptation to such a degree that.. decide where plants shall grow are to be found in vegetation and not which they possess limits. a general swarming begins some individuals are destroyed.. and this. and by which it is compelled to possess the comparatively imperfect organization with which we find it endowed. till at length they again mutually neutralize each other. But what it actually the locality in which it is. p. as containing within it a potential energy far beyond and wholly out of consonance with the contracted conditions imposed upon it by its environspecies possible. each pushes its advantage to the utmost. Each plant may be regarded as a reservoir of vital force. into forces are set free . no criterion of what it is capable of becoming. to live. under new conditions and modified forms. and in which man first finds each newly discovered flora. vegetation is the influence of man. Each species. VIII] NURTURE 125 perfect adaptation to their surroundings.

that an acorn might. the stalks fifteen feet in height loaded with three or four ears each nearly a foot hi length and two or three inches in diameter. I give two illustrations of the power " of " nurture that are appropriate here. that an infant of genius is quite as any other infant. The Europeans after the discovery of America carried this process of cultivation much farther." which I have many times delivered to American audiences. especially of all philosophers.126 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY stated. and expand him. represent what nurture has done. The vast cornfields of the West. by favorable or unfavorable influences of soil and climate. Its botanical name is Zea Mays. but I must ask the reader to make the proper allowance for the rostrum style in which : they are presented There is a certain rather large monoecious grass native of the warmer parts of America. be nursed into a cabbage. and at length. or the cabbage-seed into an oak. or a high-towering. I was altogether puzzled with this little stranger. It was very green and well in flower and fruit. Many years ago when I was an enthusiastic amateur botanist I was out on one of my rambles herborizing in a rather solitary and neglected spot not many miles from the National Capital. attaining a height of about two feet and bearing at its summit a handsome panicle of male flowers. Nevertheless. and on the culm below one or two fertile spikes three inches long and half an inch in diameter. enabled it to develop into our maize. " I should as soon agree as with this other. and the aborigines of tropical America used these seeds for food and cultivated the plant in their imperfect way. having the seeds arranged around the elongated rachis. and though tolerably well acquainted with the native grasses of that vicinity. what hin1 dered. wide-shadowing tree either a sick yellow cabbage. Of a truth. . it is the same : . and I passed over a little area that was made green and striking by the presence of a peculiar and to me wholly unfamiliar grass. what in any way modified it. " I too acknowledge the all but omnipotence of early culture and nurture hereby we have either a doddered dwarf bush. and this is a fair example of the relative influence of nature and nurture in all departments of life. the duty of all men. Chap. what furthered. Book Second. but it had a certain unnatural and 1 Sartor Resartus. to which it readily adapted itself. or Indian corn. II. grass I have described represented all that nature could do." In a lecture on " Nature and Nurture. to note down with accuracy the characteristic circumstances of their Education. or an edible luxuriant green one.." continues he.. on the principle which I The have been explaining. I examined it attentively. only that certain surprisingly favorable influences accompany him through life. accustomed the plant to more northern regions. especially through childhood." cries Teufelsdrockh. while others lie close folded and continue dunces. : [PART II some bearing on the theory above appropriate to reproduce at this point It is and which it seems maintained by Helvetius and his set. ." With which opinion.

question of the relative claims of genius and circumstances.CH. I The lecture from which make the above extract is devoted to the defense of the general doctrine of potential achievement. The central idea is one that dates back farther in my personal history than any other of the leading ideas of societies of my general philosophy. To my astonish- carried itself as Triticum cestivum. It missed the fostering care of man who removes competition. as the zealous young students with whom I associated usually preferred to express it. Man gives to the cultivated plant an opportunity to progress. I only faintly perceived the . As most of you know. and the difference between my little starveling grass and the wheat of the well-tilled field is a differ- ence of cultivation only and not at difference between nature all of native capacity. however. and partly because I instinctively felt that these claims were usually exaggerated and those of the environment underestimated. in which I had been a member In the debating academic days the my. and I always volunteered to take the weak side. was frequently discussed. in which I formulated the law of biological statics and the universal growth force of nature. VIII] NURTURE 127 disheveled appearance indicative of hard times and a severe struggle for existence. and in a moment I compelled my little grass to reveal its name. But alas it could not. but like some stubborn spirit-rapping it still spelled out ment it announced is that cestivum : the same words : Triticum cestivum. when the lecture was entirely rewritten. Can this be wheat? I said. partly because it was found difficult to secure disputants willing to combat the claims of genius. I proceeded to analyze it. I was then skilled in plant dissection. It was written before I had read any of Galton's works." Nurture" was given to it at a later date. There it had sprouted and grown and sought to rise into that majesty and beauty that is seen in a field of waving grain. and its original The title "Nature and title was "Heredity and Opportunity. I gathered a goodly quantity of it. but the illustrations from botany were contained in the original draft. Triticum noble cereal that furnishes the larger part of the breadstuff of the world. carefully placed it in my portfolio. In short 'it is the and nurture. half doubting my accuracy. There was no mistake. and it home with my other trophies. At my leisure. and again the answer was time I interrogated it. after I had read Hereditary Genius. and with all needful appliances. Again I Triticum cestivum. At every step it felt the combined resistance of an environment no longer regulated by intelligence. ! destroys enemies. Yet a third put it to the test. In writing the article. This poor depau- perate little grass had sprung from grains of wheat that had by some unexplained accident been sown or spilled on this wild deserted spot in the midst of the native vegetation. and creates conditions favorable to the highest development.

The environment represents opposition. Genius corresponds to the natural forces of the physical world. however great. The material sur- efforts of roundings are perpetually checking and repressing the spontaneous mind. as it were. The essential thing in both is latent power. have seen what the possibilities of plant life are when the We is the same with all must not be content with the actual. The new gospel. forces. Nurture does not consist in the mere coddling of the weak. . They remove deal exclusively the obstructions to their They and free action. But if they are to accomplish any result they must be freed. and it becomes evident that these will depend upon the degree of freeIt consists in becomes a dom with which genius is allowed to act. The forces of nature are. chained. And it We tial achievement. waste caused by obstructions to normal activities. full to increase them. therefore. The only way in which effort can be profitably expended is upon the environment. The practical important thing is not genius itself but the products of genius. The channels of energy are everywhere choked. But that from which they must be freed is the environment. It is so with the human mind. This is plastic. It can be neither increased nor diminished. They are ever pressing and only need to be freed in order to achieve. question and not a futile speculation. is small compared to poten- natural growth force is once liberated. Tarde was right. lost labor. We have seen that in the world of plant life the degree of development actually attained is far below that which is attained whenever the opposition of the environment is removed. It freeing the strong. Actual achievement. They make no attempt with the environment. We must imagine the possible and strive to attain it.128 * APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II connection between the principle there laid down and that which I had always defended on the human plane. And yet the substantial identity of the two ideas is clear. Invention and art do not consist in extolling the forces of nature. to which I found myself committed was a gospel of liberation. no effort expended upon it can affect the result. It is the same with the forces of mind. It can be indefinitely modified or completely transformed. It is emancipation. They direct them into prescribed channels and prevent them from doing harm or uselessly expending themselves. suppressed energy. If genius is innate and a constant quantity.

. les dans choses et non dans Phomme. est LA ROCHEFOUCAULD. The intellect guides the will to the extent of the individual's power. may consider genius as a force. quod non dicatur ab aliquo La nature fait le me'rite et la fortune le met en ceuvre. the sociologist has no more to do than has the electrician with the supply of electricity. This can be done in the one case as in the other only by appropriate adjustments in the surrounding conditions. Nescio quomodo. These conditions are not fixed and immovable but plastic and adjustable. Lex urbis Le gdnie lex orbis. . n'est que We have seen that genius. 129 . because it consists.CHAPTER IX OPPORTUNITY sophes. ROMAN PROVERB. L'homme ALFRED ODIN. rique que les hommes eux-memes. man in so far as it i. of intellect and will.. With it. . and we have in this combination both the dynamic and the directive agents of society. to all intents and purposes a fixed quantity which cannot be affected by any artificial devices that man can adopt. Considering genius as a force guided by intelligence. so the sociologist should concentrate his attention exclusively upon the most effective means intellectual of utilizing those constants of nature which consist in the and moral elements of society. 1'accident qui permet au gdnie de se de'gager.e. imagines par les philo ne nous reste plus comme agents imme'diats du deVeloppement histoALFRED ODIN. Will is We a true natural force. therefore. Si nous laissons de cotd les causes indirectes il philosophorum. the intellectual and moral nature of is relates to human achievement. dici potest. and nearly all human achievement has been the result of the cooperation of these two agents in individual minds. as these terms were defined in Pure Sociology. nihil tarn absurde CICERO. as has been shown. And upon just as the electrician concentrates his attention exclusively the most effective means of utilizing the constant quantity of that element or force that exists in the universe.

and the problem remove the opposition and permit the force to operate freely along lines which intelligence perceives to be advantageous. energy. and in that of psychic forces it becomes obvious that the generalized form under which they are liberated and enabled to work in the interest of society is opportunity. In a certain sense all these mechanical adjustments may be regarded as furnishing opportunities for the forces of nature to do useful work which they could not and do not do under the unregulated conditions of the physical environment. claims that men do it all. including the great industries. that In philosophy as in politics there is rarely any It is a part of the universal polarization in nature in the tenth chapter of Pure Sociology. Physical forces thus freed and directed accomplish the grand results which we call art or the arts. and they are merely marionettes. middle ground. of this primary adjustment that sets free and sets to work the psychic we may now attempt a somewhat closer analysis means of achievement. What is the synthesis of these two antinomies ? . the hero-worshipers. machinery. activity. The both cases represents opposition. With all their zeal. ROLE OF THE ENVIRONMENT The tendency is of thinking men to divide up into opposing schools well known. Using that term in this broad sense of every form of social forces of man.APPLIED SOCIOLOGY we may is [PART II treat in environment to the above parallel as practically complete. etc. The means through which this is all brought about are variously desigmechanisms. Great unperceived but irresistible laws are what accomplish the results. effort. The other school insists that men are only the instruments with which nature works. and was treated is truth that the environment is merely the raw material with which they work. nated as apparatus. This conception fur- nishes the key to the problem in both fields. same. factories. It is so in the always great dispute as to the relative claims of men and the environment. but the principle is the tools. One school. These are much more obviously material than the means by which the human will is liberated and directed. But the a synthesis of the contending views.

tance to him than his natural environment. Indeed. civilization. and it is this interaction of man and his envi- ronment. Whatever might have been the civilizing movements in process when they ceased action these would cease when their action ceased and could not be resumed until their action was resumed. and however much they may have affected man. subjects it to his service. is of far greater vital imporThis. the problem of the efficacy of if it effort. It is in the nature of a passive obstruction to man's activities. and without such action on his part there could be no Mr.CH. pp. the mountains and These were here before man came. is The mine r61e of the environment then It is not to produce or to deter- civilization. the physical world into which he is born. and compels the very powers that at first opposed his progress to serve his interests and supplement his own powers. IX] ROLE OF THE ENVIRONMENT are really here confronted with the in 131 that We It is same problem we it encountered Chapter II. 1 See Pure Sociology. the same "fool's puzzle. It is man's combined influence on his environment and on himself that chiefly constitutes civilization. it is not these effects that constitute civilization. it represents opposition. the hills and streams. It is this that constitutes civilization. not an active agent but a passive condition. . In proportion to the development of the guiding faculty man removes the obstruction presented by the environment. 171-184. In other words. His will guided by his intellect is ever pressing against the environment." and was solved at that stage remains solved for our present purpose. as has already been said. or synergy^ that accomplishes the results. the climate and seasons. if all men were to for ages. see. We do not mean the land and sea. fall To use into a and then awake. and to the original natural envi- ronment there is creation. Yet to this human action the environment now added an as we shall soon artificial environment of his own opposes its reaction. utilizes it. Morley's illustration. In the more advanced stages he transforms it. This opposition is not an active antagonism. it is his action. When we speak of civilization we refer to the human inhabitants of this planet. It is man that is active. they would find that the deep sleep environment had done nothing for them during that time. valleys.

And yet it is these that are the proper agents of civilization. which are passive and inert. is of medieval times. struggling against the environment and slowly conquering nature. and the question is narrowed down to that of determining what men. of civilization are This much is certainly true. it is equally unwise to ignore their true significance in the history of the world. While therefore the oligocentric world view that has prevailed throughout the past and still prevails is false. all and ignored the mass Civilization is of mankind and their most essential the result of the activities of all men during time. Even a cursory glance at human history reveals the fact that there are immense differences among men in this respect.132 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II THE AGENTS OF Civilization is CIVILIZATION produced by some kind of agency. But the social value of these is few agents must not be underestimated. something that is only elements in existence are zation it men and things the agents of civilimust be men. is surpassing small. that the agents men. It was shown in Pure Sociology that human achievement has been the work of a very small Whatever the great mass may have done in the way of preserving. and in what manner they have brought it about. the mesocentric theory that claims to correct it is equally false. through imitation the number who plying copies number of individuals. the aggregate number of these agents is of course considerable. If we combine all departments of achievement and embrace all time. It arose really a metaphysical conception worthy as a reaction against that form of hero-worship which deified a few individuals activities. yet it forms a very small fraction of the entire human race. originate and invent. and we have seen that that agency is not to be found in the physAnd as the ical surroundings of man. We We have seen that by certain subtle and obscure processes of nature such rare combinations of ancestral qualities are occasionally formed . The idea that they consist in things. are confronted by the old question of the role of great men. who investigate and discover. and the truth is to be sought elsewhere. perpetuating. although passes in some quarters for the scientific view par excellence. If it foolish to worship them as heroes. and multiin a word.

then. It is absurd to talk about civilization as the product of blind natural forces and general environmental conditions unless the men who have chiefly produced it are included among such forces and conditions. into decadence Spain killed off and drove out its Mite it fell and never has recovered its vigor. And these are not the only instances. On the other hand. But whatever of such countries by their great become great the cause may be. National degeneracy. are the mentally endowed who have impossible to determine. Italy suffered immensely from the same cause and is to-day far behind the lead- When ing nations of the world. If by any force of circumstances the ttite of any country were to be removed. Without them there would be no results. while it might be produced by the actual sacrifice of the entire Mite of any country. aspect to the subject. and but for them there would have been no achievement. that country would be left in a state of intellectual stagnation. the brilliant role played by Switzerland in the history of science is chiefly due to the rich recruits which that country received from the persecutions carried on in other counThere is a still broader tries. or by men who subsequently in the land of their adoption. may be at any given time it is because those that are known to exist are only such as have been permitted by the environment to assert themselves. It is such minds when afforded the proper opportunity that have produced all the results that the world values. It may be due to other causes. IX] THE AGENTS OF CIVILIZATION 1 33 in the process of generation in the human race as to produce extraordinary minds. history has demonstrated this on more than one occasion. Indeed. But the few that we have and have had constitute the achievement is real living force of human society. the country which cannot retain its progressive . Opportunity alone can show what the true number of mentally endowed individuals is in human society. as de Candolle has so fully shown.CH. is usually due much more to the more or less voluntary abandonment men. This need not necessarily be due to oppression. There is reason to believe that only a small percentage of those who possess talents. How many such minds there had a chance to use their this is talents. but we can readily conceive of their cannot conceive of the same results being accom- We plished in their absence. Great men. Human due to them. absence.

The hero-worshipers have for their heroes for the greatly weakened their case by taking most part men of action. ils les font valoir ce qui'ils veulent. et Ton de les recevoir veritable prix. Sometimes there is afforded proof that he was not really needed. to do its work. Maxim "* Cf. whom any given time who could have done as society happens to commission. It often happens that a states- Their high position Like coins. 130-131. Odin. etc. Vol. A. that they are the products of their time and the mere instruments of society in the accomplishment of its ends. . man is- country. but happens to hold a high place at a critical period. These are not the true agents of civilization. 1895. And it can never be known how many men there may 'be at well as the particular ones it were. The most they have done is to produce certain alterations in the political map of the world. All of which shows in the most conmanner that the agents of civilization are the great men and vincing the strong and brilliant minds in the world.134 spirits is APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II doomed to decay. Genese des grands hommes. diplomatists. Such men do not achieve in the zation proper sense of the word. as in the case of Bismarck. Paris. changes in the position of certain imaginary lines. of them it is largely true. and it is a question whether civiliis any more advanced than it would have been if they had not existed. Their success is due to the fact that society wishes to have done the things that they do. 1665. selon leur cours. 1 I have already commented all public functionaries. statesmen. they are failures and not heroes. 2 The superiority 1 Les rois font des hommes comme est force des pieces de monnaie . their intrinsic value. regarded as absolutely indispensable and as the savior of his when in fact he has only ordinary abilities. There were doubtless barristers who pleaded before them that would have as signally graced the bench if they had been placed there. they are taken at their ability. et non pas selon leur No. If society does not wish this their efforts are futile. After he steps down the country goes on as before. as The above is is true of mistaken for superior stamped and not at on the impropriety on this account of studying the judges of England " as Galton has done in his Hereditary Genius. Their " greatness is due almost wholly to their position. as it is not of really great men. Moreover. as they are called. pp. military chieftains. I. and not any vague. La Rochefoucauld. 165 of ed. impersonal environmental conditions.

employed in this discussion. which is not always an unmixed evil. sable. brief survey of it. IX] THE LITERATURE OF OPPORTUNITY officers is usually exaggerated. it It is the peculiarity of is service in abilities.CH. Unless a public office forming the duties of his rior to other does something besides perthere is no evidence that he is supeofficer official men. may as problem it will be necessary be well to preface the discussion the authors compare or contrast the influence of nature or heredity with that of nurture or opporall And tunity it will be impossible to separate these two subjects. is a factor in the production of the agents of THE LITERATURE OF OPPORTUNITY As by a in the discussion of the general it to refer to the literature. becomes an and assured positions and surplus energy constitute their opportunity to achieve in fields quite independent of their routine and usually simple duties. and although they perform their official duties. The Method of Discussion. Many a private. the governmental environment civilization. even corporals. all of Three different methods have been which are scientific if logically . the movement began as a discussion of heredity and gradually shaded off into a discussion of the environment. public service officers are men of genius. Incidentally. 135 com- even of military in the Civil In my own the captain. from sinecurism. The keeping of all responsible places filled by competent men is essential to the social order. as element in civilization. all departments that does not require extraordinary so. but the remaining officers led us to victory just the same. and it is social order and not the feats of public officers which is the essential thing. Indeed. In many War command the companies. no doubt. It is also a blessing that this for it is necessary that the offices be filled. would have acquitted himself with honor if chance had laid upon him the responsibility cases non-commissioned officers had to of command. who was regarded as indispenpany was wounded and the first lieutenant was called elsewhere. we shall Some public see. and fill if the state were compelled to find it men of talent or would usually be impossible to fill them at all. Aside. their from the influence of Maecenases. however. therefore. genius to vacant places.

The third method. and its study is satisfactory or successful only through the use of his method. In scien- tific reasoning. the second is more of an method of exclusion. these peculiarities of method will be noted as bearing on the relative force of the respective arguments. APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II To vary slightly the Hegelian formula. or method of investigation. they may be called respectively the methods of discussion by theses. Perhaps all the authors have employed all these methods more or less.136 applied. they method. is to set out without any definite proposition to be proved or disproved. also regarded as highly scientific. . It is most class. and the object is to examine all the facts to see whether they do or do not sustain the hypothesis. have used the statistical method. It is unnecessary to com- ment at this point upon the great caution with which this method must be employed. and is first to state the thesis employed by them in their debates and dissertations. or will. In passing in review the different authors and their contributions. The and simply to study the facts and let them lead where first may be called the theoretical or deductive while in this particular field at least the second has been little used. the third is a strictly heuristic method. facilities for experimentation and laboratory research that are supplied to the student of organic and physical nature are wanting. . the thesis is more modestly called a hypothesis. and then to defend and prove it. of the authors important to note that.. be scientifically discussed. The frequent neglect of such caution will be noted as we proceed. The old method of formal logic taught to academic students. viz. The investigation of man in all these hidden aspects becomes a sort of social physics in the sense to which Quetelet applied that phrase. and by syntheses. the method of statistics. we shall find that there is a fallacy specially characteristic of statistics. by JiypotJieses. subordinate to this general method. with a more or less skeptical attitude toward all theories. or method of demonstration inductive method. but the first of them is specially characteristic of some and the third of others. Indeed. This is almost no other peculiarly well adapted to the investigation of questions of this There is way by which such questions can General observation and experience are and in dealing with human beings nearly all the wholly unreliable.

He had already adopted the statistical list method. It is interesting. and therefore him- 1 " Hereditary Talent and Character. p. Alphonse de Candolle. August. London and New York. . 1870. As. Indeed. 1869 new and revised edition with an American preface. Galton had undertaken. 157-166. and which brings the work fairly within the purview of the present discussion. to note how completely he follows the first of the three methods described above. 1865 Second Paper. This essay was the preliminary outcome of extensive researches which Mr. . pp. The self first to do this Swiss botanist. Part I. XII. 1 17). and will be dealt with so need not be specially analyzed here. it has no special bearing on our present subject. or brother. 1892. however. New York. second edition. Francis Galton published his first essay on hereditary talent.CH. which he does not deny in was M. which has already been quoted (supra. This dates back to the year 1865. ful and will prevail over all obstacles was a claim that was soon one. that it much more sentence of the book. it is this subsidiary thesis. Charles Darwin." Macmillan's Magazine. and proceeds from the " thesis " that " talent is able degree" (p. in the first : under exactly the same limitations as are the form and physical features of the whole organic world. He states his thesis at length hereafter. London. and he gives a of forty-one notabilities who had eminent relatives as near as father. and not the primary Nearly all admit but that they are all-powerthat mental qualities are hereditary. as follows " I propose to show in this book that a man's natural abilities are derived by inheritance. An Inquiry into its Laws and Consequences." But in it he also states his other subsidiary thesis. IX] THE LITERATURE OF OPPORTUNITY 137 The Discussion. 1 This was doubtless largely inspired by the researches of his great kins- man. 2 This work has already been so frequently referred to. challenged. distinctly expressed transmitted by inheritance in a very remark157). Hereditary Genius. 2 Hereditary Genius. 1865 (Vol. son of an example of hereditary genius. June. when Mr. the eminent an equally eminent father. 318-327). and which took their final form in his now celebrated work. son. . he does not in this essay distinctly say that the distinguished men of any age or country are the only ones who could have distinguished themselves under any circumstances. that has given rise to the whole movement. however.

APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II In 1873 appeared his great work on the history of the sciences and scientific men. instead of being a criticism and a challenge. like that of de Candolle. Vol. edition considerablement augmentee. out of which it doubtless grew. March. and he seems to share with him that unlimited faith in the omnipotence of heredity." Fortnightly Review. 1882. PP. so as really to become his "ally against his will. Paris. In the same year (1873) appeared the work of M. In many respects Ribot goes even farther than Galton. which is to be classed with Galton's Hereditary Genius. 1 in which he discusses these and so many other vital questions. 1875 (this edition is considerably abridged and y generally inferior). and especially on Galton's subsidiary thesis. Ribot. the membership of the three great academies of science (Paris. His is distinctively theoretical and to some extent statistical. en particulier sur 1'heredite et la selection dans 1'espece humaine. London) was much too narrow to secure reliable results. 1885. Heredity: A Psychological Study of its Phenomena. As in the case of Galton's leading work.. Vol.S. He also employs the statistical method and keeps it well under control. accusing him of using his name " as a foil to set off his own conclusions.138 principle.. XIX (N. and Consequences. Bale. ed. London. viz. Geneve. 2 Deuxieme L'Heredite psychologique. XIII). 1873. this one will come in for so much more special treatment that any analysis of it here would involve repetition. Causes. par Alphonse de Candolle. From the French of Th.. 1873. Geneve. precedee et suivie d'autres etudes sur des sujets scientifiques." But he admits that "the most valuable part of the investigation likely to ability ? is this: What are the social conditions most produce " scientific investigators.. Bale. is rather a continuation and extension of Galton's views from the standpoint of an eminent physiological psychologist. irrespective of their natural 1 Histoire des sciences et des savants depuis deux siecles. method Galton replied almost immediately in a magazine article 3 to de Candolle's criticisms of his own work. 8 " On the Causes which operate to create Scientific Men. 1873. but the numerical basis of his inductions. His position is one of doubt on all points not adequately established. Berlin. Ribot on 2 psychological heredity." and of mixing hereditary influences with others. Laws. De Candolle's method is rather to be classed in the third group above described than in either the first or second. Lyon. 1887. Th. and which. 2* ed.345-35 1 - .

Atlantic Monthly." by John Fiske. 453). by Francis Galton. Vol. pp. which is almost as well known as his Hereditary Genius." by William James. 1904. 1881 2 ed. XLVII. October. January. both avowed disciples of (p. considerable difference of Chapter IV relates to education. He instituted an entirely new statistical 1 inquiry which resulted in another book. 1897. IX] THE LITERATURE OF OPPORTUNITY 139 But Galton evidently felt too hard hit to be content with an answer seven pages long. Chapter III is a continuation of this. cit. largely in the language of the writers. There opinion expressed. 1 work by Jacoby 3 to which The Royal Academy of Medicine English Men of Science : their Nature and Nurture. pp. that of Professor James being quite an onslaught upon the general theory that great men are produced by their environment and must have been. A 1 number of essays and magazine less directly articles 2 appeared in 1880 and upon our subject.37I-3 8 '8 fitudes sur la selection dans ses rapports avec Pheredite chez 1'homme. . 1 88 1 also appeared an important frequent reference will be made. 1881." in: The Will to believe and other Essays in Popular Philosophy. 1880. answers this He admits 35-36) that the greater frequency with which elder sons attain eminence may be due to their better nurture under the prevailing laws of primogeniture. Herbert Spencer. 1881." in fact deals mostly with is post-efficients. Paris.. Men. of science in England and compiled (pp. March. "The Genesis of Genius. PP. There is them that can be called striking. Jacoby. London. op. their He drew up in and sent out an elab- orate questionnaire to over one hundred eminent men book. par Paul . and the Environment. Great Thoughts. "Great Men and their Environment. Atlantic Monthly. 75-84. " 18742 " Great Sociology and Hero-Worship. London.CH. 441-459. Vol. The enumeration of great families in the first chapter follows the lines of his earlier work and has the nothing in same defects. He also deals somewhat with Galton's views. 216-254. XLVI. Vol. bearing more or and In of heredity. pp." by Grant Allen. Chapter II deals with the answers to his questions. XLVII. and the result influ- seems to indicate that few persons are good judges as to the ence of their own education. An Evolutionist's Reply to Dr. at least in a footnote The replies of Fiske and Allen.. James. Paris. and while professing to deal with "pre-efficients. emphasize the influence of "general conditions" 88 1.

par Henri Joly. 1891. at the second part. Odin.140 of APPLIED SOCIOLOGY in [PART II 1874 the question of selection in man in its and M." we (V) that bears should look for a plunge into the very center of the controversy. 1883. The fourth chapter consists entirely of an extended list of remarkable personages arranged according to their places of birth.. is not mentioned. Paris. This book was the result. as a basis for his thesis that density of population is the leading factor in the production of In the second edition of this work. A.It has a special preface. Henri Joly on the psychol- much ogy of great men. It is divided into two very Madrid discussed relations to heredity. Although this edition claims to be revised and enlarged. M. If he had acquainted himself with M. as attention is chiefly directed to the cognate question discussed by Professor James as to whether the great man is simply a spontaneous and his critics product of his environment or a special 1 and necessary product reacting upon it." and the second in a much less extended manner of "talent.. after so long an interval. . but the author least. it is almost a surprise to find the work commended by such a man as Gabriel Tarde. In 1883 appeared a little book by M. talent. It will come in for full treatment at the proper time. 1 in which from its title we should expect to find much upon the subject in hand. or." It is only this second part that concerns the present discussion. which will be pointed out later on. Odin's work and followed his method he might have rendered the excellent data which he has so laboriously collected of greater value to all concerned. who contributed the avant-propos. in which we learn that the various sources. 2 Psychologic des grands hommes. work has received favorable attention and some criticism from who has most fully studied it. Especially in the chapter on "the great man and the contemporary environment. the first treating at great length of power. viz. ed. it contains only ten more pages than the first and is uniform with it until we reach the last chapter. In this we are somewhat disappointed. In view of these defects. and who has pointed out the fundamental defects in M. Jacoby worked out the subject in great detail and was rewarded by being elected a corresponding member of that body. we are surprised to find that scarcely any changes have been made. . " unequal parts. Jacoby's method. where some additional statistics of insanity are inserted.

although literature was wholly unacquainted with the foregoing when I wrote Dynamic Sociology (1883). It was clear to me from the first that the great desideratum was to increase the efficiency of mankind. In this idea of increasing the efficiency of the human race I was at one with Galton. 463). I meant "applied social science. 175 of that volume). it. and I do not deny that this was the case. including his latest studies in eugenics. while that of bringing out the latent power of society seemed and still seems to be a thoroughly practical and feasible . still. I did not overlook his method (see p. as the subtitle of the work shows. convinced of the existence of a large latent contingent. I saw that the number that contributed to increased. 611)." have constituted one prolonged argument and appeal for the artiBut he set out with the ficial improvement of the human race.1 10). At the same time the whole argument of " dynamic sociology. because. I here. civilization was very this is limited (see p. force working denied the existence of a latent or potential element. on the contrary. as I have intimated before. indeed.CH. Of the though all things else remain of the environment in creating contributions into this him I little is said. 1 06." which is the same as applied sociology. In the initial paper of his cited above he argues that the human race can be improved by the same general method by which the best breeds of animals have been " secured. the whole of the second volume being practically devoted to That work was written for a definite purpose." by which. and all his works. the subject was one that had engaged my attention from my earliest recollection. assumption that the few de facto agents of its civilization represent He did not recognize. Therefore his method of increasing either the number or the efficiency of the entire present agents of civilization must be purely physiological. was highly synthetic and rigidly logical (see pp. IX] THE LITERATURE OF OPPORTUNITY to exist effect 141 and which we can conceive not precisely as they are. am constrained to put my own humble which is series in their chronological place. pro- ceeded by a method which was strictly sociological. I may be said to have had a thesis. and in that work I went deeply into it. The problem was how number could be In maintaining that "there such a thing as latent intellect" (p. and. I. but I had and still have little faith in it.

In the interest of completeness it may be mentioned lecture that not- Heredity and Nature and Nurture. the environment in producing men of genius. 3 The Man Genio New ed alia storia. Indeed. I was indiscreet enough in 1886 to publish an abridgment of it under a title given to it by the editor. pp. He is dogmatic. par F. alia storia ed 1888. L'Homme Paris. but it is insanity. When such men as Galton deny its existence. withstanding my efforts to keep the on Opportunity. 1 Some of these defects will be " Broadening the Way to Success. out of print. Trad." The Forum. Conditions are much more favorable for its solution now than they were in 1883. all' 1886. For from the standpoint of logicality and of fidelity to fact his doctrine and its exposition seem to me to be faulty in the extreme. C. Vol. and looks upon genius as a less than Galton. 1882. surely the first and all-important step is to demonstrate it. p. alia critica e Torino. 1889. APPLIED SOCIOLOGY The great difficulty was then and still is [PART II to bring about a gen- eral recognition on the part of society of the existence of such a latent power. Istria et precede d'une preface de C. 1891. and this completes my own contributions to the literature of opportunity. Richet. II. December. e follia in rapporto alia medicina legale. novelty and audacity rather than logic that furnish the charm. estetica. He publishing six of mental degeneracy years earlier his work on genius and insanity. and justify a renewed effort. This therefore becomes the primary problem of applied sociology. he is a confirmed pessimist on the whole subject. completamente mutata. 126). or in The Forum for December of that 1 year. 340-350." His works have aroused an immense interest and he has many followers. de genie. noted. London and York. and his great work on the man still of genius 2 should certainly be introduced here. of Genius. does he recognize the role of pathological phenomenon and only an aspect and began by 3 of which he regarded his Man of Genius as the " fifth revised edition. No man has written more about genius than Lombroso. Torino. although. to which allusion was made (supra. New York.142 one. Roma . 2 L' Uomo di genio in rapporto alia psichiatria. and many of his unsupported statements are in flagrant opposition to well-established facts.

Torino.. the question and progress in society. accompagnee de 33 tableaux et de 24 planches Tome hors texte. 2 vols. tableau chronologique de la litterature fran9aise. a 1'anthropologie criminelle et a la science du gouvernement. and need lowed it only say here that in this work we seem to have a model which if folin other departments. he set himself the task of devising a new and is What the truth adequate method and of applying it rigorously in the single search for truth. 1895 liste lettres fran9ais modemes. all' antropologia criminale governo. No bias is or parti pris can be detected in the author. It breathes the same spirit as the rest. We cause to our It now come to a work about which little need be said here beso much must be said hereafter. but which is the most central in theme of all that have been considered or will be considered. 1 II d alia scienza di delitto politico e le rivoluzioni in rapporto al diritto. civilized countries there can be no doubt.. but touches more closely the topic in hand. 2 Genese des grands hommes. 1890. de 6382 gens de lettres fran9ais. IX] THE LITERATURE OF OPPORTUNITY 143 This work of Lombroso was followed two years later by another l in which another person was associated with him. . Odin. Le Crime politique et les revolutions par rapport au droit. 1892. 2 is a work on the genesis of great men by Alfred Odin. It is interesting reading. viz. neism is a novel way of presenting and the doctrine of misoneism and philoan old question. can scarcely fail to lead to the whole That it should be extended to other departments and to all truth. But the whole work is dominated the one fundamental idea that underlies all of Lombroso's writby ings. Traduit de 1'italien par A. Bouchard. How well he succeeded we shall try to show. Laschi. even as fully as the author has followed in the one chosen by him. This work is a perfect example of the heuristic method. But he was not satisfied with merely asking this ? Profoundly dissatisfied with the evidence and with most of the methods adopted. Tome second. he seems to have found himself in a state thing of doubt and bewilderment.CH. par A. the idea of physical and mental degeneracy as the necessary of order concomitant of civilization. perfectly familiar with the entire movement and With all the theories and facts put forward by all command. and apparently willing to accept anythat can be proved. Nevertheless he its literature. professor the University of Sofia. Paris. and to have seriously asked himself: other authors at his question. 1895. Lausanne. gens de '> premier. Paris. da Cesare Lombroso e R.

May. 1897. as he informed me was not acquainted with the work of de Candolle. As a sample of Mr. in the one case as in the other. and if in some cases they were positively known to exist ? I do not see that the inference is any less inevitable in the case before us.. the views of Professor James. or percolate invisibly through the sand ? Would not this supposition amount almost to certainty if it could be shown that the nature of the rock was such as to make the existence of underground channels extremely probable. Sci. p. The first of these is by Professor a reply to Galton's Charles H. just as we have good reason to think that a river may find its way through an underground channel. Acad. . 178-190." by Charles H. and Soc. that what is not seen does not cease to be. Vol. and is the most consistent and satisfactory answer I to that doctrine that have met with. New York. 349." by John Mackinnon Robertson. Hereditary Genius. and especially to his doctrine of the irrepressiBut it deals with facts and to a considerable extent bility of genius. XXV. Robertson's general method of dealing with the problem the following characteristic 1 passage may be cited : " the 2 Am. Suppose he found that while in some places the river flowed with a swift and ample current. Vol. It is in the nature of with statistics. and from time to time measuring its breadth. April. occasion may present itself for characteristic illustrations.. that the number of eminent men seems to dwindle and disappear. Must we not conclude. Fame.144 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II It only remains to mention two articles published in America. as also of in a letter. Robertson wrote in full cognizance of this work. in others it dwindled to a mere brook and even disappeared altogether. but we have good reason to think that social conditions can cause genius to remain hidden. and the Comparison of Races. just as we know that the river has a large volume in some places. Annals of Pol. that genius is present though fame is not? 2 The other article is 3 by Mr. also. Cooley. Cooley. We see. I appropriate introducing one of Professor Cooley's venture to give it here. 8 The Economics of Genius. IX. 1898. both of which deal with the subject in an enlightened spirit and con- stitute real contributions to 1 it. We know that a race has once produced a large amount of natural genius in a short time. Robertson. depth. but Mr. The Forum. Ibid. and current with a view to finding out how much water passed through its channel. Would he not be led to conclude that where little or no water appeared upon the surface the bulk of it must find its way through underground channels. Professor Cooley. pp. pp. written while he was in this country which I had directed his after reading Professor Cooley's article to attention. John M. " Genius. Philadelphia. only to break out in full volume lower down. He says : As no more Suppose one were following a river through a valley. 317-358.

The first factor to classify these factors. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS What are. least the last generation in Britain. and we may as well attack it at once." Of course he referred to his well-known enumeration in his work (second edition. and that it emerges in the ratio of its total opportunities. in It review con- shows that the attention of mankind has in recent times been powerfully turned in this direction. all. and the poor class by far the least of In the above sketch of the literature of opportunity I do not pretend to have included all the works bearing upon the subject. and I possess a number of letters from him. There are nineteen : causes that favor the production of men of science in any country. of all social grades. but in some of them the problems of heredity and environmental influences are discussed. . De Candolle. pp. but the stitutes the chief body of literature here passed source from which I shall draw.. In one of them. Newton and Boyle were contemporaries the middle class yielding proportionally fewer. he says " My researches show that nurture is more important than nature. 410-41 1). Although this enumeration has been copied into several of the other works that have been mentioned * Ibid. till at men of science. dated July 7. and heredity is only one of these causes. . IX] ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS 145 all is said. p. relating chiefly to botanical subjects. I have recorded in the course of my reading scores of passages in other works (devoted mainly to other matters) that bear directly upon the essential points. Most authors have selected some one factor and largely neglected all others. the researches of M. And as the principle of heredity entirely fails to explain the facts. from the days Napier and Bacon. and these I shall freely use as occasion may require. step is however. we are driven back once more to the conclusion that potential genius is probably about as frequent in one class as in the 1 other. de Candolle yield the outstanding result that. 185. 1891. and after that each factor or alleged must be searchingly investigated. then.CH. the real environmental factors that have con- tributed to the production of the agents of civilization ? This is the essential problem. It was my great pleasure to have been in correspondence with him during the last few years of his life. recognized a large number of such factors. the numerically small upper class has in the When past yielded the largest proportion of eminent when.

146
above,
also.
1.

APPLIED SOCIOLOGY
its

[PART

II

importance to our purpose
list

justifies its introduction

here

The

really includes

twenty "causes," as follows:
work

A

considerable proportion of persons belonging to the rich or well-to-do

{aisles) classes of the population, relatively to those who are obliged to constantly for a living, and especially to work with their hands. 2. An important proportion, in the wealthy or well-to-do classes, who

know

be satisfied with their incomes, with fortunes easy to administer, and consequently disposed to occupy themselves with intellectual matters that are
to

how

only slightly or not at all lucrative. 3. Old-time habits of thought and feeling, directed for
real things
4.

many

generations to

and true ideas (the

effect of heredity).

The

introduction of cultured and virtuous foreign families having a taste

for non-lucrative intellectual pursuits. 5. The existence of numerous families having traditions favorable to the sciences and to intellectual occupations of all kinds.
6. Primary, and especially secondary and higher education, well organized and independent of political parties and religious sects, tending to stimulate research and to encourage young persons and professors to devote themselves

to science.
7.

Abundant and well-organized material

facilities for scientific

research

(libraries, observatories, laboratories, collections). 8. A public interested in the truth and in real things rather than in things imaginary or fictitious.
9.

Freedom
without

jects,

10.
1 1
.

and to publish any opinion, at least on scientific subbeing attended with any serious inconvenience. Public opinion favorable to science and to those who pursue it.
to express
its

Freedom
all

to follow

any profession, to follow none

at

all,

to travel, to

avoid
12.

A

personal service other than that upon which one voluntarily enters. religious belief which makes little use of the principle of authority.
its

A clergy friendly to education both within public at large. 14. A clergy not restricted to celibacy.
13.
15.

own body and

for the

The

French.
16.

habitual use of the three principal languages, English, German, and Knowledge of these languages generally diffused throughout the

educated classes.

A
A

small independent country or a confederation of small independent

countries.

geographical position under a temperate or northern climate. Proximity to civilized countries. 19. A large number of scientific societies or academies. 20. The habit of traveling and especially of sojourning abroad.
17.
8.
1

In this

list

of

favorable conditions

de Candolle

is

obviously

describing his

own surroundings

to a considerable extent,
if

and they
lived in

would probably have been somewhat different
England, Germany, or France.

he had

The

fact that quite as great

men

CH. IX]

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

147

are developed in other countries as in Switzerland shows that many of the conditions are unnecessary. It may, indeed, be questioned

whether the
is difficult

classification

to suppose that the

well in the absence of

upon the whole is a logical one. Still, it same person would develop equally most or all of them. A much more general
form a basis for the analysis of environ-

classification is necessary to

mental conditions, and it will be necessary to take up the principal factors, some of which are regarded by many as the only factors worth considering, and subject each to special treatment. These
principal conditions constitute so

many

classes or kinds of environ:

ment, and they may be reduced to the following groups or heads (2) the ethnological environment (i) the physical environment the religious environment (3) (4) the local environment (5) the
;

;

;

;

economic environment
cational environment.

;

(6)

the social environment

;

(7)

the edu-

These

will

be treated

in this order,
I

from that of M. Odin,
because he
is

whom

am

is slightly different to follow in most respects, obliged

which

the only one

among

the numerous authors
it

who has

adopted a rigidly logical system and supported

by an adequate

All other systems or modes of treating this are fragmentary, incoherent, and generally unsatisfactory. question

number

of facts.

usually prove nothing. They abound in unsupported assertions, most of which are false, and when statistics are used they are

They

either too limited to

absolute numbers, which

have any force of conviction, or they deal with mean nothing until they can be confronted

with those on the opposite side or compared with those from other like sources. The usual fallacy consists in enumerating a more or
support of a theory and ignoring the facts that would stand opposed to it. I have already referred to this fallacy (supra, p. 117), and shown that it is the fallacy of
less respectable array of facts in
all

all

superstition, but

lacy of statistics. merely valueless but highly misleading. They either intentionally or unintentionally deceive the reader, and constitute a form of
sophistry.

might with equal propriety be called the falBy its so frequent use statistics become not
it

M. Odin is never open to this charge. He has accumulated an ample number of facts and he controls them with the
most
rigid scrutiny,

always bringing forward

all

the facts regardless

1

48

APPLIED SOCIOLOGY

[PART

II

and setting opposing facts over against each other to bring out the whole truth. It is perhaps to be regretted that M. Odin did not deal with men
of their import,

men of letters, but he gives his reasons In dealing with periods so remote as the fourteenth for not doing century, it is evident that men of science in the modern sense would have played no part. In order to obtain a large homogeneous mass
of science as well as with
so.

of facts to

which

statistics

to select a single class that

period of five centuries.

would properly apply, it was necessary had played an important role during a There was no class to which this would
But he gives a wide meaning to
this

apply except
whatever.

men

of letters.
all

phrase and includes
to be found in his

who have written extensively on any subject scientific men have done this and their names are Many
list.

We

find there accordingly the

names

of

Ampere, Arago, Lagrange, Laplace, Lamarck, Cuvier, etc., so that although he calls them men of letters, they are also men of science, and the list embraces practically all the great men of France. His reasons for confining himself to France are also excellent, and his work, as he confesses, is only a model for others to follow in treating the same subject for other countries and for other classes. As the subtitle of his second volume shows, he was able by this method to collect together one vast homogeneous group of no less than 6382 great men and to subject them to a searching analysis from a great many different points of view.\ This number was obtained by successive eliminations from a list of between 12,000 and 13,000 and the retention of none but such as were more or less distinguished, He makes a or, as he expresses it, persons of recognized merit. further classification of these and finds 1136 whom he designates as persons of talent. Even this last number he examines and finds 144 whom he entitles persons of genius. In the second volume he gives the complete list in the chronological order of their birth, and it is upon such a basis that he proceeds with his detailed analyses.
|
I

\

Any
work

one discussing the subject
his piece de resistance.
I I

is

shall

therefore obliged to make free use of

make
it

this

without

neglecting any other data that

find available.

The Physical Environment.

No

doctrine has played a

more

important r61e in the philosophy of history than that of the influence

CH. IX]

THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
human
civilization.
It is

149

of the physical environment on

much

older

than Montesquieu, but he was one of its ablest exponents. Buckle has been charged with making it the basis of his entire system, but
only by those
of

who have only read the introductory part of his History Civilization. Those who are acquainted with the whole of that
(or rather

with the small part of it that he was permitted to was the apostle of intellectual development. give us) But he laid great stress on the influence of the physical environment, which he condensed into the word " climate." This has been

work

know

that he

single

it has usually been maintained, "the great man theory," as Mr. Spencer called justly, against it, or the crass hero-worship of the traditional historians and the philosophers of the school of Carlyle. But it is remarkable to how large an extent all this has consisted in mere assertion, or in proof of the most vague and general character. For the events of history in general there has as yet been discovered no definite form of evidence that can be so presented as to amount to demonstration. We are therefore still obliged to accept it in large measure on faith,

regarded as the scientific attitude, and

and

faith in the

uniform workings of the laws of nature
seen, civilization
is

in

human

affairs

and
its

in

the environment of man.

But, as
agents,

we have

the work of men.

They

are

and the problem before us is that of determining how these agents of civilization have been produced. Galton and his school claim that it is due to heredity, and that if we want more civilization we must proceed to breed a higher race of men on the same principles that we breed superior races of animals. But there must be an answer made to the mesologists who ascribe everything to the physical environment. And here M. Odin is the only author known to me who has attempted to furnish such an answer by the
statistical or

any exact method.

birthplaces of nearly all French men of letters are known. France is a country of considerable diversity of climate and geograph-

The

ical

conditions.
It

It

has a great extent of sea-coast and a large inland

has mountainous districts and level areas, and there are great differences in the fertility of the soil in different parts. If these conditions are really potent factors in the production of men
territory.

of genius, accurate statistics of the talented persons

coming from

all

1

5

APPLIED SOCIOLOGY

[PART

II

these various regions during five centuries of their history would surely show the influence of these physical factors. With his customary caution, M. Odin felt obliged in this analysis to eliminate

from

his entire list certain

elements that might somewhat unduly

modify the results, and to deal with a slightly smaller number, viz., 5620 authors. The area, as in all his calculations, includes the

French portions of Switzerland, Belgium, and AlsaceJHe first divides this area up into "departments," such as those into which France is now divided. He then gives a table of the number born in each department. This table has four
strictly

Lorraine.

columns, the

first

number for each 100,000 show the same for those
ments
in

showing the absolute number, the second the population. The other two columns
classed as persons of talent.

As

the

essential point is the ratio to population,

he arranges the departorder of the number so produced from the highest to the

the lowest, or from 196 per 100,000 to i per 100,000. The mean was found to be 18 to 100,000, and of the 57 departments that produced a considerable number only 13 varied in any marked degree from that mean. The highest ratio was reached by Geneva, which has always been an asylum for the victims of religious persecution, with 196 per 100,000, and next to that came the department of the
If the mesologists Seine, or practically Paris, with 123 per 100,000 should prefer to attribute the enormous ratio of Geneva to its mountainous position, how would they explain the scarcely less

phenomenal

ratio of Paris in the
is

department third in rank
seilles for its chef-lieu.

tame valley of the Seine? The that of Bouches-du-Rhone, with Marviz.,

ratio we have 100,000. eighteen departments. They are scattered throughout the counAs the chief cities are try, some maritime, but mostly inland.

But the drop is immense, Between the mean (18) and this last

to 42 per

better

known than

the names of the departments,

we may

say

that the cities of Dijon, Avignon, Lyon, Orleans, Metz, Besan^on,

Lausanne, Chartres, Troyes, Toulouse, Chaumont, Rouen, Nimes, and Beauvais form the nuclei of these departments.
Versailles, Montpellier, Caen, Tours,

In order to bring out the facts in the clearest possible manner, M. Odin presents a colored map of France, the Belgian provinces,

LOIRE-INFERIEURE__> MAINE-ET-LOIRE' INDRE-ET-

Number

of

Men

of Letters

per 100,000 inhabitants

After Odin

PLATE

I.

Map showing

the Fecundity of

i

Departments of France

in

Men

of Letters

.

letters.) Among the very poor departments are rugged cantons of Vaud and 22 and the second 18 to each and Hautes-Pyrenees Landes on the Bay of Biscay.000 inhabitants 4 or less.5 to 19. or the ditions. etc. some on the west coast. or 3 category. soil. while the equally Neuchatel have yielded the first 100. A results cannot be explained by the physical conhave already considered the most important departments that rise considerably above the mean in their fecundity in men of letters. showing the relative fecundity of each departas grades of fecundity in men of letters by many progressively deepening colors. casual examination of the map and the table is sufficient to reproducing the latter. This map shows six : Unfortunately.e.CH. Thus simplified it is shown on the following" page. of the entire area that has contributed to French literature..000. climate. None of these has produced over 3 per 100. those yielding for every 100. Odin does not the names of the departments on the map. 12. I have. and the French portion of Alsace-Lorraine to be found Ariege 29. M. 5 to 8. which makes it difficult to correlate it with the table to 42. One of these latter is Nievre. In reproducing this map. show that the We departments of least fecundity. If we pass to the other end of the scale. as well as its chief city. falls into this 5 Corsica also per 100. IX] THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 151 and the Swiss cantons. this truth will be still more clear.000 of population. i. to be plainly printed. therefore. 9 to 12. high-grade department of Orleans on the southeast. preserved the column of relative fecundity only. 20 and 43 and upwards.. but men of would reveal any real connection. The mountainous Swiss canton of Valois has never produced a man of letters of merit. Others falling far below the mean are located in all parts. as Plate I. viz. and it is doubtful whether the most exhaustive study of them in their relations to topography. having produced only Several other grades are distinguished on the map. in it which is intended to illustrate. which joins the at the foot of the Pyrenees. and some in the interior. but only the principal give city in each. and Creuse near the center of France. some along the eastern border. To bring the map and the table into exact harmony. ment. I have supplied the deficiency and caused the name of each department. each grade is widely scattered. C6tes-du-Nord on the English Channel..000. For the smaller class of .

APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II DEPARTMENTS .

.

5 12.5 " 19.6 to 8. PLATE II. Map showing the Fecundity of the Provinces of France in Men of Letters . BOUR- GOGNE SCONTE/ Number of Men of Letters per 100.000 inhabitants from 4.6 " 12.5 " 42 19.5 ' " 8.BELGIQUE ABTOIS PICARDIE ]__ WALLONE NORMANDIE BRETAGNE NIVERNAIS .6 ANGUEDOC/ 43 and upwards After Odin GUYENNE W.

as the two other columns of ratios are sufficient for our purpose. the ratios are small and mostly expressed in fractions.000 instead of 100. PROVINCES . however. the first four being the same as in the previous one. as before except that the ratios are given per This table has six columns.000.000. or men of genius. the much method. greater number of facts justifying their treatment by this In the last column.CH. This need not be given. IX] THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT way 153 the same 1. and the fifth and sixth showing the same facts for the highest grade.

viz. and French Belgium at the extreme north. 12. North Languedoc in the interior. Northeast. wholly separated from the only northern province of this grade. and South Center. Gascony in the extreme southwest. somewhat north of the German border to the English Channel.6 to 12.. Orl6anais. from the Swiss and Of the provinces of the fourth grade.5.6 to 19. This great area is higher grade. North Center. Provinces of the third grade. with the exception of South Languedoc. No two of these are contiguous. are. Arranged in the order of : their fecundity in men of letters these regions are as follows REGIONS . Brittany at the west with the largest amount of sea-coast. APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II Burgundy. and 43 or upwards to each 100. Could any ingenuity work out a theory that would explain the distribution any of these classes according to their physical conditions ? M.000 inhabitants. In his map he uses only three colors representing three grades. Southeast. viz. widely scattered.154 latter.. These are the North. occupying also most of the center of France. Picardy-Artois. Savoy-Dauphin^ on the Swiss border. yielding the smallest number of men of letters. They stretch across the center of France from east to west.5. 46 to 85 per million inhabi- tants. or those regions whose fecundity is 8. yielding from 86 to 125 to the million. and Provence. Northwest. show a somewhat greater compactness. Odin has presented the subject in still a third form. and neither of the other two is mountainous. which lies on the Gulf of Lyons and the Mediterranean. although the first is adjacent to the Isle of France. Provence alone is maritime. of Southwest. like those of the second. viz.. by what he calls regions. yielding from 126 to 195 to the million. but Champagne is separated from Touraine and Normandy by the two great central provinces of middle. the greater number lie to the southwest. The provinces of the fifth grade.

.

6 " 19.Number of Men of Letters per 100.5 43 and upwards After Odin PLATE III. Map showing the Fecundity of the seven recognized Regions of France in Men of Letters .5 " 12.000 inhabitants from 8.6 to 12.

No entirely sane person will of course resort to such arguments. The regions of the second grade lie wholly on the east and Mediterranean border. than in that by either provinces or departments. while those of the third grade lie on the west and north and also occupy the center of France. which leads to the suspicion that beneath the apparent geographical influence there lies hidden some other more powerful kind of influence. Now this increasing differentiation. The colors group themselves very differently for departments than for provinces or regions. the valleys of the Loire and Garonne are unfavorable It is only ! by that kind of reasoning that a case can be made out for the influ- ence of physical conditions in determining the fecundity of the different regions in men of letters.. The than general result of this investigation cannot be better stated in the words of M. On the other hand. and the Atlantic and the English Channel were unfavorable to the production 'of men of letters. and in that of the departments there remains almost nothing of the primitive simplicity. the probability of an influence on the part of the geographical environment diminishes precisely in proportion as the number of circumscriptions increases. He says : On the one hand the resemblances present a very different character according to the character of the circumscriptions compared. . clearly the influence of the geographical medium. if in that of the provinces it can still be found if on the contrary to it seems somewhat one wants to find it. If in the map of the regions probable. far from bringing out conditions. tends obscure it more and more. and it may as well be admitted that whatever the influence of the physical environment may be (and its influence is not denied) it is so slight and so subtle in the case before us that it cannot be determined by the statistical method. is the same as for it is men of letters of merit. Odin himself. IX] THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT is reproduced in Plate be seen that the order for men of talent 155 The corresponding map It will all III. and that for that of the Paris. In the map by regions France is found to be divided in an extremely simple way apparently conforming to geographical In that of the provinces we find a grouping already much more complex. and that while the valley of the Seine (or part of it) is highly favorable. Each map thus appears to indicate a different kind of action of the geographical environment from the other two.CH. Otherwise there The North is somewhat more method the distribution by regions. One might maintain that the Alps and the Mediterranean were favorable. Center is still dominated by in South Center. especially with so few grades. men of genius the same with one exception. viz.

Lot-et-Garonne. for example. 448-449. There is scarcely any difference of opinion on this point so far as concerns races so unlike as to be of a different color. Not only are some races regarded as much inferior to others in their intellectual powers. that this ought to show the influence of race. of Haute-Garonne. and Belgian Luxemburg. Odin's statistics. There is evidently no geographical reason. 1 all the differences of this It is generally believed that The Ethnological Environment. It may in reality have been considerable. but this is attributed largely to inherent mental differences. From all this it would be an exaggeration to conclude that the action of the geographical environment has been nil or only insignificant. differ entirely from one another in their respective fecundity in men of letters. while the Bernese Jura has produced only a single one. Haute-Loire. Still it 1 Odin.156 when APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II it comes to that of the departments it is impossible to discover it without doing violence to the facts. Landes. of Creuse. in fact. but most ethnologists and the public generally make it apply to those varieties of the white race that have been long enough segre- gated and locally cantoned to have acquired the designation of races. of Gironde. and Nord. and Seine-Infe"the following series hand. but they are believed to lack those moral attri- butes which must accompany those powers in order to render true genius possible. many departments very : rieure . It is sufficient to point to exactly French Alsace-Lorraine. while presenting analogous geographical conditions. a mass of departments which. Var. We there find. entitled to be called such. pp. This factor should therefore strongly affect the production of men of genius in the areas occupied by such races. has never been preponderant. whatever may have been its role in each particular case. M. the races of men differ even more in their psychic than in their physical qualities. why the department of Doubs should have produced a large number of men of letters. It remains to inquire what has been the real cause of kind. op. of the On the other Rhone. All the former race elements have become inextricably mixed.But what we are in condition to state is that this action. Let any one com- pare the departments of Var. of Seine-et-Marne with their neighboring departments ! unlike from the geographical point of view are similar in their fecundity in men of letters. . It is true that France is no longer divided into localized races. Haute-Garonne. . cit.. They are known to differ greatly in intelligence. and he suspected might be one of the prime influences in raising or lower- ing the fecundity of the different parts of France in men of letters.

spoken.. (i) Corsica . France is at least five localities viz. Gallic. the area from which French men of letters have come. lan dialect prevails a portion of the department of BassesPyrenees. Nevertheless it does not necessarily disprove the action of the ethnological environment. e. He says: 1 Belgians. He will see that the Ligurian. mean. some 1 These regions are roughly shown by the broken Op. 465-466. 2 pp. (3) . we will seek in vain to discover the least connection between race and the fecundity in men of letters. Odin sufficiently was disappointed in not finding that they indicate any marked difference ascribable to these race influences. covering an area of triangular shape. each occupying a somewhat distinct region. embraces part of Belgium.CH. On comparing them M. There is no single race in which we do not meet all grades of fecundity. the southwest that of the Iberians. the southeast that of the Ligurians. Let any one take the map of the regions. Odin's definitions.g. and Belgian areas prove indifferently a high. The Gaulois.. and the northeast that of the in the preceding investigation will serve well in the present one. It is generally will retain believed that France is inhabited by five principal races. or true Gauls. since it may simply be due to our 2 ignorance of the true distribution of races. which is Basque (4) a considerable part of Brittany . Cimbrian. according to M. and he will find everywhere that the distribution of men of letters differs entirely from that of the races. . The maps used of If we compare this ethnographic division with the geographical distribution French men of letters. cit. most of the way across the country near the The northwest of France is the land of the Cimbrians. that of the provinces. or that of the departments. But M. or low fecundity. occupy the central portion. IX] THE ETHNOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT by 157 is to be supposed that the regions once occupied distinct peoples such a groundwork of their primitive ethnic character as to make itself felt in large masses of statistics. while on the other hand a great many districts inhabited by different races show the same degree of fecundity. Plate I.. There are in where a language other than French where a Cata(2) the eastern Pyrenees. lines on the first map. with its apex a little north of Paris and its base forming a nearly east and west line latitude of Valence and Montauban. Iberian. (5) the Flemish part of the department of Nord. Moreover. at Dunkerque. This absence of any complete correlation between the ethnologic " is so evident that even the most biased distribution and literary " geniality mind would not deny it. . Odin was not satisfied to rest the case here.

it is to be noticed that with the exception With regard to the of the department of Nord. At first sight it might seem that was a proof of the superiority of the French this would involve the fallacy of statistics. 468. therefore.000.000. with a ratio of 6. For Corsica. As his total for that department is only 30. 3 to the 100. and most Although French is the prevailing language in all these places. this of course is not possible. is position. therefore. while the much more populous French portion has produced only 14. The East Pyrenees.158 of APPLIED SOCIOLOGY of Alsace-Lorraine. leaving a negative result. may be compared with Aude (9) and Ariege The Basses-Pyrenees contain two of (4). It also has a French portion. the Catalans and the Basques. There are more than twenty strictly French departments whose ratio is 8 or less to the 100. that the fact of belonging to a more civilized nationality and to a literature infinitely richer has exerted no favorable influence on the fecundity of the population in men of letters. p. follows that the Catalan portion has not Commenting on these facts he says it : here find. furnishing a little more than a third of the population. viz. the only one that of comparing the foreign departments with the remaining ones that lie next to them. has produced 16 men of letters. on the contrary. localities in France. in this respect. If race was an important factor in the development of genius. because these are by no means the only departments of which the same is true. the foreign races. Creuse.. in which. they are all considerably below the mean in their fecundity in men of letters. and M. only a portion belongs to this class. 1 it is the inferior nationality that has been the more fruitful in this respect.. still the inhabitants belong rather to other races. viz. speaking other languages. produced any. all these localities should show this in the statistics. . Odin's data enable him to inform us that the Basque portion. including that of Nievre which is contiguous to the rich departments of Loiret and this But Renouncing this criterion. which occupies a very low Cote-d'Or. which have the same ratio as Corsica. first of these classes. 1 We Op. as may be seen from its shape. [PART II Luxemburg. and Landes.. cit. but that. but inhabited by races not properly French and politically speaking. but there are three strictly French departments. Haute-Loire.

C6tes-du-Nord. 5. earlier part of the period to In the production of men of letters. Odin to give us the facts for the two races separately. this weighs little against the fact that.. riority of the Basques over the French of the southwest corner of France. or against the influence of race. borne is Of the five departments that make up Brittany. which is more French than next with in Morbihan comes 3. Finistere. more perhaps than elsewhere. and Landes. much farther east than the boundary C6tes-du-Nord and Morbihan half Breton and making half French. as before.. has a lower ratio. M. all the departments are below the mean (18). and the results must not be judged by present conditions. therefore. lie against the Basses-Pyrenees on the east Hautes-Pyrenees. and that we must look else- where than to considerations facts of this kind. only in the So far as cerned these are found department of France is conNord and only in a limited portion of that department lying on the Manche. relatively to the whole of France. These show that whereas in C6tes-du-Nord the French portion has produced 14 and the Breton portion only 4 men of letters. though lying both of which the ratio is 7. Odin states that the Flemish population is only one ninth of that of the . between Loire-Inferieure and Finistere. Again. Odin's statistics cover a period of five centuries. the Basses-Pyrenees are far below the mean in the production of men of letters. only one. the result the ethnological factor is concerned. The only reasonable conclusion. IX] THE ETHNOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT 159 and north. The fact is that of Finistere. If all this proves the supe- Three departments viz. but one. Ille-et-Vilaine. as M. viz. but nearly all of them were so during the which the facts relate. Gers. These facts certainly say little for Finistere. But the strictly political boundaries more or less obscure the true condition of things.CH. now exclusively Breton. it must be in mind that M. Odin remarks. of race for the true explanation of In treating of Brittany. It is wholly negative so far as remains to consider the Flemish race. This race boundary is sufficiently definite to enable the Breton population extends M. All these have a lower productivity in men of letters. has a ratio of 13. must be that the ethnological element has had little or nothing to do with the result. in Morbihan the French part has produced only i and the foreign part 19.

12. ity of the whole say. has furnished no less than 8 men properly to French literature. Commenting upon all the facts of this class. He compares French Belgium (Belgique wallone) with Flemish Belgium (Belgique flammande). . APPLIED SOCIOLOGY But it [PART 1 1 II happens that these have produced of the 97 men of letters.e. cit. has determined the degree of literary productivity. or. men of letters. .160 department. as he is obliged to deal with facts collected by him but not included in his tables arid with areas not shown on his maps. . in itself a greater or less fecundity in men of letters. if we see on the contrary that the fact of belonging or not to the French nationality nowhere implies. and all within the period from 1801 to 1830. If this is not the case. on the southwest. or rather with the year 1725. : we have 1 1 . men of letters. the former of which. but the ratio is would be much more just to let the com- parison begin with the eighteenth century.5 Somme Hainaut on the east and northeast.. M. and whereas the former has produced 8 men of talent. The simple fact of being born and living in a French medium evidently offers so many advantages that we should expect in all necessity to see the regions that are not French furnish many less men of letters than the strictly French regions. 470. M. 1 5 . it he not stated^ He thinks says. has produced 84 inhabitants. we must necessarily admit that some other circumstance than nationality. What he calls German Belgium. the German activity in Flemish Belgium. 10 Aisne on the south. . i. has produced 73. 6. it. exactly their quota. 1 . . but the results are practically the same as those for the regions already considered.. while of letters Luxemburg. because prior to that date there was scarcely any literary Since that time it has produced 57 French Belgium has produced only 40. Odin remarks : The study of the various cases in which wholly different nationalities in France can be directly compared leads with a rare uniformity in the evidence to the surprising result that the ethnological element exerts no appreciable influence upon literary productivity. or at the rate of 56 to a million The latter. the following result Nord. p. the latter has produced only 3. and one superior in its effects. If the productivdepartment in men of letters is compared with that we may of the ones adjacent to Pas-de-Calais on the west. Odin's treatment of the regions wholly outside of France is somewhat less satisfactory. This it has done in the face of the section of Belgian who belong 1 Op. as shown in his table and map of the provinces.

This is a legitimate inquiry because. as a matter of fact.! It is probable that of evidence they would show no very marked differences scientific work under the same circumstances. then. . 1885. of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. in their capacity for A mass seems to be accumulating everywhere to show that social efficiency does not depend to any considerable degree upon race differences. certainly not when only civilized races are compared. IX] THE RELIGIOUS ENVIRONMENT 161 dominant German language of that region. and these always embrace the best minds. Odin remarks Thus a 475): it. As a final conclusion from this study of the ethnological factor (p. and that it does depend almost entirely on differences in their equipment. 2e ed. This entire contribution was made in Lorraine. provided the circumstances are favorable. nearly all men except within a very short period have been adherents of one or effect of For a century past there have been a few eminent men who have had no special attachment to any truly religion. The fact was due to the superiority of the French language coupled with the influence of French administration during that period. /This analysis of the ethnological environment seems to prove that so far as the different so-called races of Europe are concerned they are all about equally capable of literary work. outside of France as well as within we see everywhere that common language does not at all imply a common literature. p. fraud to classify the whole population of an enlightened country by religions. 543. Histoire des sciences et des savants. and the time has already come when it is a sort of pious other religious sect. have next to consider the The Religions Environment. M. Between 1801 and 1830 no less than 26 men of letters of this class. Most of De Candolle.CH. 5 of whom it produced were men of talent. We religion upon the production of great men.. There are many thousands now who do not belong to any 1 religion. a strong confirmation of de Candolle's statement that in any fair competition French will 1 triumph over German. The same fact is also exemplified in Alsace- Notwithstanding the strong influence of the German city Strasburg with its great university. it has furnished a large contingent to French literature. and any people may distinguish itself in an entirely foreign literature.

. p. Thus.000 condemned to various terms of imprisonment and other penalties. of civilization this element is so small that it may be neglected. 17. but regard them as social phenomena to be studied and compared. like this.000 burnt in effigy (I presume they mostly died in prison or escaped from Spain). clergy friendly to education among its own members and for the public at large. but this is not the question before us. The The effect of persecution injurious in this direction. and 300 were burnt in the single year 1416. gainers. nearly all Three 12. Kidd's pretense that such 1 persons are unconsciously influenced by the religions of the world But in considering the history is a mere begging of the question. 189. The actual data during those three hundred years easily . as has notably been the result in the formation of the superstitious. the Spanish nation was drained of free-thinkers at the rate of 1000 persons annually. 1 by which the English have been large Social Evolution. viz. are 32. The effect of religious ideas men belong to some of the upon human progress has already been treated in the earlier part of this work (see Chapter VI). who says: extent to which persecution must have affected European races is measured by a few well-known statistical facts. and 291. of " de Candolle's " favorable causes relate to religion. unintelligent Spanish race of the present day. In the diocese of Como alone more than 1000 were tried annually by the inquisitors for many years. Italy was also frightfully persecuted at an earlier date. This by the church has no doubt been very is mentioned by Galton. It is rather the relative influence of different religions upon the production of great men. : A A religion making little use of the principle of authority. and in the literature and discussion of the present subject it has been practically narrowed down first to the relative influ- ence of Christianity and Judaism and then more especially to the relative influence of Catholicism and Protestantism. have been either Catholics or Protestants. for the three centuries between 1471 and 1781 an average of 100 persons having been executed and 900 imprisoned every year during that period. as regards martyrdom and imprisonment.1 62 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II them have great respect for all religions. and it is convenient to assume that all great religions. 14. It is impossible that any nation could stand a policy without paying a heavy penalty in the deterioration of its breed. and the great majority of them.000 burnt. The French persecutions. 13. as well as of the peoples from which they have issued. This is because the great men considered have been either Christians or Jews. A clergy not restricted to celibacy.

. 2 But most of the authors named in especially by Auguste Comte. or to art. to meditation. Hereditary Genius. pp. the social condition of the time was such that they had no refuge else- where than tinuance. and therefore from this point of view Protestantism must be regarded as more favorable to genius than Catholicism. She acted precisely as if she had aimed at selecting the rudest portion of the community to be. in his admirable book on the Huguenots. who aimed at creating ferocious. the literature of the present discussion have regarded it as very institution- unfavorable to the production of men of genius. in their and shows clearly that she owes to much of the most valuable life-blood of her them almost all her industrial modern race.3 1 enough good remained in the veins its present very moderate level of 2 8 Hereditary Genius. to literature. the Church brutalized the breed of our forefathers. am hardly abteto"speak of it without impatience. IX] THE RELIGIOUS ENVIRONMENT 163 through receiving their industrial refugees. Thus Galton is says due. 343-344. 345-346. still they have never done it on any such scale. In the seventeenth century three or four hundred thousand Protestants perished attempts to escape. in a very considerable degree. She practised the arts which breeders would use. Although the Protestants have done some persecuting. 3*= ed. Mr. 253. Vol. to the celibacy enjoined by religious orders on their votaries. and stupid natures. the parents of future generations. bosom of the Church. V. Whenever a man or woman was possessed of a gentle nature that fitted him or her to deeds of charity. at the galleys. second edition. p. and an equal number emigrated. currish. or on the scaffold. and All this has been so frequently written up that it need not be it is evident that a religion that is intolerant must be highly unfavorable to the production of genius.CH. : The long period of the dark ages under which Europe has lain I believe. 1 arts and very further dwelt upon. in the exact celibacy. 1892. comparison of these two religious sects the point upon which the greatest stress has been laid in the discussion of the But in the conditions favorable to genius has been the effect of a celibate clergy. That has been strongly defended by others than Catholics.. 1869. were on a nearly similar scale. Smiles. in prison. Philosophic positive. pp. London. But the Church chose to preach and The consequence was that these gentle natures had no conby a policy so singularly unwise and suicidal that I and thus. On this there is room for a difference of opinion. the wonder rather is that of Europeans to enable their race to rise to natural morality. has traced the influence of these and of the Flemish emigrants on England. alone. No wonder that club law prevailed for centuries over Europe.

New York. I will tion had been bad. I As they concern us here only indirectly.262-263. PP. for thousand celibate ecclesiastics or an equal number of who are fathers of families. This mainly determined the laity. agriculturist fifth History of the Conflict between Religion and Science. Aside from the all dogma and from fifty the discipline of the clergy. example. intelligent. Even in reducing the inheritance of things intellectual to the minimum. naturalist Brown (Robert). Phil. astronomer Euler. to suppress the monasteries. or who would have taken a different course if their educanumber society. It may be supposed that this stationary condition was to some extent induced by the papal policy of the enforcement of celibacy The " legal generative force " was doubtless " " actual affected by that policy.). 1875. De Candolle was the first facts to bear on the question of any considerable number of the influence of celibacy on the says: production of It is men of genius. geologist Wallis (John). physicist Encke. In five hundred years it had scarcely doubled. For those who have made this subject their study have long ago been satisfied that public celibacy in the clergy. astronomer Grew. physician Linnaeus. when there are. astronomer Rudbeck (Olaus). astronomer Wollaston.1 64 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY effects of celibacy [PART II The moral have been frequently dwelt upon. chemist Wurtz. chemist Hanstein (L. the result is not same for a country. J. edition.). or natural sciences Agassiz. physical. physicist Heer (Oswald). or pastors : Mathematical. botanist Hartsoeker. . by John William Draper. and virtuous public should or should not be restricted to celibacy. chemist Jenner. physicist Studer (Bernard). as well as the government England. botanist Camper. M. with quoting a passage from Draper: will content myself The population of England at the Norman conquest was about two million..). anatomist. anatomist Clausius (Rud. 1 naturalist Young (Arthur). is in private wickedness. naturalist Berzelius. the simple existence in Protestant countries of married pastors assures the development from year to year of a certain who exert a favorable influence on mention in support of my opinion a few men of unquestioned merit who would not have been born if Protestant ecclesiastics had been restricted to celibacy. mathematician Fabricius. forty or ecclesiastics from the standpoint of education. of educated or upright persons . physician.. They are all sons of Protestant ministers. the generative force was not. naturalist Mitscherlich. mineralogist Olbers. It was openly asserted that there were one hundred thousand women in England made to bring dissolute by the 1 clergy. deans. botanist Schimper (W. botanist Boerhaave. botanist Schweizer. mathematician Wargentin. He not a matter of indifference that certain categories of the educated.

Abbot. They would have accomplished exactly the same. must admit that the absence of these names would enormously dwarf all these branches of human achievement. Berzelius. Jenner. ist lord Colchester. Wollaston. Hellenist Sismondi. 1 I know of no better example De Candolle. Poets . op. and Dean Swift. historian Hase (Ch.). but what kind of a world would it be ? To say that the environment would have evolved their practical substitutes would be an assertion for which there does not seem to be an atom of proof. pp. cit. historian Thomson Wieland Young Artists Puffendorff (Sam. political. Hallam.). is This and very We attempt can barely imagine little what science would have been without Agassiz. One answer is that all these men would have been born just the same. Gessner (Jean) Ancillon (Ch.). 149-152. jurisconsult Scheighaeuser. if celibacy had been imposed upon the ecclesiastics of their habits of domestic education had been bad. philosophy without a We Hobbes can think of history without a or an Emerson. This would be useless as a demonstration. Linnaeus. We can conceive of poetry without Addison.. or art without Sir Christopher Wren. has been made to answer the argument.. historian Ancillon (Fred. or philo- 165 Moral. do without all its great men. being married. and literary men logical sciences Addison statesman . letters would have been impeded during two centuries all cults. IX] THE RELIGIOUS ENVIRONMENT historical." and Young. and according to Galton's subsidiary thesis' of the irrepressibility of genius. Thomson. I think. this would have constituted no barrier to their success.. orientalist Jonson (Ben) Lessing Richter (Jean Paul) Swift Emerson (Ralph Waldo) Hallam (H. medicine. The world could. certainly a remarkable showing. . historian Bochart.). historian (Christopher) Wilkie (David) Wren I could have tripled or quintupled these lists indicating men of recognized distinction but less known to the general public. for the names enumerated are sufficient to show to what extent science. only they would have been illegitimate. philosopher Miiller (Jean de). Lessing. 1 or if.CH. Benoit). Euler. Hellenist Hobbes (Thomas). and of literature without Ben Jonson. But all.

or artistic studies. We see the Catholic clergy furnish a larger proportion of Protestant clergy. But. as a rule. and therefore. can and do achieve in various He says further on this general head lines. visiting the poor and the sick. but which is at least worth our Admitting that the Catholic clergy can leave no posterity any chance to distinguish itself. apply themselves to literary. This is the quieting effect of family life. which facilitates many duties that cost much time and fatigue to Protestant pastors. I do not speak of the numerous Catholic ecclesiastics who for one reason or another have dispensed with the greater part of these duties. is certain to deprive their labors of the sane stability 1 and Odin. they cannot. all things considered. etc. If their chastity is complete. Odin. 1 men of letters than the neglects one factor which I have reason to believe has considerable importance. upon which. they are relatively more numerous. on the other hand. p. . as by the Protestant clergy. And there is even a worse aspect of the case. and that the Catholic ecclesiastics have as much more time than the should therefore expect to pastors as the latter devote to their families. they are in danger of falling of mysticism. there is reason to believe under the it rarely is. the time devoted to the special requirements of the calling is practically the same. many : As a matter of fact Catholic ecclesiastics have more formalities connected with the cult to go through than their Protestant confreres. is impossible. Perhaps it should not be. has a somewhat different answer. It may be said in general that. op. as isfied affection. [PART II of the reductio Illegitimacy. scientific. cit. is a bar to all aspirations. On the other Catholic priests. while Protestant clergymen can transmit their predisposition to culture. such as is always necessary to the production of any great work. but as a matter of fact it is. it is true. while it may be accompanied spell by genius. 487.. which. he nevertheless points out that the rearing of a family. involves a large sacrifice of time and energy which a celibate clergy can devote attention. he does not stoutly insist. that has to genial pursuits. hand. such as preaching. except under the most unusual circumstances. Odin and find themselves in such an uneasy and unsettled frame of mind that prolonged application.1 66 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY ad absurdum. M. however. There are many persons who cannot work under the goad of unsat- M. teaching novitiates. and especially the higher orders with ample emoluments and much leisure.

Scrutinizing his list he discovered that 282 modern French men of letters of talent were Catholic ecclesiastics. Assuming that all the rest were Catholics. Odin has made an effort to apply statistics to this question. and at the very outset (1539-1550) to 33 per cent. Of these 105 are known estants to have been Protestants. except that the first line gives them for the first two centuries from 1300 to 1500. As the attempt to handle the entire number of literary men seemed hopeless. This is chiefly interesting as showing that while the absolute times the relative number increased during modern number diminished. low His table shows the result by fifty-year periods from 1300 to 1825. as already stated. period and the per cent that this number is of the whole number of Of the 105 who were born men of talent for the same period. As France has been mainly Catholic throughout modern times. 1801-1825. is His other table much more to the point. Odin has confined himself to the smaller class that he designates as men of letters of talent. Upon the whole this table cannot be said to possess very great value for the problem at large. and the last line for twentyfive years. The average for the whole period is only i o per cent. 389. as is 1 This subject was more fully discussed in Pure Sociology. IX] THE RELIGIOUS ENVIRONMENT 167 fidelity to truth that are essential to the highest productions of the human mind. which is 36 per cent of the whole. 1 M. which shows the absolute number for each twenty-five-year periods. Twenty-five others became Prot- some time in the course of their lives. divides the Catholics into high clergy. clergy. Besides the numerical table he gives. of whom. At any rate he made this his basis. See pp. he found 1 136. a basis of comparison was found. Of the Protestants he found that 47 were clergymen. M. . it seems to have been assumed that the subject of a sketch must be a Catholic unless the contrary is specially stated. but the results are not very satisfactory on account of the limited information supplied by the biographical dictionaries. It should be said that there were five Israelites whom he neglects except to deduct them from the nonProtestant total. making a total of Protestants he gives a table by 130. 388. He and Jesuits. but during the earlier parts of it it amounted to 25 per cent. This is 26 per cent of the Catholics of this grade on that basis.CH.

1 68 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II custom throughout. the curves showing the several classes and the percentages of both Catholics and Prothis estants. The following is the table : CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF MEN OF LETTERS OF TALENT WHO WERE ECCLESIASTICS (CATHOLICS AND PROTESTANTS) PERIODS . a graphic representation.

is less conclusive than is generally supposed. Odin had frequently had his suspicions aroused that there was some great neglected factor which must be discovered before the be grasped. pp. trawling with his great statistical net over the whole sea bottom of modern history. in the second half for the Catholics. 487-489. Jacoby is not the only writer who has laid stress on this aspect of the question. eses. In his tentative groping after truth The Local Environment. for its own sake. To sum up. however. op. and He the religious environment. at least for the period that we are studying. But taken together they constitute a combination of evidence to which it is impossible deny all value. We will admit then that religion has exerted a perceptible upon the quality (richesse) of literature. in the first half of the century for the Protestants. to determine exactly what this action has been. de Candolle are not the same. / Jacoby's theory that the density of population is the chief influence attracted his attention. the ethnological. we repeat. without being able. IX] If finally THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT we consider of all 169 the table from the chronological point of view we shall by the fact that the absolute and relative number of ecclesiastics who have been men of letters drops suddenly in the last century. but that of the Catholics continues to fall. Each of these circumstances." The example of men of letters shows that this abandonment must be due to more general causes. But his charts and his maps and his graphic representations gave out constant hints of this undiscovered factor. . What would be true of the one would not always be true of the other. / to action 1 it Perhaps we should not leave this subject without remarking that is the one in which the greatest differences between literature and science would occur. and therefore the points of view of M. we have seen that four circumstances independent of one another tend to make us consider Protestantism more favorable than Catholicism to the culture of letters. M. In the following periods the number of Protestants shows a tendency to rise again./ In fact a kind of popular belief that the friction of mind upon mind produced by the close contact of men in populous centers constitutes a powerful stimulus to it is 1 Odin. Odin and M. We need only remark here that it weakens the supposition of M. de Candolle.. cit. real meaning of his facts could faithfully tested all three of the prevailing hypoththose of the efficacy of the physical.. and found comparatively little to reward the search. viz. according to which " the abandonment of be struck first " science by the greater part of the Catholic ecclesiastics is explained by " the increasing specialization of scientific men. This fact may furnish material for interesting special researches.CH.

Moreover. As usual we find that Comte had anticipated them and not left them very much new to add. It may be easily perceived at a glance that this influence contrib- utes much. first kind has in fact ancy to the intellectual and moral forces. necessarily incompatible with a too small number of cooperators. we not read "Iron sharpeneth iron so a man sharpeneth the countenance of his friend" ? which Professor Giddings says " was is this idea so very Proverbs (xxvii. Sociologists. have generally recognized this principle as a part of their science. by neutralizing more and more the various physical inequalities.I7 o intellectual activity. 455-456. this condensation stimulates directly and in a very powerful way the more rapid progress of social evolution. the real influence of such a continuous condensation. pp. p. by Franklin Henry Giddings. the earliest and the greatest discovery ever made in sociology. If now we consider it also in relation to this greater or less rapidity it will be easy to discover a new cause of the general acceleration of the social movement through the direct disturbance which the fundamental antagonism between the instinct of preservation and the instinct of innovation must thus undergo. medieval and early modern times." 1 Similar expressions are to be found throughout antiquity. 39. New York. but also of order itself. irrespective of the actual duration of the process of its formation. and some recent ones have laid great stress upon it. in brief. however. In creating new wants and new difficulties. In either case we see that it is not a question here of the absolute increase in the number of individuals. to bring about a more and more special division in the totality of human labor. 17) . and which is peculiarly applicable where. 2 1 The 2 Auguste Comte. by reason of a more inherent and less known quality. We should therefore first hear him : that was I will merely point at present to the progressive condensation of our species as a last general element serving to regulate the actual rapidity of the social movement. for do. especially at the outset. Philosophie Principles of Sociology. . or else by compelling society to react with more stubborn and better concerted energy in order adequately to resist the more powerful tendencies toward special deviations. conformably to the special expression of which I have made use. but rather of their more intense competition (concours~) on a given space. at all times. Such is. but these are only the adumbrations that go before every important idea. either by spurring individuals on to make fresh efforts to secure for themselves through more refined means an existence which would otherwise thus become more difficult. not only to the attainment of progress. this gradual agglomeration also spontaneously develops new means. although even more important. which are necessarily held in their low primitive condition in every too limited population. 1896. the latter being evidently destined henceforth to acquire a notable increase of energy. Vol. IV. and also by giving an increasing ascendto the great centers of population. in APPLIED SOCIOLOGY Nor : [PART II new. positive. the chief progress of mantaken shape.

But he has not." He says: The primary origin of any social process of importance must be sought in Thus far we have found the constitution of the internal social medium. these partial societies are all blended in the mass of the whole society. . For as purely economic relations leave men detached from one another they may be in very close contact without on this account sharing the same collective existence. 1893. regarding it as the main incentive to progress in past times as well as in the present. to my knowledge. to the same extent. a distinct individual. Paris. remain separated by moral voids. the consequence. The dynamic density may be denned as. . or. these are the number of social units. or rather the groups of individuals. from which Comte also considered it. P. it is because. and as likely to remain such far into the future. who not only exchange services or compete. and. the and the degree of concentration of the mass. which can have no effect if the individuals.2 &9- . Spencer on the pressure of population. He considered rather its effect upon fertility. what we have called the barrier. maintaining that this is to diminish fertility. and first M. For if each partial aggregate forms a whole. but the moral contact. of which the preceding is only the auxiliary. These approached this question from the standpoint of the division of labor. commonly enough. but who live a common life. two series of characters which answer in a special way to this condition . dynamic density. or. separated from the rest by a . if. that is. the circle of social life is . as we have also said. par fimile Durkheim. . . volume of society. 1 In a later work he discusses the subject more fully and makes an important distinction between what he calls the "dynamic density" and the "material density. discussed the special question of the effect of density in developing the intellectual faculties. IX] THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT also laid great stress 171 ( Mr. and. . extended. Durkheim laid he down the if it following proposition : The it is division of labor varies in direct ratio to the societies. 1 De la division du travail social. it is because the action of its members in general remains localized on the contrary. This is why that which best expresses the dynamic density of a people is the degree of coalescence of the social segments. questions do not concern us here. because the societies are becoming constantly more dense and usually more voluminous. a function of the number of the individuals who are in relations not merely commercial but moral. volume and the density of progresses continuously in the course of social development. By this latter phrase must be understood not the purely material compression (resserrement} of the aggregate.CH. Life in common can only be affected by the number of those who effectively work together in it. for an equal volume. thus automatically regulating population.

we understand by this not only the number of inhabitants per unit of surface. and. and based his calculations on century the census of France of the year 1836.. 1901. and the number of names is large enough to eliminate statistical defects in most cases. i. i. " Le facteur Population dans 1'evolution sociale. Chapter up a list IV of Part name of all II of his book consists entirely of an enumeration by departments these persons arranged in the alphabetical order of the in which they were born. it is far from it vexed problem as to what being the solution of that problem. but the development of the it usually advances at the means of communication and of transmission same rate as the dynamic density. in fact. 2 but perhaps enough has been said and especially relative to this particular aspect of our subject. 9^ annee. Paris. 138-141. . pp. which he discusses statistically.e. arrondissements. suppressed.. As was remarked. pp. p. if it is. 1889. in the work mentioned in the section on the literature (supra.e. relations can only be established between distant points of the social mass if this distance is not an obstacle. is this discussion by citing other authors.. 139). as a multiform complex of civilization. to ascertain the effect of the accumulation of inhabitants upon a more or less restricted territory.." Revue internationale de sociologie. taken in its broad intellectual and moral qualities 1 Les Regies de la methode sociologique. He drew of 3311 names of eminent Frenchmen of the eighteenth with the places of their birth. M.172 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II As regards the material density if. inevitable that they should break the way that allows such an approach. at least. The next chapter considers the relative fecundity of the departments in remarkable personages. or more exact places of their birth. in general. Nevertheless there are exceptions. revue et augmentee. par Emile Durkheim. M. and also giving the cities. but he prefaces his long table by the following remarks : We have arrived . There can be no I might go on and expand doubt that of the represents one of the approaches toward the solution is the true cause of the development of talented individuals.. Paris. 1901. 2 Nouvel Expose d'economie politique et de physiologic sociale. 2e ed. on the other hand. 569-612. Jacoby set out. and we should expose ourselves to serious errors if we were always to judge of the moral concentration of a society by the 1 degree of material concentration which it presents. as we shall see. Adolphe Coste. But. at the conclusion that and general sense. may serve as a measure of For if the different parts of the population tend to approach each other it it. aout-septembre. This is an exceedingly interesting list. and.

cit. and intelligent natures. and not only not presenting any great centers. and finally of the attractive force which the centers already formed exert upon mobile. As the fractions are always less than a thou- sandth. and the density of population of the country on the other. there exists. imply an identical distribution of the population. These influences grow with the increase in the number of the centers of population. Which of the two factors has a bearing on the question under discussion ? We have no data for deciding between the two. and with this civilization also advances. of the necessity of a more and more intense in'iellectual activity. . social. this relation is far from holding true in each particular case. the percentage of the century.e. op.CH. etc.. number and population of cities.. as a general fact. political. Certain provinces have a very dense population. as occurs in the department of Bouches-du-Rh6ne. and they may thus serve as a criterion for determin- stricted territory. IX] THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT 173 of the population. and generally less than a ten thousandth. Other regions present the converse relations. but not even having any cities of considerable magnitude. of certain conditions of life. . i. ing the relative civilization of the various localities of a country. pp. scientific. a more or less constant direct relation. but uniformly distributed over the whole territory.. for the whole country taken together. The second gives the relative number of remarkable personages . the same number of inhabitants per does not at all kilometer. There are very . 1 His table consists of four columns. active. We therefore place the figures for these two factors in parallel columns with the figures for the relative fecundity o the present departments in remarkable personages during the eighteenth these conditions density of population and jn other words. born during the eighteenth century in each of the departments. 1 it results that Jacoby. We shall therefore perceive a direct causal connection between civilization on the one hand and the density of population and number of populous centers on the other these two conditions must therefore furnish the positive indications of the degree of civilization.grave reasons for thinking that . urban population to the total population of the country both have a positive influence. is the result of the accumulation of inhabitants upon a more or less reIt appears as a natural consequence of the constantly more and more increasing complication of the conditions of social life. But if between the number and the population of the cities on the one hand. The same density of population. although it is impossible to determine their relative action. and is always expressed in decimal fractions carried out to the eighth place. which causes them to abandon the rural districts and go and settle in the cities. This number is obtained by dividing the absolute number by the population. 535-536. large commercial or industrial cities are here separated by large thinly peopled and almost uncultivated spaces. as we see in the department of C6te-d'Or. of all the departments of The first contains the names France arranged in alphabetical order.

Odin's there is substantial harmony between them. but exact correspondence in this respect could not of course require explanation. Thus arranged the was obliged to table conveys no instructive lesson. Jacoby includes so much as belonged to France in the eighteenth century. It must also be remembered that while M. however. p. be made clear by arranging the departments in the descending order of their fecundity and stating this in the number per 100. But as he confined himthe eighteenth century while M. Wide deviations only Seine and Bouches-du-Rhone have the same and the former shows the proper numerical relations.e. Odin's table covers five centuries. of inhabitants per square kilometer. therefore. Doubs has about twice as many remarkable personages as it would be expected to. position. ably to be explained et-Moselle according to the present usage.. i. be expected. while the high position of Meurthe is probby the fact that M. and no more. Wherever. and he supplement it with a graphic representation. Calvados. The same is true of and Aisne. and therefore the figures of the first column admit of direct comparison with those of that table. and some other . the number places. have from M. which makes a very awkward showing and difficult to grasp. as well as Corsica. M. Odin's table. Odin combines Meurthe- Jura. but excludes Savoy and the Maritime Alps. On the other hand. Aube. and no part of Switzerland or Belgium was taken. The third column gives the density of population. The order should also be nearly the same. carried to two decimal The fourth column shows the percentage that the urban is population to the total population of each department. The table can. This includes more of Alsace-Lorraine. shown on the opposite page. Oise. Jacoby includes all persons of distinction. Var. Jacoby's table as in M. the whole number included in the latter is nearly twice self to as large as that in the former. It will It will then take the form be observed that this table has the same form as the one by departments taken from M. It needs only to be borne in mind that M. Odin's work (supra. the figure in the first column is approximately half as large in M. Indre-et-Loire.000 of inhabitants. Loir-et-Cher. 152).174 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II there are always three and usually four zeros before any digits are reached. Odin confined himself to men of letters.

THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT 175 DEPARTMENTS .

of Pas-de-Calais. and exclusive of less therefore the density of this one department from three to five times as great as the theory would anywhere require. Orne. If we scan the second column we do not find is not a fair illustration. fact. its fecundity is between eight and nine times that of the mean.000 about 9 eminent personages. but only that it does so when taken in connection with the proportion of urban population. occupying the second the most extreme case. [PART II But most of the other highas nearly in the two tables as could grade departments correspond reasonably be expected. are also abundant.. as in Cote-d'Or. Loiret. viz. Charente. though interesting in themselves. But perhaps this Paris much . is we consider departments of low fecundity. are almost as striking. He does not specially claim that density his table with of population alone determines the degree of fecundity. If we take the case of the department of the Seine. Marne. and Sarthe. Mayenne. As we go down the scale we see the fecundity gradually diminishing until it almost disappears. If we it consider the falls first of these factors by itself we shall see how short of doing so. and a few others fall far below in table. if equally clear this to be the case. Yet the theory would require This is it to be the case.176 departments fall APPLIED SOCIOLOGY below their quota. while the Hautes-Pyrenees and Haute-Loire are Some of these differences may be explainable. Cher. great as that also is greater this density is than the is. with a fecundity of only 4. Lozere. But the average density it is therefore nearly thirteen times greater than is less than 100. where high fecundity goes along with low density. If the mean per 100. place in point of density. These comparisons. Its density is 2327 and that of Rhone is 173. 98 per cent of which is concentrated in the city of far Paris. do not directly bear upon M. Loire. we see how enormously relative fecundity. Instances of the opposite class. Doubs. but this would require special researches. is The failure of the theory. and especially C6tes-du-Nord. however. M. and it ought to have produced 200 or 300 distinguished personages instead of 69 per 100. But we find Nord. Jacoby's contention. and Basses-Alpes.000 inhabitants. This can be tested only by a comparison of the figures in the three columns of one another. Allier. The former is that. all in In the figures for the density scarcely diminish at passing . but those Manche. Jacoby's in excess. At the other end of the scale.

Still.000 inhabitants during the entire eighteenth century M. it is true. which. and as puzzling in this case as in the preceding. with- out giving out any positive indication with regard to it . point. has a percentage of urban population of 41 Loire. 40. toward the bottom of the scale. with Lyons to swell the percentage of urban population in a comparatively small department. with 4. Haut-Rhin. to guess the relation between the conditions which form the object of our search. Bouches-du-Rh6ne with Marseilles and other cities making up 81 per cent comes second in point of productivity in great men. But here we meet a counter-fact in Doubs and C6te-d'Or with 23 and 22 per cent of urban population holding the third and fourth places in point of fertility of talent. again. we must not allow ourselves to be deceived nor shut our eyes to the evidence. The agreement in the lines which express the conditions which we are analyzing are/*?//. see some diminution parallel with that of the fecundity. notwithstanding its great density of population. and notwithstanding its 54 per cent of urban population. forcibly than does His general comment upon the whole result The reader a priori. more or less in their general direction. Jacoby did not shut his eyes to these facts. but not more the table as I is have rearranged as follows : it. and Cher. Rhone. a percentage of 27. on the other hand. IX] THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT They even seem 177 to increase from higher to lower fecundity. But more remarkable still. but it is soon lost again. we do Let us next examine the percentage of urban population. Here Paris is 98 per cent of the Seine and has much the largest fecundity. a percentage of . amounting to 181 inhabitants to the square kilometer. at least the exceptions . up to a certain and of the conclusions at which we arrived But.CH. that it could be expressed by a graphic figure so simple and exact would admit of neither deviation nor exception. the correctness of our idea perceives that the graphic view already proves. with only 2. His graphic dia! gram brought them out too plainly. is Nord. but these lines present at the same time a long series of deviations not in the least doubtful in particular cases. Evidently it could not be expected that questions as complex as that of the intensity of the energy of intellectual activity in its relation to conditions as multiplied as those that constitute civilization. and the whole series becomes so irregular and fitful that all that can be said is that many of the departments of a low fecundity also have a small urban population. produced only 4 men of talent for each 100. restores the balance for a moment. with a fecundity of 7. But it must be admitted nevertheless that the graphic representation scarcely enables us to feel.

consists of the following departments: Seine. and Nord. which he now admits him to to have been only a hypothesis. the deviations so great. Cote-d'Or. he claims. . Herault. Nancy. He proceeds to make an ethnological grouping of the departments. and therefore must have their meaning and their explanation. especially the ethnological and the physical or climatological and even geological causes of the various deviations scheme present. satisfies the hypothesis. Jacoby would have been conshown by statistics that density of population coupled with the proportion of persons living in cities has some unknown relation to the amount of talent in a country. are and Basses-Pyrenees in the extreme south and southwest. Seine-et-Oise. al- though he had scarcely advanced the subject beyond the popular intuitions with regard to it. Doubs. and he proceeds to discuss a great variety of as- pects of the question. Vaucluse. with its Flemish admixture. By successive trials he was able to put together certain departments in such a way that the five groups thus formed would show a nearly parallel diminution in all three of the columns. This. 1 One might have supposed that tent to rest his case here. Moreover these exceptions. though more numer- even more widely scattered. and thus constitute in the particular cases a direct refutation of the law that we have laid down. which. Lyons. is forcing statistics with a vengeance. Meurthe. The first group. contains departments as different ethnologically as Finistere and Haut-Rhin. for example. To say that they mask the general direction of the lines and hence the law that governs them. these deviations also have their raison d'etre. would be an error. was too strong to permit abandon it.1 78 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II are so numerous. having M. that they render the general harmony of the lines completely illusory. But his faith in his theory. and Montpellier belong in any proper sense to any particular race ? But the departments in the other four groups. Versailles. Rhone. p. The third group. cit. for example. while the fourth group contains the Pyrene"es-Orientales ous. These deviations break in the most positive and indubitable manner the parallelism of the lines. Bouches-du- Rhdne. Marseilles. Will any one claim that the inhabitants of Paris. Besan9on. It seems to be nothing else than a wholly arbitrary that his table and graphic what he calls grouping made with the express intention of satisfying it. 1 Jacoby. Dijon. 539. surely. with a considerable Basque population.. But it is not an ethnological grouping at all. op. Avignon.

y). in discussing this singular sponding in part to these. and asks the question whether we may not conclude that they should be regarded the one as a function of the other. but correlaw. In the first place. easy to show by numerous and striking examples taken at random that the law laid down by him is purely imaginary. Odin. and it is difficult to see what real value all this has for those who simply want to know the truth. This is that. he says that these two conditions are in direct relation with each other. It is. If we take a department with a total dense population but with a small urban population. on the contrary. density by the theory of our author? None at It has the has no influence except as it comes from urban agglomerations. it is impossible to discover a general agreement between the definite figures obtained by the author and the number of remarkable men. remarks I : myself to pointing out the strange blunder (btvue) that the multiplies the density of the population by the percentage of urban population. the combination of these two elements will do so. although the product of the density by the percentage of population might be practically the same in the two cases. no longer u =f(x. M. which would then be the inde- pendent variable. designating the density of population by x. but u =f(xy). and he adds : Since the frequency of remarkable persons is in direct relation with both the conditions of population. That this proceeding. He and finds that they conform to his alleged would not be true of all the provinces is evident. It is also essential that its application be legitimate. It is not enough to discover an operation which permits us to attain a given result. IX] THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT 179 In Chapter IX of his book. we shall have for the expression of our law. the percentage of urban population by y. by what will confine author commits when he right can we make itself in the first compensate the second? What meaning all. although their population is distributed in a wholly different way. while still insisting that the frequency of remarkable personages is in direct ratio to the density of population and to the proportion of urban population. and the frequency of remarkable personages by u. then proceeds to apply this formula to certain selected provinces. here is a series of departments which. But it evidently is not so in the present case. But if the density means nothitself how could it serve to correct the proportion of urban population? One fact makes it unnecessary to insist on the strangeness of supposing that when neither the density of population nor the amount of urban population ing by furnishes the desired result. it should be in direct relation with their product. even admitting this arbitrary multiplication. not wholly the recognized provinces of France. and. A very dense population living only in hamlets could not equal a less dense one grouped around an important center.CH. nevertheless present almost the same fecundity in remarkable personages : .

i8o APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II DEPARTMENTS .

199 ff. p. Instead of resorting to such subtle operations." 2 1 and Gid- " Genius is 3 I have dings says: rarely born in the town. though somewhat laborious. politique. 1897. Bru3 5 . p. Vol. Odin drew up an elaborate table showing chiefly by half-century Laschi. Degenerescence individuelle et Degenerescence collective. xelles. are born in the country.CH. a wide-spread belief that great men are nearly all born " in the country. Odin says in the paragraph that immediately follows the one last quoted In fact.. p. I. etc. p. Le Crime politique.e. La Sociologie objective. 158. It would be easy. Bagehot is claimed to have said Very few great There is : men have issued from the exhausted soil of a metropolis/' Richter declared that "no poet is ever born in a capital. p. but if possible. based on a considerable number of examples that have come under my personal observation. a means so simple in reality that we can scarcely conceive of his not thinking of it. cit. IX] THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT 181 commonplace explanations do not satisfy it.. p. cite a large number of statements to the On account of the differences above pointed out between his facts and those compiled by M. 7." myself shared this view. in a hamlet. 1 Cf. in the Autobiography). and how many in the country. M. Translated from the German. As M.." same or similar effect. 380. 5 and M. Lombroso and L'Homme * Le Crime Principles of Sociology. Cf. at the highest " in a village (Life of Jean Paul F. Paris. and without any possible dispute. Lombroso and Laschi claim to have " demonstrated that the greater number of geniuses. 4 One might though they die in the cities. but such comparisons as have already been made between them show such a general agreement that in the present case. p. 157. M. op. i. he would have needed only to inquire how many remarkable personages were born in the large cities. to compile from his fourth chapter a series of tables that would bring out the true facts on this point. " Let no 2 So poet suffer himsays Lombroso. we naturally expect it to hold also As a preparation for this most important part of his entire work. Jacoby had a much more simple and effective means of determin: ing the relation that may exist between the distribution of the population and the fecundity in great men. 13 Dallemagne. de Candolle. 1845. how many in the small cities. Richter together with his Autobiography. 1899. pp. notwithstanding the facts of his own compilation to the contrary. London. de genie. Jacoby seems to be thoroughly imbued with it. they might reward this labor. Odin. 347. See also Lombroso. but I find only this to justify it: self to be born or educated in a metropolis. . 22. The enigma would have been solved at one stroke. Coste.

Omitting the periods this table is as follows: PROVINCES . periods the exact places of birth of all the modern French men of The periods are shown in columns and the departments are arranged in alphabetical order. The last (1300-1825). This table enables any skeptical person to verify the general results of future tables. Wherever any of the men of letters are men of talent the figure for these is put in parentheses by the side of the figure for the whole number. concludes the enumeration of the cities usually includes all born in the rural districts or in very small villages. distinguishing those born in cities from those born in other localities. The entry "other localities " which is very frequently the case.182 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II letters. the cities in each department standing over them. where any are born in the chateaux of any department. The lists of cities are always terminated by the as chateaux. The next table shows the results by periods and total for the entire period column gives the provinces.

IX] THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT men 183 how much truth there is in the popular belief are usually born in the country. The same truth is brought out with equal force when the facts are shown by regions instead : of provinces.CH. which were counted as country. With a single exception. In two Franche-Comte and Isle of France. but for the second it is obviously due to the influence of the metropolis. and that the one that yielded the smallest number. and a great part of the region consisting of suburbs. as in the following table REGIONS . the principal city being Versailles. For the first of these the reason is not clear. the difference is not very great. although to all intents and purposes they are parts of Paris. the cities of every province yielded a larger number of men of letters This table shows that great In most cases it is more than double. the general density of the population of a province as some peculiar influence which a city exerts that raises the productivity in great men. while life in rural districts and in that it is not so much small villages tends strongly to diminish this productivity. It is clear then than the country. provinces.

.1 84 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II apparent as we proceed. As the periods form an essential feature in this case. and I will reproduce the table here. they will be shown as he has drawn them up.

243 243 187 12 Cote-d'Or. 18 22 9 ...'. 30 59 48 15 86 85 84 26 23 20 23 21 5 Somme Card Ain Pas-de-Calais Bouches-du-Rhone Jura Correze Allier .000 NUMBER NUMBER INHABITANTS Seine PER 100... 50 49 47 Marne Aube Sarthe 12 17 35 30 22 125 28 100 97 14 Ardennes Seine-Inferieure 96 93 93 92 28 26 4 Haute-Vienne Yonne Vienne Maine-et-Loire Saone-et-Loire 34 32 89 87 23 8 18 40 .000 INHABITANTS IS II II 1344 .. IX] THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT COMPARATIVE TABLE BY DEPARTMENTS OF FRANCE OF CITY AND COUNTRY IN MEN OF LETTERS CITIES COUNTRY DEPARTMENTS NUMBER NUMBER PER 100. 51 83 82 122 18 80 78 78 75 26 27 II 20 10 5 14 18 17 6 5 3 2 Charente 74 72 Meuse . 90 28 Haute-Marne Oise 33 24 34 18 39 55 71 51 156 J 10 IO Doubs Loiret 45 34 142 J 20 8 17 5 2 Vaucluse Haute-Garonne 26 '3 4 78 27 132 Cher Eure-et-Loir 123 38 135 Rhone Ille-et-Vilaine 119 118 118 112 III 19 '3 5 8 7 i 66 36 42 65 28 Indre-et-Loire 23 13 i? 10 3 8 Isere Herault Loir-et-Cher 108 1 08 8 Calvados Aisne Seine-et-Oise 80 34 107 45 106 104 1 02 102 30 45 '5 Meurthe-et-Moselle ...CH......

000 INHABITANTS Seine-et-Marne ' 20 41 17 '5 6 2 Puy-de-D6me Indre 69 68 65 62 61 9 6 13 16 3 Tarn Ardeche 24 5 6 6 6 4 3 Manche Lot-et-Garonne Charente-Inferieure 25 16 28 ii .. 59 58 57 57 57 32 10 1 1 Gironde Basses-Pyrenees 63 20 12 3 2 2 5 7 Lot Orne 6 20 14 3 14 14 5 1 1 56 Mayenne Creuse 56 55 54 5 5 i Drome Nord Eure '5 7 72 15 23 21 4 6 2 Aude Finistere 20 25 10 10 54 5i 5 4 10 7 5 3 3 2 Deux-Sevres Cantal Basses-Alpes Pyrenees-Orientales Loire 50 47 8 12 10 . Nice Haute-Loire 2 5 2 5 4 3 4 12 Gers ... 7 47 13 46 43 43 42 3 IO 19 J 3 Var Aveyron Haute-Saone Vosges Tarn-et-Garonne 19 12 5 4 8 4 7 3 10 16 13 42 4i 19 18 7 2 2 4 Morbihan Nievre 36 32 31 6 12 I 9 4 23 3 12 7 6 i Hautes-Pyrenees Loire-Inferieure 27 27 9 3 3 3 2 5 5 i Ariege Savoie 6 16 10 5 26 C6tes-du-Nord 26 21 Hautes-Alpes Lozere Corsica 3 2 20 20 16 '5 13 6 i 4 3 .1 86 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY CITIES [PART II COUNTRY DEPARTMENTS NUMBER NUMBER PER 100..000 N'l NUMBER Mill I INHABITANTS PER 100...

how begins to be apparent what the local environment is and operates in the production of great men. which gives the average in each case population. and it could only have been reached by of the former such a prolonged and exhaustive investigation as that which M. now see how misleading this is.000 inhabitants born in cities. take it would be to infer from it that the influence of the city is only about twice as favorable as that of the country in the production of men of eminence. To arrive at the average we have only to foot the two columns column by that of the fourth. arranged the departments simply in geoThis makes it difficult to study. This result is contrary to all theories and to the popular view. The whole number of men . 182 and 183) the absolute number by provinces and by regions showed giving that the fecundity of cities was about twice as great as that of the second and fourth columns. nearly 13 (exactly 12. Or the number of per 100.e. The merest inspection shows that it We is generally many times as great. and where this number is the same for two or more departments. but important lessons can be drawn from its irreguBut the great lesson is derived from a comparison of the larity. The average 77 and of the latter 6 for all departments per 100. and then divide the average for the cities by that for the country.CH. M.000 of and divide the sum of the second we may divide these sums by 82.000 population. IX] THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT in his table 187 M. Odin them in graphical order. and what a miscountry. The two tables (pp. i.77).. Odin has conducted. I have rearranged the descending order of the number per 100. then in the same order for those born in the country. By letting the eye run down the second column and comparing it with the fourth a clear idea two. Odin has drawn up a table by It it now twenty-five-year periods to show this. The result is of course the same. This is still more clearly brought out by a special study of Paris in comparison with other cities and with the country. departments. This means that on an average the cities of France have produced nearly thirteen times as many eminent authors for the same number is of inhabitants as the rural districts. The gained of the relations between the result of comparing the first and third columns giving is the absolute number of each class born in each department is less significant.

as extended in list. The number born other chief cities 2757. but there is. It will be remembered that in all cases it is the place of birth that is considered. He says that their appearance in so great in the cities leads to the belief that they are all born there.. ber who do A We have no way of controlling our judgments in such matters. was led by this into the error that most great geniuses are born in numbers the country. . like so many others. it. it would have produced 53. The number is born 1294. i. Fecundity in eminent persons seems then to be intimately connected with cities. have been 1522.1 88 shown APPLIED SOCIOLOGY in his [PART II of letters. a wide-spread belief that they are mostly born in the country and find their way this to the cities. same population if the whole country as each all France had the same relative fecundity in men of letters as Paris. The much larger number born in cities are not brought to our attention. When this 1 is the case the biographies are silent with regard to politique.640 instead of 6382 if it had the same fecundity as the other chief cities. what in all other localities exclusive of chateaux the whole number in France would have been for the is if had produced the same number class actually produced. pp. do their life-work there. it would have produced 22. The comparatively small num- produces a strong impression on the minds of really few examples. as I know with such facts. and we have made one step toward its full explanation. At first sight this movements from place seem to be an inadequate may The case would obviously be greatly strengthened if the where men did their chief work were taken instead of merely place the place of their birth.e. 1 But Lombroso. or less than the number for Paris alone. There is no popular belief that great men are mostly born in cities. irrespective of all to place during criterion. that were born in Paris is is 1341. Le Crime . He gives a column for the number relative to the population for each of these classes. persons acquainted from my own experience. Lombroso is undoubtedly right when he says that great numbers born in the country repair to the city. as he himself shows. etc. This is exactly the opposite of the truth.060 but if it had only the same fecundity as the rural districts. Lombroso and Laschi. 157-158. the total output would The result that . life. suffice to create this impression. and die there..

tions. exceptions that strike us and we ignore the rule. to a Departments. fecundity in men of letters will instruct us in this respect : CITIES . IX] It is THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT It is 189 the the old fallacy that we are constantly meeting with.CH. The following table of the chief cities of France and their study of cities. at least for the present. are vague desigand their study fails to afford a clear grasp of the condinations. provinces. The question narrows down then. regions.

APPLIED SOCIOLOGY CITIES [PART II .

IX] THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT CITIES 191 .CH.

192 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II SMALLER TOWNS OF FRANCE THAT HAVE PRODUCED THREE OR MORE MEN OF LETTERS OF MERIT OR OF TALENT TOWNS .

.

Map showing the Relative of France I i .OOO inhabitants PLATE IV.Number of Men of Letters per 1CO.

e&ne CANTAL'^ HAUTE-LOIRe V_tXLe P"y O \ -^^ o ^p Mende \ARDECHE/ CARD GapO "AUTES-ALPES/ LOZERE .DE-\ .en of Letters Urban and Rural Population .AVEYRON TARN HERAULT indity of the '. .AIS AISNE (Mazier ancy FT^MOSELLE YONNE COTE-D'OR O Dijon' AIM S OAnnecy EZE ^PUY-DE-DOME \ st Et .

.

The dynamic influence is not density at not the friction of mind upon mind. which may be studied will advantage in connection with the map. I also reproduce as Plate V results of this table as furnished to the graphic representation of the by M. inhabitants.000 outrank the metropolis of the Midi in Dijon literary productivity. which confirms what we have previously stated relative to the influence exerted by the political and administrative environment. which. especially those that are distinguished by an especially high fecundity. It is rather the contact of mind with things. I. . all with over 100. Toulon. Paris and Lyons. from their absence in with the table. Lille. Durkheim contemplated is these terms. the last with only 28. It is evipellier.000 population. IX] THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT and the first 193 therefore.CH. Odin. or judiciary administration. in the one and they may be introduced. something very different from the material density. Aix. Plate this leading respect for which profitably compared. we recognize that they are for the most part localities which differ from the others less by their size than by a group of properties of which the following appear to be the chief Usually these cities : have been centers of political. lead in both population and with 1 1 2.000 and even with only 65. It is M. and Toulouse with 150. Nantes. In fact.000 inhabitants greatly exceeds do. something more than M. fecundity. MontCaen.000 and Nice with 88.000 Compare these with that of Dijon. And what shall we say of Saint-Etienne 133.000 ? Then there are large cities like Roubaix with 115. such as some cities afford and others do not. and Havre. one. Look again at the position in the table of such cities as Reims. dent that the dynamic density in defining all. will perceive that their fecundity does not by any means depend upon their size. with the kind of things that tend to sharpen it.000. Odin If in discussing this table says : now we examine more closely the cities that figure in our table. but Rouen Marseilles with 404. Liege. or who take the trouble to look up their population. indeed.000 population which has produced only five men of letters per 1 00.000. ecclesiastical. such a comparison is needed to bring I. Orleans. Any one at all acquainted with the cities of France.000. now agree except one is out in the fullest light the true influence of centers of population in the production of talented writers. The first two. appear to have produced less than three to the 100.

taken together. book-stores. pp. They have institutions of learning. It simply indicates what the factor opportunity 1 Odin. etc. especially one in duced three men of merit and two of the suburbs of Paris. of the identity of fame and genius. including the retinue of servants. affords nearly every conceivable opportunity Its productivity is limited for its inmates to distinguish themselves.000. by the actual amount of genius possessed by its occupants. libraries. can now better interpret the facts that special opportunities. a larger amount of wealth. This astonishing result is due to the fact that a chateau. 4.. distinguished artists. publishing houses.IQ4 2." they really amount. to a series of What they are at bottom is simply so many special privileges. i. or at least a greater proportion of wealthy or well-to-do families. of things. Where possible opportunity accompanies genius this theory is true.. But the numit. We have been brought out relative to the fecundity of chateaux. and the laborers. APPLIED SOCIOLOGY These cities [PART II have furnished particularly numerous opportunities for culti- vating the acquaintance of intelligent and scholarly men. The one at Saint-Germain-en-Laye has protalent." and although M.e. owing to the presence of writers. This would realize Galton's idea that the only geniuses in the world are those who have actually attained eminence. Odin accuses de Candolle of "glorifying privilege. perhaps 1000 per 100. living in any chateau very much less. i. etc. These conditions remind us of a number of de Candolle's " favorable causes. The whole number density of persons. 511-512. This would probably be at the rate of 200 or 300.e. would certainly make a small city. and the number of eminent persons is a just measure of the amount of genius actually existing. 1 3. a wealthy nobility devoted to letters. is ber of persons of culture. op. We may look upon a chateau as a diminutive city containing most of the dynamic qualities of those cities most favorable to the production is very small.. a numerous educated clergy. The " " although it might amount in some cases to several hundred or even a thousand. cit. the mechanics. savants. only by the conditions of heredity. Finally they have presented. to be found in a chateau and the buildings attached to of literary men. afforded important public intellectual resources. relatively to the other cities. . including instructors. But the present case clearly shows how all enormously this would exceed the actual condition is. such as higher museums.

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o O .

With his accustomed thoroughis small. Odin's tables always include women. same class is furnished by the statisM. with the percentage that each of these items is of the total of each sex. and in chateaux. in but of course the number all other localities except chateaux. he has drawn up a comparative table of men and women. This is table as follows : PLACE OF BIRTH .CH. in other chief cities. showing the number of each born in Paris. ness. IX] THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT illustration of the 195 Another tics of women of letters.

Odin's table of them by periods throughout modern times. as follows: PERIODS .196 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II While on the subject of women of letters perhaps it is as well to give M.

able personages" do not widely differ in this respect from letters. and 40 "elsewhere. 23 of . De Candolle in his table of the foreign introduces a column for members of the Paris Academy. but not for those of the Royal Society of London nor for those of the Berlin Academy. 100 savants that he deals with born in Of these 21 were suburbs. all they both estimate the whole number of scientific men to have been from 5000 to 16. England. but neither can they This is because there has been no study of the facts at comparable to that of M. often not giving men of science. IX] It THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT said that 197 may be much that is true for French men of letters less true It would not be true for other countries. Although searches to France and to literary men. art and science. and makes a kind of map plotting it over London M. and in an appendix he has told We are obliged therefore to us what he had been able to learn about Spain. and would be still for other kinds of genius. still he made wide excursions into other fields and countries. In his Hereditary Genius the former pays very it little in his accounts of the different it attention to the birthplace of such men. In running down the list it is easy to see that most of them were born in cities. 20). as.CH. A glance through it shows that great numbers were born in cities. to the highest class. Gait on and de Candolle confined themselves to men of science. Odin's he was compelled to limit his chief reinvestigations. 18 in other large cities. Studying he finds a total for Italy of 55. but it would be unsafe to draw conclusions from mere inspection. Jacoby's enumeration might be tabuand this is what he ought to have done in the revised edition. 21 in smaller towns. It seems probable that his "remarkthe country (pp. men of fall back again upon M. must be admitted that such statements cannot be disproved in the present state of the investigation of these questions. they each deal with a comparatively small number. cases of acknowledged genius. Odin for French men of letters. viz.000. lated from this point of view. and Germany. 19. for example. less than 200. Although be proved. Galton in his English or its Men of Science gives the birthplaces of the in that work. In this he confines himself wholly the birthplaces of this class." He seems to think their geographical distribution important.. men of letters of Italy.

intellectual centers. and 2 in Edinburgh. 4 Ferrara. "that the theory according to which the rural . cities. "We find here. Others were born in Bristol. The rest were in part born in the university towns of Barcelona. The Economic Environment. etc. which are . . Mantua. all of . Glasgow. In Germany the 71 highest had a somewhat different origin. 29 were born in the six cities of Madrid (16). dova possess a university. as follows Pistoia. 1 5 were born in London. and clothed during all this . One was born in a chateau. but none more than three. Of the 70 English literary geniuses of the highest order. of the others were born at districts are particularly is adapted to the production of great men a pure hypothesis devoid of any serious foundation. 2. It is very difficult to ascertain the economic standing of eminent men. 3 Arezzo." he says. etc. all of which except Cor(2)." Of the 60 men of letters of genius in Spanish literature. Alcala de Henares Toledo (2). Most of the leading cities have produced one or more. Pavia. Milan. If a great discoverer or ties that mind inventor works ten years uninterruptedly and at last succeeds and astonishes the world. Saragossa. Lisbon. 3 Naples. Seville (5). and Valladolid. Of one the place of birth could not be determined. Reggio. but the general law of the fecundity of great not thereby invalidated. 4 in Dublin. There would still remain to be accounted for a large number of whom M. Cordova (2). Hanau and Konigs- berg two each. authors of Germany are much cities is At the sources of the great more scattered than is the case for least any other country. Grenada (2). Many Bergamo. housed. Liverpool. and Hannover count three each. 2 Florence. Padua. Odin giws no details. Modena.I 98 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY were born : [PART II whom in seven . Doubtless some of them were born in the country or in very obscure villages. The idea that those who have achieved great things have done so by virtue of inherent qualidefy all external conditions is so ingrained in the human that biographers neglect to record certain of the most important facts connected with their lives. Breslau. Verona. 7 Venice. Salamanca. Seventeen others produced one each. Three were not born in Germany. all this will be told in minutest detail without a word as to how he was fed. 2 . Berlin. Cambridge. Valencia.

Of the two great Sicilians. The older ones were all in the church. emoluments granted to the nobility or the clergy. and all were put in one way or another beyond the reach of want or of the necessity of earning a livelihood otherwise than by their art. or some sinecure official position.CH. A study of the economic condition of the philosophers. of immense wealth. When we Nothing could be more false. would probably show that they orators. and imagine that any such who possessed the talent might be poets. and the latter was immensely rich. And so it was with all the sophists and stoics. even Roger Bacon and Coperand thus freed from material concerns. The fact is that in every such case there must have been some kind of a fortune behind it all. that costs a great author writes a book him many years of patient unremunerative research. ^Eschylus and Sophocles were generals in the Athenian army and alternated between fighting and writing plays. It is scarcely told how Socrates and Plato could devote were their lives to philosophy. read of the great characters of antiquity we are apt to that they were ordinary citizens of Greece or Rome. but it is certain that they did not teach for a living. In medieval and more modern times it was not otherwise. or at least a well-paid position that did not exhaust all of the man's energies. but we are generally left in ignorance as to economic conditions. They owned whole states and oxen (the circulating medium) and slaves unnumbered. noth- ing will be said about how he was enabled to devote all these years to such a subject. or something equiva- lent to a fortune. It was the same with the poets and artists. Aristotle was the adviser of Philip and teacher of Alexander. from Thales to Aristotle. philosophers. nicus. and writers. Archimedes and Empedocles. . all The heroes of Homer were men all men of wealth or else were in some way attached to kings and courts so as to be wholly above want. such as a state annuity. one of the latter of whom was an emperor. The sculptors were hired by the state to decorate the temples. the former was attached to the court. sculptors. After universities were established most great discoverers were professors and carried on their investigations in connection with their professional duties. IX] THE ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT If 199 time that he was earning nothing.

of genius De Candolle was able to gather some information on this head with regard to the members of the great academies. APPLIED SOCIOLOGY like [PART II Bacon. were of the nobility. or 100 per cent He enumerates all these by name. . 536-537. Of the middle class Of the working class Total 52 7 100 For a much smaller number following proportions : of French savants he found the Of noble or wealthy families Of the middle class Of the working class Total 10.. and Cuvier. about whom a great deal has to be said.. English gentlemen. cit. officers. But if any one happened to be in limited circumstances. It has therefore been found almost impossible to arrive at the facts of an economic character in a sufficient tical inquiry. or of aristocratic families of old free cities or rich families 41 . and these are thrown in incidentally. op. Antoine and Laurent Jussieu. only in the case of men of the highest order. but omit the series of happy accidents that really enabled them to succeed. the biographical dictionaries record the fact of their indigence with great emphasis. to read a large number of biographies of men of in general. 9. number of M.. 1 to acquaint us with the fact. therefore. pp. and of celebrated persons . Thus. owing to great talents and the favor of wealthy friends. others were high public still and others belonged to the wealthy bourgeoisie.200 Many. of the 100 foreign associates of the Paris Academy he could make the following classification Belonging to the : nobility. and among them are Buffon. being regarded as of no particular importance. that details of this class can be found. Odin says : cases to form a safe basis for statis- Whoever has had occasion letters. . Ampere. " 47 25 " " " " " 36. It is. and still. or 28 per cent 17. has been able to convince himself that every time that a remarkable man has sprung from a humble family from what are called the working classes the biographers take extra pains . happened to attain eminence. l Odin. men and fame.

that out of 99 eminent men of science. " " " 14. and as 1 has always De Candolle. containing the following are the proportions 24 names. . 22 were only in his would sons and 26 were eldest sons. therefore. however. Total 60. What here. he says of primogeniture (p. making 48. take into consideration the proportion which each of these categories forms of the total population of the world. decided advantages of nurture over the younger sons. or 35 per cent " " " 42 25. They are more likely to become possessed of independent means. only to consider the third cateIn the first list it is 7 per cent. who inherit the fortunes of their parents. or oo per cent Combining the Of Of Of last two lists we have : the wealthy or noble class the middle class the working class 21. science or by any other kind of occupation.. 22) gives some similar but they will be more in place in the next subsection. being a comparatively small class. its fecundity is much less than that of the first. The second is a much larger class. As to the third. 5. English Men of Science (p. in the we second 25. 272-279. it it represents the great bulk of the population. properly belongs This is. : In another Of the wealthy or noble Of the middle class Of the working class Total class 1 1. and therefore. with the Or rather." In de Candolle's statistics it may be assumed that the savants belonging to the middle class or bourgeoisie were at least well to do and exempt from the necessity of gaining a livelihood either by their of view. on the whole. while it has yielded a larger number of savants. and therefore able to follow the pursuits that have most attracted their tastes. He says "that the elder sons have. and in the last two combined 23. pp. From our present point it becomes a comparison of the first two categories third. IX] THE ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT 201 list exclusively of the eighteenth century. or i 23 oo per cent 1 Galton statistics. or 46 per cent " " " 33 " 21 " " i 24. cit. 33). or practically half. we have gory If in its relation to the whole.CH. we can readily see that the first yields by far the greatest proportion. op. in the third 21. 6.

p. in studying the economic environment from his extensive tables. and they usually do not even suspect that they can have any real importance.. alas. This Odin." without thereby implying that there were not great differences in the degree of wealth and in social conditions generally. . these differences become a simple measure of the influence of the almost a negligible quantity. op. How often. The he encountered in this investigation he sets forth as follows : I have had great difficulty in determining in what economic conditions the youth of our men of letters was spent. and literary critics manifest in general only a very slight interest in questions of this class. M. so they devoutly imagine that it can develop. Just as people love to believe that genius has no need of instruction. some up and show to which of the cities it most especially applies. In making a special examination of the economic environment he confines himself to bringing out such facts as his data afford relative to the economic condition of the difficulties that men of letters themselves. historians. their statistical presentation would have been a most interesting chapter. and is no doubt a potent factor. He divides them into two classes : ( i ) Those whose youth was spent This class in the absence of all material concern. may be designated by the term "rich. under no matter what material conditions. to confine himself to men of letters of talent. Odin was compelled. 528. he has given us much food for reflection.202 yielded a APPLIED SOCIOLOGY much smaller absolute is [PART II number of men of science. The biographers. economic factor. This has a direct bearing on the present aspect of the question. For the reasons already given. however. As it is. but he does not follow it of cities. with more or less difficulty perhaps. able to ascertain with exactness the economic environment of 619 men of letters of talent. its For those who relative fecundity hold that native genius is as frequent in one class as in another. cit. It will be remembered that one of the four principal elements enumerated by him in the fecundity of cities was the greater wealth or at least a higher proportion of wealthy or well-todo families. the sad reality belies these naive theories : ! He was. (2) Those whose youth was spent in 1 poverty or economic insecurity. If the economic condition of all the literary men of France throughout modern times could have been learned.

CH. IX] THE ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT 203 PERIODS .

. for his first category life than to call it persons emoluments from the state. Odin. This is not because the two are not generically distinct. which was what he receiving large meant. not in Here surely is historical materialism. if a pronounced taste for scientific research. but because they so largely run parallel. more convenient for de Candolle to use the nobility. a social class. It is impossible of course to say exactly what the average proportion was for the whole modern epoch. there would have been infinitely more scientific men issuing from poor families than from other sources certainly the number of savants from rich families would have been very small relative to the others which has not been the case. op. cit. the economic environment without working in facts that properly belong to the social environment. One Cold and objective as is at all times treatise as a whole. 529. especially in France during recent times. It was. This means that by the sole fact of the economic conditions in the midst of which they grew up the children of families in easy circumstances had at least forty to fifty more chances of making themselves a name in letters than those who belonged to poor families or to families of insecure economic position 2 ! He has more to say under this head. Will those who defend that particular ism listen to it ? By the side of it all the other claims that have been made for that doctrine sink into insignificance. cit. 560.. p. Odin. 280-281. small as it is in itself. but much of it applies so well to one or other of the environments that remain to be considered that its remark I cannot pass over." 3 them- selves in the presence of a great hitherto undiscovered truth. introduction here would be an anticipation.. "Genius is in things. 8 2 cit. pp. This proportion. were the sole causes that determine the career and success of men of science. But there are. op.204 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II If natural talent. appears much more striking still when we try to represent to ourselves the numerical relation that must have existed for the entire population between well-to-do families and those who were not so. It was almost impossible to treat of The Social Environment.. 1 De Candolle. Odin makes the following commentary upon As we see. his style and his he seems for once to have find felt a touch of the fire that kindles in most minds when they man. 1 his table : M. p. only the eleventh part of the men of letters of talent passed their youth under difficult economic conditions. and he half exclaims. op. for example. But it is clear that we shall still remain far below the reality if we assume that the families of the second class were three or four times more numerous than those of the first.

so that all these men had pursued such more or If scien- investigations in connection with and ently of their business. and this will . for the earlier periods. 107. occupations. but had assigned each man to the position which seemed the characteristic one. but. It is so to a slight extent in other countries and has always been so in all countries. Still. his inquiries only to must be remembered that he addressed persons tific whom he knew to have attained distinction in some branch of scientific research. As it is we can now only base it upon the whole number. whatever that was. For other classes the social environment practically amounts to a classification of occupations. IX] THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT 205 persons belonging to the nobility who receive scarcely any no emoluments.. we should be able to arrive at the percentages for the different occupations. 22) as follows : Noblemen and Civil service private gentlemen 9 6 9 3 Army and navy Subordinate officers Total government officials 18 ii Law Medical Clergy and ministers Teachers Architect 9 6 6 i Secretary to an insurance office Total professional men I 34 7 21 Bankers Merchants Manufacturers Total business 15 men 43 2 . less independ- he had not allowed the duplications of which he speaks. and it is safe to assume that the no- many or bility is entirely exempt from material concerns.CH. the social positions. professions. this is a negligible quantity. In Gait on 's in list of 96 persons to whom he addressed his questions 1873 and discussed the answers in his English Men of Science. as he explains. etc. the same name It recurs in 1 1 cases. are classified by him (p.1 Farmers Others This makes a total showing of 107.

. must therefore again have recourse to M. 25^ 25 23 are four kings.4 per cent.. another of a dauphin. . Some is at a loss to understand why the kings and dukes and viscounts . as in that of the economic (Chapter VIII) environment. The first of the influences enumerated by him that affect the fecundity of cities in men of letters was. The discussion that follows shows that Galton it did not see the question at all as the facts now under consideration.206 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II probably be sufficiently correct. The nobility would then appear to furnish 8. These last being the most important may be ber in each. enabling istrative duties. also four engineers. them to achieve in lines distinct from their admin- In his special study of the social environment he confined himself. 90 69^ 40^ 32 Lawyers Administrators Physicians . the farmers 1. there the sons or daughters of these kings were By the side of these stand equally four coopers and four jewelers.. or four. persons.9. The reader of the lower i. ... ones are rather amusing. presents itself in the light of We tions. three. . One was a valet de chambre of a prince. talented writers... . each as profitably reproduced here: Magistrates Noblemen Merchants Gentlemen . . For example.. Of these he was able to determine in 636 cases the social position and occupation of their parents. to men of letters of talent. He gives a list of 328 different occupations arranged in the descending order of the num- Where the same person had two occupations he counts More than half the occupations show only one person as following it. and only seven by more than twenty. the learned professions Unless the person classed 3. Odin's investigabecause he alone has grasped the full import of the problem and striven methodically to discover its solution. and a third of a king. . that certain of them have long been centers of political.. . . the public officers 16. as will be remembered.2. the bourgeoisie 40.. ecclesiastical..e. Many show only two. and probably for similar reasons. or judiciary administraThis gives a certain social standing to a large number of tion.. " was a laboring man that class furnished none of these as " others 96 men of science...8. Only fifteen occupations were followed by ten or more persons..

litterateurs. M. showing the number of each class and the per cent that each class forms of the whole number. under these results. This will be almost always very easy the few cases in which one might hesitate are not of a kind sensibly to modify the general rela. etc. men of letters have issued from local environments that are very unlike. They show considerably more than three quarters of the talented men of France have sprung from the nobility. the government the liberal and professions. tionaries. bankers. tion among the categories. etc. proprietors. These will take the following form : These that figures speak for SOCIAL CLASSES themselves. clergymen. Artists. laboureurs). officials. tillersof the soil (cultivateurs. In order to be able to appreciate exactly the action which these environments have exerted. : : eral professions. 4. IX] THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT 207 and barons scattered through the list were not put with the nobles. as follows Nobles and 2. we may omit it and give only the general He was able to obtain five heads.CH. citizens (bourgeois'). Industrials. : servants. all requisite data for 623 cases coming and he gives an interesting table by periods. He 1. but in very different proportions. Much of the classification seems arbitrary and duplicated. Manual laborers (tnain-d^ceuvre). concierges. engineers. it is indispensable first of all to bring the multitude of occupations enumerated within certain natural categories. Lib3. Merchants. 5. officers: Nobility. subordinate funcFor want of a more precise term he designates all these occupations by the general term Boiirgeoisie. lawyers. As the historical aspect is not as vital as the other aspects. The respects between these results and those of Galton's table differences in these and other may be . who lived in a very similar social medium Officials (inagistraturc). proceeds to describe the five groups to which he reduces : them. " nobles de robe " and " notaires " Magistrates and public functionaries. Odin says of this list : As will be seen. physicians. The business class furnished less than 1 2 per cent and the laboring class less than 10. artisans.

208 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II explained by the fact that the latter deals with the eminent men themselves and not with their parents or families. But M. In the social as economic environment the actual number that each class furnishes. This can be arrived at only when the proportion that each class forms of the population is taken into the account. gives a very misleading idea of the true relative fecundity of each class. This proportion for the five classes of the table is in the exact reverse order of their absolute fecundity. Gallon's men were all living in 1873. Odin was not content to stop here. relative to population ? What then is This he shows in the last their fecundity column of the next table. and there was great progress during that half century in the condition and character is of the bourgeoisie. or even the per cent that this number is of the whole in the number. while Odin's table only comes down to 1825. in which he also gives the number of genius distinct from those of talent only. men of letters of SOCIAL CLASSES . But the number dealt with by Galton too small to form a reliable basis for a statistical investigation.

and especially of the nobility over the hand is What three workmen. we have seen that certain strata of the population have been much more fruitful than others in remarkable literary men. and even if the percentage of the nobility were much greater or that of the laboring class much less. Again we are brought back to the fundamental truth that facts. Odin himself expresses As regards the social environment. that the manifestation of genius is taught by all the wholly a question of is it : opportunity. For the bourgeoisie the chances are only one to twenty-three. or one per cent of the population. bourgeoisie. By the census of 1801 the population of France was over twenty-seven million. assuming that the relative itself show the several classes of known. and the public If then we divide the number furnished officials at 3 per cent. IX] THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT is 209 question how M. the prodigious superiority of the specially striking classes over the last two. he estimate the relative arrived at the figures contained in it. M. Odin tries to de Candolle. The disproportions are so enormous that it makes very little difference whether the respective ratios to population are correct or not. the results would be sufficiently striking. by each class by its percentage of the population. He one says the estimates of the number of nobles have varied from He considers the first half of one per cent to two per cent. a person born making of the nobility has nearly two hundred times the chance to become eminent that one born in the working-class has. native genius is the same. Like number of each class. too low and the last too high. these figures chances that genius has in the For example. .CH. Confining ourselves to the five social strata nobility. the bourgeoisie at 10 per cent. and adopts as a basis of his calculations the mean of these. They are approximately correct. we have ascertained that the liberal professions. we have the relative fecundity of each class as expressed in the last column. Assuming them to be correct. Or as M. working-men literary fecundity of each of them was in inverse ratio to is its numerical imporfirst tance. Odin estimates the number belonging to the working-classes at 80 per cent. which would give the nobility two hundred and seventy thousand. the liberal professions at 6 per cent. The son of a noble has six and one half times the chance of the son of a physician or lawyer and two and one half times that of the son of a judge or procureur. Without professing to be exact. administration.

M. he obtained data for 39 cases in Italy. and 52 in Germany. Odin made extensive investigations into the conditions existing in other countries.210 the first APPLIED SOCIOLOGY having had at least [PART II two hundred times as many chances as the second to give birth to men of letters of talent. 1 In order to satisfy himself that France was not exceptional in this respect. Confining himself to men of genius. 28 in Spain. 6 1 in England. and presented the results in the following table : .

But this is not go further and affirm that it is especially the cities possessing higher schools. Aix. book-stores.. op. that have produced the most men of letters in proportion to their population. libraries.. cit. Odin says that "they have afforded important public intellectual resources. p. The is that for the display of genius where it exists education is entirely unnecessary. independent of political parties or religious sects. . Caen. It is impossible not to be struck by the rank occupied in this respect by such cities as Geneva. Most geniuses seem to have little idea of the effect that their education has exerted on This is true of great discoverers and scientific men. 513. . The local the enormous influence of the factor opporenvironment and the economic environment social combine with the result. . because genius is a substitute for education. and in particular universities or equivalent institutions. environment in the production of this prevailing idea The Educational Environment. Montpellier. as any one can see by reading the answers made by such men as recorded them. IX] THE EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT 2 1 1 classes in connection with their numerical relations. to cite only a few of the most salient We these all. and among : the conditions to success that he enumerated the following 6. and adds : see that all the cities that have presented in a special degree influences of this class have also distinguished themselves by a remarkable fecundity in men of letters.. realized the value of education. museums. In considering the qualities possessed by certain cities of France tending to stimulate genius and in part explaining their literary fecundity.CH. . Primary and especially secondary and higher education well organized. M. tending to encourage research and to aid young men and professors in the pursuit of science. while cities that have presented the other conditions and not relatively less fruitful in men of letters. 1 1 Odin. such as higher institutions of learning. we have the same general result tunity. Orleans. however. Or rather it is maintained that a true genius will always educate himself as much as he needs. . he considers these as the ones that have exerted by far the most powerful immediate effect. De Candolle. which is not thought to be very much. and publishing houses." And compar- ing this with the other three conditions enumerated. in Gallon's English is Men of Science. have been We may examples.

Lyons. But these do not by any means represent the and stand near the head whole of the educational activity of France. Rennes. density of population. 516. It need not necessarily be cities. and a thorough investigation of the French educational system would probably fully bear out M.. It was laid as alleged factors of civilization. ethnological. Lille. p. etc. . using that term in its broadest sense. Besangon. 1 Such are some press obvious is it of the reflections which M. of cities.212 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY Dijon and Besangon. Bordeaux. but only because it is these that local The furnish opportunity to genius to unfold. Indeed. we must go further and say the same for all the different environments that we have considered. environment does. and religious environments come under this law in so far as they are factors at all. Poitiers. Odin could not sup- in discussing the influence of the local environment. at least as regards therefore necessary to narrow that term down to something much simpler and wholly different in character from any of the influences that had been so confidently assigned. Marseilles-Aix. Grenoble. and that the influence of centers of population. considered them at We some length because it is upon them that so great stress has been The was any supposed influence that they exert upon the production of men of genius and agents in human achievement. There are all kinds of minor institutions. He further says : If exceptions. They are: Paris. cit. cities we take all this into consideration. Montpellier. Odin's statement. It was about the same for the chief claim made for the local environment. many of them highly active and efficient.. The fifteen France all show a high of the table rate of literary produc- on pages 189-191. viz. narrow itself down chiefly to the influence of large cities. Even the physical. is So that this the chief factor. far from insisting upon unavoidable we shall be astonished at the extraordinary fecundity which those show that have been during the last centuries the seat of higher educa- tional institutions. Caen. as we have seen in the case of chateaux.. result in each case chiefly negative. Dijon. Toulouse. Clermont-Ferrand. Nancy. indeed. and the cities need 1 Odin. op. [PART II He should certainly have added university cities of tivity. in stimulating genius is great precisely in proportion as it is educational.

200. But if this is true even in our day. as we have just seen. A cation has exerted is more furnished by striking proof of the influence that higher eduwomen of letters. it is the material. But nothing is more completely established than the extreme inferiority of the instruction that women in general receive. As at M. Thus it is not surprising that none of the authors who have thus far undertaken seriously to study the genesis of great men have recognized the immense role that education plays. had upon This influence tributed among is especially seen in the manner in which the women are dislearn that. by a series of careful approaches and eliminations. In reality. the secondary and higher instruction reserved for women is. Nevertheless. but the quality of the population is a factor. but he almost always contents himself with his personal experiences. who discusses at length the most improbable eventualities. We 1 Lombroso. 1 Galton and Jacoby speak of it only to combat it a priori by entirely general arguments. contradicted in part by their own data. extremely inferior to that which men receive. preserving all the different classes of localities. how much greater must have been the difference between the two sexes in the past Nothing could so ! more clearly confirm the singular influence that higher education has the development of French men of letters. It is difficult to comprehend the full extent women was of this inferiority. have seen how very We small the number of relative to the total of literary persons. The most of them have not even suspected that it could exert any appreciable effect. The quantity of population has nothing to do with it. in almost all cases. The similarity in the names that the schools for persons of the two sexes bear often gives rise to illusion in this respect. and when he has recourse to statistics his data are found to be much too slender to permit any serious calculation.. The great factor. the facts show in the most obvious way that higher education has exerted a decisive influence on the development of still men of letters. however. IX] THE EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT 213 not necessarily be great. . Odin We says have thus arrived. for the and educational conditions that make possible man of genius surrounded : by them to realize his ideals. in spite of all the diplomas that have been conferred upon her. so much so that in our day men are almost unanimous in rejecting all influence of this character. social. the conclusion that the fecundity of the respective localities in remarkable men of letters rests essentially upon the educational resources that they place within the reach of their occupants.. positive science. L'Homme de genie. Lombroso. . The conclusion is unexpected. by a very natural reaction scientific has rather tended to support the contrary thesis. devotes just one half page to the influence of education. p. provided they furnish these opportunities.CH. and it is very rare that a woman has really made any solid studies. De Candolle alone sought to establish positively the influence that higher institutions of learning might have exerted. for if many thinkers have been able heretofore to proclaim a priori and without giving good reasons the absolute influence of education. when we imagine that much is being done for the emancipation of woman.

but it is an effective means. between the economic and the social environment. usu- ally holding their places by a life tenure with ample salaries. pp. Very true. The nobility is economically an independent class and socially a leisure class. that have produced most of the great they are the We men same classes of the world. class to the extent that they possess energies in excess of those demanded by their official duties. Surely it was not yielded simply wealth. for the true genius. the youth of the higher classes are liberally instructed so that they can profit by their leisure in later life. and especially from the chateaux. while they come much less frequently from other large cities. then. then. from the greatly superior facilities that the children of wealthy parents almost always have for receiving the preliminary instruction necessary to a literary career. 516-519. women have come much more frequently than men from Paris. But this preparation is education. highly educational. and still less from other localities. that caused this. ample means serve to enable them to carry on that preliminary and preparatory work and fit themselves in a thorough manner for that higher work which will yield them fame and make their names immortal. and 1 Odin. It is the higher social classes.214 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II the proportions. and to a large extent and the same persons. Leisure is only of the The study we have made found to lead directly to the that it was the classes that a means. cit. We found were economically independent that the greater part of the men of eminence. too. In the great majority of cases this excess is large. High public officials. and to achieve to the limit of his native powers. as it is the higher economic classes. in the sense that it affords him an opportunity to labor for all time and not from hand to mouth. What then was the real influence? It may be said that it was leisure. 1 economic environment was also same general conclusion. op. few of them being hard-worked. But leisure might be and often is spent in idleness. goods. When we come to the social environment we find this even more have already noted the intimate connection manifestly true. It enables its possessor to apply himself undisturbed for prolonged periods to preparation for usefulness. Aside entirely. money. In both classes it is chiefly leisure that develops genius. become a leisure.. . but in both. The economic environment is.

and social environments are all educational' environments. susceptible to a limited extent of being treated by the statistiThe question may always be asked whether a person of distinction received an education in his youth or whether his men education was neglected. men preparation necessary to their profession constitutes a basis for such work. or in is the end toward which the others lead. men of letters. difficult to Galton seems to share this view. Suppose the various degrees of human intelligence to be arranged in such a way that they should form one immense linear series extending from idiocy at one never absolute . Ribot : belongs to the same school. a sense in which the educational environment be regarded as distinct from all the others. sometimes great talent in various directions. There may it is however. there is an almost universal belief that education has no influence in the production of genius or even of success. At least this something is class can and usually do give their children all the education that the country and the times will often have both leisure and literary tastes. and of distinction generally depends entirely on the extent to which they are educational. but qualifies the doctrine as follows We it is think it is restricting the influence of education to its just limits to say: and has a decided influence only on average natures. IX] THE EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT all 215 most of them being able to delegate genius happens likely to be produced. Professional If heavy duties to subordinates. as his autobiography shows. the educational permit. of art. cal method. and practically constitute the educational environment. almost overeducated. In fact. though. Unfortunately the biographies of great are very deficient in this kind of information. Odin. of science. but another reason for its omission is that. It is for these reasons that I have treated the educational environan order different from that adopted all ment last in the by M. and in this sense is. to coincide with these conditions. and it requires only leisure in a man of genius thus prepared and circumstanced to put him on the high road to fame. In economic. and their influence on the production local. as already remarked. It one sense. repeatedly echoes it and never tires of belittling the value of educational institutions. They all combine and converge to this end. and Herbert Spencer.CH. Probably it is procure. and find time to prepare themselves for a life of achievement. the of series.

It is evident that list all the M. being neither good nor bad. viz. p. During the most fruitful period. 2 5. L'Heredite psychologique. Upon the idiot it has almost no effect extraordinary efforts. 1882. In our opinion.e.000 or 30. the accompanying table. it tends toward its minimum. 2^ ed." i. He men found it of talent.. Of necessary.2l6 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II extreme to genius at the other.. for want of data. Odin's entire of 6382 of letters of merit constituting persons would stand so high in Ribot's men series that according to his theory education would have no effect upon them. This would be one to each 1830. 1 Ribot.000. For men of talent as he rates them the proportion would be one to 200. the influence of education at the two ends of the series is at its minimum. if we rise toward the higher forms of intelligence we see it again diminish. . in many cases it Of course was much of the better.000. 1 influence increases. often end in insignificant and ephemeral results. and for men of genius one to 1. But as we rise toward the medium grades this : It attains its maximum in those average natures who. marvels of patience and skill. 329. by periods in his usual way and presents the results in little and in many These two groups he this. their education was PERIODS shown to to be at least equal that afforded lycfe or the by the French German would gymnasium. and as the highest genius is approached. in one of which he could safely say: "education good. Paris. are about what chance makes them. in 827 cases he was able to find sufficient information relative to their early education. He divided these into two groups.000. according to Ribot's scheme.. This correspond to an average college education in the United States.500. from 1801 to the list contains 1344 names. to confine himself to these. Then. The persons other group were shown to have received an education less than cases very classifies or practically none at all. All these would of course be far out of the reach of all educational influences.

This consists of their names. The date is of some interest. and he arranges these of their birth. NAME . may be readers. The following excepting the kind of literary work is : the list with the other data. the names in chronological order. as we have seen. The kind of literary work is not so important. fact is The important highly educational. The table includes 73 per cent of the writers of that grade (i 136). because this shows the influence of the local environment. the other 8 1 1 would have done so had they received no better education than the 16 ? In order to tions make it M. the year and place and the kind of literary work in which they distinguished themselves. because for most of them their work is known to most the locality. What are we to conclude from this ? Can it be reconciled with the theory that education has no influence on men of genius ? Can we logically argue that because 16 out of 827 were able to attain emi- nence with very little or no education. while only 2 per cent received an inadequate education or none at all. and were the facts known for the remainder they would scarcely alter the result. IX] It THE EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT 217 thus appears that 98 per cent of the talented authors of France received a good education in their youth. which. Odin has given us further detailed information 1 possible to give approximate answers to such quesrelative to 6 persons.CH.

it would be necessary. from localities.is biography more exactly than we do. it is sufficient to remember what the life and class of literary activity of La Rochefoucauld and Be"ranger were in order to recognize that thesg two personages found themselves in fact in very favorable genius. on talent and on genius. Odin collected considerable information relative to the amount of education received by eminent literary men Spain. La Rochefoucauld.. As For he did not fail early to remodel his whole intellectual education. Be*ranger. Odin. As to Boursault. had found in the very bosom of his family all the elements of a higher culture. . but also. 55. therefore. We have. related chiefly to men of the highest grade. . belong to the class of men of . two in a chateau. to know h. 526-527. grew up under circumstances which took the place in large measure of education properly so called. Italy. 1 71. even for genius. especially Italy. 1 As a further test of the universality of this law. much may be said. M. cit. four in large cities other than Paris. or for men of genius. and that he very soon had an opportunity to learn to write French with purity. and Germany. op. . the extremely small proportion of 2 per cent. Again. England. 63. Finally it is to be noted that of these sixteen men of letters of talent. It acts not only upon average natures. three only. Cazales. conditions for the development of their talent. and only three in other localities. and Dumas. 75 Germany. apportioned as follows: . His father was councilor to the parliament of Toulouse. we perceive that seven of them were born in Paris. Now we have seen that Paris offered conditions much more favorable than any other place for the class of literature (dramatic poetry) for which Boursault was distinguished. England. and although his parents had not allowed him to pursue "fortes ttudes" he evidently must have sufficiently profited by his intercourse with them to be able to acquire ifl the end by himself all the positive knowledge that he required. As regards the three who do not belong to this class. Everything therefore forces us to admit that education plays a r61e not only important but vital and decisive in the development of men of letters. Thus. of Alexandre Dumas. in an entirely different field of activity. where it was comparatively easy to compensate in one way or another for the lack of regular instruction. He gives it in the following table 264 persons. Spain. his mother a distinguished woman of good family. two of them. Odin remarks: If we consider the place of birth of the men of letters whose education was neglected. then. We know at least that he came at the age of thirteen years to Paris. Cazales and Dumas. It of other countries. here also.218 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY this table [PART II Of M. and with quite as great intensity. pp. They have therefore nearly all issued from localities that we have seen to be specially adapted to the production of remarkable men of letters. in order to venture an explanation. who distinguished himself solely as an orator. circumstances can take the place of higher education only in very rare cases.

CH. IX] THE EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT 219 COUNTRIES .

all would have been shown to belong to the cities. But genius it is life. while opportunity is a constant factor. to material success. until he finds himself in a position to and gain his devote a large share of his surplus energy to literary. For a person of genius. Cases are not wholly in which. therefore. usually soon finds himself in one of a higher grade. Galton shows that many of the judges of England rose thus from the lower ranks of life. it. is agents of civilization. the local environment often becomes a condition to his economic independence. If statistics of the class we have been considering had been based on the place where men have done their work instead of simply on their place of birth. acquire a small fortune. it may be safely predicted that his talents will never be known. as must have been the history of the duke de La Rochefoucauld. very abundant is a variable factor and chiefly at will. of not a Utopian conception but a practical undertaking. artistic. but they are the indispensable conditions to any and all progress beyond mediocrity. and consists in nothing but the extension to all . Or. He may engage in successful business. The trend of the whole investigation has been in the general direction of showing that great men have been produced by the cooperation of two causes. or scientific pursuits and thus mount to fame. It is also comparatively simple. If he does not. such men have even risen to wanting a place in the nobility. of liberal professions Or he may enter the class end through that means. but talented persons are almost certain soon to find some The same is true of the social environ- to the intellectual atmosphere have primarily been his social may position.220 born in APPLIED SOCIOLOGY the rural districts will if [PART II possible gravitate to the city. genius and opportunity. in the older days. whatever devote his leisure to his favorite pursuit. The facilities that the city affords are not only aids to his development. and The man of talent transplanted of a great metropolis. As The something that can be supplied practically actual manufacture. too. and that neither alone can accomplish in every rank of artificial. of the such the instruments of achievement. talents secure preferment. avenue ment. of great men. It is impossible for a man of genius to attain eminence and remain all his life in the country. he may find his way into the public service and through his again. Men without talents may fail in the city.

. in fact. their and their data that methods were defecno conclusive results have emerged from their researches. Prospective Investigations. clearly point to done. The thoroughly M. working single-handed and alone. Odin. it is obvious that this is civilization. the other arts that these far more than through literature or any of the conquest of nature has been brought about. scientific discovery and mechanical invention. which is to discover what the real influences are that have produced the true agents of history.CH. these are effective only to the extent that they constitute an educational environment and are. to confine himself to one group of these agents. ceramic decorators. What is needed is to extend these researches to all kinds of agents and to all countries. the great achievements of the world have been chiefly in two fields. only so many aspects of the educational environment. limited the nature of the work of objective. as so we have meager seen. which would then in- clude not merely the so-called fine arts but also the practical arts. No one will deny that painters and sculptors. still the two principal ones that are largely omitted in his statistics are men of art and men of science. stucco. It is through viz. but use the latter term in its broad but legitimate sense. IX] PROSPECTIVE INVESTIGATIONS of society of 221 an equal opportunity for the exercise of whatever mental powers each may possess. Galton and de Candolle clearly saw this and confined themselves accordingly to men tive of science. engravers. Although there are many groups. There are many artifithe cial members substitutes for the various kinds of favorable environment. Or perhaps we should reverse this order and say men of science still and men of art. . and practically to one country. as we saw in the nineteenth chapter of Pure Sociology. and none of these should be neglected. the real factor in the development of genius and the progress of If therefore the educational environment can be sup- plied. scientific. He has stated the problem.workers. But. and beautifiers of every kind are agents of civilization. But. carvers. and heuristic investigations that remains to be scope. the rest is may be dispensed with. as they are in their He was compelled. and the real end to be attained and solely the establishment on a gigantic and universal simply scale of an educational environment. but since. as we have seen.

There needs to be a serious and widely extended effort to collect the material that is absolutely indispensable to the determination of these vast social influences. or men who possess the elements of true greatness. charlatanry. At the present time there is a most pernicious practice vogue which cannot be too severely condemned. what is the true task and mission of the biographer. become the victim of them. and quackery are brought into the foreground. it is always some modest note that gives no adequate idea of their true merit or their work. Truly are loath to contribute. It cannot probably be stopped. Great men. under various names. It should prepare in the most careful manner a series of questions calculated to bring out Society It every important fact and send them out judiciously to all that it would be of use to interrogate. but something so much better should be set on foot that it will lose its economic stimulus and be completely supin planted. The prevalence of a Our mass of almost universally accepted popular error has prevented biographers from recording the most important facts connected with the life and career of great men. and when they do so. as nothing else could. Those who their names before the public readily fall get They are asked to write their own biographies. are flooding civilized countries. as every one who has attention of the world has in the least attracted have no other way to into the net. . of the set know much weak side of on foot by shrewd financiers who human nature and know how to glut their greed by appealing to the vanity of ambitious men.222 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II studies have also taught us. the vain and worthless made to appear to be the chief figures. tions. They are all mercenary schemes. The work of the future must therefore begin with the present. and all forms of mediocrity. and these volumes are great men with the self-praises of charlatans. which is rapidly becoming the past. are The perspective is thus totally lost. either from filled goodness of heart or to put an end to importunity. itself should undertake this most important of all operashould conduct a most searching and continuous statistical investigation of the agents of civilization. I refer to the deluge of alleged biographical dictionaries which. would gladly respond to such inquiries. and for those that have lived and labored in former ages these are probably now for the most part lost forever. They the need no description.

IX] If PROSPECTIVE INVESTIGATIONS 223 whom Galton could obtain answers from the greater part of those to he sent his questions. resources. Yet what could be more important from the broadest cosmopolitan and humanitarian point of view than to investigate the conditions that underlie the progress of the world? Could those who control such institutions share in any modest degree the views and vistas of the who have long and deeply studied these vast problems. patience. there are certain institutions which in their extent. and with time. But this is by no means the only method to adopt. and ample resources it would be possible ultimately to present to the world such a mass of well-digested statistics as would enable legislators and statesmen field of social to frame measures certain to multiply the workers in every great achievement. fect M. In default of such true social action. and importance constitute true social agents. With its vast resources it is be really important. . and in view of the wellknown inertia of great states. devoted to the promotion of disinterested researches in the interest of human progis able to undertake great works that are wholly beyond the reach of individual enterprise. There are hundreds of ways by which the desired information could be obtained. there would be no hesitation in organizing such researches on a grand scale and backing them up with all the resources at their very few command. provided they ress. certainly a properly organized bureau would be treated respectfully by all who were really worthy of being included in such an investigation. Such a one the Carnegie Institution. It could and would no doubt be improved upon and great fields covered which he was obliged to leave fallow. The investigations here outlined answer this description.CH. Surely no man who devotes time. It claims to prefer such as could not bring pecuniary returns. No aspect of such a momentous question should be overlooked or neglected. and means to them could ever hope for any material returns whatever. energy. Odin's researches furnish a per- model from which to proceed.

rj6tv virdp^et evrtXt^eitt y6ypap. GOULD.CHAPTER X THE LOGIC OF OPPORTUNITY The Act o-ir(. dignity. These factors are (i) centers of population containing intellectual stimuli and facilities special (2) ample material means freedom from care. and especially under the last five heads./3cu'vi CTTI TOV vov. These resources are made up of two elements the quantity : and the quality of talent that exist in the world. are driven eddies of the dust of chance in the gust of circum- GEORGE M. wherewithal to supply the apparatus of research (3) a social position such as is capable of producing a sense of self-respect. facts that The we have passed in review in the last chapter.fvov crv/u.fj. economic security. ARISTOTLE. <L CARLYLE. leisure. (4) careful THE RESOURCES OF SOCIETY The same facts also place us in a position to form some sort of estimate of the true resources of society in the agents of civilization. VOLTAIRE. Our stance.p history of the world 8' is the biography of great men. n'y a pas d'existence sans little lives AUGUSTE COMTE. factors for the most part wholly neglected by all the investigators in this field. activite*. and prolonged intellectual training during youth. so that a given number of persons of genius taken at 224 . But as the ele- ment quality appears to be distributed in about the same proportions everywhere. and the insuring . whereby all the fields of achievement become familiar and a choice of them possible in harmony with intellectual proclivities and tastes. . have shown in a wholly unexpected way what the real environmental factors of civilization are. and reserve power which alone can inspire confidence in one's worth and in one's right to enter the lists for the great prizes of life. II II n'est de vrais plaisirs qu'avec de vrais besoins. OVTODS wo-TTtp cv ypap-pMTeita p.

CH. Taking down the Compenably vary greatly dium of the Twelfth Census of the United States (1900). and therefore the directly compared with . leave this element out of the account and concentrate our attention on the element quantity. probably with approximate accuracy. But he does not regard all these as men and proposes to reduce the number to 500. this would make 425 of genius. Galton. of genius in 60. We have been accustomed dealing with M. estimated. we according to Galton's estimate. there would be one man that this to every find that.000 shown by him cannot be Odin's tables cover a period of five centuries. we have for England if per 100. million. we may. at least for the present. Odin's tables and maps to think of the fecundity in men of genius as so many per 100. This of course means the actual number of talented persons in society.000 of the population. because few know offhand what proportion the men of fifty to the total population. or about one fifteenth. this was 6. Assuming the total of number male persons of fifty years of age would be approximately true for England. because in order to do this one or more of the four environmental factors must have coincided with the possession of these powers. otherwise they never could find expression.793. have already had abundant reasons for concluding that this cannot be measured We by the number who have succeeded for one cause or another in giving expression to their inherent powers. who proceeded on this erroneous assumption. As the population of the United States was 75. that there are at all times in England about 850 men of special ability of fifty years of age or upward. and as.991. to the million.182.464. or 250 to the This would be one to every four thousand of that age and This does not give a very clear idea of the fecundity of a country. and reducing this to that basis inhabitants. X] THE RESOURCES OF SOCIETY 225 random from the population of any country at any period would probably present the same qualitative gradations. and upward bear are not The figures for England hand. but the proportion would not probreadily at in different countries.000 number per 100. sex. according to the latest census at the time he wrote. I find that now my and upward was 5.000 of population. there were about two million male persons of those ages.8 per cent of it.

The population of France during the same period was say about thirty million. M. It France 1686 men of letters during the period appears from them that there were born in from 1801 to 1825. which he reduced to 500. three should be practically the mean for a century.8).000 inhabitants. The number of men of genius existing at any given time is practically the same as the number born during one generation. 3000. but there are so many both estimates. and he knows that a shaft is sunk at the proper place . the number existing at a given time multiplied by. indications region. glance at it shows that the of the departments yielded four or more "remarkgreat majority A able personages per 100. Jacoby's table covers only one century. These may be compared to mineral resources which lie hidden in the earth. If 5 we and confined 6. is what the actual working force either at the present time or at any given date in the are useful in forming an estimate of the resources of They society.5. or practically the same as that of England. We see that this number (5) falls considerably short leave out Seine with we exaggerated fecundity. five more than twenty. the mean for a century should be substantially three times the estimate for a given time.226 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [I-ART II Galton's figures.8.000 inhabitants. sixteen more than ten. the of even the less of the two calculations in (7. and even in the method of calculation. But Galton's estimate is also too low as compared with elements of uncertainty M. only two less than one. it would still be between or more than times Galton's estimate. If mean for all the remaining departments is about 7. while Seine went up to sixty-nine. The ratio for France would therefore be 10 per 100. therefore. that perhaps the discrepancy should not be regarded as serious. where Galton found only 850 at the most. Forthe two estimates to agree. Odin's tables. but they are in themselves no measure of those resources. Or conversely. The actual workers would then represent the surface A which the mining prospector sees as he surveys a given few glittering grains and an occasional nugget lie on the if surface. which is about three generations of men. it to men six of letters alone. of These figures give us some idea of society past. distinction in all branches The number of persons of must have been nearly twice as great. or considerably less than a generation. " The average its of the eighty-five departments is 8.

The total range is of course much greater. 227 fails.5). dity of each about eight times the mean department as a whole. the Germans of Haut-Rhin. have as high a rate of fecundity as many purely French departments. X] rich veins will THE RESOURCES OF SOCIETY be revealed.000. The people of Creuse or Charente are the same kind of people as those of Bouchesdu-Rhone or of Seine. the maximum is over 20. where. the Bretons of Finistere.000. These differences are all due to differences in the environment at different points. The differences are not at all due to the character of the people living in these different departments. The Basques of the Basses-Pyrenees. reached anywhere shows that A the (69) possible everywhere. this is a wholly false basis for arriving at the influence of the local environment in the production of genius.000 occupants may . if they differ ethnologically. we have seen that this has no influence on their capacity for achievement. If the mean it is between 2 and 3 and the is fact that this is actually per 100. while the treasures of distributed. number of Odin's tables show that even this is much less than maximum range is in fecundity. In Jacoby's table the maximum He dealt with the fecun(8. and we have already seen what these environmental of the different factors are. If we go back to Jacoby's table we find that the productivity departments ranges from i to 69 per 100. and exist only in rare human genius are somewhat uniformly if and there is no region which. the maximum fecundity attained that represents the real resources of a country. the rate per 100. fore judge is Paris. about thirteen times the influence of the country in this direction. properly worked. which has by far the greatest fecundity. But. The great factor is the cities as saw that cities exert on an average against the rural districts. But even Paris does not furnish the absolute chateaux. as we have seen. therefore. The comparison soon however.CH. will not yield them. for the treasures of the earth are segregated spots. To find this we must go to the we saw. as maximum. our estimate of the resources of society we are not to go by the mean of all the departments. Or. It is. The true resources represent the We But in absolute maximum by attained anywhere. For France we must thereThis over thirty-five times that of the rural districts taken together.

The chances of success for the same degree of talent are fifty-five for the former class to one of the latter. was shown that about eleven times as many talented persons belong to the wealthy or well-to-do classes as to the poor or laboring classes. The lowest class. of course. although the latter are about five times as numerous as the former. The nobility. If APPLIED SOCIOLOGY the average rate is [PART II about two. yet these three classes furnished over 78 per cent of the men of renown. in so far as it is distinct. no matter how great may be the native talent or even genius. furnished less than 10 per cent.223 be as high as 200. It simply adds. by reducing bers comfortable and secure in their economic relations. and by making all its mempoverty. The extremes. which constitutes 80 per cent of the population. We saw that more than three fourths of the men of eminence have belonged to the higher social classes. and the liberal professions all together make up only 10 per cent of the population. When It this is the case it simply adds to the influence of the latter. the resources of society may be enormously increased by abolishing the hours of labor. and for absolute poverty or uninter- rupted labor at long hours the chance of success is necessarily zero. When we looked into the relative fecundity of these classes we saw that the differences were enormous. in the environment. Exactly the same must be said of the social as of the economic social welfare. are very much greater. The economic environment must also be reckoned with. On the other hand. The range . to the influence of place and of means. this shows that the actual resources of society in effective working power are capable of being increased a hundredfold. Any sacrimight make in securing these ends would be many times repaid by the actual contributions that the few really talented among the hundreds of thousands thus benefited would make to the fice that society For talent is distributed all through this great mass same proportions as it exists in the much smaller well-to-do or wealthy class. Thus far we have considered the influence of the local environment only. the public officers. and the only reason why the latter contribute more is because their economic condition affords them opportunity. notwithstanding their relative paucity in numbers. This may be more or less independent of the local environment. Indigence is an effective bar to achievement.

illiteracy are so rare as to be practically But really. When at last we come the data are more to the educational environment. albeit acquired somewhat later in life. For. All the achievement of the world has been pensable at least to a literary career. done by educated persons. X] THE RESOURCES OF SOCIETY was from T8^ of 229 i to 159. It is evident. consist almost wholly of experience. Another 10 per cent are somewhat developed. and in many cases does. Only 2 or 2^ per cent suc- ceeded in struggling up to neglected early instruction. indeed actually constituted one. for all except the rarest cases. Only 10 per cent of these resources have been developed. they were shown to have soon come under the influence of a favorable local environ- whom any ment. which. There remain 80 per cent as yet almost in fecundity relative to population is this latent four fifths of task of applied sociology is to show how mankind can be turned to account in the work of civilization. It may. the indica- tions are all in the same direction. We saw that 98 per cent of the men of talent of France and only slightly less of those of the four other leading countries of the world were provided in their youth with ample educational facilities. and still the cases of any great distinction having been attained under conditions of actual legendary. as was said of the indigent class and they are for the most part the same they possess potential abilities in the same proportion to their numbers as the highest wholly undeveloped. In distinction after a limited or wholly all the cases of this last class about information could be obtained. which 200 to I. something more than the mere "common-school education" is required to insure success. then. . This again indicates the true resources approximately (the un worked mines) that society possesses. This means that all who are without it are debarred at the outset from all hope of ever joining the forces of civilization.CH. The social class. although defective than for most of the others. that education is absolutely indis- and it is practically so to any career in a civilized community. coupled with their talents. and the term must be given the broad meaning insisted upon from the first. took the place of an education. Doubtless different kinds of achieve- ment require different kinds and amounts of education.

precisely as in the case of the working-classes proletariat. and often result in the attainment of At least. of is all numerous education. of access to the treasures of learning stored up in libraries. of readers of books written. of intercourse with bright minds. and social rank were conducive to greatness and achievement only in so far as they were substitutes for an educational environment. They make selfeducation possible. precisely as in the case of the inhabitants of back- ward provinces or districts. wealth. And yet. could see this in its full meaning. a well-organized system of public instruction in all the higher fields where genius delights to revel may and does constitute a basis for a genial career. it may be Still. much of which there no substitute. and is it is. and while it is in many ways undesirable that all should flock to the great educational centers. and the are certainly to a large extent a substitute for the economic social environment. They both. whatever may be their native talents. while it would be regarded as wholly Utopian to propose to provide all with a high economic and social environment. The great men of all time have however and whenever they may have acquired it. talent and and and genius are distributed throughout the ranks of the uneducated in the same numerical proportion as among the city-born. and the academicians. precisely as in the case of the poor disinherited. All outside of that group. and the recipients of such privileges are practically certain to seek out and find their appropriate local environment. the opulent. an entirely practical proposition to provide every member of society with such an education as will it is enable him to select and successfully pursue a career. It admitted. it would perceive that If society it would be the most economical of all public measures. Even if there were no . have had to be selected. are excluded even from candidacy to achievement. But we saw that centers of population. They furnish the education of experience. the nobility. education for facilities for publication. But when we consider how small the number is who have this privilege we see from what a limited group the efficient workers of the world had this.230 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY broader view of the principal branches of learning [PART is II A much neces- sary to enable a person of talent or even of genius to select a career and pursue it successfully.

Looking at the subject from the standpoint of the local environment alone. using that term in the sense in which it was used in Dynamic Sociology. De Woman is a wholly Candolle devotes nearly two of the five hundred and seventy-six pages of his book to " Women and Scientific Progress. the members of society." but no woman had ever been admitted to any of the great academies of which he treats. It would be profitless M.000 population. To sum up the general results of this inquiry.CH. This factor is nothing less than exactly one half of the human race. even in the case of men. however. who without instruction could never make their talents effective and would remain forever unknown. He shows that where they have really enjoyed any opportunity they have done their share. names of some women. Jacoby's list may contain the to search for them.5 of the is clearly brought out men of letters of France. Only one other condition proved superior to Paris.1 of the women of This was because only there did woman find a congenial environment. It can therefore be made at least 200 to the 100. all negligible factor in his calculations. and this was life in chateaux. viz.000. But the certainty that potential genius does exist everywhere in the same proportions as in the most favored classes insures the actual production of a great army of high-grade all social agents." most important extant would increase the average fecundity in dynamic agents of society at least one hunThe fecundity is apparently about 2 to the 100. it may be safely stated that a well-organized system of universal education. The great superiority of Paris over all other cities in France has been sufficiently emphasized. Paris produced 23. this by the facts. great factor. Odin is the only one who has seen that the t true cause of the small literary fecundity of women has been their almost complete lack of opportunity. X] THE RESOURCES OF SOCIETY 231 persons of talent or of genius among them. womankind. has been omitted by nearly all who have discussed these questions. as conferring "the maximum amount all of the knowledge upon dred-fold. anything like it produced 42. The . Galton's point of view is One of course exclusively androcentric. or i to every 500. the superior public enlightenment that could not fail to result would repay a thousandfold the effort and expense. but letters of France..

The different environments that we have been considering. There is. even if they do not add to the depth. as so many sources of opportunity. and here as everywhere natura non facit saltus. social. and a few generations of enlightened opinion on the subject. a certain crudeness. in all not positive these calculations of the number of geniuses. We and all this will be changed. error. like almost every other natural product. at least. have no conception of the real amount of talent or of genius possessed by women. There all are among men conceivable degrees of genius. It is probably not greatly inferior to that of men even now. of the world's progress. ence is shared by both sexes. but they produced over 5 per cent of the talented women. and the present irregularities in this respect are abnormal. looked upon in two diaseemed to be considering them metrically opposite ways. but very soon they would raise the proportion to I in 300. The estimates hitherto made of the resources of society have taken that this amounted to men i in every only into consideration. The fact is. may be We have . that genius. There are gradations in everything. The universal prevalence of the by men and women alike. educational. shared a wet blanket on all the genial the female sex.232 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II chateaux of France produced less than 2 per cent of the men of letters. and hence as generators of genius. however. If this is so. Let this be once removed and woman's true relation to society be generally perceived. in the world. They constitute in them- selves a proof that something is preventing the full natural expression of this universally diffused social force. for women will strike out according to their natural inclinations and cultivate fields that men would never have cultivated. We concluded How much can we add for women when ? taken into the fold For the transition period they shall be fully recognized and it is not claimed that they would double the number of contributors to civilization. But it is equally legitimate to consider them from their negative as they actually exist in society. would perhaps show that the differqualitative only. 500 of the population. local. economic. the gain in developing it would if be greater than that of merely doubling the number of social agents. and ultimately they would contribute their full moiety. They will thus add to the breadth. is entirely relative. actual or if potential. acts as fire of androcentric world view.

With rare exceptions only the mouthpiece of a few privileged circles. Odin says. . they are extrusive materials. 1 all In the past and present state of the world not only literary but other achievement has been irregular. cit. since it is phantom so many historians and literary artifi- It is in the full force of the term an derived essentially from causes due to the intentional intervention of man. from some cause or other. the whole population shall be brought to interest itself actively in intellectual affairs will it be possible for a truly national literature to come forth which shall become the common property of all classes of society. It is a natural phenomenon only as it faithfully reflects the inner lar. In fact. it is when it of the whole world. The intelligent class is immersed in the illiterate mass. as M. Not until. In each environment the upper strata represent only what has succeeded the language of geology. and for every Athens there is an Arcadia. In every one of them the repressive influence is far greater than the liberative influence. mankind. and hence in its essence. that vague. We are looking only at the exceptions and ignoring the rule. and height. ethereal. . mental workings of certain social strata. in many efforts of every kind to spread it among the people. Born in the atmosphere of the hotbed it cannot bear the open air. and has not resulted from the simple natural evolution of mankind. they are simply privileged classes. an'd we are. which have caused 1 most of the genius of Odin. op. To use words of that remarkable book to which and to the true genius of its author we owe so large a part of all that we have been able to bring forward in the present chapter and the one that precedes Literature then is it : not . 564. p. and spasmodic. The nobility is opposed to the proletariat. a vast mountainous region with great peaks and domes. Let us listen to the last in bursting through. . form. And this explains why. This to influences repressing is all due to these artificial causes. cial creation. X] THE RESOURCES OF SOCIETY 233 aspect. The few rich are the antithesis of the many poor.CH. Over against the metropolis stands the country. in a wild chaos. spite of so serves to express with equal ardor the interests and the passions French literature does not do this. merely extolling privilege. It possesses nothing national or popuLiterature can only be national when it springs from the very bosom of the people. it has remained upon the whole so unattractive and so foreign to the masses. but not with- The world of thought may be compared to out a certain rude grandeur. rising with the utmost irregularity as to size. in its origin. coinciding with those of the most highly favorable character. chains and sierras. sporadic. spontaneous thing whose critics have been pleased to evoke.

or monstrous. it is evident that the powers of mind that have not found expression can be enabled to find expression only through the extension of opportunities to them also. bizarre. not by lowering the higher but by raising the lower elements. As the higher classes have attained their position solely through superior opportunities. . and there more true than of paleontology. movement must take THE FALLACY OF HISTORY History defined as a record of exceptional phenomena. huge. Attention was paid only to such objects (minerals. 1804. and we should have had great continents over whose merely undulating surface all the powers of the mind would be in harmonious operation. centupling of the present working forces of society. plants. recorded. something quite out of the regular course of things. It would have been an epeirogenic and not an erogenic movement. This points the direction that the That if the object is to be accomplished. v. abnormal. It was so at first with natural history. Such events are supposed to be wholly uncaused. and by a general leveling of all classes from this purely intellectual point of view. p.234 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II genius to burst through in places and throw up and scatter over the surface of society all these towering and fantastic forms. fact or event to be worthy of such record must stand out as may be Any something extraordinary. Twenty years ago is I wrote : wonder at unexplained phenomena. and the first collections of such objects were looked upon Science often has its origin in no science of which this is 1 Parkinson's Organic Remains of a Former World. as the statistics have shown. If the movement had been natural and normal. human Now the purpose of applied sociology is to point out a way by which these great irregularities may be eliminated. the whole mass would have risen together. animals) as were unusual. Anything for which a natural cause can be assigned immediately loses If the cause is known in advance it is not all its historical interest. It is too tame. Nearly all the early writers openly avow that they have been chiefly spurred on to undertake and carry on their investigations by an " eager curiosity " * respecting the objects they were treating. is nothing less than the object. The idea of a museum was simply that of a curiosity shop.

He is not at all like other men. The : following passage is one of several that are well worth listening to The historians are constantly making the mistake of studying only the facts that present a certain peculiarity which has struck them from the first and of setting aside and neglecting the others. at least as one wholly independent of circumstances. we see that it partakes in large measure of this spirit of wonder study. He is regarded as wholly independent of circumstances. 1 For example. p.CH. They suppose that just so many of these human curiosities written by at the historians. but they deny that any geniuses exist or ever have existed except the few that have made their way to fame. 147). A hero is a wholly exceptional being. These know how to cite a number of cases in which their presentiments have been realized. at least as in no sense a creature of them. the great Academia Leopoldino-Carolina Naturae Curiosorum. The works in which this effort has been specially made are claiming to be scientific. It is human it the fallacy of history in general and the most serious vice in all reasoning. Some do indeed imagine that the quantity could be increased by the adoption of certain rules in the process of breeding men. have shown to be the fallacy of superstition (supra. They proceed exactly as do those persons who seek to justify their belief in presentiments. simply forgetting all those. men have been brought into the world. much more numerous of course. the part of history which deals exclusively with heroes. . Now and p. while what have since become the greatest scientific institutions in the world sometimes betray their origin by perpetuating the original names expressive of their sense of wonder. perhaps much more important. 1 Biography is only a kind of history. But if now we look back over the whole movement that we have been sketching. 1885. 1 there is I no essential difference between this mental attitude that which 17). X] THE FALLACY OF HISTORY 235 simply as curiosities. and that it is with this fixed quantity that we have to deal. The same is true of all "great men. 385). p. and later to be also the fallacy of statistics (supra. The entire effort to find out who the great geniuses of the world have been is of this nature." No wonder then that so little can be learned from biography. 1883-1884. Odin saw this clearly. Washington. and he has adverted to on numerous occasions. and in them we find flings and yet they look upon a genius as in many respects an exceptional being". founded in 1670 at Frankfort-on-the-Main (Fifth Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey. M.

pp. proceeds to give a number of striking examples of the fallacy some of them committed by writers as distinguished as M. XI. 71 (Tauchnitz) . Plutarch.. iii. all must admit the paramount influence of experience in the determination of the quantity and quality of intelligence in the adult human being. Biehl. usually ascribed to Locke. But they look upon these as exceptions which they may neglect as not affecting the general rule. III. IV. 1896. De Placitis Philosophorum. . Still it has been of great service. 4303 (ed. Bekker). 2 mind man Plato. mind to a blank sheet of paper Like most comparisons.236 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II in which their presentiments have played them false. 4 and Quintilian. wholly exact. op. 3 Aristotle. Perhaps there is still better comparison. Opera. T. that comparable to a sheet of paper on which nothing has as yet been written. V. 268 (ed. is as old as the the of at birth is Stoics. exist among men the true extent of the external factor has only recently begun to be understood. p. 1. Theaetetus. 85). p. and if Helvetius was the only one who ever accepted it to the full extent of asserting the complete equality of all minds and the extraneous nature of all intelligence. and the truth it contains constitutes a the foundation of modern scientific psychology. C. 100-101. Suppose we liken the wholly inexperienced brain to soil in which no seeds or germs of any kind as yet quality of this soil then represents heredity or the premind. Taine. IV. The efficients of 1 2 8 Odin. 4. differ- The comparison is of the new-born not. of history is the neglect or refusal to recognize the relativity and universality of genius. and the chief lies in the equipment. therefore. 4 De Anima. It may be very poor. The doctrine. cit. and therefore be incapable of yielding any rich exist. Lib. vii. If any one were to press them they would probably admit overlooking cases in which presentiments did not come true. One of the best illustrations of the fallacy Relativity of Genius. The evidence is rapidly accumulating to show that not only between individuals of the same race but also between the races of men the ence substratum differs far less than was supposed. in While few doubt that enormous differences the substratum of the intellect. and that what it is to become will depend entirely on what shall be written upon it. 14. 1 He of history. it limps. devoid of salts and nitrogenous constituents. p.

has not he is complete master. He soil. If left entirely to itself. But the seed may be carefully selected and only the most useful kinds allowed Careful tillage to grow. noxious. choke out one another. and carry the tillage to any Over nature he has little power. This able educational environment. for the atmosphere or are borne by the winds or waters or birds. Over the soil itself man has control. can control the environment to any required extent. for nothing has as yet been discovered for the mind comparable to the fertiliza- on this problem that men of Galton's school have been working. This represents experience. X] RELATIVITY OF GENIUS it 237 products. but here perhaps the parallel fails more fully than elsewhere. sown upon fall upon it is is certain. or may have any degree If of richness rich. it Then very the character of the seed that and thus be capable contains the elements That germs or seeds will is always and everywhere charged with them. and worthless. The human race has represented every conceivable combination of all these conditions. may destroy the low. but over nurture seen. It is to do. Under these conditions the mind will be stocked with all manner of germs comparable to molds-and algae. consequence all ment little that we and the history of mankind exhibits as a the great irregularities in its intellectual develophave been studying. and leave the mastery to those that although they may be coarse. possess the greatest vitality. such a mind will receive only the germs that float about at random. may vary in all degrees. and no being can pass a moment after birth without some kind of experience. and weeds that will spring up. He can prepare the point he pleases. select the seed. Everything else is completely under the control of man as soon as he learns what tion of soils. it of raising all grades of crops. How the human intellect has . But nature. and which these accidentally let fall upon it. Where nurture and represents a favorcareful nurture is applied to a rich soil we have the condition of talent or even of genius.CH. struggle different kinds of together for existence. but they have not yet solved the problem. Such is the environment of nature. useless growths and is leave the useful plants to flourish without competition and bear rich and abundant fruit. He may artificially enrich it over small areas. as we have the soil been niggardly in providing or substratum of intelligence. of true genius.

must diminish. they are simply less different from the great mass. Odin. V and VI 480. . according to the traditional idea of genius as an entity. It is critics. It is of talent will perhaps and more moreover. Part III Pure Sociology. We should thus avoid gratuitous assumptions. it is rather the point of view from which it. that men rare. a manifest absurdity.238 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II been able to reach the state at which we find it in even the most backward races. . XVIII. to attribute to an assumed modification of the environment the consequences of a simple change in our point of view. a latent genius would no longer be anything more than a contradiction of terms. but only of works or achievements of genius. as in the following paragraphs : Perhaps would be better never to speak of men of genius. Vol. Chap. In fact. But if we see genius not in the persons but in the acts. Is it not generally believed that sooner or later genius will burst out. Vol. not genius itself that has changed. ultimately acquire the appearance of evidence. is it ? And yet this universal belief is only on simple assumptions whose insufficiency ought to leap It requires only a little reflection to recognize that by this something affirmed with a perfect assurance which it is Of course genius always bursts out out ! in all the cases in absolutely impossible to know. is those of preceding epochs. in proportion as our knowledge of great men has increased the difference which separates the man of genius from the man of talent. 477Especially in Dynamic Sociology. No one has seen or expressed this truth more clearly than M. and the latter from the ordinary man. I have on various occasions essayed to explain. by force of repetition. go on multiplying. The arti- man. and educational environment enables them to rise into a freer intellectual atmosphere. It we consider The great man appears less great only because other men appear less small. but that true genius will become more This would be to fall into a very strange optical illusion. and is constantly striking out into new. the nearer we approach to our epoch. which we see it burst But who shall ever tell us of the others ? Yet we should always consider them as possible. Chaps. pp. that this difference must appear less striking as education is diffused and strengthened. that is. and especially in the most forward ones. 1 . II. Nothing prevents it from doing so but the environmental restraints that keep it in check. biologically non-advantageous paths. it which. I. whatever may be the circumstances that oppose all founded after to the eyes. Contemporary geniuses are probably neither less numerous nor less exalted than clear. social. The Psychic Factors of Civilization. classes of society possess no monopoly of the mental powers of and they seem to do so only because their economic. 1 The important fact is that the human intellect everywhere is more vigorous than the ordinary material wants of life require. that our civilization not otherwise with the opinion so often expressed by contemporary is unfavorable to the unfolding of genius. Burst these bonds at any point and the ficial human mind will soar.

It is only by admitting it without reserve that we can attain to a rational conception of the from the most sublime to the facts. 1 Odin. Defregger. nection of the of names Bernard. and many other less known men. The class of naturalists referred to are incapable of seeing natural sciences to fill in the missing links and diminish the that the gain in the increased knowledge of nature greatly outweighs these merely systematic inconveniences. Regnault. of establishing a truly natural classification. of fixing absolute limits. but while. but when intermediate forms begin to be found the work of classification becomes more difficult.. pp. is common to all orders of phenomena. the passage from the one to the other is imperceptible they all form. Claude and of Robert Burns. as we shall see. 1 Those who deplore this state of things belong to the same class as do the naturalists who deplore the inevitable tendency of all the number of distinct species. 148-149. it No one disputes the it fact. in science. So long as species are distinct and clearly marked off from one another science is simple and easy. Hardwicke and other judges of England. Huss. Watt. Laplace. and from which we cannot except arbitrarily detach any part. Faraday. So far as experience and reason enable us to judge. John BunAlexandre Dumas.CH. only in varying proportions. which many deplore. Hawthorne. Schwanthaler. Attention has already been called Genius Present in All Classes. op. does prove a proposi- It proves that genius is present those cited by Galton in this connection are Among D'Alembert. does not prove their theory. . Beranger. and a long list of musical composers. of genius and and not a generic Genius results from a particular combination of qualities which are man in all men. To have recognized it is the greatest conquest of modern science. most limited. intercrossing in all directions. cit. including Bach and Haydn. found it is . Scaliger. one same and single series. Poe. etc.. This impossibility. in all classes. X] GENIUS PRESENT IN ALL CLASSES therefore everything leads us to admit between the run of mortals a simple difference of degree 239 Thus the common difference. Luther. All that we know thus far is that impossible to separate men into clearly distinct categories according to the nature and amount of their talents. But we are perfectly familiar with the mention in this concites Davy. Latimer. Weismann tion which they are loath to admit. to the fact that the advocates of the irrepressibility of genius frequently allude to the rise of great men from obscurity to positions of eminence and renown. and even yan. and Lenbach among sculptors and painters. Leverrier. Edgar A.

of the other four greatest nations of the world. or 1 1 per cent of the whole class. pp. This was confirmed by the table showing that 61. But this whole subject was treated in ChapVII under the title Intellectual Egalitarianism. all of which together produced 20 of this class. Very nearly the same result appears for the highest class. They only indicate the fact of their existence. In this case our researches would evidently not prove much relative to the action exerted by the environment. or 9. cit. while. Of statesmen and financiers of this class " of course there is no end. and Germany. for want of a favorable environment. 556-557. not the extent of On this point M. besides the men of letters whom we know.8 per cent. there has been a multitude of individuals endowed by heredity with equal or superior aptitudes. and who. England." That most of these men were really of humble birth and emerged from the lower classes it teaches a great lesson. and prove there is nothing to indicate that the amount of these qualities is from the laboring fairly indicated by these figures. in literature. Italy. we majt.240 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II Shakespeare. Spain. doubtless mainly the same persons. and America is the great nursery of selfmade men. ter The statistical summary that was made in the last chapter con- saw that 57 or over 9 per cent of firms this general view. and Whatever all theories different writers may practically agree that genius exists in all the strata of society. have on the subject they of society is doubtless true. on the contrary. actually belonged to the laboring class. along with the personages whose talent we have been able to establish. Odin remarks : Theoretically of course it might be asked whether. modern French men of talent had passed their youth in more or less destitute circumstances. it. Surely nothing more could be needed to the existence of talent and genius in the lowest class. to attain even to the most modest repute. in the absence of an appropriate environment. presumably because they belonged to the We lower classes of society. in spite of all their natural 1 talent. 1 Odin. and this simply forms an additional illustration on that head. op. have not been able. . until there is proof to the contrary. boldly affirm that. have not succeeded in making themselves a name. or men of genius. But as absolutely nothing supports this hypothesis. simple good sense not less than reason and all experience leads us to regard it as absurd. who. there really have been others endowed with analogous natural qualities. It would be conceivable in itself that the men of letters whom we know have been the only individuals naturally endowed with literary talent..

that exist somebody to well-stored minds can do routine work at least as well as ill-stored of the work of the world minds. pp. because in almost any departof science fresh discoveries are liable to be made that will advance the material. pp. But in the last resort we can fall back upon the doctrine now current. . and secondly. and that all can acquire and the truth needful for the proper guidance of their conduct authority was also adduced for believing that all Good who can have their interest aroused are capable of performing some useful work. 208. Vol. 1 It was shown in the last section of Chapter VII. on man's Capacity for Truth. 1 Compare Pure For Sociology. that does not involve a greater or less amount of thought. utilize all life. first. and moral progress of the world. if afforded an opportunity. as distinguished from animal activity. X] NOT GENIUS BUT ACHIEVEMENT 241 Not Genius but Achievement. 28-29. and substantially true. in 2 and such discoveries are constantly being made sciences from which we should least expect practical results. The sociologist at least cares nothing about genius. and the minds of most persons are capable.CH. What concerns him. outside of mathematics. As we is of the routine kind and that there must do this routine work. and this is probably true for that great art called literature. the answer is. and almost any one with the proper trainfacilities can prosecute scientific researches. In certain of the arts special aptitudes are of course presupposed. 2 illustrations of this truth. If it be said that the great bulk is achievement. have seen. and that there is scarcely any will invent of much form of human action. that all sane persons are intellectually qualified to move in in the highest class of society. but in the various sciences. between talent and merit. there is no line of demarcation between genius and talent. II. Under the influence of the fallacy of history the point of view of the whole discussion is false. 509. of accomplishing some kind of useful work. see Dynamic Sociology. that intelligent persons engaged in routine work it ways and means of expediting it and of divesting of its character as drudgery. There is no science of which it would be safe to say that it is necessarily infertile from this point of view. that all work is at bottom mental. mental. this is not so much ing and adequate is the case. This ment the great field of real achievement.

these require to be geniuses in any special sense.242 But the are all APPLIED SOCIOLOGY this is [PART is II now a truism. education. at There are probably nearly that number now But the majority of investigators. all environments are favorable to the development of genius only in so far as they secure education. limited facilities. to prepare a much greater number for number who None of scientific work rather than to multiply narrow specialists. they are deficient in training. De Candolle estimated that there had scientific been more than sixteen thousand authors of the past two centuries. . literature. and to it we owe all we possess of early Indian. II. Of course there works during many such workers now. It began with the priesthood. but given sound minds and average talents. and therefore leisure must be regarded as a means to It may be called negative education. and and science. The desideratum is. As we have seen. and the question how to increase number of these dynamic agents of society. the number of those who are chasing after worthless trifles l diminished. therefore. they would have accomplished little in art. In other words. asm in some narrow line. and what is worse. and differs from education in being a condition to self -education. or philosophy. but more especially by the first. and that of the serious investigators greatly increased. The are really prepared for their work is not large. It was the positive great school of mankind before there was any such thing as positive education. Chinese. Both are furnished by the economic and social environments. p. and most of them are inspired by enthusi- any given date. They need to be clear and broad-minded persons. and lacking in any broad foundation which would enable them to see their subject in all its relations. Narrow and fruitless specialism is rather to be discouraged. LEISURE AS OPPORTUNITY The two principal forms of opportunity are leisure and education. The ruling classes of Greece and Egyptian learning and but possessed it. 504. the proper training will do the rest. Chaldean. they have a very enjoy very inadequate mental equipment for their work. even to-day. Throughout the Middle Ages what little was done for it 1 Rome Compare Dynamic Sociology. Vol.

129. many of which have a " predatory gies origin. relatively late and ephemeral in spite which is its great absolute or the inantiquity. too. 513. of course. as in the case of our modern multimillionaires. Thorstein Veblen's remarkable book. It is due to its author that the leading passage in which it occurs should was dealing with the current apolofully. 3 Pure Sociology. and I have used it 1 freely elsewhere. Only a very small part of it has been so employed. More and more. these apologies already said : be quoted somewhat He are an effort to do in fact further show that. 245. where successful in their practice. by the accumulation of great wealth. as it might well be called comparison with the primordial instinct of workmanship out of which it has The of been developed and 1 differentiated. 270. . and had " In the most general economic terms. where he says that man " is possessed of a taste for effective work and a distaste for futile effort. The Theory of the Leisure Class. This phrase. professional men. The Instinct of Workmanship. a variant." 2 .. cit. X] THE INSTINCT OF WORKMANSHIP 243 world was chiefly the work of high church officers from all material concerns. . This aptitude or propensity may be called the instinct of workmanship. sports what may broadly be called workmanship. men of office and high salaries constitute a sort of leisure class. 3 Veblen. It is only quite recently that business men. The emulative predatory impulse is essentially unstable in stinct of sportsmanship. have acquired and have begun to devote a portion of it pursuits. The Theory of the Leisure Class. than the propensity to predatory emulation. The latter is but a special development of the instinct of workmanship. New York. is borrowed from Mr. By Thorstein Veblen. the bourgeoisie. op. An Economic Study in the Evolution of Institutions. pp. has always been either wasted or worse than wasted. but high officials with a life tenure of leisure. of more ancient prescription." 2 And : after some further discussion he adds ulterior norm to which appeal is taken is the instinct of workmanship. p. . and the most of it. In more modern times leisure exempt was secured through social position. an instinct more fundamental. in spite of the logic of the thing. p. The expression first occurs on page 1 5. 1899. the nobility and high clergy in the intellectual being this all is In the present condition of the Old World somewhat less the case. acquire large leisure. 269. " for sports.CH. But it must not be supposed that all the leisure to disinterested leisure mankind have enjoyed has been devoted to study and contemplation.

zwischen dem Schmerz und der Langenweile. p. and that all the hope that held out for the future is a choice between the torments of hell ennui is and the ennui Condorcet remarks that "the men who were not obliged to seek their daily nourishment necessarily had intervals of repose and immediately the need of experiencing new of heaven. painted the horrors of ennui. 2 . p. all forming the prioccupations. This basis is the absolute necessity of exercising Prolonged inactivity becomes intensely painful. American Journal of Sociology. Dieses hat sich sehr seltsam auch dadurch aussprechen miissen. Sein [des Menschen] Leben schwingt also. the two great social classes are characterized by an assortment of sharply contrasted words and phrases. are clearly marked off by such expres" and the " instinct of workmanship " sions as the " instinct of sportsmanship " " honorific and humilific " " exploit and drudgery "." as Mr. 1900. exploit and industry. lies normal exercise Leisure. Die Welt als Wille und 2 1 Vorstellung. 368. Vol. nachdem der Mensch alle Leiden und Quaalen in die Holle versetzt hatte. the aristocracy. The pain resulting from inactivity is called ennui. . May. dass. Many leisure-class authors have the faculties. human society." In each of these pairs the first belongs to the leisure class and represents the superior fitness to survive in . is is the scourge of the lower the scourge of the upper. It is on this ground more than any other that he and other authors insist that the poor are happier than the rich. does not involve inactivity. have a common basis. welche beide in der That dessen letzte Bestandtheile sind. in the fact that pleasure consists exclusively in the quality of leisure." or and "perfunctory and proficuous " activities. so that the two "instincts. the socially 1 best. Thus imprisonment becomes a terrible punishment. fur den Himmel nun nichts iibrig blieb. Helvetius indulges in an apotheosis of compulsory labor as a sure escape from ennui. The leisure class constitutes the biologically fittest. I. 836. as I have frequently shown. but their underlying instincts. als eben Langeweile. and Schopenhauer declares that while want classes. Montesquieu says that they ought to have put continual idleness among the pains of hell. but always takes on some form of activity. and truly says that the pain of fatigue cannot be compared to that of ennui. If this activity is not work it will be sport. V. gleich einem Pendel. therefore. Vol. The dynamic of the faculties.APPLIED SOCIOLOGY In [PART II my review of this book I made the following remark : As has already been seen. and not only their occupations. hin und her. mary contrast between "futility and utility. Veblen says.

and 3 you will see many of them occupying themselves with scientific researches. but this is due to human nature and an unorganized social state. according to his moods. The normal percentage. 1886. op. The action that men engage is of every conceivable kind. that is. 529-530. asks : What is the cause of this extraordinary superiority of well-to-do families. cit. Premiere Partie. if it be in no other form than fear of the of leisure in hell of all ennui. irritabile -vatitm has this physiological and economic explanation . p. the artist works irregularly. p. much of the activity is perverse and injurious. as in all human activities. to another popular theory. it is in this nervous state that the man of unconscious and truly inspired genius brings forth those creations.. The instinct of genius men depend upon adversity and of workmanship. p. Introduction k la sociologie. op. It is believed that there must be a pressing necessity for any one to work. Odin. M. is the great and unremitting spur that drives and goads men to action. in discussing the economic environment. 274. is devoted to one form or another of achievement. 244. It stances prevent men facts answer it and give not true that easy circumof talent from working. cit. whatever best accomplishes the primary egoistic purpose of driving away ennui and yielding the maximum satisfaction. not for mental. let them travel and complete their studies for themselves. in contradis- tinction to the ordinary producer. are only too much inclined to idleness or to kinds of activity directly opposed to labors of the mind? 4 He the lie does not answer the question. This is all of human achievement disproves and should dispel. when repose has made him nervous and irritable the genus .. a superiority the more remarkable because rich young persons. Bruxelles. Give a little liberty to young persons of rich families let them receive an education proper to direct their curiosity toward things true and elevated. . Far more of the energy is devoted to sport than to work. 2 De Candolle remarks : They say that idleness is agreeable to men. Candolle." 1 De Greef says : Free or forced inaction is the condition sine qua non of art. but in reality issuing forth from a slowly accumulated store of energy. It is not true that is The dire necessity as a spur a popular illusion which the entire history to activity. Tableau. etc. . in appearance sudden and spontaneous. par Guillaume De Greef. 8 De * Odin. pp. X] THE INSTINCT OF WORKMANSHIP 245 the sensations in the midst of a long and complete inactivity was given name of ennui.CH... This is true for manual labor. 2 1 . having absolutely no need to think of the morrow.. 185.

viz. which can be gained chiefly from books. but at a certain point Up they should very properly diverge. laboratory. largely in the more time and study than does a preparation for a literary career. it is essential to be grounded in the rules of grammar and rhetoric.246 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY EDUCATION AS OPPORTUNITY [PART II The other principal form of opportunity is education.. those of versification. and this really involves After the statistical demonstration of the influence of education made in the last chapter. The great need in this direction. which is an art. and if one is to be a poet. But there is no less need that the person who is to follow a scientific career should be instructed with a view to that career than in the case of a literary career. It may be argued that this is not so much the case in other careers. chiefly in youth. is for a thorough scientific training. must be added. it on must be . By this I now mean something a little more restricted than what has heretofore been implied by the term. what scarcely would have needed to be proved. study of the are not needed in a scientific career. It has been shown that nearly all the eminent writers of all the leading nations have received ample instruction in their youth. it is said. to a certain point they should be the same. and especially of the biological sciences.. It may be admitted that an education for a scientific career should be somewhat different from an education for a literary career. amount at best. and the very few who did not soon took steps to compensate through self-instruction for the loss. etc. and especially is "dead languages" regarded as wholly superfluous. These things. any collection of antecedent opinions It will the subject may seem useless. There is no more pernicious notion afloat than that one is prepared any branch of science with nothing but the rudiments of an education. positive education or instruction. This proves. as all competent to pursue judges know. all I do not propose to discuss this last question here further than to that a knowledge of the structure of Latin and Greek words is say essential to the correct use of the current vocabulary of nearly every science. that an education is a sine qua non to a literary career at least. because in literature. especially in a scientific career.

" p. and this it can do without in the least altering the texture of the brain. I. in the most enlightened countries. scarcely the shall We country." alles. nover. title ed. this is not going too far. 4 Condorcet clearly saw the value of education. just the effect of use in developing the muscles of a acknowledge blacksmith's arm. since in fact. may at least be said that is interesting in any connection. need not go to the professional educators like Lorenz Horace Mann. or at least in We von Stein. acknowledge freely the great power of education and as developing the active powers of the mind. far from contradicting this opinion. "Education conquers is phrase of Helvetius all things. Chap. X. to more than an anthology it of the subject. confirm it they prove that education makes us whatever we are that men are as much that finally if men's minds are very differalike as their education is alike . p. 1872. thinkers. . 2 Thus Leibnitz said. the far-seeing penetration of certain superior minds. 2 Die Erziehung iiberwindet peut tout. 394. . p. strengthen the brain in any such physiological is may. do all things. and it becomes doubly so at this juncture. as may be seen from the following utterance: remark how a more universal education (instruction) in each by giving to a larger number of men that elementary knowledge which will inspire in them both the taste for learning and the facilities to progress. be questioned whether for it is doubtful whether education does It way as a blacksmith's arm any such degree. and that class. 209. Ibid. if nothing else. II." 3 He bases it squarely on the doc- and says: . 332. 12. Vol. Lotze. but he never mentions him. Klopp. principles of Locke." Werke.. The . and no further. Galton him" I self says. strengthened. " L'education 4 This is the of Sect. indeed. Bd. p. ent it is because education is not the same for any. What it does is to enlighten the mind.CH. in showing. but will cite only philosophers. X] EDUCATION AS OPPORTUNITY little 247 But it admitted. investigators. 1 Hereditary Genius. from Leibnitz. ." The so near to this that one might suppose he favorite had borrowed it " Education can trine of Locke. must increase their hope how much more it would still increase if a more general condition of easy circumstances could permit more individuals to engage in such pursuits. . HanI. and statesmen. Herbart." 1 This certainly is all that any social influences in I one asks or has claimed. . It was. VI. Reihe.

Addressed to Workingmen. It is therefore clear that there is thus directly opened a vast field for education to modify in almost every direction such flexible organisms. 174. etc. Mazzini was another who saw in education the salvation of the world : Education. Emilie Ashurst Venturi. 1 . for good and for bad. pp. 8 be reduced to a form that is adapted This opens up to us the prospect of the future happiness of the human Comte proclaimed universal education. education you are incapable of rightly choosing between good and evil you cannot acquire a true knowledge of your rights you cannot attain that partici. editor of The Life and Writings of Joseph Mazzini. nature will always be growing better . . . Neunter Theil.. New York. and although he admitted the intellectual mediocrity of the bulk of mankind. 2 as the vital power Kant wrote: In education lies It is delightful to reflect that human through education. 4 Tableau. . 1838. and my whole doctrine is included and summed up grand word. . . 373. S. and that this can the great secret of the perfecting of human nature. 13. Reprinted by permission of Mrs. an incontestable principle that men are in the common run essentially mediocre. I have said. 566-567.248 fiftieth APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II part of those to whom nature has given talents receive the instruction and how thus the number of men destined to necessary to develop them advance the boundaries of science by their discoveries would then increase in the same proportion. lies sterile in the seed cast into untilled soil and deprived of the benefits of irrigation and the watchful labor of the agriculturist. pation in political life without which your complete social emancipation is impossible you cannot arrive at a correct definition and comprehension of your Without it your faculties lie dormant and unfruitful. although. to mankind. in the matter of degree. Finally. . By Joseph Mazzini. this physiology makes . in the . 93. Leipzig. . each one possesses to a limited degree all the sentiments and all the elementary aptitudes. pp. still he saw that all were capable of being instructed and greatly elevated from the prevailing state of blank ignorance. 1892. Sammtliche Werke. Without question of Education. Ill. . The Duties of Man. The vital question in agitation at the present day is the Education is the bread of the soul. . according to a last it He says: more special consideration. even own mission. Philosophic positive. Vol. . 74. . p. race. . without any faculty being generally in itself strongly preponderant. their development must always remain of that moderate kind which clearly comports with true social 1 harmony. 2 3 4 Uber Padagogik. in their twofold affective and intellectual nature that is. outside of a very small number of exceptional organizations. .

1847). see the world from the most practical point of view. XXXVI." Napoleon. 389 (speech delivered in the House in of Commons on 3 Napoleon the igth of April.. it is essential that public opinion should be enlightened. adversity. . Vol. R. If you You leave take away education. in Council. then.. as an object of primary importance. and much less men of science. In proportion as the structure of a government gives force to public opinion. or the opinions delivered by Bonaparte la State. at least to Americans. penal colonies. N. p. Therefore. VIII. X] EDUCATION AS OPPORTUNITY 249 of the few eminent Paul Broca. system of higher education. has this to say about the value of education : Education in all its forms is the intelligent force which enables society to improve the race by struggling against the rude processes of natural selection. who. By some means government must protect our persons and property. volumes. 3 The celebrated words of George Washington in his farewell address are perhaps too familiar. gibbets. in organizing the French . 199-200. London. what means do you leave? and bayonets. . the founder of the science of anthropology. but perchance some reader may not have read them or may have forgotten them : Promote. and limited early advantages. who was one men of France who had to struggle with poverty. 1866. treadmills. but who made his way to the metropolis and soon found means of completing his preparation for a great career. to be quoted here. in the Council of Lozere) by Captain Basil . p. 1 Quoted 2 The Works in eight Revue scientifique. although not philosophers. 12 decembre. Lady Trevelyan. pp. of Lord Macaulay complete. said I in council: feel called upon to organize a such that both political system of education for the new generation. and moral opinions may be duly regulated thereby. Vol. institutions for the general diffusion of knowledge. 1 Then there are the statesmen and men of action. London. Macaulay says : common that the a principal cause of danger to our persons and people property. 1837. Translated from the French of Baron Pelet (de Hall. and whose opinions are surely " The gross ignorance of the worthy of respect. 760. it is the duty of the government to take care is common people shall not be grossly ignorant. 1885. edited by his sister. stocks and whipping posts. solitary guns 2 cells. .CH. Add to it just institutions that permit each individual to obtain a position commensurate with his worth and you will have done more for the race than the most pitiless natural selection could ever do.

all the other ways are successful only as they lead to education. whatever their natural merit or ability. etc. it expects what never was and never and will be. . however brilliant. X. Even from that large and growing class of positions for which high acquirements or superior education is the only qualification. New York. They come into the world to find the best positions not only already filled but practically occupied in perpetuity. it may be perceived that the larger proportion of the people are almost as rigorously and as absolutely as in any past condition of excluded society by the simple fact that the ability to acquire such education or quali2 fication is at present the exclusive privilege of wealth. Social Evolution. speak as if they were open to all comers. we we are at present from the realisation of this ideal of equality of shall probably perceive more clearly as the development con- Future generations may regard with some degree of surprise. p. to the permanent exclusion of the rest of the people." 1 The total inadequacy of existing systems of education to the : needs of the age was clearly pointed out by Kidd How tinues. cannot succeed without education. Genius. It is far more true that education will do this. far opportunity. consequently (with strange inaccuracy). Vol. 1 The Writings 2 of Thomas Jefferson. in which we have obtained for all members of the community the necessary opportunity for the full exercise of their faculties. and of all the ways of making latent genius patent education is the chief. we to all intents and purposes allow the wealthy classes to retain the control of these positions for generation after generation. and of which we. 1899. It is often said that genius will create its opportunity. under the great body of rights which wealth has inherited from feudalism. On the other hand. for all normal intellects are capable of performing useful work if the proper advantages are vouchsafed. Latent genius is absolutely impotent. A large proportion of the population in the prevailing state of society take part in the rivalry of life only under conditions which absolutely preclude them. and may even smile at our conceptions of present-day society as a condition in which we in which we get the right men into secure the full benefits of free competition and the right places and give them sufficient inducements to exert themselves . from any real chance therein. as we have seen. pp. It requires but little reflection to see how wide of the mark such a conception really is. For. .250 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY briefer [PART II The is and more pithy remark : of Jefferson to the same effect " If a nation expects to be ignorant perhaps even more familiar free in a state of civilization. Indeed. 232-233. 4.. education without genius can do much.

leads men. sc. . Act IV. This is. in: Maximes et 8 Pensees diverses. Hereditary Genius. as a matter of this fact. but that those only who have the wit to discern it and the energy to seize it profit by it. but wherever the data can be produced they will always sustain this proposition. 40. p. 139. or alleged self-made men. The most classical expression of this theory is that of the well-known lines of Shakespeare : There is a tide all in the affairs of Which. taken Omitted. it comes in through the door and goes . Before entering upon the subject proper. that in the one opportunity is certain to present itself. out through the window. Is at the flood. or embraces two classes of cases. 8 1 if a man be long unconscious of his powers. an opportunity is sure to that will discover they occur over and over again to every man 2 Julius Caesar. 1 it Montesquieu expressed as follows : There is no man whom fortune does not visit once in his life but when it does not find him ready to receive it. The subject under two heads. p. As the first class is the one about which so much more has been said and written we will deal with it first. The other class includes those cases in which it is admitted that ample opportunities have existed. Pensees diverses de Montesquieu. classes includes those persons falls One naturally of these who made their way to fame by dint of their genius alone are popularly supposed to have and in the absence of favorable opportunities. 1864. 2 Gait on says : Even occur them. iii. while the dull and the indolent allow it to pass by and life of every thus miss their opportunity. however. Paris.CH. but only because no data exist for proving either this or the contrary. bound the voyage of their life in shallows and in miseries. had opportunities. on to fortune . X] SUCCESS IMPLIES OPPORTUNITY SUCCESS IMPLIES OPPORTUNITY 251 I now propose to show in a sufficient number of cases that persons who have attained eminence and distinction in the world have. There are of course cases in which cannot be proved. it may perhaps be well to dispose of a certain very plausible theory that is widely prevalent and is constantly being presented.

risen Indeed. ! in vain not. ! If sleeping. and uselessly implore. and fortune on my footsteps wait. indeed. an effort to collect striking examples in this to discover them. the popular impression is that nearly all the truly great men belong to this class. the old fallacy of dealing with the excepand ignoring the regular and normal phenomena. rise before turn away. They are the constant reference to great submerged. Condemned Seek me I answer to failure. Ingalls of Kansas. superior early educational facilities. It is somewhat poetic. J. class. and that they have been made by adversity. And they who follow me reach every state Mortals desire. It is the hour of fate." and is as follows : ! Fame. when we come to make anything. It is tions only true of the few who have seen and seized their opportunity. dissipation. It is often said that if the same men had been surrounded by all manner of material blessings they would never have accomplished Abundant means.252 This is APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II also practically the thought of the little poem written by Senator J. and widely reproduced by the " Opportunity. knock at. penury. which is supposed to overcome all obstacles. And yet. and passing by soon or late Hovel and mart and palace I knock unbidden once at every gate . Master of human destinies am I love. but what of the millions that she passes contains no truth. I wake if feasting. we find ourall selves somewhat embarrassed is We find that the noise made over a comparatively small number. Alleged Self-made Men. and conquer every foe . and general mental and moral degeneracy. no door to enter nor by entirely ? These have no gate to window to escape from. It is entitled the nineties. and woe. but alas ! poetic only. Save death but those who doubt or hesitate. high social position. From men who have from obscurity by dint of their inherent genius. published originally in the journal Truth some time in American press. one would suppose that there would be no difficulty in citing any number of salient examples. and consists in a . I Cities and fields I walk penetrate Deserts and seas remote. and I return no more The thought It is. are supposed to beget sloth.

but we should equally expect him to succeed at last and D'Alembert did succeed in attaining the first rank of He was illegitimate his mother celebrity. extraordinary eagerness to learn. in whose charge he had been placed by the authorities as a foundling. He showed. and left him exposed in a public market. . poor. by the time he was twenty-four. . will begin with D'Alembert. whence his Christian name the origin of his surname is unknown. because he is the one on whom We Galton lays the greatest stress. cerns . in this subsection scarcely be able to go beyond what was said above under the head. X] ALLEGED SELF-MADE MEN 253 perpetual repetition of the same old things about the same men. . nor by the taunts of his schoolfellows. . . due to the fallacy of history. that about 80 per cent of all distinguished persons are born in large cities and that nearly all others go early to great intellectual centers that over 90 per cent of them belong to wealthy or well-to-do families and are exempt from all material con. were not novel. is not strange when we remember what we learned in the last chapter. that nearly 90 per cent of them belong to the higher social classes (nobility. Without descending to persons of comparatively low grade. near the church of Jean le Rond. It is habitually fed on the current error. as a child. we should expect a boy of this kind. which he knew to be original. and uneducated geniuses be expected to constitute any considerable part of the real working force of society ? But the public knows nothing of these great social facts. nor by the discouragements of his schoolmaster. This is what he says of him : He was a foundling (afterwards shown to be well bred as respects ability). The child's indomitable tendency to the higher studies. . How could the little remnant of country-born. Genius present in All Classes. of course. . I shall be obliged for the most part to confine myself to the same persons. to the wife of a poor glazier. public officials. careers. but was discouraged at every step. . could not be repressed by his foster mother's ridicule and dissuasion. and that 98 per cent of them receive a liberal education in their youth. ridiculed his pursuits at school he was dissuaded from his favorite mathematics whenever he persuaded himself that he had . and put out to nurse as a pauper baby. therefore. Of course. and to giving some further details of their lives and All this. business men) . The glazier's wife. toiling. liberal professions. abandoned him. nor even by the reiterated deep disappointment of finding that his ideas. but long previously discovered by others. who was incapable of appreciating him. which consists in reiterat- ing the exceptions and ignoring the regular phenomena of society.CH. to undergo ten or more years of apparently hopeless strife. I shall.

He became a thing before him. is therefore decidedly was " Mile. 2 Galton would have us suppose (and those who read only his book could have no other impression) that D'Alembert simply shared the limited resources of the poor glazier. Galton's primary argument. Far from having received an inadequate education. D'Alembert was of course a natural child. as has already been remarked. 2 Odin. that D'Alembert constituted an example of hereditary genius. After all 1 illegitimacy in France Hereditary Genius. This again is at least very much exaggerated. But his passion for science urged member of the Academy aet. of weak. 38-39. de Tencin. is As an example of the to the other claim. he received on the contrary an excellent education for his time. however. It known that Destouches not only recognized his son but settled 1 on him an annual rente of 200 pounds. illegitimacy is usually a complete bar to all aspirations. a young man with plenty of money and a bright mind could probably get on about as well as if he were not illegitimate. and the present case is a notable one. it is obvious either that Gallon did not know is well certain vital facts. Odin says : hand it is pretended that we see in D'Alembert the example whose rise the most adverse circumstances could not arrest. 201. which certainly was no the other of a genius On small matter.254 done something APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II original. 24. insured for him an income of 1200 pounds. 1 It is known that his mother of high ability. but it is to this in reality that his whole misfortune is confined. Of this M. . 583. and thenceforward his career was one of honor. unless it can be shown that Destouches was specially noted as a mathematician or unless we accept Weismann's theory that . His father. and that a novelist is just as likely to bring genius forth a mathematician as a prose writer. he invariably found that others had found out the same him on.. p. Few will go that far. or that he purposely suppressed them." and that his the French army. pp. Considering the prevalence of and the resulting toleration in public opinion. overcoming all by his genius and rising to fame. How utterly false this view of the case is ! While. But is this aspect of the subject does not now specially concern us. a novelist father was the chevalier Destouches. op. cit. as they would have us understand. that D'Alembert irrepressibility of genius. moreover. and struggled thus against both poverty and lack of appreciation. not specialized. there may be exceptions to this.

which inform us that learned to write or even to read. He was erudite and somewhat brilliant. but he left an autobiography it in which he says: of Notwithstanding the it meanness and inconsiderableness to put into their hearts to put 2 my to parents. but the general impression that results from a full examination of the case is that Scaliger did have a fairly good education and was always located in an environment highly favorable for the development of the kind of talent that he displayed. article cited. fers somewhat from the case of D'Alembert. 218. 323-327) he will find it ably discussed. with a genius for the simple sweet poetry that he wrote and the melodious songs of country life for which he is famous. 328. who wrote just one celebrated book." and doubtless he was as much so as any that could be named. p. 1 pleased God p. But Galton himself says that " Burns was a village celebrity at 16. are left in the dark as to how he and soon began to write. is another of " this class. But we are put at rest on this point by the biographies. but that he was any such great shining light as Galton assumes will be doubted by many. Nothing is said about his circumstances. I will not go into his case." l Robert Burns is We Does any one suppose he could was taught ? It is clear that he must have received considerable instruction at a very early age. may be dismissed as a normal example of superior talents combined with rather exceptionally favorable opportunities. It difp." 2 "was at great pains to give his children a good educa- Very little more than this would be needed for a man like Burns. " self-made constantly numbered among the men. informing John Bunyan. but will refer the reader to Professor Cooley's article cited by me in the literature of this subject (supra. learn to write unless he his father tion. but that he had considerable means and leisure to devote to these things and to reading and himself there can be no doubt. me Hereditary Genius. mainly in showing that accounts do not agree and that his real history is not known. where (pp. . Cooley. If what Galton has told were the whole truth the world would never have heard of Jean D'Alembert. le Rond Another of Galton' s favorite examples is Julius Caesar Scaliger.CH. therefore. 144). X] ALLEGED SELF-MADE MEN it 255 that has been said about this case.

Henry George says Had Caesar come of a proletarian a few years earlier 1 . 45-46. becoming tired of being a third-rate actor. But to call This was his opporthe Pilgrim's Progress would never have been Bunyan a man of genius is an exaggeration. a woolen merchant if his bad conduct had not compelled him to quit the business and the country if he had not associated with libertines. 2 8 Helvetius. if he had not stolen hinds in the park of a lord if he had not been pursued for this theft and been obliged to fly to London and hire out to a troupe of comedians.. . and adds : " had he not afterwards entered the music-school Vienna. There are certain forms of opportunity that are commonly mistaken for chance or luck. . If Of Shakespeare he says : Shakespeare had always remained. pp. gives a similar "chapter of accidents. social position. and if finally. says that but also stimulus and all the culture that his times can bestow. 29." accident. II." Opportunities are of various kinds. Helvetius. Vol. of deep feelings l He was learned simply a man and religious fervor. who had how to write. and Rousseau. etc. I. to learn APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II me both to read and write. p. 26-27. 8 He in the cases of Moliere. and a favorable location. he had not taken to authorship. had Columbus gone family. who enumerates a considerable number of cases. by August Weismann. pp. Haydn is the one most frequently mentioned. . like his father." but longer drawn out. and whatever ability he might have had for the wool business. the smart Shakespeare would never have been the celebrated Shakespeare. De 1'Homme. In: Works. and "a great musician not only needs the highest talent. indeed. 1871. Essays upon Heredity and Kindred Biological Problems." we may safely conclude that Joseph Haydn would never have surpassed his father's national songs and harp had he not chanced to become a chorister in the little town of Hainburg. education. England. Among who musicians but Weismann. the organist of the cathedral. Philadelphia. With a broader : sweep Mr. 1892.256 school. and but for it written. Corneille. of which 2 Reutter. Oxford. had Napoleon entered the world into the church instead of going to Grace abounding to the Chief of Sinners. They do not always consist in of wealth. Hence the saying: "it is better to be born lucky than rich. ascribes all success to chance or He illustrates this idea in the case of a number of emi- nent men. Vol. his name would never have illustrated . was the head." tunity.

CH. X]
sea;

ALLEGED SELF-MADE MEN

257

had Shakespeare been apprenticed to a cobbler or chimney-sweep; had Newton been assigned by fate the education and the toil of an agricultural laborer; had Dr. Adam Smith been born in the coal hews, or Herbert Spencer forced to get his living as a factory operative, what would their talents
Sir Isaac

have availed?

1

Here would appropriately be
French men
of letters

treated the sixteen cases of eminent

received a very limited education, enumerated in the last chapter under the head of The Educational Environment (supra, p. 217), but it was there shown that in every case

who

there was a

fair

substitute for an early training in the presence of

some other favorable environment, which really in the end secured for them a sufficient education for the class of literary work in which
they engaged.
there said.

We need not,

therefore, repeat

any part of what was

In dealing with the economic environment, in which, as will be remembered, there were 57 out of 619 men of talent who had passed their youth in poverty or economic insecurity, M. Odin shows
that seventeen of these
in other large cities,

were born in Paris, one in a chateau, nineteen and two abroad. This leaves eighteen whose
fair substitute for

local

environment did not constitute a

means

and education.

In a note at the end of the volume (pp. 593598), M. Odin takes up each of these cases and gives such information

as the biographies afford. It is not necessary to give this information here in detail, but it will suffice to quote in as many cases as
deal with that aspect the part that sets forth what opportunity was. Thus
:

each one's

Wolfgang Meusel

(latinized

Musculus), 1497-1563, Hebrew scholar and

Protestant theologian. " His fine voice having charmed the prior of a monastery of Benedictines established near Lixheim, he entered this convent as a novice at the age of fifteen years. After persevering study he was ordained a
priest,

and devoted himself to the work of preaching." Antoine Galland, 1646-1715, orientalist and numismatist.

"Certain chari-

table persons placed him at their own expense in the college of remained there ten years studying Latin, Greek, and Hebrew."

Noyon.
"

He

The indiJacques Abbadie, 1657-1727, celebrated Protestant theologian. of his parents at first caused his education to be neglected. But the gence assistance of his coreligionaries soon put young Abbadie in condition to prosecute advanced studies, and he received at Sedan the degree of doctor of
theology."
1

Progress and Poverty,

p. 336.

258

APPLIED SOCIOLOGY

[PART

II

Jean Francois Marmontel, 1723-1799, poet, romance writer, and critic. Family obscure and poor. A priest gave him primary instruction, and at the age of nine years he was sent to the college of Jesuits at Mauriac. At fifteen, having finished rhetoric, he went to Clermont, where he took a course in philosophy, supporting himself by giving lessons to college comrades less advanced
than himself. Charles Francois Lhomond, 1727-1794, humanist. Born of poor parents, Lhomond obtained a scholarship at the College d'Inville in Paris, distinguished
himself there by his conduct and zeal in his work, and not less so where he completed his theological studies.
at the

Sorbonne,

Nicolas
lessons in

Edme

father intrusted

him

Restif (or Re'tif) de la Bretonne, 1734-1806, fertile writer. His to his eldest son, a respectable ecclesiastic, who gave him
abbe",

grammar and
Delille,
life

Jacques
settled

upon him a

Later he was apprenticed to a printer. 1738-1813, poet. Natural child. His godfather pension of 100 crowns (old French crown of 4 shillings
Latin.

Sent to college at Lisieux, became professor, and later maitre e'le'mentaire (Privat- Decent?) at Beauvais. Se*bastien Roch Nicolas Chamfort or Champfort, 1741-1794, litterateur. Natural child. Studied at the College des Grassins, where a doctor of Navarre, Morabin, his first teacher, had obtained for him a half-scholarship. Pierre Simon Laplace, 1 749-1827, celebrated astronomer and physicist. Son of a poor farmer in Beaumont-en-Auge, a village of lower Normandy, in the present department of Calvados. It is not known how he made his first studies, for later, having attained to honors, Laplace had the weakness to conceal his humble origin. It is known, however, that he early distinguished himself, and that his prodigious memory was a powerful aid to him. He took courses at the
or one dollar).
military school of

Beaumont. Antoine Rivarol, 1753-1801, celebrated writer. Educated by his father, who was of noble birth, but at that time without fortune. He owed to the munificence of the bishop of Uzes the prosecution of his studies. Francois Joseph Michel Noel, 1755-1841, litterateur. He obtained through
the protection of a person influential at the court a free scholarship at the College des Grassins, from which he passed to that of Saint-Louis.

Jean Louis Burnouf, 1775-1844, celebrated philologist. Lost his parents while young. Gardin-Dumesnil, emeritus professor of rhetoric at Paris, received the young orphan into his house and taught him Latin, for which he afterwards
obtained a scholarship in the college of Harcourt.

Of show

18 persons, enough is said to that there was in each case some favorable circumstance,
at
least
12, then, of these

sometimes several such, sufficient to insure an adequate education and means to carry out their designs and open their careers. In the other six cases it is always obvious that this must have also been true, because without these aids the abrupt transition from one state to the next, as described, would have been impossible. But

CH. X]

ALLEGED SELF-MADE MEN

259

the records are simply missing. In every case, had such aids been wanting we should never have heard of the men in question. Think
of the thousands, equally endowed by nature, of whom the world has never heard, simply because no one happened to give them an

opportunity to

make

their talents

known

!

It is entirely safe to

man, could
explains
it

his entire history

say that in every case of an alleged self-made be told, or the particular part of it that
in

how he succeeded

escaping the repressing influence of

would be clear that something besides his own genius adversity, came in to turn the scale in his favor. As Odin says " We always
:

fortuitous circumstance enabling them to receive an education far superior to that which they could have obtained in view

see

some

of the economic condition of their parents." 1 Other cases might of course be taken up, as there are other

self-made men, but in most of them it becomes at once "alleged so obvious that this is only alleged, and that the prevailing idea is
entirely false, that
it

"

seems needless to dwell on them.

I will

instance

one such, merely as an example of the rest, and that is the case of Herbert Spencer. Now that his autobiography is published, in which he himself shows that there is no ground for any such claim, the
case can only serve to

show how

unreliable the current accounts of

such

men

are,

and

also

how

eager biographers are to show that their

heroes are exceptions and wholly different from ordinary mortals. 2 I have already, in a review of the Autobiography, attempted to
correct the popular impression, but there
to be said.
I

was not the

first to

is perhaps something more run counter to received opinion on

review of his book, Various Fragments, soon after it appeared, makes the remark that "if Mr. Spencer had not happened to possess private means, the laws
this point, for I find that
in a

Eleanor Rathbone

of Survival of the Fittest

and Free Trade would have strangled the
In the second vol-

Synthetic Philosophy

in its cradle." 3

But

it

is

better to hear Mr. Spencer himself.

ume

of his Autobiography,
it

page 158, he says
in
I

:

Had

not been for a legacy from an uncle

1853,

able to write the Principles of Psychology ; and
1

I should not have been should inevitably have been

Odin, op.

3

2 Science, N.S., Vol. XIX, June 10, 1904, pp. 873-879. cit, p. 531. International Journal of Ethics, Vol. IX, October, 1898, p. 116.

260

APPLIED SOCIOLOGY

[PART

II

brought to a stand by pecuniary difficulties in the middle of First Principles, had it not been that another uncle, who died in 1860, left me the greater part
of his small property.

And
Had
it

on page 532 he adds
not been for

:

the^ 80 which, in 1850, 1 proved to the printer was comthe Railway Winding-up Act, I should have been unable to publish Social Statics. Only because the bequest from my uncle Thomas made it possible to live for a time without remunerative labour, was I enabled to write
ing to

me under

and publish the Principles of Psychology. For two years after the Synthetic Philosophy had been projected, no way of bringing it before the world was discoverable. When, at length, mainly by the aid of scientific friends, without whose endorsement I could have done nothing, it became possible to get together a sufficient number of subscribers, it was presently proved that, partly because of my inability to keep up the intended rate of publication, and partly because of losses entailed by numerous defaulters, I should have been obliged to desist before the completion of First Principles, had it not been that the death of my
the uncle William, and bequest of the greater part of his property to me, afforded means of continuing.

Even
tinuing,

this

was not

sufficient,

when two other events

and he was on the point of disconoccurred, which he describes as

follows (pp. 53 2 -533):

Only because the necessity for discontinuance was removed, partly by the American testimonial and partly by my father's death, which diminished the responsibilities coming upon me, was the notice of cessation cancelled. Evidently it was almost a miracle that I did not sink before success was reached.
.

.

.

His father had considerable property, and it about all fell to him, and although he was obliged to administer it and remove certain encumbrances, still it enabled him to go on with his work, and his circumstances were thereafter comparatively easy. At least he was able to live for the most part without remunerative labor. So much for his economic environment. AS to his local environment, it was
about as favorable as any one could conceive. My review of his Autobiography was written before I had undertaken the present
study of the influence of environments and before I had read M. Odin's book, but this is what I said on that point (p. 874)
:

His very environment was sufficient to bring out all that was in him. On intimate terms for the greater part of his life with such men as Huxley, Tyndall, Hooker, Lubbock, Mill, Lewes, and Bain, belonging to the same clubs, taking long walks, and having constant discussions with them, the stimulus must have been enormous.

CH. X]

PRIVILEGED

MEN
I said (pp.

26 1
874,

And
375):

with regard to his educational environment

Herbert Spencer is commonly represented as being the type of a self-educated Nothing could be farther from the truth. The son of a professional teacher belonging to a long line of teachers, he was surrounded by educational influences from his very birth. So far from struggling to educate himself, his main efforts as a boy seem to have been to escape from the perpetual drill of Herbert Spencer as a boy was always being taught the domestic school. His education was not sporadic and one-sided, but methodical and all-sided. The prevailing opinion has been that he was a typically self-made man.' He has been represented as having had to struggle with adversity, and has been

man.

.

.

.

'

held up as a proof of the theory that great abilities are certain to assert themmay be in their path. His life shows that, on the contrary, he was highly favored by circumstances. While of course without his
selves whatever the obstacles
talents his achievements

there

would have been impossible, still, given such talents, was scarcely any reason why he should not have accomplished great

He does not himself favor the Galtonian doctrine, but fully recognizes things. his indebtedness to circumstances. He admits that but for the three legacies
him by his two uncles and his father, he could never have completed his system. But he was even more indebted to the help of influential friends, freely volunteered, and to a whole train of favorable cirthat were one after the other left

cumstances, fully set forth in his

'

Autobiography.'

Further illustrations
unnecessary.

of

alleged

self-made

men seem

to

be

and

Although there are really no self-made men, Privileged Men. all who have succeeded have done so by virtue of some form

of opportunity, still there is some difference between even the most favored of the men whom we have been considering and the conshall fessedly privileged men of whom we have now to speak.

We

see

how much

truth there

is in

the popular view that highly favor-

able circumstances tend toward intellectual degeneracy. And here, in marked contrast with the previous class, we are not at all em-

barrassed for material.

In fact,
ricJiesse.

we

are confronted on the threshold
list

with an embarras de

Looking over the long

of the

great contributors to human progress, it becomes clear at once that with the few exceptions that have been enumerated, and a few more
that might be added, all the truly great men of history have belonged to this class and have never had to give a moment's thought to the material concerns of existence. Who have been the great agents
of intellectual progress
?

We will

make

special

mention of a few of

them.

262

APPLIED SOCIOLOGY

[PART

II

Descartes, as a typical example. As Littr6 says: "he did not, as he himself said, feel compelled to make a business of science to mitigate his fortune. He retired to a corner of Holland, a

Take

country which had then, more than any other, the merit of comparative tolerance, and there he fulfilled without disturbance his philo-

what he said of himself: " je ne me sentais point, gr&ce a Dieu, de condition qui m'obligeat a faire un metier de la science pour le soulagement de ma fortune." 2 Newton was not rich, though he came from a well-to-do family,
1

sophic destiny."

And

this is

but, as all

know, he held a high public office, that of Master of the Mint, which probably gave him much leisure and little fatigue. He was not able to publish the Principia after he had written it, but
Halley,
edition.

who

realized its value, bore the entire expense of the first

say that Newton always possessed abundant leisure to follow his profound meditations without any of the annoyIt is safe to

ing distractions of economic insecurity. Darwin, as everybody knows, was always in perfectly easy circumstances, and had literally nothing else to do all his life but to pursue
his scientific investigations according to his

own sweet will. He "I have had ample leisure from not Autobiography: " 3 having to earn my own bread. Adam Smith was thoroughly educated as a boy and young man.
says in his

Glasgow at the age of fourteen, and where he remained six years. He held the chair of English literature at Edinburgh and that of logic at Glasgow, and subsequently traveled in Europe as tutor to the Duke of Buccleuch. Nothing ever stood in his way, and he wrote his Wealth of Nations from the ripest scholarship. Galileo was of an ancient Florentine family and was highly educated. Soon after he made his celebrated discovery from watchthe oscillations of the lamp in the cathedral of Pisa he was ing appointed professor of mathematics in the university there, and
to the University of
at seventeen,

He went

to

Oxford

auspiciously launched on his great career.
1 e Auguste Comte, Philosophic positive, 3 ed., Paris, 1869, edited by Preface d'un disciple, Vol. I, p. xv. 2 Discours de la methode, CEuvres de Descartes, Paris, 1844, p. 6.

fi.

Littre.

3 The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, including an autobiographical chapter,, edited by his son, Francis Darwin, New York, 1888, Vol. I, p. 85.

CH. X]

PRIVILEGED

MEN

263
in his early youth, for

Hobbes must have been highly educated

he went to Oxford at the age of fourteen. He was a protg of Lord Hardwicke and his son, Earls of Devonshire. He commenced writing early in life, and his defense of monarchy always kept him
in

high favor with those in authority. lacked for means or leisure.

He

seems never to have

Harvey came from the business

class,

but was well educated, and

entered Cambridge at the age of sixteen. He was able to go to Padua and take a course in medicine at that then celebrated school.

He
to

stayed there five years, and then returned to England and began

his career, leading finally to his being

made
It

physician-extraordinary

James

I,

and

later to Charles

I.

was under such favorable

conditions that he
of the blood.

was able

to discover the law of the circulation

The

father of

Thomas Buckle was
left

wealthy, and dying

when

Buckle was nineteen

him

in easy circumstances, with leisure to

pursue his studies in the direction of his tastes. Kant, Hegel, Fichte, and all the Scottish school of philosophers were of course professors
with
tions.
all

the privileges and advantages that accrue from such posiBacon was the lord of Verulam, and Humboldt was a baron.

Professor Cooley classes the following in the upper or upper middle class, " using the latter term rather broadly to include clergy-

men, advocates, well-to-do merchants, and the like":
Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio, Chaucer, Ariosto, Montaigne, Spenser, Tasso,
Cervantes, Shakespeare, Bacon, Jonson
(?),

Descartes, Milton, Corneille, Hobbes,

Pascal, Dryden, Leibnitz, Locke, Addison, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Fielding,

Lessing, Gibbon, Cowper, Burke, Goethe, Coleridge, Scott, Landor, Byron, Shelley, Niebuhr, Macaulay, Comte, Hugo, Thackeray, Disraeli, Tennyson, Browning, Ruskin.

Hume, Johnson,

the lower middle class, "shopkeepers, prosperous handicraftsmen, etc.," he assigns the following:

To

De

Luther, Rabelais, Camoens, Erasmus, Scaliger, Moliere, Spinoza, Racine, Foe, Swift, Steele, Pope, Adam Smith, Rousseau, Kant, Schiller, Words-

worth, Hegel, Keats, BeVanger, Heine, Balzac, Carlyle, Dickens.

There is room for differences of opinion in a number of the above cases, and M. Odin's classification seems to me more clear and satisfactory, but certainly nearly all of the first
list

belong to the general

264
class of privileged

APPLIED SOCIOLOGY

[PART

II

class even of alleged self-made

men, while very few of the second belong to the men. A number in both lists have
it

already been more specially treated, and to go farther with this.

does not seem profitable

The general outcome of the whole is that by far the greater part of the real work of civilization has been done by privileged men, many of whom were privileged in a high degree. Only a few men
of science have been mentioned, but Linnaeus, the Jussieus, Cuvier,

the de Candolles, the Herschels, the Hookers, Richard Owen, and Huxley, for that matter, should all be classed as privileged men in

varying degrees. John Stuart Mill and his father James Mill should both be added to the philosophers and thinkers.

For the very highest types of genius, such, for example, as are represented by Newton and Darwin, privilege, in the sense here used, is a sine qua non. One of the commonest popular mistakes
is

to confound aggressiveness

qualities are almost in

and belligerency with genius. These inverse proportion. There are some aggres-

sive men who combine great talent with assertiveness. Such men were Hobbes, Carlyle, Huxley, and Herbert Spencer. But usually great energy and determination, and especially combative qualities,

are associated with rather meager abilities, and men of this stamp depend upon their moral force rather than upon their intellectual
superiority.

The former becomes a

substitute for the latter.

More-

over, the work of that class of persons is usually short-lived. In the lecture on Heredity and Opportunity, or Nature and Nurture, to which I have previously referred, I discussed this aspect of the question, and it happens that a part of that discussion was published in the article in which I summarized the lecture. At least

these words occur, to which
There

I still

adhere:

is no need to search for talent. It exists already and everywhere. thing that is rare is opportunity, not ability. The fact that many do struggle up out of obscurity does not so much show that they possess superiority as that they happen to be less inextricably bound down than others by the

The

conventional bonds of society. And those who have succeeded in bursting these bonds have usually done so at such an immense cost in energy, that their future work is rendered crude and well-nigh valueless. Such is the character of most
of the results accomplished by so-called self-made men. To attain to a position where they can labor in any great field, they must carry on a life-long battle

It is a paradox of daily observation that those who are the nearest right are the least convinced of it. It requires that opportunities be brought to it. Every one who has accomplished anything against adverse circumstances would have accomplished proportion- more had such circumstances been removed. article cited. 265 against obstacles they must display enormous individuality.. December. and not without seeming of truth.'46. Clifford Allbutt. combined with lack of physical vigor. and Professor Cooley There is a class of men of genius in whom extreme sensitiveness. he shrunk from the controversy into which his discoveries drew him it appears probable that his Principia would never have been written had not . will produce the greatest and most enduring will not brook opposition. 1886. True greatness is timid and recoils before obstacles. It is due to this principle that the greatest intrinsic merit never comes to the surface. I. 3 Dr. There is no more vicious popular fallacy than that the powers of the mind are . II. 335. Science. if allowed free scope. and renders the results superficial and unenduring. The finest and most genuine of all qualities those which. 8 Cooley. 8. Nearly all the work of permanent value that has been done in the world has emanated from men possessing these qualities. New York.S. The talent that can fight is never of the highest and best quality. inherited wealth could not well have been dispensed with. p. and society is the loser. strengthened and improved by adversity. and shrink from the least sign of hostility. . 1 left undisturbed All this is well exemplified in Newton's case. not from any fear of opposition. True merit will not create its opportunities. nevertheless remarks : Some may the furnace to 1 aver. amounting to conceit they must become heated contestants and bitter partisans.CH. . that trial is to genius as noble metal. results Far from implying cowardice. : As Professor Woodward says Possessing to a painful degree that modesty which is born of knowlege of and things. P. and hence those who possess the greatest truths are often deterred from uttering them against opposition. X] PRIVILEGED MEN . pp. T. his friend Halley urged him on to the marvelous feat which brought out that 2 masterpiece in less than two years' time. Vol. 2 February 1895. 345-346. makes it essential that they should be secluded from the stress and annoyance of bread-winning activities. If this is not done there is no result. this is simply the characteristic modesty of true ally against adversity greatness. N. . and in their continuous exercise. although strongly tinctured with the current oligocentric world view. may be cited as one in which. Between honest work and open warfare there is a certain incompatibility. so far as we can see. but from fear of the possibility that after all they may not be true. All this narrows the mental horizon. The same was justly says : equally true of Darwin. The Forum. But surely. The case of Darwin . this world will always offer to its children Vol.

1902. A Journal of Neurology. XXIX creating a trust for the benefit of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. in the inertia of his own generation.C. Vol. April." and " the most important end of all social arrangements. ii. 1878. and a law hard enough for their there needs not the imposition of fetters of ours. Moreover. March. and that is the kind that extends object of all absolutely equal opportunities to 1 all the members of society.. In the trust deed prepared by Mr. D. numbering only one in a million. nor the devices of our caprice or austerity. the fools and knaves. and to consist of beings entirely unlike other men. (New Series. but the great they appear sometimes in the palace and sometimes in the hovel thing to be aimed at. p. The 2 8 Brain. educational schemes. p. 2 " The " glorious sports of Nature to which Professor Huxley alludes. To which he seems specially designed his life work.266 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART 1 1 contrition a front stern enough for their chastisement. Vol. keep these glorious sports of Nature from being either corrupted by luxury or starved by poverty. January i. D. It is also Mr. 3 But we have seen that it is a wholly false idea. 1 too familiar to need quoting. but there is one paragraph in might have been written for this particular place : Professor Huxley's well-known lecture on Technical Education is it that Now the most important object of all educational schemes is to catch these of society. 57. I. as his preceding paragraph shows." is to spread a net over society so contrived " that it will catch all the " big fish in the social sea. and to put them into the position in social arrangements. will find resistance enough to try his steel. XXIII). I was almost going to say the most important end of all exceptional people and turn them to account for the good . the second of which is as follows : discover the exceptional man in every department of study whenever and wherever found. No man can say where they will crop up like their opposites. and a mod- erate resistance may be fatal to achievement.C. and that genius of " The most important varying shades and grades permeates society. Andrew Carnegie and delivered to the trustees. On this conception is based the "exceptional man" theory.. and enable him to make the work for " 2. Washington.C. inside or outside of schools. as I have said. . supposed to be a fixed quantity. p. Vol.." The Carnegie Institution of Washington. There is only one kind of net that can do this. . founded by Andrew Carnegie. are the geniuses of Gallon. 1902. the aims of the institution are set forth under six heads. great quality of brain may not be associated to high tension. is to which they can do the work for which they are specially fitted. One born before his time. D. 66. Carnegie's leading idea in founding the Carnegie Institution. 1878. to which Professor Huxley seems to lend considerable countenance. Fortnightly Review.

and that the sole agencies in creating differences between boy and boy. and often implied. it was concluded that the same must be true of the mind. still is This was and site view. and the oppocircumstances determine the character of the mind to is considered a mere popular notion. and to assume that what was true of the body must also be true of the mind. that looked upon as the scientific view par excellence. would be all supposing that the mind is nothing true of the brain. but all that are worth having would be caught and utilized. After biology began to be scientifically studied the tendency was to class psychic along with vital phenomena. of scientific basis. because the mind intellect. are steady application and moral effort. It is also something more than I have defined intelligence as intellect plus knowledge. and not allowed for the most part to "get away.CH." as has thus far always been the case. 1 Hereditary Genius. and one that is by no means universally accepted. and whatever is true of the whole body is its parts. view when he says I : have no patience with the hypothesis occasionally expressed. That it is true of the mind as well as of the life and is is men is a much more modern conception. And as it was obvious that the circumstances surrounding an animal or a human being during life have no power fortunes of to modify the body. for the brain is true of is simply a part of the body. that babies are born pretty much alike. It is in the most unqualified manner that I object to pretensions of natural equality. 1 2. THE POWER OF CIRCUMSTANCES That man and while it a creature of circumstance is an oft-repeated phrase. X] THE POWER OF CIRCUMSTANCES 267 " " small would slip through such a net. usually uttered without much reflection. But it is not true of the mind. p. it nevertheless represents a thought that has been crystallized from untold ages of experience. . even as they do through fry the bungling apparatus that exists now. when such influences are compared with those of heredity in shaping its form and determining its character. something besides the brain. 1 Now the fallacy here It is in but the brain. and man and man. especially in tales written to teach children to be good. devoid Galton clearly expresses this supposed scientific any considerable degree.

conceivable degrees in Now the boxes typify the brain. is the whole of intelligence the moral (affective) attributes added. and veneered. or with pearls of great diamonds of the first water. or exquisitely carved without and inlaid with gold or precious stones. or even with sawdust. in a word. made of undressed lumber. or the intellect. and meditathe possessions of the mind tion. The intellect. Some may even be made of straw paper. or with rough angular stones impure sand. with the beach. and are beautifully polished. Some price. training. education. All except the very poorest strawboard intellects (idiots) are capable. made after a sort of common pattern as regards size and shape. rough boxes are capable of being smoothed off. of resisting any strain whatever. is a sort of receptacle. when made of . Let us suppose there to exist hundreds of thousands of boxes. but except the very poorest are constructed of substantial materials and firmly put together. Some of them are made of the finest mahogany or rosewood. or large are filled with silver or gold. but differing enormously both in the materials of which they are made and the workmanship displayed in making them. The contents. Just as the coarse boxes. and. paneled. Between these extremes incapable all all conceivable degrees of difference in both respects. typify the acquired qualities. of intelligence or of mind. or the brain. with all treating it. will hold the pearls and diamonds as well and safely as the most highly wrought rosewood boxes. study. Others are filled with common pebbles gathered on of the gravel-pit. knowledge everything that has been added to the original substratum. so the common intellects of all but the congenitally feeble-minded will hold the greatest truths that have ever been discovered and just as the .268 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY as [PART II The mind. and knowledge contents. of holding any of the things that are put into them and of preserving them securely. And all between these extremes again there are the value of the contents of the boxes. Let us next suppose all these boxes to be there are filled with something filled with every thinkable kind of objects the contents to differ in value far more than do the boxes them- selves. experience. Others are made of very coarse material and not even dressed. is its if any one prefers. It is the working we have been force of society. like the boxes. the " preefficients " the contrary. on however rudely made.

The so-called scientific view above mentioned. The oftis repeated story of Psammetichus who secluded twenty new-born children so that they should never hear any one speak.CH. in order to ascertain what natural language would be. Over the contents society has complete control. and polished. Why is it not just as scientific to deal with the contents as to deal with the receptacle ? It certainly is not scientific to pretend to be dealing with the mind and to ignore the contents of the mind. there is not such an essential difference between intellects as to prevent most sane persons from minds with useful knowledge and making good use of such stores when possessed. cruder intellects be of vastly greater value than the box. may According to this figure the mind is represented by both the boxes and their contents. so the be cultivated. We may suppose the boxes to be some sort of conventional thing that cannot be changed. . X] THE POWER OF CIRCUMSTANCES 269 may even take a high polish. The mind desirable thing would of course be to find a case of a human normal capacity which had had no experience. This is obviously impossible. There when we quite an array of alleged cases of this kind. and almost all the differences that exist among minds are due to differences in their contents. and the next thing to it would be to find a of normal human being who had been so sequestrated during all his early life as never to have come into contact with other human beings. but investigate them we find them of little value. this when constantly happening with the minds of men. refined. It is only pearls find their way into rosewood boxes that true genius comes forth. Kaspar Hauser was a real character. is too poorly authenticated and too imperfectly told to have any scientific value. and he is probably a myth. relates entirely to the boxes and ignores their contents altogether. We The wild girl of Champagne had but apparently no intelligence. In fact. that is what is no external influences have any power to affect the mind. One can put sawdust into mahogany boxes and diamonds into those of rude oak. a rudimentary moral sense at least. This in turn storing their is due to differences in the experience that different persons have. however fixed may be the receptacle. know still less of Hai ben Yokthan. As a matter of fact. and it can be readily seen that the contents may firm and fine-grained lumber. but it is always possible to put anything whatever into any box.

No amount of native mental capacity could prevent this. having for their lan3 guage only a few gestures relating to their animal wants. What kind of minds would persons thus isolated have? It is only too obvious that their minds would be almost completely blank. 188-191. 8 Historiae Societatis Jesu. Leipzig. The children were said to have grown up mute and stupid. Bacon or a Descartes. was the part of speech earliest to be developed. p. that the language of animals confined to one part of speech. 1885. Politik und Schule. but it is not all. He would appear to ordinary persons a fool. if made the subject of such an experiment. as has been the case in all discussions of this question. The real character of the human mind depends upon sapiens ferus. 2 Compare Pure Sociology. Doubtless a sufficient number of such thrown together for a long period would learn to communicate. . 461. all of is which shows. Lib.270 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY of [PART II and we know something ing of his seclusion. The substratum of mind is nothing until it is supplied with something to exercise is itself 1 upon. 14. and in other cases persons thus secluded are reported to have uttered sounds resembling the cries of wild animals with which they had associated . but noth- seems not to have been so complete as to him from learning to talk. Pars quinta. It consisted in raising thirty children together in an inclosed space. the interjection. guarded and supplied with food by nurses condemned to silence under pain of death. oder die Zustande der Verwilderten und ihre Bedeutung fiir Wissenschaft. A Locke was right. Father Xavier when a missionary in India was told by the emperor Akbar that an experiment had been made there to deter- mine the origin of language. and also that the which constitutes the language of feeling. But why should all the stress be laid. Auctore Josepho Juvencio. The real question is. pp. as I have stated. on the subject of language ? Language is important and its origin interesting. Rauber l has shown that persons prevent belonging to civilized races condemned to complete isolation acquire no trace of a language. interjection. Mind without experi- ence a blank sheet of paper or an empty cabinet. Homo XVIII. would get no farther than one of moderate powers. Tomus posterior. 2 The children thus isolated by Psammetichus are said to have learned to bleat in imitation of the goat that suckled them. It him after he revealed himself.

would seem civilization. may deteriorate the mind. such A as that furnished by village gossip. not to savagery. but the present aristocracy of brains would be shown to have been nothing but monopoly of this is as and privilege. desirable that many persons should have " is a number What we call a " community of persons occupying the same area. and men's minds differ mainly according to contain. If this falls short of the whole truth embodied in social con- we reflect a moment it is men's experiences are the same experience. acquainted with the same facts. 1 Progress and Poverty. . than the children of barbarian parents placed in the same conditions. as are the seventeen year locusts? One such interval would reduce mankind. X] its THE POWER OF CIRCUMSTANCES 271 what they contents. 355. Henry George has expressed this admirably: Take a number of infants born of the most highly civilized parents and transport them to an uninhabited country. but I do not believe they would do them any . any slower or quicker. having largely the same opinions and even the same sentiments. They would have fire to discover the rudest tools and weapons to invent language to construct. and what could mankind be if one generation were separated from the next by an interval of time. just as a child learns to walk. it is worthless knowledge. but to a condition compared with which savagery. Given the very highest mental powers that exceptional individuals have ever displayed. for all these possibilities are latent in the human mind just as the power of walking is latent in the human frame. differences. and what would you have ? More helpless savages than any we know of. long continuance of these conditions leads to degeneracy. 1 Even tinuity. They would. better or worse. There would certainly remain it qualitative should be.CH. Nor the same experiences. governed by the same laws. Suppose them in some miraculous way to be sustained until they come of age to take care of themselves. in short. infinite. If most useful knowledge could be shared by all it would so far equalize men's minds that all the now current theories of the essential differences between them would be abandoned. have to scumble their way to the simplest knowledge which the lowest races now possess. That they would in time do all these things I have not the slightest doubt. No two persons easy to see that the differences in can or ever do have there must be Even between Siamese twins is it some difference. as we know it. Certain kinds of knowledge even. No useful knowledge can do any But harm by being shared by a whole community. . p.

and education. The than . . so much the cause. Physiological laws are the I. For a man to become celebrated it is not necessary that he be endowed with a great capacity. in reality. 1899. same for 2 Wealth of Nations. that age. There him. It is never anything but an exception. till at last the vanity of the philosopher 1 acknowledge scarce any resemblance. a more habitual surveillance on the part of his father. . are the products of a certain combination of circumstances and of an infinity of accidents. moral and family influences. . most dissimilar characters. between a philosopher and seems to arise not so much from nature custom. need here. Chap. the absence of certain causes of distraction. upon many occasions. Book I. When they came into the world. and to The adaptation to external circumstances the principal thing in determining his success. for the first six or eight years of their existence. is not. very much alike. and especially the will to act. London. This was seen even by Confucius. cite a few passages that we find scattered through his book only : We Celebrity is still less hereditary than speciality. 2 We may apply to simple citizens what We the same way De Candolle. . as external than to heredity. their good fortune or their misfortune. or soon after. who said: "By nature we nearly resemble one another. determined by various causes rarely combined. for example. of. 1 . difference between the a common street porter. of faculties appropriate to science. I. and About different occupations. much less we are aware of and the very different genius which appears to distinguish men of different professions. as from habit. The way of conducting himself and of working. in a word." Adam Smith says: The difference of natural talent in different men is. perhaps. show himself becomes then must be circumstances favorable or to be useful. are more effective than a purely hereditary transmission to . see in that their elevation or their decline. willing Helvetius remarks: I have said of empires. Vol. as the effect of the division of labour. De 1'Homme. when grown up to maturity. This explains the power of circumstances. Vol. II. 16-17. and therefore the principal differences in the minds of men are due to circumstances. . pp. therefore.272 It is APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II circumstances that determine the contents of the mind. unforeseen and sterile in appearance. . 31. they The difference of talents come to be employed in very comes then to be taken notice is to and widens by degrees. p. . condition separates us very far. . they were. principal we have seen. The rise of ascribes far more to circumstances great causes favorable to their success have men to eminence and the been enumerated in a previous chapter. and neither their parents nor playfellows could perceive any remarkable difference.

that the differences cannot be ascribed to these communities. George Gunton is quite an apostle of opportunity. speaking entirely from the economic standpoint and not at all from that of achievement. we have wrought already seen. as he says.CH. still very well says: It is true that the lot of individuals is not wholly independent of their virtue intelligence . The most powerful of all the and determining circumstances is birth. that "all religious. and that there The influence of heredity. Vol. which attributes social progress to changes in the nature of man. by John Stuart Mill. One of these is in line with the thought of this chapter: That the current philosophy. op. it is only on the condition that the general true. educational. cit. and reformatory the idea that the environment is more upon powerful than heredity as a factor in determining the wants and habits of man. if we between communities in different stages of civilization consider them. Chicago. 226.3 1 2 - 1 De i. but far less than many other things in which there is no merit at all. does not accord with historical facts. XXXI (New Series. life is sufficed unless there had been also a concurrence of occasions and chances which falls to the lot of 3 only a small number. X] THE POWER OF CIRCUMSTANCES 273 Therefore education in each family. 295. also. And we may also see. Fortnightly Review. institutions are based Candolle. though. is as nothing compared with the influences which mold the the world. Indeed. which it is now the fashion to rate so highly. 1 John Stuart Mill. When a person not born to riches succeeds in acquiring them. Vol. his standpoint is economic. example and advice given. have exerted a more marked influence than heredity upon the special career of young scientists. these do really tell in their favor. must all men. 350. pp. the great majority are born to hard work numbers to indigence. others are born to a position in which they can become rich by work. cit. The great majority are what they were born to be. op. 103. 3 Henry George. 1879. but industry and dexterity would not have and poverty throughout cause of success in life. Socialism. It is. however. 296.. February p. 3 man after he comes into Mr. true. his own industry and dexterity have generally contributed to the result. 1879. That such a thing as hereditary transmission of peculiarities is undoubtedly true but the great differences between men in different states of society cannot be explained in this way. Henry George was an egalitarian. Some are born rich without work. P. Next to birth the chief accident and opportunity. like most of his class. and his little book on Progress and Poverty contains many true sayings. p. 45.. innate differences in the individuals there are natural differences is who compose is . XXV). .

of opportunity . saying I : There is one such fundamental circumstance which may. History of Civilization in England. II. 1857. discussed the general subject of opportunity and advantageous circumstances in the concluding chapter of Dynamic Sociology and specified certain circumstances as fundamental. p. that education is specially adapted to furnish to those naturally bright minds whom fortune has restricted to dark and narrow regions. if it I may so say. and he expressed it in these words : Whatever. . to overlook the field of his future labors. 3 Buckle says: The child born in a civilized land is not likely. Vol. solely by the pressure . of the whole matter. Very few." 1 There is a great deal of literature on the subject of the relative intellectual capacity of moderns versus ancients. so far as we know. The number of Newtons who may really be said never to have had an opportunity to watch an apple fall to the ground. 2 As the reader probably knows. had he chanced to live in another land or a prior age. pp. an improvement under which that capacity after birth comes into play. who. Dynamic Sociology. but into a progress.274 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY it [PART II environment remains unchanged. to be superior to one born among barbarians and the difference which ensues between the acts of the two children will be caused. therefore. but all seem to agree that the historic period has not added much to the native brain power of mankind. There has been no discoverer so great in this world as to owe nothing to this circumstance. 196-197. the moral and intellectual progress of men may be. could have achieved results which he was enabled to achieve under the actual circumstances. London. reflection even is forbidden. from which he was able. I. 161-162. more or less clearly. that is. however humble. not of internal power. for to the sons of toil and want and circumscribed existence. 613. resolves itself not into a progress of natural capacity. Buckle was one of the few to see it. none who might not have lived and died in the profoundest obscurity had not some external force first lifted him to that height. and many foolish things have been said. be regarded as the mother of circumstances. Vol. pp. circumstances Here then lies the gist in the The progress is one. The Mother of Circumstances. Buckle. have perceived the important corollary that grows out of this conclusion. this vision of the promised land. that is claimed that the internal or hereditary qualities govern the tendency of character. none. from this point of view. may be great. It is just this initial circumstance. 1 2 8 Wealth and Progress. as such. but of exter- nal advantage. however. This consists in an initial acquaintance with the given field of labor knowledge that such a field exists.

upon As : A 1 2 Buckle. grown in such soil and in such an atmosphere. powers. that owing to his circumstances he can never become any of these. 1 of external circumstances . living There ample room for contrast between persons under different circumstances in civilized countries.. if But with his superior mental capable And yet he is wholly unconscious of his true powers that he is at his proper level. revised edition. or inventor. having superior genius. Translated from the Ger- man by John Oxenford. 275 by which I mean the surrounding opinions. But we need not contrast is and imagines civilized with uncivilized races. in an equally miserable manner. if born civilized people. who. and let him commence his career. though poor.CH. and ask yourself what fruit would have been produced by this same tree. in such small places. philosoIt is clear pher. children are respectively nurtured. show superior cunning in outwitting enemies. scientific discoverer. . knowlassociations in a word. the entire mental atmosphere in which the two edge. and may possibly be made the ruler of a tribe. loc. labor in a very low field. 1827). he may distinguish himself among the barbarians with whom his lot is cast may invent better weapons. things have happened. 1892. 2 Professor Cooley says " man can hardly fix his ambition a literary career when he is perfectly unaware. he must. quickening pulsations. properly placed of working in the highest field. 253 (May 3. X] THE MOTHER OF CIRCUMSTANCES . in consequence of his circumstances alone. p. and But imagine this same Be'ranger the son of a poor tailor in Jena brought up in this metropolis of the world or Weimar. London. The local environment often performs this service. 162. All that the hereditarians can say is that. Such . was born in the metropolis and lived in the midst of its throbbing. cit. would have become a great author. among Suppose the child born among barbarians to be one who. as millions are. Something must happen to each and every one of them that gives him some glimpse of his future life field and arouses his ambition to strive for it. Goethe. p. is reported by Eckermann to have said: instead of being born in Paris. letters or of science could if None of the great men of they had been cut off have attained to the place they occupy permanently from all knowledge of the they finally entered. Conversations of Goethe with Eckermann and Soret. speaking of Beranger.

It is fortunate is so. This is also. clear me A view of a congenial field is the one fundamental circumstance in any one's career. and not knowing a person in the world who could give I was there the slightest information with regard to them. and then it was almost too late. but there is little hope of success unless the field coincides with his tastes or preferences. better work in a field of his own choosing. ornithology. Almost any one has adaptability. True. without a single book on any of those subjects. scarcely having ever heard of zoology. ing wildly over the boundless prairies of northern Iowa the interested in every animal. It may be compared in to rowing with the tide or current.276 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY l [PART It is II that such a thing as a literary career exists. It is even possible and somewhat common for any one to arouse a certain interest in whatever he is obliged to do. there is great nature. what chance of my becoming a naturalist ? It was twenty years before found my opportunity. and flower I saw. entomology. article cited. bird. . or botany. after and engaged in higher work suited to my tastes. which. even scientific. have several times found myself taking quite a strong interest that this I in work that I was compelled to do. But I believe it applies mainly to routine work. in all probability. I looked back upon and wondered how I could have been interested some kind I of routine finally left it in it. It is a truism that any one can do more and stanced. differ It is of men but also in in these latter rather than in the former that sufficient talent to cultithey by vate almost any field. and which I do not think I could bring myself ever to enjoy. 327. I know this from my own experience. and if one must work in a particular field one can reconcile one's self to it and plod through after a fashion. My experience is probably that of many similarly circum- But there are kinds of high-grade work. but not knowing what science was. while working 1 an uncongenial Cooley. that are strongly distasteful to me. in Roamfifties. p. a common occurrence. insect." the same with a scientific career. EQUALIZATION OF OPPORTUNITY There are differences not onlyin the talents their tastes.

and the right man would always be in the right place. . above pathological feeble-mindedness. but in the first case both have the plus sign. classes. of the private and personal relations of two persons to each other. even within the limits society. because they pertain to chances. X] field is like EQUALIZATION OF OPPORTUNITY stemming the tide or the current. This is the oligocentric argument. and that mediocrity predominates. there are all gradations in that mediocrity. The standpoint plea of those who have made it is the economic standpoint. In this way the negative terms of the equation are eliminated and the entire energy of society is set free. but to make the open avenues so numerous and so easy to travel that he will be sure to find the one to which he is best adapted by nature. and the most It is. while in the second one is has the minus sign. that the strongest for equal opportunity has thus far been made. is We have seen how false is the assumption that genius rare. Difficult or impossible as it may be to forecast the talent of an more difficult and more certainly impossible to forecast its tastes and preferences. The only thing that can be done is to equalize untried mind. and the social value of even the lowest types of mind. is that which . . so as not only to enable the really exceptional man to demonstrate the fact." much less can we pick out for him his career. however. There would then be no square pegs in round holes. 277 The result in either case the algebraic sum of personal effort and a natural force. it is far opportunities. to do much that has been said in favor of equalizing opportunities has been from that standpoint. who are not expected of the progressive work of society. in behalf of average men.CH. . If we cannot select in advance the "exceptional man. and all ought to have equal chances so far as chances are provided or limited by the action of The only help which is generally expedient. as a disciple of Herbert Spencer. It may be said that in view of the small number of progressive minds it is not economical to extend opportunities to all the dolts and dunces merely in the hope that a few bright minds may take advantage of them. who. would be increased by giving them a chance to work up to the full measure of their powers. Thus Professor Sumner. But even admitting that it is rare. is upon the whole rather demands equal opportunities for all : hostile to the lower Rights should be equal.

This man to help himself. saying: character and indispensable condition for the permanent development of increased social opportunities. we put him in a position to add to the wealth of the community by putting Instead of endeavoring to redistribnew powers in operation to produce. . the one has all the chances of conquering. . Chicago. that is that of increasing the opportunities for elevating the social character of the masses. It is customary in a duel for the adversaries to have the same arms. especially the one used under the head of Education as Opportunity (supra. 376. multiply. without . Gunton returns repeatedly to The first is this subject. or government expands the chances of man on earth. pp. p. rank. pp. J. but he rings the changes so often that more than one of his views of the question are needed to bring out his whole thought : 1 William Graham Sumner. Topinard says: What it [society] should do or seek to do is. the regard to race. . The rest to the valor and skill of the combatants. . beside which all schemes for mere administrative reform are incomparably insignificant. and for the situation in which the that which from the beginning latter have left them. Under all conditions. ute the acquisitions which have been made between the existing classes.278 consists in helping a APPLIED SOCIOLOGY man to help himself. art. The question most urgently demands the attention of the true statesman to-day. climate. as we know.. It should be the same in the social struggle. . 2 . 229. our aim should be to increase.. 1899. and extend the chances. 1883. What Social Classes Owe to Each Other. . the other has none. education. Every improvement in educa1 tion. Such is the work of civilization. This is a monstrosity of society has weighed down most on evolution. or state of development. [PART II always consists in opening the by opening the chances around him. above all. the same kind of ground. Gunton. 3 Some of the passages already quoted from Kidd's Social Evolu- tion to illustrate other aspects of our general subject would have been quite as appropriate here. the is left same clothing as nearly as possible. New York. In a word. is . Birth places the combatants in very different positions: the one has capital. of development to all the new energy of society. op. . 2 Paul Topinard. Every old error or abuse which is removed opens new chances chances. Science and Faith. McCormack.. 164-168. the universal principle first essential condition upon which the permanent progress of society depends the enlarged social opportunities of the masses. the other all the chances of being conquered. the sons are not exclusively responsible for their own acts they are responsible for their fathers' and ancestors'. 250). . property. . . . to equalize as much as possible the external conditions of the combat at the start. the same kind of shoes. translated by 8 Thomas cit. 240. 327. science. If we help a . etc. Mr.. p. etc.

In considering the equalization of opportunities we now more espeThe whole difficulty with cially mean the opportunity to achieve. which Kidd seems himself to draw. and to the necessity of clinging to the means as the only way by which ends can be attained. then. that in society is spontaneous. the discussion of social questions has always been this haste to deal with the end. achievement. little All attempts to reach the end directly are destined to fail. pp.. cit. as moving to the imagination. This is why so is. it may be asked. has been spontaneous in this sense. is it destined to accomplish in the future? The answer must apparently be. 227-228. What. op.CH. This is the end which the developmental forces at work in those people amongst our civilisation are apparently destined to achieve in the social life of whom it is allowed to follow its natural and normal course an end. but on conditions of equal social opportunities. There is a sense in which this is true. not only on a footing of political equality. It is the end. when its relationships are peruninterrupted by disturbing causes. as the spontaneous forces of social evolution are going to work out in their own good time and way all the statues that the world can possess. viz. . but the natural inference which most persons draw from it. himself to chisel his block of marble. but it is the same sense in which everything that takes place The development of art. But it will be remembered that this was also the method pursued in Dynamic Sociology. by eventually bringing all the people into the rivalry of life. therefore there ate it. The economic aspect is of course the final test. I apprehend that most of the disappointment with this book will be due to my inability to deal with ends. for example. I there showed that the means constitute a series growing more 1 Kidd. same is no use in interfering with it or trying to accelerexactly paralleled in art and to say this is precisely the as to say to a sculptor that there is no use in his troubling is . that it must complete the process of evolution in progress. X] It EQUALIZATION OF OPPORTUNITY little 279 and the tendency would seem that there can be doubt as to the nature of the development so far. ceived.. be perceived that Kidd conceives this movement as a and as such its consideration would belong to pure sociology. as that which It Marx 1 anticipated. But we are here dealing with the means to the end. tions. The fact progress has been made with these questhat the end can only be attained through means. this impatience with everything that relates to the means. will phase of spontaneous social evolution. as vast and transforming in character.

1 Dynamic Sociology. pp. Vol. and reduced the economic conditions to the bed-rock of human I happiness." will certainly reach and correspondingly affect the end. 1 We are The again confronted with practically the same problem. anything each upon the immediately antecedent one. that not only the end itself but no less than four of the terms of the series are practically until the fifth beyond the reach of series is social action. The difference in both the end and the means is only a difference in the names. and it is the same opportunity means as before. devoted to the logical discussion of the relation of the end and to the proof that society need concern only with the most remote term of the series. and it is not different in the earlier treatise. All the other terms may be safely left to take care of themselves. and whatever effects can be wrought in this most remote term. and all opportunities converge to this one focal point. and that not anything term of the reached do we find upon which society can directly lay hold and exert its power to change. and logic of this and the preceding chapter have been to pile up the evidence that all influences. end. I was simply more strictly philosophical then. modify. there called the "initial means. II.280 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART II and more remote from the end. that whatever affects any one affects all above it. drift. of which it is only necessary to touch the first one to see them end all fall in a perfect illustration of the process and one within the comprehension of all. But it was also found that the entire series of means are so related and dependent. economic conditions constitute the end. over which it has complete control. that this series consists of five terms. but surely the whole trend. resolve themselves into and constitute education. as the force applied to the most remote term is communicated automatically through the entire series to and ultimately expends itself without loss in transmission upon the The rude comparison made of a row of bricks stood on itself. . realizable means. The entire second volume of that succession. is is work itself to these several means. tangible. 106-110. and called the equalization of opportunity education. to which complexion they must come at last . all environments. and improve. now from the end described is The equalization of the tangible. so that it is not necessary to apply force any of the intermediate terms.

not to speak of equity. The equalization of opportunity means the equalization of intelligence. and not until this is attained is there any virtue or any hope in schemes for the equalization of the material resources of society. is Much " of the discussion about " equal rights utterly hollow. while the great mass are shut out from all the light that human achievement has shed upon the world. so long as society is composed of members. There can be no equality and no justice.CH. .\\ past ages. X] EQUALIZATION OF OPPORTUNITY is 281 There no use in talking about the equalization of wealth. equally endowed by nature. All the ado made over the system of contract is surcharged with fallacy. a few of whom only possess the social heritage of truth and ideas resulting from the laborious investigations and profound meditations of a.

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Pure science seeks to know the truth for its own sake. regardless of the gain or loss involved in abstract knowledge. FREDERICK HOWARD WINES. power and happiness. by way of addition to human wealth. The applications of science have for their avowed motive and purpose the desire to convert abstract knowledge human profit.PART III IMPROVEMENT Sociology stands for pure science. into . while philanthropy stands for applied science.

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Leisure-class philosophers usually hold but so do also socialistic There must. that material . non beant. with potential or latent social energy it As and the way to render actual or active. AUGUSTE COMTE. This view is held by persons most of social questions are it. PATTEN. Ayant SIMON N. and nothing was said of potential achievement. Much was said of achievement in Pure Sociology. I have taken a middle ground. therefore. it is the means to it. Optimists and pessimists also agree on this point. Ipsum Posse et ipsum Scire naturam humanam amplificant. But the only definition that I have ever given of the subject-matter of sociology is human achievement. There increase is human a very general impression that civilization does not happiness. whose other opinions on philosophers. auott ^-DI* run *}*DVI KOHELETH. attention has thus far been drawn chiefly to . BACON. directly opposite.. Le plus grand service qu'on puisse rendre a la science est d'y faire place CUVIER. It remains to be shown how achievement may be reconciled with improvement. peut The end of morality is the best utilization of the present environment. and the second that there can be no improvement. already said. the first maintaining that it is as it should be. nette avant d'y rien construire. But after all. be considerable truth in it. and to it Part II may be said to have been devoted. we have not been dealing so much with even potential achievement as with the means to that. questions of achievement. 285 viz. It ment has been said that the purpose of applied sociology is improvenevertheless.CHAPTER XI RECONCILIATION OF ACHIEVEMENT WITH IMPROVEMENT appre'cie' le present comme un produit ndcessaire du passe^ la sociologie de'sormais aborder la determination directe de 1' avenir. This latter belongs clearly to applied sociol- ogy. but there the discussion was confined to actual achievement.

p. trying to introduce new ideas and customs into a community of backwoodsmen. In such a condition of things cannot be expected that the fullest results will flow from achieveIt is like ment. nothing of their history or of their essential nature. a certain surplus that cannot be prevented from finding its way through the meshes of the social net and redounding to the benefit of most or all of the members of society. But there is probably no regular relation between the two. The rest know nothing about what it.286 civilization is APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART III upon the whole progressive in the sense of actually the condition of society. The improvement that comes with civilization is due to a sort of accidental overflow. There has 1 Compare Pure Sociology. that social welfare should increase faster than the arts of civilization. Only a minute fraction of mankind know how to do anything but simply use it as they find it. As a matter of fact. 1 Now the purpose of applied sociology is to show that achievement ducer. pp. manner by the great majority All the grand results of science are treated of those who profit by them. is that it is not appropriated by society. not possessed (see supra. They are thought of only as they may be made it useful in supplying their wants. They are in no con- dition to appreciate Probably nine out of every ten who should send a message by wireless telegraphy and it should fail to reach its destination would curse the system and the inventor and apply the " term " humbug in that cavalier to both. The enormous intellectual inequalities render this so. and cannot be prevented from doing so. The reason why achievement produces so little effect It is It is simply used. science and art are far in advance of the people. with this in any regular way it would be in some such relation as its logarithm. analogous to that of increased production. but I admit that the improvement bettering If it advanced is in no fixed proportion to the degree of civilization. They are not prepared for them. According to the iron law of political economy it should not benefit the procase is The always has done so to a slight extent. but nevertheless it and improvement should possible to prove that go hand in hand. This is because they know nothing about them. . it really is. 280. 85-90). They are no more to them than the simplest arts. It is probably improvement may advance more rapidly than at least achievement.

In dealing with interesting facts of nature. and to the objective and intellectual aspect. XI] ETHICAL CHARACTER OF ALL SCIENCE 287 brilliant been no general elevation of society as a whole corresponding to the and rocket-like flights of certain specially favored individuals. which said that the public is interested only in the philosophy is very true. A Series of Essays. "science for there is its own sake. and only in its practical results as affecting their personal welfare. but it that this is the way to attain the ethical end. owing to the marvelous developments and vast practical results of science. On this point Dr. it deals with means to ends. is because he sees intellect. 330. Von Baer of science. The student or investigator may from long discipline cling persistently no such "knowledge for its own sake. and we sometimes hear such expressions as scientific principles. as I The have been to the greatest pains to show. where I logically reduced all other alleged ends to the one ultimate end." or thing. I could not now express this better than I expressed it in the chapter of Dynamic Sociology that deals with the end of all effort. that purpose is ethical in the sense that it relates to feeling. and to whom they have consequently been curses as well as 1 blessings. having been We given to societies too low morally and intellectually. Wallace well are just now living at an abnormal period of the world's history.CH." But There is always an ulterior purpose. with great truths and we are apt to imagine that these things are ends in themselves. At the the close of that discussion I said : The above considerations are the logical outcome of phenomena of feeling. always employs the indirect method. to know how to make the best use of them. By Alfred . p. is The world small few privileged remarks : not ripe nor ready for the blessings of science that a men have given it. Russel Wallace. 1870. It may seem strange to some a thoughtful study of that these phenomena should be thus placed at the very base of a philosophic system whose chief 1 Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection. London. happiness. That is. and therefore it receives only a part of the advantages.

that progress lect. by which. and the general pursuit of happiness and the doctrine. To bring these two seemingly incoherent and incongruous doctrines into harmony. of water. : 1 Dynamic Sociology. as cause and effect. Vol. of the stars. of air. masters and possessors of nature. 1844. and thus render ourselves. there may be found a practical one." Descartes. the satisfaction of desire. knowing the force and the action of fire. .288 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART III object is to exalt the intellect. There is an apparent incongruity between the doctrine. as distinctly as we know the various trades of our artisans. pp. and of employing appropriate means. that progress consists essentially and solely in the elevation of the feelthe elimination of pain. II. the encouragement of natural emotions. is one of the primary objects of this work. we might employ them in the same way in all the uses to which they are adapted. of the heavens. and of all the other bodies that surround us. 2 CEuvres de Descartes. Bacon defined its purpose as the "relief of the estate of man. 1 are again confronted with practically the same problem. as it were. and the thorough and universal dissemination and enforced adoption of educational measures for the elevation and systematic development of the cold. on the other . objective faculties of the mind. pp. and the reconciliation of achievement with improvement is only a slightly different We way of looking at or stating the problem. on the one hand. and to show the true mechanical dependence of the one upon the other. the increase of pleasure. the gratification of the normal instincts. 129-130. Many wise men have seen and acknowl- edged the ethical purpose of science. But all it becomes much clearer when we recognize that all science and intellectual operations have an ethical purpose. and comthem in connection with certain specific difficulties. sentiment. and in place of that speculative philosophy that they teach in the schools. the intensification of ings. provided they be effective. in his discourse on method. 2 as I As soon to test . hand. I observed how far they may lead and how much they differ from principles that are being used now and I thought I could not keep them hidden without sinning greatly against the law which enjoins us to secure so far as in us lies the general good of all men for they have shown me that it is possible to arrive at knowledge which is very useful to life. the creation and diffusion of new enjoyments. however remote. and which expressly avows that only by intellectual culture and the increase of knowledge can the true progress of mankind be secured. is to be attained solely through the cultivation of the intel- the acquisition of knowledge. says: menced had acquired some general notions respecting physics. They are based on a recognition that the end cannot be attained directly. and hence the necessity of proceeding according to the indirect or intellectual method. Paris. 39-40.

. Introduction. basis. which would be but need not be repeated. February i. Wealth of Nations. and it is the plain duty of each and all of us to try to make the little corner he can influence somewhat less miserable and somewhat less ignorant than it was before he entered it. Vol. 145. earlier the necessity of a proas a preparation for his final practical work longed study appears from a remark contained in a letter to his friend Valat as if oil action. 1899. a means to prevision. p. taught a gospel of despair. never for a moment lost sight Indeed. 446-460. who is popularly regarded as the author who. or more properly to enable them to provide such a revenue or subsistence for themselves and secondly. considered as a branch of the science of a statesman or proposes two distinct objects first. is it Science with him was only a means to action. V). Reprinted from the London. Vol.202) that In my paper notably Malthus. pp. Vol. That he foresaw much scientific 1 Fortnightly Review. sixth edition. it is especially the social sciences that ultimately are adapted directly to this function. to supply the state or commonwealth with a revenue sufficient for the public service. XI] ETHICAL CHARACTER OF ALL SCIENCE 289 Huxley regarded even the study of protoplasm as having a bearing on the welfare of man. 427. As regards political economy. : .. I showed other economists had taken a humanitarian view. 2 1869. I there quoted also a passage from Cunningham's Politics and Economics. II.CH. was a secondary means. 2 on the Purpose of Sociology. d'oti prevoyance. which : the direct means to action Science. Sociology was founded on this broad basis. notwithstanding the twelve years devoted to writing the Positive Philosoin place here. XI (New Series. viz. and in his celebrated address on the Physical Basis of Life he says : We live in a world which is full of misery and ignorance. and (p. for he thus defined its scope and purpose Political ceconomy. . It proposes to legislator. Vol. to provide a plentiful revenue or subsistence for the people. prevoyance. I. and Comte. enrich both the people and the sovereign. But although it is clear that Adam : Smith took this view. 1 all scientific truth may and in all probability will benefit mankind. more than any other. its scientific phy which forms of his purpose. published in 1 896 3 and which forms Chapter IX of the Outlines of Sociology. 8 American Journal of Sociology. Book IV. p.

" he says. par Rene Worms. however. 1 But judging from a much more recent work of his New of Auguste Comte. p. That. Vol. 17. did I not continually think of their utility to the race. i. with- A ment must mean. He says : purposeful science gives rise to exact ideas as to what its own developin contradistinction to that objectless. P. in this case. York. anarchical science. on the contrary. 1903. The positive method.) have affected to see without a purpose. which reaches out its feelers shortsightedly in all directions. whom death has so recently snatched from us. expressly states that what he calls the social art.290 early as 1819: orders. p. Worms. the past. 534. 4 American Journal of Sociology. von Gustav Ratzenhofer. Among these Ratzenhofer. by L." (Extrait de la Revue Internationale de sociologie. whether it be investigated or ascertained through deduction. 4 A few modern sociologists (Durkheim. Vol. but the effort even in itself is purposeful. 1898. which begins on the If same page: we consider the nomena. Janvier. Leipzig. Espinas. 8 Die sociologische Erkenntnis. p. 1895). 3 e annee. so to speak. harmony with the im- of this That Schaeffle shared these views appears from a review by him same work. authorized translation. Levy-Bruhl. scientific studies. The Philosophy . 6 La Sociologie et le Droit. demands a purposeful organization of scientific research. because only from conformity to law can conclusive inferences regarding the past and future arise. will be put at the service of prevision to science sail gratification of lies in the nature of purposeful science. 8. 623. we find that a multitude of endeavors task of science to be the seeking of laws for all phewhich are but distantly related under its flag. I "are and little be in two value upon the political. 2 See especially Politique positive. p. has the first claim to be heard. with which he confounds applied sociology. 5 in sociology a science it etc. Ill. in which he quotes approvingly the following passage." 1 should set human That Comte never took any other view 2 passages in all his works. and use. is attested by numerous Many other sociologists have expressed themselves more or less clearly on this point. for the search for laws in phenomena is not the mere desire of knowledge. is simply to be adjourned to a later date. IV. to deprecate all attempts to put to any The last named author. No. 1895. according to which especially public expenditure and private outlay are brought into 8 portance of social affairs. scientific APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART will III "My and labors. out really knowing what for. Paris.

1903. ing And for a purpose. XI] ETHICAL CHARACTER OF ALL SCIENCE 291 already mentioned (supra.CK. and inventors are bending all their Philosophic des sciences sociales. leaving the second temporarily out of the to the results account. or philosophic. 1 But really account. science has only one end 2 : utility. Without a practical end. who also confounded applied sociology art. while art depends upon it from every point of view. 2 3 Compare Pure Les Principes d'une sociologie objective. and at least theoretically independent of art. noth- On to include others than self achievement is purpose is expanded and made and ultimately all mankind. 221. for he says: The proper rule to follow in order to reconcile the two apparently contrary desiderata is simply this: not to think of application so long as we are pursuing science. I. whether inventive. p. but on the higher plane of genius. whatever may be the division of labor between the speculative and the active. it would seem that he does not think it necessary to adjourn it much longer. Adolphe Coste. but when we have completed our scientific work. 4 creative. It is not the fault of those who achieve if achievement does not constitute improvement. XVIII. par Rene Worms. to pass immediately examination and putting into practice of whatever it admits of. Objet des sciences sociales. 1899. Paris. Chap. It from all this that science is logically anterior to. between scientific and practical men. final utility. par Adolphe Coste. with the social nevertheless clearly expressed this truth in the following paragraph: In approaching the sociological art under its last form. if it is the lower planes of under the universal law of conation. 40). 3 this is all that can be activity expected. of 1 These always intend that it shall. in order that no immediate preoccupation shall come in to influence the observation of facts or their interpretation. One may apply one's self to the first. The whole army investigators. Even those who extol the disinterested search for principles and their consequences do not mean to propose pure speculation as the sole legitimate use of intellectual activity. the action of men with a view to modifying social phenomena. Sociology. 174. 4 Op.. Men work more than their own improvement. so that thoroughly altruistic and humanitarian. p. discoverers. no one ever leaves the purpose wholly out of the M. this egoistic so it must always be. we are touching without question without a that which gives to sociology its principal interest. the science would be vain. cit. pp. p. But in the end. . They are at bottom only contending for the temporary abstaining from utilitarian considerations so long as a sufficiently complete body of doctrine has not been acquired. Paris. 247 ff.

and sympathy. is due to the enormous It is due to the conditions pointed out in Chapter VII. it is they do not succeed.. and are utterly unreliable principles. Their For knowledge is only hope of an equitable distribution of the fruits of achievement lies in putting exactly the whole function is mere patchwork. if That this is largely the case is only it too obvious. The failure to assimilate achievement /artificial inequalities in society. altruism. that no just distribution of the fruits ^f achievement is possible.e. The same arms into the When every man knows i. can this result be brought about. and improvement reconciled with achievement. benevolence. and in because society fails to avail itself of their services and allows them to be misapplied and wasted. hands of one member of society as of another. what can it do with those of a much larger number ? It has been shown that the I : number may be increased a hundredfold. and cannot in the least philanthropy be depended upon to insure any sort of equity in society. The doctrine . It is due to the exploitation of the unintelligent class by the intelligent class. Only through this equali- knowledge. What could society do with all this work? Would it not be utterly bewildered in the attempt to handle it ? These questions would certainly be pertinent under the prevailing views relative to genius. depended upon to demand and obtain zation of power.292 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART III the condition of mankind. If energies in the task of ameliorating so far as they do not succeed. If a hundred times as many more rockets had to be shot up in the midst of the surrounding darkness they would have no permanent effect in illuminating it. power. and applied sociology has any purpose is to show how this can be prevented. exactly to what he is entitled he can be it. and so long as there remains a great to the world mass who are not in possession of the truth that has been given and only a small class who do possess this social such are the egoistic and acquisitive laws of human nature heritage. ASSIMILATION OF ACHIEVEMENT imagine this objection to be raised If it is impossible for society to assimilate the achievements of a few men.

and great the local. totally different from and independent of the rest of mankind. All the geniuses. the foundation of the entire is false. They are all that the great social inequalities are purely privilege. and therefore the questions asked above. it " " mute " sports of nature inglorious and latent appears probable that the number of these " has been as much greater than that of the patent ones as the number of non-privileged is greater than the number of privileged members of society. The be fatal to all world cannot handle the present output. and statistically demonstrated. If the rest of the world is to remain as it is and more of these prodigies hunted out and set to work in it. XI] ASSIMILATION OF ACHIEVEMENT 293 that geniuses are exceptional beings. all would only increase the social inequalithe trouble. due to They are made by society. but that the output is greatly increased. all We have seen. geniuses. Assuming that society remains as it is. But from the train of reasoning pursued and based on the statistics obtainable. and it would increase them artificial inequalities. which are the cause of way. were it true. or the educational environment. The same conclusion follows from the "exceptional man" theory. are wholly beside the But. as in we saw current philosophy of genius . if put into practice.. in a demoralizing viz. which of course is not. the present confusion will be worse confounded. by pampering and favoritism. They are all artificial. the social. would increase the artificial. it evidently could do nothing whatever with the product.CH. the process It would result in more harm than good ties to society. the economic. being based on that philosophy. all the great men of the world have been products of their environment not the physical nor yet the ethnological environment but products of one or other of the artificial environ- ments we have been studying. the last chapter. inequalities only. schemes of improvement. heroes. no one either knows or ever will know. kind of inequalities that do harm are ceptional ficial The only The " exarti- man" theory. and how many men there may have been who never came under the influence of any of these artificial environments. Even supposing that it is possible to select in advance the exceptional it men. the heroes. would. as incapable of mixing with the rest of the world as oil is of mixing with water. This is only one aspect of the oligocentric theory in general. and consequently never were heard from.

all. For it will one.. Therefore it really would be useless to multiply geniuses unless at the same time the number of those who can appreciate the work of genius is correspondingly multiplied. In the existing state of society there is scarcely any market for achievement. paintings. be found that there are others.e. public It is of no use to cast pearls before swine. if it is the result of the extension of equal opportunities to so that the real merit. Too many all this. collaborating with every man of genius. The great need is for increased production. of knowledge and with efficient all the same with the production forms of achievement. It never means their production in excess of the need for them. it will no longer be isolated as now. and is a consequence its way into the hands of those who want it. If the increase is a natural i. is due to the absence of any proper system of social distribution. provided it is allowed to find Overproduction thus always goes along with want. That is conceivable. ture cannot be discovered. sharing his results. thoughtful books. of the unorganized state of society. There cannot be too statues. there is a close analogy between the production of ideas and the production of wealth. . talent. This. but in practice it rarely or never happens. in distinction from economic distribution. The conditions to increased achievement imply and involve its assimilation. hunger. too much knowledge. A that it achievement renders cannot appreciate and assimilate human impossible. and contributing toward their realization. There must be a demand before there can be a supply. The only meaning that the word " overproduction " can have in economics is the pro- duction of goods in excess of the market for them. It is impossible to It is have too and ment. there will be created not only geniuses but along with them a market for the products of genius.294 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART III mark and require no answer. and misery. But for life. In other words. Society cannot have too many active any of the great lines of human achieveThere cannot be too many artists. An excess of labor- saving machines is inconceivable. Indeed. or working power of every one is brought out. great truths of na- as for the necessaries of there must be a market. genius. possessing nearly equal powers. workers in many many inventors and scientific investigators. as I have shown. philosophers. thinkers. There is no possibility of there being too much of the useful products of industry.

But the assimilation of achievement means its utilization. life But even those who conceive not equaled by any of the pleasures of human happiness as con- sisting entirely in the gratification of physical wants would also find their goal here. and industry would insure. The entire movement is positive. Under it utilized. However small the number of actual producers in this field may be. art. The equalization of opportunity creates a market for the products of genius. would be complete. all the physical wants of mankind would be supplied along with the The reconciliation of achievement with improvement spiritual. It could not fail to bring about the complete social distribution of the economic products of achievement. for the equalization of opportunity would secure the economic as completely as the spiritual end. but the demand and imperative. and with the immensely increased production of such products that the new science. the number of appraisers of the work of these few would be enormously increased. Achievement would be universal and its assimilation complete. XI] ASSIMILATION OF ACHIEVEMENT 295 All this shows the vast superiority of the logic of opportunity over the current philosophy of genius. powers of accustomed to the old stage-coach methods. . and the sum of the agreeable increments would constitute a fullness of of sense. There are no negative elements. and its utilization means the true improvement of man's estate. This increase in the users of intellectual products would of itself constitute the strongest possible stimulus to the workers themselves. is impossible for us. to form any adequate conception of the teeming. This great epeirogenic movement in which all mankind should participate would be infinitely superior from every point of view to the fitful and haphazard social volcanism that has thus far prevailed. seething world of thought and action that the acceptance by society of the logic of opportunity in its full measure would create. and would call steady achievement would be immediately assimilated and fully for more and better would be into action all the It the human mind. This intellectual assimilation is attended with immense satisfaction. All satisfaction is agreeable.CH. all Not only so.

untried methods are rarely happens that the first plan proves in always tentative. that it is a practical conception and not a visionary or Utopian dream. VICTOR HUGO. and finally of bringing about a notable improvement in the condition of society and the general welfare of mankind. and perceived and strongly desired end. GREEK PROVERB. until at last they are found to work. a perpetual evolution. For I do not pretend to be wiser than others in devis- ing ways and means. adopt. KaXa. ferme une prison. if I 296 . waste energies of society. altered and patched. as it were. ill become a mere theorist to propose a scheme of such far-reaching magnitude as that of setting the energies of is but It society to work. therefore. Even then unex- pected events and conditions are constantly presenting themselves. and carry gence amply into effect practical measures for the accomplishment of any clearly is mankind sufficient to work Moreover. nothing that could be added in the way of indicating how the ends can be attained would have much value. of multi- human plying the agents of civilization and with them the achievements of the race. of utilizing in the interest of humanity at large the latent and. cautiously tested and watched. INDIAN PROVERB. and it tried again. what has been degree in arousing an If said thus far could be instrumental to some interest in the subjects discussed and in creat- ing a realizing sense of their importance. requiring further modification. and a great scheme is never perfected. all respects practicable. No lotus without a stem. But I imagine that some readers may have even grown said. I surely ought to be satisfied. As already have shown that all this can be done. of And I am satisfied that the average intelli- out. Quiconque ouvre une dcole.CHAPTER XII METHOD OF APPLIED SOCIOLOGY XoAcTra TO. Plans and methods have to be worked over and over. would.

Mr. is with Mr. IX. In reality. 1884. therefore. Vol. no perfect plan for such a complicated operation could be drawn up by anything short of omniscience. pp. and I know that I have been compelled to abandon some of the positions there know taken. 305-306. leaving the art itself entirely to practical minds and to the read future. and are curious to know how all this is to be brought about. to is which I have already alluded (supra. however. . any which would be liable not only to alteration but to rejecIt upon trial. Ward might seem to have hard work in spreading it over two solid and bulky volumes. because. this central theme is so familiar. What with the ordinary prophets of education is a pious opinion. and has wrought out his theory so logically from first principles. in the very nature of things. 1 social philosophy of its 1 Mind. work Sociology. April. unless they expect me entirely and reject the method that I there Dynamic already what method I recommend. in In the review of Dynamic Sociology by Grant Allen p. as rigorously deduced from given premisses as a proposition of Euclid. All that can be done. XII] METHOD OF APPLIED SOCIOLOGY 297 impatient with the somewhat prolonged demonstration which I have been obliged to enter into of this primary truth. he has gone so deeply into the matter. the writer said Education is all the ills that flesh is heir to : cure for our curse of overworked millions on the one hand. and nothing has occurred to weaken my conviction that the method of that work as logically presented in the second volume is not only sane and sound but also practicable whenever society sees fit to adopt It is applied science in distinction from the art. while space forbids any such elaborate treatment as is there made of the subject. and almost trivial. Those who have to repudiate that outlined. Viewed in itself. trite. If there are such. is to discuss the general method of applied sociology. I can do nothing more now. that his book commands respect not merely as a complete and fully rounded own sort. and I can really add little to what is there set down. Ward's panacea for and which mainly the adverse. I hope I am somewhat wiser now than I was when I wrote that book. no pretensions.CH. 104). and tion all of would be utterly useless to go into details. to which I make it. that Mr. I am sure they will be disappointed. Ward a logical conclusion. and unemployed millions on the other. but also as a curious piece of strictly original and independent thinking. : Mind. but the general philosophy that it contains is still my own. and must necessarily be disappointed.

but also contains a clear enunciation of the doctrine now current under the later name date.298 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART III proceeds to say some very foolish things reflecting the oligocentric views of his master. Herbert Spencer. advanced before his death in 1899 far beyond the teachings of his master and repudiated many of his doctrines. I. which he supposes to carry with it its own refutation. but which not only reflects the whole truth that we have been illustrating in the previous chapters. but because the acquired knowledge is so much greater both in quantity and quality. I defined that meaning rigidly. 621 ff. 1897. 557). seems also to have acquired new views An of education. This versatile and truly able writer. XXIII. who. for in an article in the Cosmopolitan for October. 553. he says: system of higher education designed to meet the needs of would begin by casting away all preconceptions equally. has increased. still I disclaim any qualifications for this branch of pedagogy. and can only do here as in other parts of the general method of applied sociology: suggest guiding principles without pretending to specify means. on Modern College Education. II. The Cosmopolitan. 613." which : is supposed to be of much That passage is as follows The reason why the intelligence of Europe and America to-day is so much greater than that of Greece and Rome two thousand years ago is not to any great extent because the power of intellect. Science itself is capable of being reduced to this to the formula. and quotes a He passage from page 407 of Vol. pp. intelligence will vary with the amount of education. (And. and acknowledged its inadequacy to convey my meaning. the man to reconstruct it would be Professor Lester Ward. preserving. And this. for although I did not overlook the subject of curriculums. I entered my caveat to the word "education" (pp. The general deduction which follows of itself from these facts obviously is that. And 1 yet I could not find a substitute without coining Vol. October. . and showed that it was wholly different from any of the current meanings of the word. and actually outlined their general character (Vol. p. or co-efficient of intelligence. may be attributed more universal practice of recording. and by reconstructing its curriculum on psychological principles. and inculcating on succeeding generations the truths learned by preceding ones and found by experience to be most valuable. where intellect is equal.) intelligent life modern The compliment is undeserved. of "social heredity. 1897. as many know. when sifted to the bottom.). I may add in 1 parenthesis.

and if any of it was earlier it either failed to furnish the needed information. But we were then dealing solely with the specially talented. culture. They must have positive instruction." It of the attributes that are needed. and research. and must. but maintains that it is a slow and costly method. The literature dealt with in the present work was nearly all subsequent to my earlier one. invest it with some one great central thought. although they are capable of good work when supplied with the materials to work upon. been immense. But my method was synthetic. still they are just the qualities that philosophers require. no matter how. as it were. I have reflected on the subject all these years. In my system education means the " universal distribution of extant knowledge " (p. But for average minds.e. philosophy has always been to take some word possessing these qualities. The practice It a new word. and whatever it may mean in other connections and in other systems. and although these are qualities that wholly unfit a word for technical scientific use. 108). I had not the means. i. and indeed the means did not exist. and I am still unable to dispense wholly with the word " education. and we saw that true genius. experience alone will never raise them to the working point. make in it stand in one system for that thought. It does not ignore the education of experience. and leisure without instruction has been sufficient to develop vast treasures of talent. XII] METHOD OF APPLIED SOCIOLOGY 299 possesses many has great range. But once acquired. or else I . and I saw and fully worked out the reasons for it. it becomes a power with them as with other men. while it cannot overcome all obstacles. The value of experience to the world has. and takes account solely of information. It makes complete abstraction of all questions of discipline. be compelled to acquire knowledge.CH. otherwise they simply will never acquire it. and elasticity. for the immense majority of mankind. In my early work the philosophy of education was a sort of intuition. and where genial minds are concerned it may become a fair substitute for positive education or instruction. to discuss the question analytically. as is claimed. which I knew would repel the reader and prevent him from following my thought. will avail itself of any and all favorable circumstances and burst its bonds. like Galton's works. I saw it all. however. In considering the local environment we saw how powerfully it acts. flexibility..

but in which. or instruction. and with the aid of shrewd and unscrupulous lawyers. or the social environment may have to stimulate and unfold the genius of man. as often happens. and without this popular demand there is an early limit to intellectual productivity. and all may possess . it has ment got into the hands of a few privileged persons only. and I stands on an immutable foundation. it acquires solely by virtue of its educational quality. And it was twelve years before the only book appeared that really does furnish the data for an analytical study of the subject. even more the complete than the deductive. as we have seen. but it is utterly inadequate to the purpose. and general bad managealike. The work of Odin opens up the field and shows how such has been that it strictly social questions scientific treatment. ADMINISTRATION OF THE SOCIAL ESTATE The method of applied sociology is the administration of the The social heritage. at may be reduced to a rigidly But the gratifying part of this analytic study once and completely confirms the conclusions at The inductive proof now feel that my is which I arrived synthetically. Odin's Genese des Grands Hommes. no form of privilege is sufficient in and of itself to develop the intellectual powers of average men and create a market for the products of achievement.. a few of the children take possession of it all. In the former its possession by one does not diminish the share of another. De Candolle's work is valuable so far as it goes. viz. succeed in keeping the rest from receiving any part of it. has been bequeathed But through inattention. which. neglect. share and share a country whose laws provide that the children shall share the property equally. human achievement. moreover. This can be done only by positive education.300 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART III was unacquainted with it. But there is a fundamental difference between spiritual and material wealth. into the world to by the labors all of the elite of mankind. consists of the knowledge that has been brought social estate. All the heirs inherit it all. Whatever power the economic. entire system local. The case is analogous to that of a wealthy man with a large family dying intestate in the members of society equally. and.

As How. These and knowledge which needless to particularize. much this is rendering much more universal than It partakes very closely of the nature of skill. that we have to do. is What then they see one seeming defect in the logic. which there in would not be any advantage it is. the social heritage ? What knowledge is it the duty if of society to extend to all its members without exception ? This of . unless certain other kinds of if it be by persons it is of unbalanced minds. It is not with these. multiplying the same product. Then there is knowledge in the world that is of very little use. regards skill. repetition. otherwise the social continuity would be interrupted and degeneracy would set in. The law of the division of profitably labor has specialized this knowledge and restricted it to those who to the advantage of society. and. knowledge of and which has been acquired with great labor. could not be universally distributed. There tion is also a vast amount ticularly of the kind that of very special and detailed knowledge. But it whom has a different part and kind from the rest or small groups possess one kind and other small groups possess another kind of spiritual wealth. The consequence is that men move about together as at a masked ball. but it seemed best to mention them in can use it order to anticipate an objection that would almost certainly be made by a certain class who are habitually arrested on the threshold of a subject. And yet it has been thus far found more than a very small amount of the social heritage to any but the most favored individuals. which is a form of knowledge. but most of not the result of prolonged research. is distributed in small parcels to many individuals. each group following its particular This relates chiefly to the statical operations of society reproducing copies. knowing nothing of those with whom they come in contact. it is to be supposed that the different kinds of skill are distributed among different groups of individuals. It is all transmitted. the several individuals and groups knowing nothing of the possessions of the others. even they belong to the social heritage.CH. each of . XII] ADMINISTRATION OF THE SOCIAL ESTATE impossible to transmit 301 it all. being mainly economic. imitacraft. therefore. however grave. paris called expert knowledge. there is no special complaint that society has not performed this function tolerably well.

When the great truths are known every minor detail in the whole truth. To minds devoid of general knowledge all special knowledge presents a chaos. It would be of no use to take up one field of knowledge after another and try to decide on each one separately. n8ff.302 course is APPLIED SOCIOLOGY a very difficult question. The primary that every human being session of all of that mature age and sound mind should be put in posis known. No item of it can be assigned a place where its relations to other items can be seen or where its position in the world as a whole can be fixed. All that can be done in a work on applied sociology is to suggest general principles. It would perbe clearer to some minds to say that every such being should haps be in possession of all truth. When we say knowledge the idea of but it is memorizing millions is of facts is likely to rise in the mind. There are a few principles that are sufficiently general to be safely set down in advance. every range of experience and of nature.. The propThe knowledge implied to that of laws all and and principles. The Order of Nature. to be followed and never lost sight of in the work of administering the social estate. viz. viz. and to adopt some practical classification of the different kinds of knowledge. but also from that of their principle is logical connections with each other. The mind is in a state of confusion and bewilderment. It is necessary first to decide on some comprehensive canons to follow. finds its place immediately the moment it is presented to consciousness..). It is generalized knowledge. partly from the standpoint of their usefulness. if it can be so called. I stated another. every small item of knowledge. In the Out- lines of Sociology (pp. II. In Dynamic Sociology (Vol. not at all so when the idea is fully grasped. It [PART III belongs rather to administra- tion than to philosophy. And only to a mind in possession of general truths do such details possess any meaning or any value. and thought in such a mind. that the first . Such a proposition may sound Utopian. forms no guide to life or action. osition does not imply anything of the kind. and demands the serious and prolonged attention and study of practical men. which facts details necessarily These no more need be specially attended to than we need specially to attend to every pulsation of the heart in order to live. that the most general knowledge the most practical. p. 492) I stated is one of these. under fall.

Unless it is fully and to make it the primary Both these principles are so important that it seems to realized and respected there is no hope of attaining the end. memory. and and irksome. but it constitutes the first canon of practice. that it is the conis dition of all thinking. ogy. fundamental. If educationists they would quickly revolutionize existing methods. What is true of minor studies is true also of major ones. the same superiority. which abides. is arbitrarily It has What memorized and painfully acquired is distasteful and the mind gladly turns away from it and dismisses it. THE ORDER OF NATURE 303 to find out the order of nature rule of pedagogy to follow that order. and the second one is demand further emphasis. It takes no permanent hold upon the faculties. It is always easy for the mind to pass from an antecedent to a consequent when they stand in the relation of cause and effect. Schopenhauer maintained that the idea of causation was the only innate idea. The fact is. in all keep it in mind could only perceive this and schemes for making pupils and students learn. and these possess causal relations among one another. But if they merely stand the one before the other on a printed page.CH. 45) on the philosophy of style as illustrating methodol- The most fundamental of all the faculties of the human mind that of causality. or in succession in oral speech. the ones that deal with the laws and principles of nature in the plastic . It was there shown that both the force and the ease of style are due to the causal connection existing between the elements of discourse. XII] essential is . It is also young mind along irresistibly and makes study a pleasure. attempt to do so would probably To make clear my meaning I will revert to what was said in Pure Sociology (p. from the standpoint of retention. There are great fields of knowledge which are called sciences. It not only belongs to the very essence of method. But the pleasure of following up a logical chain of causally connected truths plows its little groove young brain. perhaps forever. with nothing to show that the one is the cause of the other. uninteresting learning whereas the learning of things that are shown to be causally connected and naturally related possesses a charm that carries the their retention in thought requires an arbitrary act of is slow and tedious. too. Under any other principle the difficulties would be so great that any fail. There are certain of these sciences.

but the term because. all of which agree in showing least is that this the true order of nature. and that the phenomena is of this universe present themselves to our comprehension in this order. although they deal with laws. (3) chemistry.304 rather than with its APPLIED SOCIOLOGY . fact. its place and explanation under one now commonly recognized. material. (2) physics. as tion. It will be seen at a glance that thus (5) psychology. arranged in their. or six sciences thing in the entire universe finds or other of these six sciences. that the phenomena they present diminish in generality and increase in complexity as we ascend in the series. their contents are all That is. In some cases. those of astronomy being the most general and complex and those of sociology the least general and most complex. (6) sociology. and constituting a sort of differentia of the next higher term. and perhaps the term abstract should be retained. There are at least capable of being thus arranged. In view of this it becomes obvious that the order in which these sciences should be studied is the order in which they stand in the series. (4) biology. Herbert Spencer more properly called them "abstract-concrete" sciences. arranged these sciences stand in the inverse order of their degrees of exactness. and when their scope is accurately defined these six sciences are found to embrace all nature. this does not seem to hold. Many other tests have been applied. and there is a sense in which the antecedent terms may be regarded as the causes of the consequent terms. that in But from the pedagogic standpoint the most important fact each term of the series embraces phenomena not contained one next below the it but clearly growing out of that. This is a causal relation. while all the intermediate ones conform to the same law. that are capable of being arranged in such an order that it becomes obvious that each one grows out of and depends upon the one next below it in the series. their subjects consist in the laws of matter. are: (i) astronomy. still not happy. and any one can verify it. It has also been found. Every conceivable phenomenon. [PART III concrete facts. substance. property. astronomy being the most and sociology the least exact. order from the standpoint of dependence and subordinaascending These sciences. however. and any attempt to study the higher ones before the lower ones have been studied not only . is These sciences are sometimes called abstract. force.

since treats of one of the planets zoology and botany belong to biology. p. their natural order. Vol. pp. falls readily . are now classed as special social sciences. it Geology. March. . either made sciences. There are of course many called sciences or capable of being other departments of knowledge. 1896.. I would challenge any one to name a branch of learning that spectuses of I could not thus classify. must be attractive from the start. of A These need not be enumerated here. I have listed many them on previous occasions. which are not is the same as the six here enumerated. but there not one such that might not be classed under one or other of these. I know of only a very few exceptions. and belong to sociology. under astronomy. and calculated to afford a true conception of speedily forgotten. 122 May. But I fancy that the order in which the manifold subjects of any comprehensive curriculum stand in it. I doubt whether the question of arranging studies according to the order of nature occurs except very rarely to the makers of prospectuses or educational programs. Vol. Guillaume I. the subject being easy to grasp and retain. as given above. history. pp. 634. pp. Dr. 1 And so we might take up the proall the universities and assign every branch that has ever been taught its place under the proper science of this so-called hierarchy. this task would usually be easy. a study of the sciences in conducted by a teacher at all suited to his vocation. 742 ff. 635 Outlines of Sociology. The most prominent of these is the Universite Nouvelle under the direction of 1 its enlightened rector. if On nature and the universe. and tedious. American Journal of Sociology. including economics. but must fail to furnish any true knowledge of science and of nature. 1902. For the concrete sciences for example. ff Pure Sociology. or that in which they are actually taught. De Greef .CH. . would be very different from the order of the sciences under which they would fall. VII. XII] ADMINISTRATION OF THE SOCIAL ESTATE 305 must involve a great waste of time and energy. . great array of the higher sciences. It must also be very difficult. 14. there would be found some mark which would indicate its true place. irksome. and what little is learned is the other hand. However remote any such might seem from the abstract sciences above enumerated. It would only require the careful attention of competent persons whose business it might be to draw up the curriculum. . and the rest. pedagogy.

86. This of course applies only to the pure forms of those disciplines. With regard to mathematics. Paris. and political sciences on the other. advocates at least the adoption of this reform. 1899. too. juridical.2 &. 8 Throughout his works he constantly insists that mathematics is the criterion of the relative exactness (posit ivity) of all the sciences. 1895. 76 annee. tear J. 1896. the relative position of all the other sciences in the series is fixed Involution des Croyances et des Doctrines politiques. I. Vol. Chap. 1 . 8 Philosophic positive. deny that these are not sciences in the present that they furnish any information whatever is about nature and the universe. revue. Comte says it : In the present state of the development of our positive knowledge. physical. and the economic. They are simply norms. moral. and physiological sciences on the one hand.Compare also his Lois sociologiques. appears that M. delivered in that institution on November 29. p. this new advance was the necessary and legitimate conse- quence of It all the antecedent steps in its 1 progress. Professor of Philosophy in the Faculty of Letters of the University of Lyons. 2 but to what extent he has succeeded in introducing it I am not informed. logic ? How about mathematics and The answer I use of the term. Of course somebody is going to ask. since Descartes and Newton. I. They are They have been called abstract sciences They ity and deal only with the hypothetical. So. he says The natural bond being : thus established by the University between the mathematical. Alexis Bertrand. octobre. than as being.oxijv. but the fact that the laws of the solar system are capable of the most complete mathematical expression fixes the position of solar astronomy at the base of the series of sciences arranged in the order of nature. par Guillaume De Greef. 2 Revue Internationale de sociologie. It teaches us nothing about the stars and planets. 680. chemical. I think proper to regard mathematical science less as a constituent part of natural philosophy properly so called. aids to the study of science. are certainly abstract. p. P.306 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART III In the opening lecture of his course on the methodology of the social sciences. the position of sociology at the summit of this encyclopedic system of instruction is clearly justified . 2 edition. 1883. for they abstract all realIf treated as sciences they should be called hypothetical or theoretical sciences. Bruxelles-Paris. the true fundamental basis of all natural philosophy.

reading and writing. and both Mill and Wundt treat under the name of logic all the sciences of the hierarchy. and was (pp. trigonometry. also falls naturally into the series of sciences. dealing at last with sociology. both of them. XII] THE DIFFUSION OF KNOWLEDGE 307 by the degree to which their laws can be reduced to a mathematical expression. We all acquisition of knowledge. much that is called is it by that that and name belongs little to the philosophy of nature. It might conceivably be asked if I of an education. perhaps the norm of thinking. But pure mathematics does not deal with real things. in logic as in mathematics. all the forms of calculus sufficiently dealt with in Pure Sociology 26 ff. and. arts. But every member of society is equally social estate the first all we have already seen. but it has no such value as mathematics. And as to arithmetic. notwithstanding its etymology.CH. 625). Vol. The Diffusion of Knowledge. And may possess as the social heritage consists of the knowledge that has been the heir to the entire social heritage. tools. Points and lines and planes are not real things. because we think by it whether we know its rules or But else. as it is called. But applied mathematics. and calculus. in so far as strictly scientific. not sciences. though it could only be raised by a very superficial mind. algebra. the primary means to all learning (see Dynamic Sociology. In the administration of the and principal task is to hunt up all the heirs and give to each his share. curiously enough. they are methods. Geometry. belongs to The invention of these and of human achievement. and are here concerned only with the possible facilities to this end are simply presupposed. p. is has been said of logic applies of course to formal logic only. does not teach us anything about the earth. No system of education can ignore any of the means by which it is made possible even to begin would exclude the rudiments But these are simply arts to work. Mill's logic As such. which is the type. this task of all is nothing less than the diffusion this knowledge among all men. and all branches of it can be referred to their proper science in the series. without depriving any of any part of it. constitutes a study of nature. One other objection may be anticipated. instruments. as it brought into the world. II. What That not. When knowledge is properly .).

It is difficult to increases according formulate this law. but different persons with different parts of this detailed require an acquaintance All will select knowledge according to their tastes and pursuits. first Such is an outline of the method of applied sociology. When only a few possess it. It may even be injurious. the great groups of knowledge only need to be possessed. but it some law idea of progression. This general knowledge is embraced in the six great sciences of the hierarchy. but these actually possessed mind. The Its full value inequalities engendered lead to all forms of exploitation and social this source all misery. rest is matter of will always be increasing. but only in the minds of a select number who have no means of placing the rest in possession of the truth which they possess.308 classified it APPLIED SOCIOLOGY falls into [PART III truths. universality be realized until universality is actually reached. The this. They are really known when the general truths are by every known. and in order to occupy a position of social equality with all others. Its duty is Society Its value to society not only to see that knowledge is assimilated. A large part of the war in the world is over matters that are already settled and may have been long settled. it has little value. will some of them. Most mankind of and bloodshed due to the ignorance of the most of truths that are known to a few. In it may be said that the rate of increase is grows constantly more rapid as can never approached. and if they are acquired in the order of nature they will be both easily and thoroughly acquired. detail. but the extent to which they are specially appropriated may be left optional. divide society into factions and cause of the evils of this nature are The differences of opinion that always arise from manner of strifes. Knowledge increases with the to number possessing it. For general guidance in life. This is the duty of society. This of course presupposes that the necessary instruments for their acquisition be supplied. These truths contain within them a multitude minor truths need not be all natural groups and consists of a series of great of minor truths. and the . A rough general may be conveyed by saying that the value of knowl- edge relatively to the number possessing it increases in about the same ratio as does the value of a diamond relatively to its size. and nothing can prevent does not need to concern itself with this.

knowledge and But those who possess knowledge are so few is in imparting this and those who are without it are so many that the influence of the former upon the latter is only that of a pebble dropped into the sea. XII] THE DIFFUSION OF KNOWLEDGE 309 individuals possessing this sible for the resulting inequalities. partly of course for profit or for a livelihood. I did not and do not mean to condemn the motives that inspire them. In condemning I still private schools. its knowledge are not to blame nor responUsually they do all they can to others. for the most part. and certain ones rise to a position in which they become in large measure true public institutions. but largely from a sense of their usefulness to mankind. But both public and private educational institutions have always been and still remain chaotic. as was shown in Pure Sociolaltruistic. In so far as the supplying of the mere instruments for acquir- and many get no farther than this ing knowledge is concerned they are fairly successful. Except where they are instituted for sectarian propagandism. and as is equally true of every country : . Many establish institutions of learning and conduct them. they usually emanate often very high and bordering from motives as disinterested as any on the humanitarian. As Mr.CH. highest of all its duties. The moment a step is made beyond the object seems to be lost sight of. False notions prevail as to what education is for. the mind is essentially truth. impart their knowledge to ogy (p. even in the most enlightened countries. Not only do wise men strive to teach everybody around them what they know. Observing that society largely neglects the and continues to leave the great majority of its members. organization is not thought of. and next to the pleas- ure derived from the acquisition of knowledge and the discovery of greatest satisfaction this truth to others. as I did in Dynamic Sociology. Spencer says is and rudiments all of England. but they make great sacrifices of time and energy in writing books to spread their knowledge throughout the world and hand it down to future generations. and a vast mass of purposeless and useless rubbish is forced upon the learner. in abject ignorance of what they need most to know. method is abandoned. or to influence public opinion in the defense of vested interests. the founders of private institutions of learning seek to perform this function for society as well as they can. and as do on the grounds there urged. 444). for.

from the tribunal of larger life.. completion of the individual. . but the standards of a real test seem to have had little effect upon the committee's point of view. i. both in pedagogy and in sociology. If I am not mistaken." The naively mediaeval psychology behind all this would be humorous if it were not tragical. first. Albion W. pp. not artificial selection of is the normal condition of maximum rate and symmetrical form of personal development. 554 ff. To be sure there are signs of a vague looking for of judgment. to abstracted phases of reality.. more. by Herbert Spencer. and consequently in creating conditions favorable to the development more perfect type of individual. II. Scarcely any advance was made by the " somewhat famous " Committee of Ten near the close of the nineteenth century. New York. I have collected many same effect. implied in the first. second. : He then goes on to say The Committee of Ten seems to have stopped at conclusions which tacitly assume that psychical processes in the individual are ends unto themselves.. who were appointed to report on the proper method of teaching science. all to the but their views are incoherently set forth in an extended report.. 168) that the mind is chiefly developed in three ways: lt (a) by cultivating the powers of discriminating observation (^) by strengthening the logical faculty . and consider that this belongs to experience in connection with affairs after school days are over. Small made some appropriate comments on this report which are quite in point. We are told (p. upon the products of this pedagogy. and Physical. .e. a consensus is rapidly forming. Dr. 1 Most educationists deny that the conferring of knowledge should form any part of education. 54.310 The vital APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART III that by which we have grown as a nation to what knowledge is a knowledge that and which now underlies our whole existence has got itself taught in nooks and corners while the ordained agencies for teaching have been mumbling little else but dead formulas..(<:) by improving the process of comparison." We are further told that "studies in language and the natural sciences are best adapted to cultivate the habits of observation mathematics for the training of the reasoning faculties history and allied branches to promote the mental power which we call the judgment. . Moral. confirming this statement.) I gave a number of definitions of education. we are. They gave no concise definition of education. He summarized their views as follows : The end of education is. p. 1866. adaptation of the individual to such cooperation with the society in which his lot is cast that he works at his best with the society in perfecting its own of a type. . In Dynamic Sociology (Vol. the judgment. . 1 Education : Intellectual. the effect that action in contact "with reality.

It It is is nothing. out thickness is equally nothing. 1 cially such a report is the best that the nineteenth century could produce. that mathematicians. and that geometry could never have existed but for men's experiences with is real things. Mathematics. The report presents a classified catalogue of subjects good for study. The phrase itself "development of the mind. Mathematicians are poor reasoners. This is because it consists in prolonged thinking about nothing. do not find among the fundamental concepts of the report any distinct recognition of the coherence of the things with which intelligent pedagogy aims to tive I procure personal adaptation. pp. and espe- upon a more complete synthesis of social philosophy. we can hardly expect curricula to correspond with the essential conditions to which human action must learn to conform. however they may define these terms. is meaningless definite. but there is no apparent conception of the cosmos of which these subjects are abstracted phases and elements.CH. For meant the traditional history we 1 have. that the study of mathematics strengthens the reasoning faculties. "point" has A neither length." so conNothing could be more false than stantly used. All If attempts to define education seem to be smitten with that same vagueness and meaninglessness. Until our pedagogy rests upon a more intelligent cosmic philosophy. May. the Committee of Ten was content to remain in the dismal shadows of the immemorial misconception that disjecta membra of representaknowledge are the sole available resource for educational development. A line with- true. But the constant effort to divest everything of reality and to live in a purely hypothetical world demoralizing (I had almost said demcntalizing) to the thinking powers. Vol. I mean those who have studied pure mathematics only. nor thickness. then surely there is call for reform in pedagogy. breadth. Nowhere in the report do I find recognition that education when it is finished is conscious conformity of individuals to the coherent cosmic reality of which they are parts. The by that idea that history promotes the history the committee of course judgment is equally false. showing that there exist no sharp. XII] THE DIFFUSION OF KNOWLEDGE 311 Once more. too exclusively pursued. American Journal of Sociology. do not and cannot so conceive them. but always invest them with material attributes. and clear-cut ideas on the subject among educationists anywhere. as Mill says in his Logic. and which I have defined as "a record of exceptional II. . 839-841. destroys both the reason and the judgment. 1897.

It constitutes its contents. the only one that The events are all accidents without causal connection. and the slums contain relatively few children. 1 But All of it may as well be said that the denizens of the slums II. It is a power as soon as it is possessed by the mind. They are simply so many only be memorized and marveled at. as we have seen. Only a few minds possess any conThe siderable part of it. and this is the one to which the most strenuous objection is likely I fancy I hear some one ask. therefore. and history is a form of amusement. But there is a great mass of knowledge in the world. value. the canaille and the gamins. The effect of this on the mind is to furnish it with something. and therecalls into exercise. for no one supposes that society will undertake to educate adults. is only faculty such a study could the memory. The only thing that can "develop" or "strengthen" the facul- knowledge. fore the reason has nothing to do with them. p. and the working power of probsociety increases in proportion to the number possessing it. to go down into the slums and bring out and educate all the society worthless rabble.312 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY (supra. . This is a kind of luxury. ably in a greater proportion. Would you expect to be made. and ties or is the mind real character of mind depend upon its contents. the power. belongs here. Dynamic Sociology. Without knowl- edge the mind. pp. the prostitutes and the minds of all its criminals ? The question is inapplicable except in so far as it relates to the youth of these classes. There is nothing in them to exercise the judgment about. sequence a science which the committee did not even recognize. 234). The only kind of history that could exercise the reason and the judgment would be that which studies the conditions isolated and disconnected facts. It is as useful to one mind as to another. is impotent and worthless. But this is sociology. [PART III phenomena" The it strengthen. It is the only working power in society. and all real knowledge is science. 593-619. They can underlying social phenomena and their relations of coexistence and in a word their causal relations. All are capable of possessing it all of society. Vol. is to put that knowledge into paramount duty members. 1 There is only one point that seems to call for special emphasis. however capable. and. It does no good unless it is possessed by the mind.

it and they fully justify their attacks upon it. There is no other class in society whose education is half so important as this lowest and most dangerous class. but must take the young and surround them with the proper conditions. . the wit to devise means of reaching this class without its becoming a very heavy charge. odical raids itants. and will one day have. are the same kind of people as the inhabitants of the most respectThey are not fools by any means. a large amount of true talent. it is a work that must be done. and the only difference between them influences. nay. but men and women with normal minds. as to the criminals. the slums and the criminal classes of society are capable of up being made good and useful citizens. Society ought to have.CH. of And and other talented persons their talents. They have. and must have in order to ply their vocation successfully. and which when done will a thousand times repay the cost. so far from being an unreasonable demand. in the normal proportion of all classes. tribute to they may become agents of civilization and may human achievement. 331). is in the field in which they exercise them into this field In a certain very proper sense society has forced and they are making the best use they can of their native abilities. if surrounded by the same becoming as capable and intelligent people as any. so it is necessary to apply this principle men and take them in their youth. they are the geniuses of the slums. fined it more than But there before. p. The slums can never be broken up by periand the occasional punishment of a few of their inhabThis has been tried from time immemorial without the least Is it to be supposed that the persons who are seized and and subjected to other annoyances and discomforts are going to be thus reformed and made good citizens ? They go back with more bitter hatred of society and continue to injure it and endanger success. but whatever the cost. The people that make is no need of having any slums. But just as you cannot tame a confull- grown to wild wild animal. XII] THE DIFFUSION OF KNOWLEDGE 313 able quarters. realizing that is responsible for their condition. It must apply scientific principles that will render the work automatic and self- executing (see infra. This. susceptible. is the most pressing of all social duties.

Society can solve this problem. 314 . SMALL. cannot fail to perceive that for applied sociology as here conceived there is really only one live problem. PETRARCH. comme 1'amour est la joie individuelle. There can be no permanent success without striking at the root of This of course in the solution of social questions the evils and removing their underlying causes. Mille piacer non vaglion un tormento. they would not stay solved.CHAPTER XIII PROBLEMS OF APPLIED SOCIOLOGY Logical consequences are the scarecrows of fools and the beacons of wise men. For the practi- something that can be done. know of no other problem of applied sociology that society can is solve until this one solved. cal is I This at least is the only practical problem. and so on them and the work would require to be done over indefinitely. be done? : The point. for the same conditions which now produce the evils complained of would immediately revive again. L'art est la joie sociale. even if we could imagine them solved for the time being. while a problems which are completely insoluble in the present state of society are being violently attacked by a great army of yet this is And would-be reformers. : The ultimate problem on the side of pure Science is What is -worth doing? The ultimate practical problem is How may the thing worth doing ALBION W. reader who has intelligently followed the discussion to this whether he accepts the conclusions or not. all other "social problems in long train of not even recognized as a social problem. that of the maximum equalization of intelligence. Most of the others its would solve them- complete solution. HUXLEY. GABRIEL TARDE. An approximate solution of the primary question would naturally and selves long before this one received automatically put the great majority of the way of at least ultimate solution. In most cases.

To all those who cannot or will not see this it is useless further to expatiate. XIII] PROBLEMS OF APPLIED SOCIOLOGY and no one would deny it 315 sounds trite. I my promise to write a work on applied the other and complete the system of supplement do not suppose that one has anticipated the discussion of me what I regard as the real problem. in the abstract. just as Topsy was obliged to " 'fess " although she had not stolen anything. If state of society. One of these utopianism. The only justifi cathe fact that a work on applied sociology is expected to deal with such problems. Not that utopianism is anything so bad. The diffi- culty does not lie in the abstract principle. But although I have been deluged for years with discussions of that question and have read hundreds of of proposed solutions of propose any solution. But even so modest an undertaking as that is liable to two grave dangers. and to contrast it in some cases with what is any one else may be is regarded as an improved state. That capable of farthest from my thought. I propose only to discuss a few of them. for I proposing a solution of current deny social problems that has the remotest chance of success.CH. either in reviews of Pure Sociology or in private communicaI confess that I see very is little tion of such a course tions. other problems are incapable of solution in the present and all efforts at social reform before society has been rendered capable of it are chiefly wasted. there is no . I will try to meet the implied obligation. I do not mean that I intend to propose solutions of social problems. but in making it appear that the underlying cause of all social evils is what we allege it to be. Of the hundreds of persons who. although that I have little to offer. while probably nearly all have expected me to tell them how the relations of capital and labor are to be adjusted. have reminded sociology to sociology. still I frankly confess that I am unable to Nevertheless I am perfectly satisfied that if laborers were as intelligent as capitalists (I will not go further than that) the question would solve itself in short order. not so much even to state the problems as to try to picture the condition of society. When it does not profess to be anything else. . and is well done. And so. is But I am not alone in this. it. it may pertinently be asked Why enter at all into the discussion of other problems ? : use in doing so.

It have no talent for Much less have I requires a Plato. is I of trying to pass off a Utopia for something serious. been wrong but they would have Probably none of the item* of of. or wireless telegraphy. or at least of entirely missing it. It is very possible that in "looking backward" the cure of these evils would be regarded as among the least of the benefits of the new regime. for the keenest mind of the seventeenth century to The predict the state of society at the close of the nineteenth ! guesses would not only have all all fallen short of the reality. But when any one reads the real history of the world with his eyes open he must see that there has been immense moral progress. It would be perhaps even more hazardous to predict moral reforms in society. We are thus foretell 1 Pure Sociology. For example.thought and the ones imagined would never have taken place. 450-453. people have been talking about aerial navigation ever since my earliest recollection (and of expected to live to see a ago. other danger in trying to picture the future of It is that of falling short of the reality. Such course other not. a More. Wells. It is due almost wholly to improvement in human institutions. and I fully freely flying across the skies. as it could easily do. This is because human character does not greatly improve. progress that did take place would have been . the problem of the equalization of intelligence. that class of writing. quite as remote as it did fifty years dreamed of ocean cables. It is generally believed that there is very little moral progress in the world. society is The even greater. 1 The moral progress of the world is not due to any great extent to improvement in human character. or a Bellamy. . How impossible it would have been. but no one could what else would happen. or electric motors. for example. Yet these have come and the men consummation seems now But no one then long before). Even if I was sure that society would take up and solve. the talent for satire like that of Jules Verne or Mr.316 more APPLIED SOCIOLOGY useful kind of literature [PART III The danger Moreover. The present crying social evils would doubtless be quickly cured for the most part. I would not dare make any very of specific predictions as to the result in the direction social improvement. pp.

Compare Pure Sociology. as I have of the real sciences 1 were substantially agreed the utility of it all always insisted. . as at the improvement of society. ETHICAL SOCIOLOGY two great systems of Auguste Comte -and Herbert Spencer ethics is placed at the summit of the series as a science of the same kind as the other great sciences. and series. because I do not regard ethics as a science in any such sense as belongs to sociology. that it is a great field of natural phenomena and laws derived from sociology. In treating all As know. In so far as it can be rendered a science it belongs under sociology as one of the special social sciences. and they clearly perceived the ethical character of all science. Comte's know. was an effort at far-reaching social pp. XIII] restricted to a very ETHICAL SOCIOLOGY narrow horizon. No attempt was made by either of those authors to show any of these things. In their ethical treatises they both aimed all 1 Positive Polity. and to any one reading their works it is evident that neither of them treats ethics as a science. is likely to be of a kind calculated to provoke a smile even on the part of the immediate descendants of its author.CH. This is so obvious that it seems strange that Comte and Spencer should have been so illogical as to class ethics as a To stand where they put it. 65-69. etc. it should have been shown science. in the of the order of nature in the last chapter I did not follow those authors. is by assuming that throughout their prolonged treatment about which and their natural order. There seems to be only one way of explaining their procedure. however wise it may seem now. and anything that is 317 said about the future of society. biology. as is the case with all the other sciences of the should have been shown that the phenomena of ethics are more complex and less general than those of sociology. They were determined that their systems and that should not begin and end with pure science without any attempt to show their application to the condition of society. they was constantly in their minds. as the science next below it. It that its laws and principles are less exact. but independent of sociology in other respects.

Preface to The Data . but are not." : saying I the more anxious to indicate in outline. offer with any promise of ultimate success. following as they do. because every: where throughout society there 1 is and always has been privation. sively with social phenomena. but the complete social appropriation of all established truth needed to secure social welfare is the only remedy that sociology can Privative Ethics. or Part I of The Principles of Ethics. Few things can happen more disastrous than the decay and death of a regulative system no longer fit. I. the secularization of morals is becoming imperative. 1 We the success of either of these treatises. because the establishment of rules of right conduct on a scientific basis is a pressing need. Ethical Sociology naturally falls under two somewhat sharply defined heads privative ethics and positive ethics. but. Now that moral injunctions are losing the authority given by their supposed sacred origin. this final work. their treatment of ethics Not only so. of course. in the sense of the new ethics (see supra. 28). 'applied sociology essentially ethical.. Sociology is the science of welfare. The first is that about which we hear most. Vol. and even though they be impracticable they belong to sociology. and even pure sociology has this end in view. and what they called ethics. in the sense of an attempt to show on is ' scientific principles how the society may be ment of society is new ethics. properly be called pure sociology. Ethical sociology is applied sociology. written and published in 1879. of Ethics. APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART III Spencer characterized his ethics as a "regulative system. They were not attempts to treat systems in the series. concerned either with the pretensions or it is clear that both practical applications to society of the scientific that preceded them. before another and fitter regulative system has am grown up to replace it. and applied sociology. 1892. if I cannot complete. what they called sociology may must be called applied science. p. improved.318 reform.e. i. For the improveAll ethical systems based on science are at bottom programs of social reform. If their treatment of another and higher science were intended as the other sciences can be called pure science. anc* republished in The Principles of Ethics. and dealing almost excluimmediately upon sociology. All schemes of social reform that have thus far been proposed are based on the assumption of the present inequality of information and of a continuance of that inequality.

is thwart nature's plans emanate from sentimentalism fallacy in this kind of reasoning I satisfied it organic evolution has been nature's method. pp. Philadelphia. The way physical forces have been studied. XLI. Chap. The has been to do away with the struggle for existence. The industrial arts and civilization in its entirety have been the result of the successful conflict of mind with nature. 301-321 Social Science." Mind. 1884. and will give here in a foot- but note I the references to the places where the results were published. The most prominent fact in social life who the economic struggle for existence. 1892. . Vol. American Association for the Advancement of Science. and therefore they are not 1 "Mind as a Social Factor. need only say here that the view above stated ignores the intelfactor effect of intelligence l which completely reverses the biologic law. 563-573. artificially to This.President. the same somewhat condensed. Hence nearly all reform movements are designed to secure This privation in some degree the mitigation is of these evils. and they have become the powerful servants of man. lectual whole The law cially in of nature has been neutralized in civilization is the result. Section I. and all attempts it and end in failure. IX. Ill. Some consider themselves highly scientific maintain that this is natural and proper. The Psychologic Basis of Social Economics. and misery. they say. XXXIII. Vol. The social forces. October. 1893. XIII] PRIVAtlVE ETHICS is 319 the source of great pain. and these appeal to the sympathies of those who do not have to undergo them. Proceedings. 1893. their nature learned. and they base their claim on the admitted fact that a similar struggle for existence has always gone on in the organic world. January. but this is because the method of to these departments of nature. I succeeded at last in working it all out. Rochester Meeting. Boston." Address of the Vice. 464-482. and that through accomplished. Annals of the Academy of Political and pp. have not yet been studied or their laws discovered. the to control and utilize them found out. Vol. suffering. Salem. which are just as natural and uniform in their action as the physical. " . London. Economic Science and Statistics. my- required considerable reflection and a long time to formulate the true laws underlying the whole subject. August. It is still in force in the physical world and the social and espe- mind has not yet been applied the economic world. The Psychic Factors of Civilization. pp. That there was a self quite early. 1892.CH.

is also Socialism. 1879. When selfish ambition is excluded from the field in which. The world sustains now the same relation to the social forces that it did to the physical before there was any form of art whatever. due to the competitive system in a state of artificial inequality of intelligence. 521.e. i. Vol. such as that the only motives to industry are the fear of want and the love of gain. The existing the consequence. Vol. with most men. the equivalent of the lowest known state of savagery. says : be no quarreling about material excluded from that department of affairs. XXV). Whenever society becomes sufficiently intelligent to grapple with the social forces as it has with the physical forces they will yield as readily and come is as fully under its control. Still. and as this state has always existed it is supposed that it always must exist. To some minds the idea of a state of society without competition for gain is inconceivable. But there are other departments from which no institutions can exclude it there will still be rivalry for reputation and for personal power. diverted from their ordinary channel. such a state is not difficult to con- ceive when any one divests himself of traditional ideas. For these and various reasons it is probable that a Communist association would frequently fail to exhibit the attractive picture of mutual love and unity of will and feeling which we are often told by Communists to expect.. April Fortnightly Review. it would betake itself with greater inteninstitution provides that there shall . preeminence and for influence in the This is no doubt true. pp. in discussing communism. p. but would often be torn by dissension and not unfrequently broken up by it. John Stuart Mill. it chiefly exercises itself.320 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY is [PART III under control and no attempt competitive system in society made to utilize them. Chicago. There are John many other things to compete for besides money or wealth. 1 domain still open to it. . The world has evils of society are The scarcely begun to reflect upon the possibility of any other system. The shallowness of the claim that there would be no incentive to action 1 if that of gain was withdrawn i. there would be plenty of things to struggle for if wealth could not be had by struggling. by (New Series. are driven to seek their principal gratification in that other direction. that of riches and pecuniary interest. Stuart Mill. The interests individualism is : sity to the and we may expect that the struggles for management would be of great bitterness when the personal passions. if there is any virtue in struggling. and. All kinds of false notions prevail on the subject. 114-115. XXXI 1879.

250. as was shown ment. It thus appears that three of the five principal classes of society have always been more or less completely exempt from economic competition. and This is clearly 1 Psychic Factors of Civilization. and is as hollow as the rest of it. great rivalry in many lines. and the business class. compete on the economic plane. These statistics have been carefully compiled by such well-known statisticians as Mulhall. and not a little animosity and bitterness. like that of nature in general. most of the advocates of the necessity of an eco- nomic stimulus as a condition upper classes. to rivalry. or less contempt for everything And yet in all these classes there is that relates to money-getting.CH. 251. in Part II. those who were under that in nomic spur influence would at any time have been glad to get out from under it. shown by the statistics of mortality of the different social classes. The other two classes profess more of high officers with a life tenure. The competitive system of human society. but sufficiently of course it above these in the social scale are the professional class. The whole doctrine belongs to the leisure-class philosophy. the class and in the Old World still. con- creating a great surplus of human beings. the None of these three classes has any pecuniary incentive nobility. and yet they seem to have had all the spur to activity that they required. On the contrary. XIII] PRIVATIVE ETHICS shown by the present is 321 state of society. and in keeping down this surplus by killing off the greater part of them. conforming to the biologic law. to industry have belonged to these of it They do not feel the need for themselves. the next most numerous. . and regard it as essential only to others. The nobility despise all mercenary motives and look down upon the business class. Casper. and consists of rivalry in achieve- On this higher plane competition takes the form of honorable emulation. as everybody knows. pp. Conrad. many times more than can subsist under the economic conditions of subsistence. They certainly never felt the need of the ecosuch a degree as to wish to change their condition for the sake of it. is intellectual. Moreover. as sists in I have defined 1 it. Some of this is rivalry for something even worse than gain pomp and show and pretense of social superiority but part of it. With the poor a struggle for existence.

of the latter less than 3 per cent. and containing altogether 1. each with a total population of over 30. while the same cause would have no effect upon a well-nourished body. This very " large percentage does not. Kidd sums up Booth's statistics of poverty in London as follows i per cent." as the be 30. When any one Kidd. while in the poorer sections it was as i to 1 5. and indeed all germ diseases. include any of the regularly employed and fairly paid working class. Of the former over 5 per cent of the children are stillborn.000 persons." the rich districts are of percentage of the population of London course taken with the poor. In the district of the Champs Elysees the average mortality is about In the poor quarter of Montmartre it is 4.000. ularly all die of disease. 73. Among the poor the diseases are mainly due to insufficient nourishment and undue These influences keep the exposure joined with excessive toil. In estimating the total The total result of these inquiries. the entire middle and upper classes number only 17. op.8 per cent of the whole population. while of the upper classes only 25 per cent. 1 in the organic world. as proceeds by producing a surplus and killing surplus population is killed by poverty. while among cent die during that period. but in 37 districts. attack weak constitutions and that robust constitutions 1 resist them. . is The than mortality of infants in Germany less 6 per the poor it is between 30 and 40 per cent." Despite the enormous accumulation of wealth in the richest city in the world. p. the proportion in poverty in no case falls below 40 per cent. It is well known that zymotic. physical system in such a low state that any slight cause will produce the particular disease that it tends to produce. and in some of them it reaches 60 per cent. : " in percentage of the population found to be poverty. rich is APPLIED SOCIOLOGY They show [PART III that while the average longevity of the is from 55 to 56 years. cit. that of the poor noble families in only 28 years. The premature deaths are all ascribed to certain well-known diseases. it must be understood.7 per cent for all London. it All this simply shows that the competitive system in society.3 per cent. Of the working classes 50 per cent of the children die during the first five years of their lives..179. The supposed that the poor as well as the rich Nobody inquires what is the cause of the disease.322 Charles Booth. and it is popoff. In the wealthy sections of Paris from 1817 to 1836 the number who died annually was as i to 65. is stated to " in poverty.

The stillborn represent cases in which the placental it nourishment is insufficient to sustain the life of the fetus and literally dies of starvation. Vol. Many man it is always a question of intellectual develIndeed. Population and the Social System.4. the study of man from this point of view began opment. viz. Bruxelles. p. London. poor among quarter of . 4 F. and he showed that it was true of human population." and when a disease attacks them they have no reserve power to throw it off. Part VI. . for Hippolyte Passy in 1839 found that in Paris the But in the case of number 2. 1893. In these and many other ways the keep down the surplus population by simply killing those that are born before they arrive at the age of reproduction. or aristocratic quarter. 1852. especially with reference to man. Edouard van der Smissen. XIII] is PRIVATIVE ETHICS " run 323 he is apt to be attacked by some disease " thrown off if he had been normal. 1894. since then have been working at the problem. 349 353. and the result has always been the same.CH. II. Hence they usually a little down " that he would have " This accounts for the relatively high death rate among the poor. who are die.86 of births per marriage averaged 1. Vol. much earlier. the same number of women had only 86 children. in the inverse ratio to intelli- As early as 1852 Spencer worked out the law that throughout the organic world reproduction diminishes as evolution 1 advances. social conditions There is another important law that that reproduction is has been established by statistics. and the poor. London.. Mulhall shows that in the democratic Montmartre 100 women had on an average 175 children. 154-158. pp. while in the Champs Elysees. often also overworked. 2 Cf. But the poor are always "run down. LVII (New Series.97 2 among the rich. 3 Nitti shows that the average birth rate per 1000 inhabitants is approximately as follows: in Paris among the poor 28. gence. April. I). The excess of child mortality is due to the weak constitutions of underfed mothers. It is impossible for them to nurse or properly nourish their children. . pp. 8. 93. rich . among the rich 20 in Naples. It is shown that marriages are contracted much 39-50. ex4 tremely poor 38. Vol. 24-28 among the extremely rich of Paris 16. born with weak constitutions on account of the mothers' impoverished condition. 468-501 (published anonymously) expanded in Principles of Biology. 1 Westminster Review. La Population. Nitti. pp. 3 Dictionary of Statistics. 1892.

however. and that much less prudential restraint is practised. They have all the care and burden with only a small part of the satisfaction. the poor do not succeed in rearing all their children. It shows power in social matters. . and that the is it seen that is feared more civilized may run by relative barbarians. of increasing intelligence. while the poor and ignorant thusianism is possess no foresight of this kind. France is particularly alarmed and fears that she may be Germanized. so that child-bearing takes place about as fast as the laws of nature will permit. on the other hand. The intelligent well-to-do classes. commonly pictured. London. 310. If society will not grapple the surest possible that the rational faculty It is mark a is collectively with that law. but Germany herself may not be so entirely safe. for. subjugation according to which eventually be outnumbered and overFor the primary law of conquest and all past social evolution has taken place (see Pure Sociology. p. It the less civilized countries increase most rapidly. and that mankind are growing more and more resolved to emancipate themselves from the tyranny of the biologic law. The practice of one form or another of neo-Mal1 This is very prevalent among intelligent persons. as we have seen. The great bulk of the literature of this question is devoted to deploring the diminished birth rate and consequent supposed lessening of the population. not only marry later but have children at much longer intervals. because they are able to see that it is difficult to rear large largely families in the present state of society. and no nation is so high in the state of civilization brought about by successive social assimilations that it may not still be compelled to undergo them and go through the long series of steps that lead from conquest to nationality. But barring these international complications there is really no cause for alarm at the diminished birth rate in civilized countries. and may ultimately be Russianized. by Patrick Geddes and J. and all manner of schemes for inducing mankind to propagate more rapidly have been proposed. is not as great as it is The effect on the population.324 earlier APPLIED SOCIOLOGY among [PART III the poor. then individuals 1 who are wise enough to The Evolution of Sex. Arthur Thomson. Chapter X) is still operative. 1901.

28-29. free and independent. .CH. forbids this. 516. the incentive to keep down population will be removed and the laws of reproduction can take their normal course. Fortnightly Review. if there be any who suffer physical privation or moral degradation. Chicago. that society etc. add insult to misfortune. II. Vol. itself creates : these conditions. And to assert as a mitigation of the evil that those who thus suffer are is to the weaker members of the community. 448. London. but intelligent beings will not desire to increase at this rate and will know how to regulate their fertility so that it shall not only sian law. 1806. the prudential check to population ought to be considered as equally natural with the check from poverty and l And John Stuart Mill declared that " little premature mortality. I. Chap. XXXI (New Series. p. 8 Yet Mill's idea seems to have been that those possessing wealth should have their sympathies quickened 1 by a contemplation of 2 Principle of Population. II. 1857. fourth edition. Principles of Political Economy. makes criminals. morally or physically. 225. Vol. i. a rational being. this. Vol. but shall also secure the maxof personal satisfaction. is pro tanto a failure of the social arrange- ments. which is come within the range of possibility. because the Malthu- the law of the whole organic world. XIII] PRIVATIVE ETHICS circumvent it 325 Malthus himself said : do so " will and outwit nature. Multiplication cannot of course go on at the rate prescribed by nature after those born are assured a normal duration of life and the chance to reproduce in turn. 1879. third edition." 2 But will it always be necessary to restrict population at such a sacrifice of the natural functions of life and of human happiness ? society ever succeeds collectively neutralizing the bioIf it shall abolish the economic struggle for existence. and render all its members if Not in logic law. p. Jan. 1879. i. etc. XIII. Appendix. 3 Book XXV). do away with the horrors of poverty. Vol. London. though not necessarily the crime of society. note. Thus Mill remarks In the economy of society. PP. p.. Socialism." can be expected in morality until the producing large improvement families is regarded with the same feelings as drunkenness or any To other physical excess. It often said that this the fault of society. results of the law of nature is imum is Such are the working in society. whose bodily necessities are either not satisfied or satisfied in a manner which only brutish creatures can be content with.

yet to the sociologist Very it is little is the main problem. but it . like a horrid nightmare. Privative ethics ideals. essentially negative. since the realization of its could this be attained. nor any other form of patronizing the power that is theirs of hypocrisy. lands and of all time has generously bequeathed ever said of positive ethics. They constitute society. erally are equality or social justice society belongs to them. but it resembles negative ethics in this mentioned respect. belongs to the last new ethics. instead of leaving them to the caprice of individuals. Thus far the tail has been wagging the dog." Yet on any kind of theory of social Mons laborabat. Mankind want no eleemosyno private nor public benefactions. appeal to benevolence. ages. stead of a private charity they would make it a public charity. The victims of privative ethics are in the immense be thankful that majority. and The old ethics. explained in Pure Sociology is also. no fatherly overnary schemes. They tacitly assume that 60 or 80 per cent of the members of society are and must always remain objects of charity. (p. sight of the privileged classes. would not only still remain and permanently continue. They have only to reach right out and take it. This was also the end of Herbert Spencer's ethics volumes culminated in that. would terminate it. But positive ethics. for they all demand a reorganization of society and the taking of such matters into the hands of society Initself. and with the equalization of intelligence it would quickly cease to have any importance for sociology. and should in some way do something to relieve an them. They are the big end of society. "the weaker members of the community. They are the heirs of all the They have only to rouse and enter upon their patrimony that all the genius of to them. 420). His two large : The socialists and communists and reformers genmore philosophical. and the world will it was only a dream. as I is Positive Ethics. and it temporary.326 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART III such conditions. They only want power and which lies within their grasp. which has for its field the increase of human happiness. As regards this whole subject of privative ethics. all that can be said shall is that when the problem of the equalization of intelligence have been solved and society awakes from its long and fitful sleep. it will all be over. theoretically at least.

clothing.). as it seems to us now. And hence it cannot be expected that there will be any very strong effort to improve society from the positive side while it stands in so great need of improvement from the negative side. Abundant nourishment for the body is therefore the But there are many other material wants first condition to liberty. eration. If the demands stomach are not regularly and adequately supplied life is jeopardized. Its it destinies are in its own hands. XIII] POSITIVE ETHICS 327 would practically begin when privative ethics ended. For so long as there remains so much pain in the world any one is almost ashamed to talk about increasing the pleasure. however. made and positive ethics will not be able to claim the chief attention until it shall have emerged from that and fairly entered a pleasure economy. some of them even to life. may. most vital of them all is The bodily functions are imperative. By faculties is meant the functions of nature. How long that will be will depend entirely upon how soon and how energetically it undertakes its own regenpp. or with society and not with applied sociology. It is considered almost sinful to be happy when so many are miserable. or its heat as fuel can proAll these are furnished by money artificial equivalent. In cold climates clothing and shelter as well as such cure are conditions of existence.CH. and no person can live in society as it is now con- stituted without the wherewithal to purchase food. it depends in the in large individual. All that applied sociology can do is to point the way. The means . If society does not see fit to take that way the responsibility is once. of the that are also essential. and it can move at can delay and procrastinate indefinitely. the positive improvement of the lot of man We is likely to be effected. As has been consists entirely normal exercise of the But in order to that exer- cise there must be freedom from restraint. It will probably do the latter. nomic. shelter. at least consider a few of the modes in which. faculties. The fact is that society is still in a pain economy (see Pure Sociology. There are thousands of other real wants the deprivation of which restrains the freedom to exercise the faculties. The the alimentary function. and fuel. 283 ff. The Some of these must necessarily be ecoconditions of existence are such that human happiness degree upon the material surroundings of each consistently maintained.

scarcely any limit to the possible increase of especially true of artificial products. Can production be thus increased ? It cer- tainly can. ties . Look at it any way we will.328 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART III same as those required to supply the primary wants. Ten. including infants. is that the mission of machinery is to centuple human productivity. Of course the male adult population is supposed to be earning something. be approximately determined. of supplying these are usually the the more complete is the power to exercise all his faculties. There is no such thing as overproduction in the sense of producing more than is needed. At the very lowest estimate this would not feed. These are the ones who been said on the latter talk about over-production. provided it can be distributed among the members of society. La Sociologie ficonomique. up to a certain point. the wealth of the world of lamentably deficient for the ordinary wants mankind. The world has scarcely commenced to use machinery. the larger the equitably amount of such goods in the world the better. but in defective social organization. but three fourths of the population earn nothing. 1904. the may more any one possesses of this world's goods the greater may be actually is. or even a hundred times as much is needed as is produced. and the greater is the volume of his life. Enough has point. It follows from this that the prime desideratum is the increase of production. and assuming the most equitable distribution is possible. and that the vice does not reside in the inability to produce. In general. p. considering society as it within certain limits that remain for a long time to come. Paris. the more of these means an individual possesses the more wants he can supply. and house The important an average human being. . clothe. Rodbertus was right in " believing that natural wealth exists in practically unlimited quantiis There This production. and as it is likely to the measure of his happiness corollary from all this is that. At five per cent this would yield fifty dollars per annum. But some think that production cannot be increased. The only question is. twenty." " 1 1 general over-production of qualitative increments See Professor Clark says that is a theoretical De Greef. In short. 18. But even in the richest countries the total wealth is only about one thousand dollars per capita.

kind. what would it mean ? It would mean that the satisfaction that mankind derives from the consumption of wealth would be a hundred times as great as now. . lot of It may be satisfied. machines. consumes many times as much and still is Of course he wastes it. of educating children to the limit of their capacities and of building attractive homes stocked with all enlightening agencies. This shows that if by the existing plants the down because they cannot get much more could be produced market existed. Of course a large part of this would go to the negative side of the account. does any one suppose the market would be allowed to remain long unsupplied ? If it should increase a hundredfold it would be supplied just as quickly as the machinery could be constructed. the means of rearing a family free from all fear of tastes. material and spiritual. the capacity of man to transform what nature places in his hand. Suppose could scarcely be less) to supply the by present bad social conditions. beyond any discernible limit. by John B. to be set down on the positive side of the account." 1 Every little while the mills shut rid of their product. pp. Suppose the demand to increase tenfold. But in order really to satisfy all human wants it would undoubtedly increase a hundredfold. It is rivalry doubtful whether this affords him anything worthy to be called happiness. of moving about in the world sufficiently to shake off all narrow and of living in the great stream of human progress. Positive ethics does not contemplate anything of this But it demands the satisfaction of all natural wants. there would remain the other half. For every member of society to be able to do this would take not less than a hundred times the means that now falls to the lot of the provincialism. 100. want. He would be carried as far over into a pleasure economy as he now is in a pain economy. 1886. Suppose this actually to take place. Boston. New motive powers. 329 and practical impossibility.Clark. or fifty times as much as now falls to the it to take half of it (and it privation entailed the average man. 1 The Philosophy of Wealth. and promise to increase. . XIII] POSITIVE ETHICS .j)5.CH. indulges in ostentatious to display his wealth and surpass other millionaires. and processes are multiplying. said that The not present millionaire no one could consume any such amount. .

ful canals. and the population of those areas is proportionally still less." positive ethics tion. Tome IX. American Journal of Sociology. VIII. Every one has seen a map of the surface of the planet Mars with its wonderto doubt. It should go no further than the satisfaction of real wants. demands an enormous rise in the standard of living. in The whole object of the fine arts is to create new wants order to satisfy them. From a that Such quite different standpoint I have once before endeavored to peer into the future of the human race. and had in view man's future possible achievement rather than his sense. 721-745. This lifts the man so much scale of existence. pp. May. But life itself is capable of being higher in the made a fine The human organization is susceptible of being attuned to a thousand refined and ennobling sentiments to which it is now lifts a stranger. Vol. . are really trifling when looked at from the standpoint of possibilities. and it represents a state contains within itself no limitations as to duration. une Utopie sociologique.330 average APPLIED SOCIOLOGY human [PART III being. I At the conclusion of that paper of said : From any such standpoint as that from which we are now viewing the races men the world appears to be in an infantile state. There would be no object in the increased unless there were a correspondingly increased consumpproduction In the language of "political economy. Chicago. 49-85. form much less than half the globe. struck on this harp of a the soul into a higher is the mission of positive ethics. great as they may seem when compared with pre-scientific ages. Europe and North America. By far the greater part of the earth has scarcely been touched with the spirit of science. 1 I was then concerned with combating the more or less superficial views still current relative to the early decline of the race. The chief objection to this view is the gigantic 1 La Differenciation et 1'Integration sociales. where the highest civilization is found. and every chord that is thousand strings creates a thrill that world. but it improvement in the ethical is obvious that the two must go hand in hand. but every want satisNor can we judge by existing fied adds to the fullness of life. Paris. Schiaparelli was perfectly right in saying that they indicate the action of intelligent beings. 1903. That this influence is destined to spread over the whole earth is scarcely open But the scientific achievements of the most advanced races. Social Differ- 1'Institut international de sociologie. art. wants. It demands the creation of new wants and the satisfaction of these. pp. Annales de 1903. entiation and Social Integration.

ever followed We may suppose that an era of science was evolved there as here and at approximately the same stage in the history of the species. of nature is complete. man has never under- task of cutting a channel large enough for ships to pass through the narrow Isthmus of Panama has well-nigh baffled his powers. that it The final is a domain of natural forces. been passed in race integration and whatthis. that being has been in existence millions of years longer than man. The age All the rest of that vast period has of race differentiation need not have been longer than that of man.transform the planet and adapt it to its needs. and that its phenomena conform in all . XIII] THE PRINCIPLE OF ATTRACTION It is said that trifling 33 1 scale on which these works are projected. What can be thought of a scheme of making a whole continent a network of great rivers many miles in width? Without pre- taken anything so colossal. those of social improvement may and doubtless will fully keep pace with it. If these canals really represent gigantic engineering operations. In all my works I have consistently maintained that sociology is a true science. I will merely use this as an illustration of the possibilities of an intelligent being occupying a planet for a sufficiently prolonged period. and without expressing any opinion as to the nature of the Martian canals. race the race of man then have learned that this The future of positive ethics is unlimited. and that the way of safety. If the intelligent being. Under such conditions there would seem to be scarcely any limit to the power of the being possessing this knowledge to . his Tertiary period began ages earlier than ours. association. and achievement lies through association. The comparatively tending to any knowledge of areography. Man has may suppose that in Mars the only just begun the conquest of nature. so he will is as true of races as of individuals. was developed there at the same relative date as man. The lesson is that man may also do this. from his position in the solar system. their magnitude is no obstacle to our understanding them. THE PRINCIPLE OF ATTRACTION problem of applied sociology is that of showing how it may be reduced to rigidly scientific principles. Assuming that he has had an approximately parallel experience with that of the earth. and complete fusion of all races into one great homogeneous is the final step in social evolution. and while the possibilities of human achievement are thus vast. With any considerable part of the time that the supposed inhabitants of Mars have had. man can scarcely fail to reach a stage at which he will become absolute master of his physical environ- We ment. and that the union.CH. But that era has lasted thousands of times as long as has ours. Just as he has now learned that in union is strength. and at which the operations which he now performs will seem like the work of ants. Mars. and that every law and every force of nature conquest has been discovered and utilized. whatever its physical form. success. is many million years older than the earth.

to attract. as Newton said. and that may be called the principle of attrac" is objectionable. and there is no substitute is for it. all In other words. or through certain liquids." But aside from this purely physical. Although the gases themselves are not forces. but some kind of atom-pelting Attraction in the sense that one body draws another to or toward it when there is nothing but empty space between them. and that It is true that the word "attraction tion. is. yet they act under the influence of forces. p. It matters not what the problem before him may be. As he pumps one out another rushes in according to laws that he perfectly understands. they possess properties. or to separate those that are mechanically mixed and obtain them in the pure state. and at bottom fluids in order to properties are forces. most physicists now assume that even what of gravitation is is called the attraction not attraction at which is little understood. London. See also Pure Sociology. all. attractiveness. called action at a distance (actio in distans}. . of society may and indeed must be proceeded with the case the phenomena in precisely the of science proceeds with the phenomena of Let us imagine a physicist in his laboratory at work on some practical problem. " is appropriate or rather metaphysical sense. And when attract his gases into the retorts arranged for the physicist seeks to them there is no metaphysical principle involved.332 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY If this is [PART III respects to the Newtonian laws. he never thinks of employing but one fundamental principle. Four Letters from Sir Isaac Newton to Doctor Bentley. or that it a subject attracting attention. 1 They may on the one hand Third letter to Bentley. no less than when we speak of an attractive person or an attractive theme. 1 an "absurdity. 25-26. we are sure to be underis stood precisely as we mean to be. clearly understands what meant by It also Moreover. 1756. not to speak of the verb. the word "attraction and useful. everybody has several con- venient derivatives (attractive. it. with gases and is trying to make them pass into different receptacles. Let us suppose that he is dealing same way that the man the physical world. When we say that a magnet attracts iron. pp. from which all these words are derived) that render which it thoroughly manageable in discussing the questions to applies. attractively. But the subjects experimented with need not be be subject to the principle of attraction. 171.

the subscierice that I have called psychics (see Pure Sociology. and need not repeat anything previously said. But he needs and uses no other when he deals with magnetism. although now placed in a somewhat different light for a specific purpose. pp. all 1 was there shown that the laws of mind are the same for beings endowed with psychic attributes. to forces to psychic forces there This becomes clear in when we come compare experimentation and invention the here have physical world with the control of animal activities. or on the belong to the subtle medium which. 493 . stances. 150-159). for want called ether. gravitation. It is perfectly obvious that this would be impossible. all according to this same principle. and the investigator does not usually employ that term. substances possess properties. or light. with iron and and rock and adamant. for all material other hand they of a better term. Pure Sociology. but the principle of attraction is still more clearly seen to be its essential basis.. with viscid and gelatinous substances. The social forces. but if he will analyze his processes he will see that they all may be reduced to that form of expression. viz. This. and generally to try and compel natural forces to obey his will. heat. The antithesis of this process would be to attempt to fofce his gases into his tubes and retorts. but it is clear that the process is the same that has been outlined above. and he never so thinks of resorting to it. psychology. to do with another of the great sciences of the hierarchy. air. Chapters fl - XXVII to XXIX . and especially with that branch of psychology which lies nearest to biology and which binds these two sciences together. is a somewhat generalized view. may is oil. it is true. pp.CH. viz. much as once based on the of inven1 Not only tion all experimentation but also I all invention is principle of attraction. have fully worked out the laws in other and of the control of physical forces works. electricity. That purpose is to show that when we pass from physical is no change in the process or the method.. forces. So far as experimentation and invention are concerned We psychics does not differ in any essential respect from physics. 255. and elements of nature He do can make all these sub- his bidding simply by the process of attraction. XIII] THE PRINCIPLE OF ATTRACTION 333 be solids. as I It Psychic Factors of Civilization. The physicist deals with gases and with water and steel.

. 161 ff. all Any man who breaks a new way by uttering a great truth that had escaped the attention of the world is worthy to receive the homage of the world. and and culture are essentially those of Lewis H. They are the same in the highest types of men as in the lowest types of animals. IV. pp. and these were fully developed in the animal world before man made his appearance. Vol. and grow increasingly more so with organic development. Attractive labor is not the only principle announced by Charles Fourier that has since been recognized as resting on a scientific basis. and it is not specially difficult to discover and formulate their laws. his periods of human Philosophic positive. inscrutable.334 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART III have always maintained. When the law of parsimony (Pure Sociology. Attractive Labor. and they are natural forces as uniform and reliable as the forces that control the inorganic world. This is saying much when we consider the vast results that have flowed from the study of the physical world by scientific methods. 423-424. until in rational man they are still further complicated by the presence of the directive agent. reside in the affective or subjective faculties. and the fact that such a man uttered other things that the world rejects. Morgan. 1 Of it Comte says with an apology in a footnote for mentioning it : To pursue many different occupations at the same time. but in view of that has been said I do not hesitate to go that far. is Much more He 1 history 2 clearly stated the law of survivals in ethnology. They are not. and their study notwithstanding all these complications is possible. or is not yet ready to accept. pp. They are of course more complex and difficult to grasp.) and the principle of attraction are clearly understood it becomes-possible to enter upon the field of social experimentation and social invention their ultimately yielding results as much more important than with the prospect of those this field is of physical experimentation and physical invention as higher and more vitally important than the other. if only as a specimen of intellectual ingenuity. is a poor reason for withholding that homage. and purposely pass from one to the other with all possible rapidity such is the new plan of universal Jabor that they dare to-day systematically to recommend to civilized : humanity as essentially attractive? "a boldly John Stuart Mill speaks of Fourierism as system which. however.

XIII] ATTRACTIVE LABOR 335 highly worthy of the attention of any student. grounded. Vol. (New Series. . and against which he did not make provision beforehand by self-acting contrivances. since. p. that the needful amount of labour to be gone through will be agreeable ? An affirmative answer will. pp." And he goes on to say: There is scarcely an objection or a difficulty which Fourier did not foresee. I.120-121. 523. 245) that the sons of a lower 1 class. 3 Veblen and Ratzenhofer have shown (see Pure Sociology. by John Stuart Mill. that it is shunned and not respectable because habitually performed by per162. XXXI 1879. pp. which is now an . either of society or of the human mind. XXV). Though they probably know some who so love work that it is difficult to restrain them. is nothing Fortnightly Review. and that the combined actions of muscles and senses in rowing a boat are not by their essential natures more productive of agreeable feeling than those gone through in reaping corn. 1 Spencer. April Socialism. pp. . Vol. and that in and of itself there I. complains that a holiday is a weariness yet it does not seem to them reasonable to suppose that the due tendency to continuous labour. but not the arbitrary disposal of it. 8 Principles of Ethics. unless either excessive in amount or devoid of the stimulus of companionship and emulation. PP. I). however. seem absurd. 489 ( 202). The great problem which he grapples with is how to make labor attractive. Chicago.CH. Vol. though here and there they meet one who stitution . odium of labor is a matter of caste. if this could be done. . 2 Data of Ethics (Principles of Ethics. When decrease of those emotions for which the social state affords little or no scope. or regarded by mankind with contempt. and the things desisted from as a matter of duty will be desisted from because they are repugnant. 1879. since he admits inequalities of distribution and individual ownership of capital. 2 And again We come now : to a question of special interest to us Can the human con- be so adapted to its present conditions. without mentioning any names. 183-184 ( 67). 488. remarks : we have come fully to recognize the truth that there is nothing intrinsically more gratifying in the efforts by which wild animals are caught. the things now done with dislike from a sense of obligation will be done with immediate liking. upon a less high principle of distributive justice than that of Communism. but that everything depends on the co-operating emotions. to most people. exceptional trait. may become a universal trait. Vol. which at present are more we shall infer that along with in accordance with the one than with the other . the principal difficulty of Socialism would be overcome. than in the efforts expended in rearing plants. and increase of those which it persistently exercises. He maintains that no kind of useful labor is necessarily or universally repugnant.

of the undue excess to which which would rob the most enjoyable forms labor attractive charms. that the normal exercise of the faculties is not only agreeable. will become a leading trait. in the broadest We sense of the expression. divest first. The reason why men prefer to exercise their faculties in the chase and in such sports as rowing a boat is that these pursuits are respectable. of the artificial. of activity of all their is and secondly. from the exercise spirit of caste. but. as contemplated by Spencer. be materially diminished. The result can as easily be brought about by the transformation of human institutions. To devise means for rendering all the function of society when it shall have become rational. In the state of society which it was sought to picture in the last section not only would the economic production be greatly increased but the amount of labor required to produce it would. considered as a regular mode of deriving both pleasure It is and profit it.336 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART III unpleasant about work that does not exhaust the system. like all belongs to the social art and to practical minds. as with the individual. or at least unnatural only necessary to odium derived from the it is carried in society. Society has displayed ingenuity (see Pure Sociology. while reaping corn is the work of peasants which men of the higher social classes would be ashamed to be seen doing. other questions of method. There would be no necessity of waiting for the slow action of evoluof supplying society with all the material comfort tion in transforming human character. p. The cobwebs and make declare it equalization of intelligence would soon brush away these social all labor respectable. How to make labor attractive. are brought back to the principle that has been several times stated. the labor eral goods needed for its genshould not become both agreeable and attractive. and not entirely by Fourier. There is no reason why. even as the books now to be. Not only so. that it is possible. 568) in many ways and with the equalization of intelligence this. under such conditions. but it is proved by a thousand concrete cases that labor is attractive. of the faculties. constitutes the sum total of human happiness. . on account of the increased use of machinery. The principal method of such social action remains to be dealt with. There is no such inherent dislike for labor as he describes. It has been abun- dantly shown.

really are laws. of course that When we it say that society does anything does it according to some settled method of social action. but it is one of those abstractions that are always doing something. Society always possesses an organization. but they all agree meant by the action or the work through some regularly constituted authority. stituted authority of the army with on. The action of the state always that of society. It would be as reasonable to object to the statement that an army does anything. XIII] ATTRACTIVE LEGISLATION 337 Although I have made frequent use of this expression and somewhat fully treated the topic in other works. Later (p. laws are is made and the state emerges. and all that has been said of it in other it finds its systematic place. We Americans. is It is an organization capable of doing much. Attractive Legislation. An army is an abstraction in the same sense that society is such. It constitutes the most important application of the principle of attraction in general. It was doubtless so to a certain extent in the simplest hordes of the protosocial stage. and serves better than any other example to illustrate the scientific may be we mean character of sociology. And yet we must remember that representative government is of very recent date. places regarded as belonging here. was shown in Pure Sociology 206). new amalgamating society resides in the and these rule with an iron hand. accustomed to see all laws enacted by representatives of the people chosen by their ballots and constantly watched by their conin acting acknowledge that the so-called laws of the Russian government. and we would fully justify the people stituents. as its chieftains. are slow to in disobeying and repudiating them is if they had the power to do so. which we know to be made by a few individuals without any knowledge or cooperation on the part of the people. and this is all that of society. at all times so that it and in all lands most advanced countries. . and limited to a few of the Society has. It is here only that still this has always been in an incidental way. and it is this organization that acts. been organized could act. possess a sort of intuitive organization But after the first conquest the conthat serves their purpose. though here we may go back until the condition is reached in which we find gregarious animals. for example.CH. however. nevertheless. Society of course is an abstraction. which. Social organizations differ greatly in their details.

do nothing in the way of social invention. i. When the people become so intelligent that they know how to choose as their representatives people. people so low intellectually I As A as to tolerate an autocracy could. depending upon the mental character of its rulers. worthy of the name of legislative invention in the interests of the democracy in which all the people are intelligent. and while the largely directed to securing the personal ends ingenuity displayed of these comparatively few persons. During all this period a these constituted authorities are much more more intelligent than the people at large. or rather. It is is therefore inventive. and every sessions . 276). still a small share of it always tends to the amelioration of the whole mass. all It is probable that nearly or quite the socially advantageous action could be secured through attract- ive legislation. then we may look for scientific legislation. p. who know something of human nature. They will see that mandatory and prohibitory laws are highly expensive and largely ineffective. extent in the These will doubtless of legislative open need to be maintained.e.338 and in it APPLIED SOCIOLOGY [PART III ilation. and that the only cheap and effective way to control the social forces is to offer such and cause men to perform the acts beneficial to society inducements as will in all cases make it to their advantage to perform such acts.. But autocratically organized it may do much. and that their duty is to devise ways and means for scientifically controlling those forces on exactly the same principles that an experimenter or an inventor controls the forces of physical nature. and for the very reason that they are not representative. grows more and more intelligent with each step in social assimBut for a great while the intelligence of society is lodged few individuals who constitute its rulers. And the fundamental principle that will be applied in all cases will be the principle of attraction. less stupid than democracies. have previously stated (Outlines of Sociology. so that the representatives of the people are persons of considerable mental development. scientific legislation. if we conceive it to be democratically organized. Nothing. autocracies are more intelligent. It must not be supposed that such considerable legislation can be conducted to any bodies. however. who recognize that there are social forces. is possible except in a persons of decided ability.

Attractive labor could never be fully secured without the aid of Dynamic attractive legislation. would still further contribute to the general welfare. This would increase in the same degree the productive power of society. and the increased production that would result. Vol. in short the organization of human happiness Sociology. the amelioration of the condition of all the people. as in such a state of society safe to assume. but questions of social improvement. The great economy of this is apparent at a glance. Thus all the varied streams of benefit would unite in securing the twofold end of increasing the it is sum total of social efficiency and social improvement. II. p. since all the negative terms of the equation would be eliminated and all energy conserved. Legis- experiments on the part of true scientific sociologists and sociological inventors working on the problems of social physics from the practical point of view. . and in which every act should be so agreeable that he will do it from personal preference. and one of the leading problems always before the scientific legislator must be that of rendering labor more and more attractive and agreeable. the removal of whatever privations may (see still remain. and the adoption of means to the positive increase of the social welfare. 156). that it was equitably distributed. assuming. The goal toward which all his efforts would tend would be a state of society in which no one should be obliged to do anything that is in any way distasteful to him.CH. It lation will consist in a series of exhaustive undertake to solve not only questions of general interest to the the maintenance of revenues without compulsion and withstate. new law should be finally adopted by a vote of such but more and more this will become a merely formal way of the final putting worked out sanction of society on decisions that have been carefully in what may be called the sociological laboratory. will out friction and the smooth and peaceful conduct of all the operations of a nation. XIII] ATTRACTIVE LEGISLATION 339 bodies.

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Ward's Dynamic Sociology. XXIII. CLIFFORD On Brain Forcing. Viscount of St. GRANT The Genesis of Genius. 1884. 236. Modern College Education: Does it Educate. Renan. Albans. Superintendent of the Reading Rooms of the Library of Congress. and Lord High Chancellor of England. Brain. Quoted on pp. 298. 611-616. David Hutcheson. chapters. 1897. Mind. ARISTOTLE Aristotelis de Anima Libri III. collected and edited by James me by For the third time it is my pleasant duty to acknowledge the assistance rendered Mr. and especially with 1 the preparation of this volume. pp. A Quarterly Review of Psychology and Philosophy. and Ueberweg. ARTICLES. 1881. London. T.LIST OF AUTHORS AND TITLES OF WORKS. October. Quoted on p. in the Broadest and Most Liberal Sense of the Term? The Cosmopolitan. p. Vol. 341 . The p. 85 of this edition (T. See p. quotation placed at the head of Chapter X. full and especially in the quotations placed at the heads of references would be literary blemishes. ALLEN. XLVII. 430 a). AVERROES See Draper. Recognovit Guilelmus Biehl. April. LORD The Works of Francis Bacon. 1878. FRANCIS. Vol. London. Atlantic Monthly. great part be supplied by this ALLBUTT. Lipsias. 1896. Vol. Baron of Verulam. New York. I. AND MEMOIRS QUOTED OR CITED. 265-266. in the bibliographical work connected with my writings. Quoted on pp. pp. pp. March. etc. 104 and 297. 4. These and other utility will in deficiencies from the standpoint of completeness and list. IX. 139. pp. 305-311. Boston. WITH CRITICAL AND EXPLANATORY NOTES 1 [Figures in black type refer to pages of this work] In many cases. April. 60-78. BACON. occurs on See also p. 224. 371-381.. Vol.

PAUL Die Philosophic der Geschichte als Sociologie. Ellis. p. HENRY THOMAS History of Civilization in England. The maxim quoted on p. 285. p. caria. CESARE Dei Delitti e delle Pene. BUCKLE. The passage placed at the London. . JEREMY The Works of Jeremy Bentham. Thoughts on the Application of the Princi"Natural Selection" and " Inheritance" to Political Society. p. Quoted on p. BAGEHOT. Robert Leslie New York. ADOLF Der Volkergedanke im Aufbau einer Wissenschaft vom Menschen. XLVI. 1869. is I. 68 is I. Vol. 205. That placed at the head of Chapter XI. II. I. 84. Aph. is so modified. See p. 1843. BLATCHFORD. is from the Novum Organum. p. 31. p. Quoted on People's Edition. head of Chapter VII. . p. Vol. Milano. International Scientific Series. on p. of England. London. Quoted on p. 1881. SIR WILLIAM Commentaries on the Laws See p. New York. WALTER Physics and Politics ples of or. London. That placed at the head of Chapter VII. 74. published under his executor. New York. BASTIAN. BARTH. Vol. 101. 1877. 33-34. BECCARIA. 516. pp 1-126. 264. 1897. 84. The passage quoted to the Instauratio in the footnote to p. Milano. the superintendence of John Bowring. 254. RICHARD MAURICE Man's Moral Nature: An Essay. p. 47. 1879. 97. 43. 117 is also from the Novum Organum. 1765-1769. and Douglas Denon Heath. Berlin. Aph. Also in Opere di Cesare Bec- 1821. BENTHAM. See also p. 1764. XLIX. 1857 Vol. I. Aph. is from Book II. The quotation Book I. Erster Theil: Einleitung und kritische Ubersicht.342 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY Spedding. BLACKSTONE. Quoted on pp. p. Leipzig. See p. 31 printed in italics on p. 1861. LXI. from the Praefatio Magna. Book I. 34. 10 of the Opere. Vol. 1894. Edinburgh and London. . ROBERT (NUNQUAM) Merrie England. BUCKE.

from the highest point of view. pp. See p. I said already. Quoted on pp. This is follows left to simply the following up of what was said on the preceding page. 211. Heroes.BIBLIOGRAPHY 343 without altering the sense. where it is entitled: On History. Geneve. Biography of great men. Minister of the Gospel. was the Biography of Great History " The Men. : : first of these cases he probably " Unireferred to the following near the beginning of that lecture versal History. See . 201. frequently quoted. THOMAS Sartor Resartus. the history of what man has accomplished in this world. [Constituting an autobiography of John Bunyan. as " The total actions of mankind. 204.] Works of that Eminent Servant of Christ. 200.. p. 272-273. Quoted on p. two volumes in one. is possessed. Vol. 300." In the : bottom the History of the Great Men who have worked here. 1885. 1840. ALPHONSE DE Histoire des Sciences et des Savants depuis deux Siecles. 255-256. The saying placed at the head of Chapter X. are : be regulated by the pp. 164165. It is the beginning of a longer passage that runs as follows: "The totality of human actions being thus. 196. 138. and placed conspicuously in a panel in the national library at Washington. is at Ten years : Boston. Vol. 209. vie d'autres eludes sur des sujets scientifiques. On London. 414). 224. Quoted on pp. Hero-worship. pp. en 1'he're'dite' pre'ce'de'e et sui- particulier sur et la selection dans 1'espece humaine. he says " The of the World. 1834. London. 1830. considered as a whole. total knowledge of which mankind literal quotations. 1871. does not seem to occur in quite so simple a form in any of Carlyle's works. Vol." The passages on 274 and 275 are BUNYAN. Eraser's Magazine. I. John Bunyan. pp. 161. JOHN Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners. 29-63." earlier he had said "History is the essence of innumerable Biographies " (Thoughts on History. as to be complete in itself. This article is reproduced in his Critical and Miscellaneous Essays. 245. 162. CANDOLLE. universally credited to Carlyle. and the Heroic in History. 181. p. Deuxieme Edition considerablement augmented. 244-257. Illustrated Edition. CARLYLE. 1838. governed by the totality of human knowledge. November. 146.Bale." and a little farther on History of the world is but the lecture of this one. II. but in the first on The Hero as Divinity. II. 126." etc. 413-418. See pp. Philadelphia.

quotes from his diary of January 13. Trust deed. The Positive Philosophy of Auguste Comte. : APPLIED SOCIOLOGY James Anthony Froude.. AUGUSTE Lettres d'Auguste Comte a M.C. 707. Vol. MARCUS TULLIUS Divinatione. 1869. II. Paris. Troisieme Partie. Littrd. occurs In the Opera Omnia. Ill. 51. Halis Saxonum. professeur de mathe'matiques. 1779. Plan des Travaux Scientifiques ne*cessaires pour rdorganiser la Socie'te'. Vol. 1835. I. CICERO. form with the the fifth. 47-136. on CLARK. Paris. with an Introduction by Frederic Harrison. " Biography is the only history. Valat. the following words : A CARNEGIE. Quoted on pp. 42. Traite" Systeme de Politique Positive. 1795-1835. COMTE. Quoted on page 41. Paris. Vol. 247. Quoted on pp. 1822. In three volumes. Troisieme UniEdition. I. 8-12. 1839. 170. I prefer and cite this edition and not 1892. Reprinted in Appendice ge'ne'ral. See p. 1841. 1854. V. founded by Andrew Carnegie. Instituant la Vol. quotation placed at the head of Chapter IX. 358. Washington." 1832. 1902. pp. pp. freely translated and condensed by Harriet Martineau. 1853 . See pp. 1830.344 p. " first occurs on physique sociale discussed the whole subject in Pure " Sociology. IV. p. Dunod. 163. 306. Boston. Quoted on p. 1886. augmente'e d'une Preface par E. London. 1842. 262. 290. Paris. 334. pp. 1896. Economic Principles Newly Formulated. 1838. 1854. de Sociologie. 328-329. Carlyle London. 129. Ill. 266. Mai. 1882. De The this is in Liber II. first edition. p. 41. Vol. 147-150. II. 101-102. IV. Vol. ANDREW Institution The Carnegie of Washington. ancien recteur de 1'Acade'mie de Rhodez. 69. Paris. which unfortunately is not uniform in its paging with earlier editions. The Philosophy of Wealth. 1852 Vol. 248. in two volumes. 1815-1844. Vol. Vol. p. 1851 . D. 1870. 58 (119). Quoted on p. Vol. Cours de Philosophic Positive. VI. IV. who wrote Thomas History of the First Forty Years of his Life. du Systeme de Politique Positive. The phrase I 124 of the Appendix. the historian. ou Religion de 1'Humanite'. Vol. JOHN B. 5 .

pieces prieres quotidiennes. pre*- ce'de'e d'une Preface de Rene" p. 67. s'y rapportent. 265. Dieu et 1'Ame. Worms. correspon- dance avec Mme. pp. Sep" : See p. MARIE JEAN ANTOINE Tableau Historique des Progres de 1'Esprit Humain. 172. 10 rue Monsieur le Prince. Testament d'Auguste Comte avec les documents qui justificatives. 99. I that placed at the head of Chapter XI. 275-276. are from Vol. COSTE. PP. The quotations on p. See also p. . 1884. Paris. Quoted on p. Sociale.BIBLIOGRAPHY The passage Vol. 102. See also pp. 244-245. See pp. 569-612. 108. CHARLES H. and of Political the Comparison of Races. L'Expe"rience des Peupleset les Previsions qu'elle autorise. WILLIAM Politics and Economics Political Essay on the Nature of the Principles of Economy. Deuxieme Edition. 1901.317-358. IX. 181. 144. 487 of Vol. See p. volonte's. 247-248. May. 172. Paris. Fame. pp. Les Principes d'une Sociologie Objective. Vol. p. 285. on p. 623 of Vol. 1889. Le Facteur Population dans 1'Evolution Revue Internationale de Sociologie. de Vaux. 224. p. Annals of the Academy and Social Science. The French text reads L'homme devient de plus en plus religieux. [Deuxieme partie de la Sociologie Objective. Philadelphia. Ill . 9 e Anne"e. Quoted on pp. III. Paris. Paris. See p. COOLEY. 345 I placed under the title of Part occurs on page 78 of that placed at the head of Chapter X. Essai d'Ide"alisme Experimental. Genius. 66-67. ADOLPHE Nouvel Expose" de 1'Economie Politique Paris. 1900. 290. 1900. 43. Paris.] The quotation on the title-page occurs on p. Public" par ses exe"cuteurs conforme'ment a ses dernieres tembre. See p. Paris. 1897. Quoted on CUNNINGHAM. 263. et de la Physiologie Sociale. together with a Survey of Recent Legislation. II. theque Positiviste." CONDORCET. 611. 255. Biblio- Quoted on pp. . 291. 1885. : An London. on p. 289. 461 and 462. Aout-Septembre. confessions annuelles. 144. 1899. 1903. 89. See p.

New York. . 262. Annales de 1'Institut International de Sociologie. It occurs in ProChapter XI. DARWIN. GEORGES have not succeeded I in finding the quotation placed at the head of 285. New York. Paris. Paris. including an Autobiographical Chapter. Premiere Partie. Deuxieme Partie. See p. Cephalization a Fundamental Principle in the of the Development Science. XII. CHARLES ROBERT Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the Countries visited during the Voyage of H. Edition. Second Edition. Francis Darwin. GUILLAUME Introduction a la Sociologie. Tome VIII. 40-41. Part V. XVIII of the Quarterly Journal. S. M. JAMES DWIGHT Manual of Geology. 1888. JULES De'ge'ne'rescence Individuelle et De*ge"nerescence Collective. DANA. This address is reproduced in his Lay Sermons. DALLEMAGNE. 1895. The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin. 1889. in any of Cuvier's works. Travaux des Anne"es 1900 et 1901. American Journal of New Haven. DE GREEF. 1862. Quoted on On Cephalization. 124. 85. xl-liv. See New Edition. Les Lois Sociologiques. 181. revue.. Quoted on 245. xlvii. Paris. 1871. 1887. Quoted on p. 245-251.346 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY CUVIER. New York. 3d Ser. p. 1871. System of Animal Life. 8. separately paged in Roman. 215. Beagle round the World. 1886 . 1876. Bruxelles-Paris. 1902. 1874. Bruxelles-Paris. 1896. fessor Huxlev's Anniversary Address to the Geological Society of London. pp. at the end of Vol. II. Edited by his son. 306. 85. Autobiography quoted on p. Extrait de la Revue de Belgique. in a footnote to p. in the Proceedings of the Annual General Meeting of aist February. Vol. Bruxelles. L'Evolution des Croyances et des Doctrines Politiques. Le MateYialisme Historique. October. p. where the same footnote occurs on p. pp. New York. See p. p. Vol. Vol. 306. 137-184. pp. 1897 53 pp. published as an Appendix. See pp. Deuxieme See p. p. I. 1893.

76. Paris. XLIV. in support of the view set forth on p. Vol. Paris. 1724. Scientific Series. 1844. 1875. speaking of Averroes. Paris. Quoted on pp. 1895. II. Etude sur 1'Organisation des Socie'te's SupeVieures. DURKHEIM. 30. 882 e u and 883. 262. Paris. DRAPER. Science. simply an extract from the author's work. 171. 50. 17. 1837. of Government with Special Reference to Nat- Address as Vice-President of Section I. 1895. of the American Association for the AdvanceSpringfield. 325-344. This article is La Sociologie Economique. 1893. Zweite Ausgabe. 1896. pp. 1903. De'cembre. Leipzig. Vol. See the next entry. JOHN WILLIAM History of the Conflict between Religion and Science. No. Further quoted on p. Jules Simon. Les Regies de la Me'thode Sociologique.BIBLIOGRAPHY Introduction a 1'Histoire de 1'Economie Sociale. 288. 1901. pp. 43 consists of three selections from pp. August See p. Quoted on ECKERMANN. ' On p. 65. New Series. The International Fifth Edition. to. The quotation on p. Contemporaine. (Euvres de Descartes. Economic Science and Statistics. JOHANN PETER Gesprache mit Goethe in den letzten Jahren seines Lebens. Sociologie. BERNHARD EDUARD The Providential Functions ural Resources. La Sociologie Economique. 150. Quoted on p. 252-265. 275. New York. p. but apparently DESCARTES. 12. RENE Les Principes de la Philosophic. EMILE De la Division du Travail Social. 1904. See p. 31. Paris. Salem. 76. Nouvelle Edition par M. See also pp. . 164. also on p. 171-172. 1823-1832. See also p. pp. 43 and 328. 86. Nouvelle Edition revue et corrige'e. 347 Revue Internationale de Annde. Quoted on p. Biliotheque de la Philosophic et augmente'e. Paris.' of Chapter VI. the latter credited not quoted from. although all are probably useful. 881-921. Rodbertus. 86. Draper says: " He was pointed out as the originator of the atrocious maxim that all religions are " which I place at the head false. Proceedings. 358. Quoted on pp. dents en Latin et traduits en Fran$ais par un de ces amis. ment of Science. Deuxieme Edition revue pp. FERNOW.

James. March. 1874.] On Blood Relationship. August. 137. FROUDE. 1892. 137. London and New York. Positive. 1795- 1835 London. Vol. Quoted on FOUILLE. V. 157-166 . pp. 119. 345-351. Proceedings Vol. 1869.348 FISKE.80-95. pp. A Theory of Heredity. pp. Le Mouvement Paris. 119. 1900. June. 117. See under Carlyle. See p. January. 329-348. 139. Atlantic ?>onthly. Positiviste et la Conception Sociologique du Monde. Journal of the Anthropological Institute. 205. pp. Paris. 1875. Paris. [My references all to this last edition. 75-84. 17. Part I. 125. 123. FRANCIS Hereditary Talent and Character. 108. p. 255. 138. December. See p. 120. pp. 267. New and Second revised edition with an American preface. Ses Applications a la Morale Bibliotheque Internationale des Sciences Sociales. XIX (New Series. 201. LonSecond Paper. Vol. DANIEL Legons d'Anthropologie Philosophique. JAMES ANTHONY Thomas Carlyle A History : of the First Forty Years of his Life. On the Causes which operate to create Scientific Men. Boston. PP. London. 251. XII. New York. 1870 are edition. An Inquiry into its Laws and Consequences. pp. Vol. XIII). 117. 253-254. An Evolutionist's reply to Dr. Vol. 44 and 45. FOLKMAR. p. 1865. London. Fortnightly Review. Vol. 247. above. 162-163. Quoted on pp. : Men their Nature and Nurture. Quoted on pp. 318-327. XX. Quoted on pp. Quoted on p. 1882. Contemporary Review. 1896. Vol. ALFRED L'Evolutionnisme des Ide'es-Forces. 1890. GALTON. JOHN APPLIED SOCIOLOGY Sociology and Hero-Worship. Macmillan's Magazine. . of Science 197. Quoted on English p. 139. 1865. don. 1873. of the Royal Society of London. Quoted on Hereditary Genius. XXVIII. 1881. 394-402 See p. London. See also pp. XLVII.

Nurture. 377 of Vol. The Meaning and Method of Life. GOETHE. 1882. ARTHUR The Evolution of Sex. See p. London. 271. 324. expression of the thought of that chapter in any language. A Search for Religion p. as well as the most celebrated." selected and arranged with notes by Francis Turner Palgrave. 4 vols. To be found in all colIn that entitled " The Golden Treasury of the Best Songs and Lyrical Poems in the English Language. J. occurs on The p. as a Criterion of the relative 349 Powers of Nature and Series. New York. London. 1891. An Analysis of the Phenomena of Association and of Social Organization. PATRICK. quotation placed at the head of Chapter V. Vol. and THOMSON. la Chute de 1'Empire Romain. GEORGE M. 273. 1893. 181. 118. GEORGE. 40. GOULD. 1875. Quoted on p. 113. GRAY. 1 749. GIDDIXGS. Written in a Country Churchyard. 109. 86. New York. 566-576. FRANKLIN HENRY The Principles of Sociology. Vol. New York. 171-176. New York. GUIZOT. 189. November. 1892. GEDDES. Revised Edition. London. Quoted on p. pp. Revised Edition. New York. in Biology. . FRANgois PIERRE GUILLAUME Histoire de la Civilisation en France depuis Troisieme Edition. III. THOMAS Elegy : lections. the 275. quotation placed at the head of Chapter X. See p. 224. JOHANN WOLFGANG VON Conversations of Goethe with Eckermann and Soret. Translated from German by John Oxenford. GRAY. p. 1840. Frazer's Magazine. Paris. XCII (New XII). The three stanzas placed at the head of Chapter VIII.BIBLIOGRAPHY The History of Twins. Quoted on pp. to Darwinism. 170. ASA Darwiniana: Essays and Reviews pertaining 1877. 256-257. occurs on The p. Quoted on pp. contain the most perfect. it occurs on pp. 1901. 1896. p. HENRY Progress and Poverty.

pp. 1868. April 27. 72-73. London. Vol. 282-284. 314. 1889. pp. PP. Vol. : concerning Moral Good and p. 273-274. occurs p. 289. eine Wiener Wochenschrift. pp. pp. Leipzig. London. 37. 1 8." christ- HELVETIUS. HUTCHESON. V. GUNTON. Vol. XVI). the Hypothesis that Animals are Automata. See pp. EDUARD VON Philosophic des Unbewussten. Jahrgang. 256. Administrative Nihilism. November 18. Evil. Treatise I Treatises. On p. Vol. 541 of the Fortnightly Review cited above. An Address delivered in Edinburgh. 1-104 : . and on p. 1871. 77. V).3~3 2 The quotation placed at the head of Chapter IV. London. and Design. FRANCIS An Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue. A Critical Examination of the Labor Problem. pp. 1887. p. I 31 occurs on p. XXII (New Series. 29 of the On Critiques and Addresses. New York. Quoted on pp. Intellectuelles et de son Education. 248-249. 525-543. XI (New Series. An Address to the Members of the Midland Institute. 16. de ses Faculte's posthume. 272. X). 1753.350 GUMPLOWICZ. 1902. 278. Quoted on p. . 105-310. Treatise II An Inquiry Order. pp. The passage quoted on therefore in Treatise II. CLAUDE ADRIEN De 1'Homme. Zehnte erweiterte Auflage in drei Theilen. 129-145. but have not been able to consult an earlier edition. liche See pp. London. Harmony. and The work originally appeared in 1720. etc. 1869. February. HARTMANN. November i. Also in Critiques and Addresses. HUXLEY. 1902. 1773.. April 13. 9. THOMAS HENRY On the Physical Basis of Life. Vol. The on quotation placed at the head of Chapter XIII. No. LUDWIG APPLIED SOCIOLOGY Pessimismus und Optimismus in der Sociologie. i.S55-58o. 366 of Part II he says " selbstdie Askese ist durch und durch selbstsiichtig. Quoted on pp. In two Of Beauty. Ouvrage 2 vols. Fortnightly Review. London. Vol. p. No. Londres. November 1874. GEORGE Wealth and Progress. Fifth Edition. Fortnightly Review. 577. 1871. 247. Fortnightly Review. 1873. PP. Die Wage. 185 of this edition. occurs on October - p. 19-20. XVI (New Series.

occurs in INGALLS. 1890. Vol. 252. 139. JOHN JAMES Opportunity. The remarkable passage alluded to on p. and the Prolegomena to it. London. the The quotation placed Romanes Lecture on at the p. 1893. 48-58. To which are prefixed a History of the Language. p. 20. Quoted on pp. 143. Quoted on p. Atlantic Monthly. In two volumes (fol. Vol. 115. London. X of this edition of JOHNSON. 1881. New p. January i. JEFFERSON. 250 contained in a letter to Colonel Charles Yancey. October. and quoted Pure Sociology. The passage quoted on Ford. 139. 1775- their originals. New York. HENRI Hommes. pp. pp. 1894. 1899. 1878. 179. Paris. Psychologic des Grands See p. p. 863 of this article. JAMES. XXIX (New Series.). Great Thoughts and the Environment. A poem. and other Essays. London. 140. head of Chapter III. Collected and edited by Paul Leicesis York. WILLIAM Great Men. XXIII). 1897. THOMAS The Writings ter of Thomas Jefferson. 140. 79. p. and English Grammar. 351 Education. January-June. 172-173. 266. 18. XXV 1 1 . XLVI. la Selection JACOBY. Government. In The Will to Believe and other Essays in Popular Philosophy. Anarchy or Regimentation. PAUL Etudes sur dans ses Rapports avec Edition. Boston. This includes his well-known Romanes Lecture. 1896. SAMUEL A Dictionary of the English Language : in which the words are deduced from by examples from the best writers. . Fortnightly Review. 1'He're'dite' chez l'Homme. 1880 Great Men and their Environment. and illustrated in the different significations Quoted on JOLY. and occurs on Jefferson's works. occurs on p. Vol. 843-866. Quoted on p. Paris. 1904. 172-181. London. 4 of Vol. Seconde See pp. in full in Evolution and Ethics. . N ineteenth Century.BIBLIOGRAPHY Technical Vol. See p. 1883. p. 177-178.

Ab Anno Christi MDXCI ad MDCXVI. Leipzig. Partis V. See p. en restera tou- jours quelque chose. 279. JEAN Recherches sur 1'Organisation des Corps vivans. and Foreign Quotations. viii." credited to the Koheleth by authors do not suspect that this book is part of the Bible. 461. sur la cause de ses deVeloppements et des progres de sa . KOHELETH The book Koheleth is the same as the book of Ecclesiastes in the Old Testament. 162. and indexes. p. semper aliquid hasret. It is. Kritik der reinen Vernunft. W. 1868. as is shown in that chapter. Quoted on p. 1838. See also p. BENJAMIN Social Evolution." is. herausgegeben von G. of course. due. il The saying " Calomniez. 67. Classical A Polyglot Manual of Historical and noted passages in poetry and prose. calomniez. New Edition with a New Preface. it " He that increaseth knowledge increaseth sorrow. 98-100. Auctore Josepho Juvencio Societatis ejusdem Sacerdote. Third See edition. The Latin form as given by Bacon " Audacter calumniare. 66. York. 285. New Quoted on pp. Neunter Theil. 79. several times have met with the passage in Latin : "Qui auget scientiam. IMMANUEL Uber Padagogik. 322. KIDD. not changed in the revised version. is from the first chapter and eighteenth verse of the latter. FRANCIS H. erbs. with their references. revised p. 250. Hartenstein. and : rewritten. 108. a widespread belief found in both the upper and lower classes. reads In the King James translation. auget et dolorem." is usually credited to Beaumarchais as occurring in his comedy Le Barbier de Seville. but it does not appear there in just this form in any edition I have consulted. 248. Liber XVIII. is that pain and misery increase with the increase of knowledge. Tomus posterior. provLiterary Sayings. p. 1904. Sammtliche Werke." The : meaning. and bons mots. KING. however.35 2 JUVENCIUS. and the passage placed at the head of Chapter XI. King gives still earlier references. much older. Act II. to the inequalities of intelliI gence and the want of assimilation of knowledge by society. 14. who apparently LAMARCK. 1894. Leipzig. 270. Romae. translations. MDCCX. London. JOSEPHUS APPLIED SOCIOLOGY Historic Societatis Jesu Pars Quinta. phrases. sc. Quoted on pp. et particulierement sur son origine. KANT.

66. 165 of the edition of 1665. tendant continuellement a la cUftruire dans chaque individu. Durch die Munificenz Onno Klopp. pp. 103. Pense"es Diverses de Paris. p. Suard. to which is prefixed an Introduction by Frederic Harrison. Quoted on p. 612-614. p. CHARLES La Sociologie d'apres PEthnologie. is No. New York. New York. Sechster Band. The Philosophy of Auguste Comte. . en eux la vie et donnent lieu aux mouvements qu'ils exe'cutent . Science Establishment. 69.BIBLIOGRAPHY 353 composition. (1802). Quoted on LEIDY. Nouvelle Edition revue et pre'ce'de'e d'une introduction biographique par Charles Martins. LEVY-BRUHL. 66. GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON Die Werke von Leibniz gemass seinem handschriftlichen Nachlasse in der Koniglichen Bibliothek zu Hannover. et sur celles qui. a la diversitd de leur organisation et des aux causes physiques qui maintiennent faculty's qu'ils en obtiennent . 1861. enfin. d'une notice de sa vie par QEuvres choisies de Vauvenargues. 1864-1884. LA ROCHEFOUCAULD. 1892. The one quoted on p. Edition revue et corrige"e. LEIBNITZ. 86. Popular Science Monthly. 1873. March. Paris. It The maxim placed occurs on p. L. 129. Seiner Majestat des Konigs von Hannover ermoglichte Ausgabe von Hannover. 247. 153 of this collection and occurs on p. at the head of Chapter IX. Erste Reihe. les autres Pintelligence de ceux qui en sont doue's. pre'ce'de' Montesquieu. See p. Quoted on p. 134 is No. 1872. amenent ndcessairement sa mort. LETOURNEAU. 32 of the first Supplement and No. a celles qui produisent les unes le sentiment. 36. Philosophic Zoologique. XVI. Troisieme Paris. 1903. Authorised Translation [by Kathleen de Beaumont-Klein]. Paris. Quoted on p. ou Exposition des considerations relatives a 1'histoire naturelle des animaux. FRANCOIS. JOSEPH Ward's Natural Vol. An X Quoted on p. Due DE Maximes du Due de La Rochefoucauld. 290. 1880.

Edited J. Liber quintus. 34. Schrevelio. alia critica ed alia storia. Amstelodami. par Auguste Comte. Cum Hug. a ed.K APPLIED SOCIOLOGY Preface d'un Disciple. 1902. Quoted on p. 142. 142. Paris. CESARE Genio e Follia Roma & L'Uomo 5 in rapporto alia medicina legale. Mental New York. Torino. See pp. C. E. London. BART. Quoted on pp. L'Homme de Ge*nie. 1889. 34. Quoted on p. 67. 1 5 and 142 of this edition. LORD AVEBURY) The Origin of Civilization and the Primitive Condition of Man. 1896. Bouchard. criminale ed alia scienza di governo. 'del ed. Farnabii notis integris & variorum Accurante Corn. The doctrine referred to on p. 143. 262. par A. SIR JOHN. ANN^US De Bello Civili. gie criminelle et a la science Traduit de 1'italien LUBBOCK. Troisieme Edition augmented d'une Preface par E. Quoted on p. 1871. by A.. and LASCHI. See p. II Delitto politico e le Rivoluzioni in rapporto al diritto. Prehistoric Times. par F. sive Pharsaliag. John. et pre'ce'd^ d'une preface de C. M. See p. LOMBROSO. 1891. 1890.) (M. Le Crime politique et les Revolutions par rapport au droit. 143. 142.354 LlTTRE.VII. St. JOHN The Philosophical Works of John Locke. a 1'anthropolo- du gouvernement. 181. 213. R. 1882. LOCKE. 1892. CESARE. 1904. 2 vols. di Genio in rapporto alia psichiatria. Paris. 1669. Littre". The Man of Genius. Torino. 1 Genio e Follia completamente mutata. 2 vols. alia storia ed all' estetica. LUCANUS. 236 is discussed on pp. d'Istria. Tome premier. 1888. Traduction sur la 6 e Edition italienne. Cours de Philosophic Positive. . Sixth Edition revised (Edition de luxe). English translation of the above. 142. London and New York. selectis. Grotii. 6a 894. Torino. Annasi Lucani Civilis Belli. New York. See p. pp. 181. (THE RIGHT HON. Richet. LOMBROSO. Paris. with a Preliminary Essay and Notes.. and Social Condition of Savages. V-L.. A. See p. all' antropologia See p.

Quoted on p. Vol. Edited by his velyan. Chicago. 1900. 1892. 84. 1867. XXV). Quoted on p.. 102. X. . LORD The Works of Lord Macaulay complete. Reprint of the above papers. 516 (in the MARTIN. January i.373-382. H. Vol. Quoted on MALTHUS. 248. XXXI (New Series. 102. 320. 273. Fortnightly Review. April i. sion of Mrs. Translated McCormack. 334-335. VI. Eighth Edition. Quoted on p. pp. January. being a connected view of the principles of evidence and the methods of scientific investigation. Inaugural Address delivered to the University of St.513-530. NEWELL The Study and Teaching of Biology. London. Socialism. 325 occurs in Vol. r. rationative and inductive. Third Edition. 1843. placed at the head of Chapter III. 1896. 249. Quoted on p. 1806. ERNST On the Part played by Thomas J. 1866. Vol. VIII. Chicago. in eight volumes. PP. New York. Vol. PP. March I. as epitomizing is line 343 of Book V and occurs at the MACAULAY. top of p. editor of Reprinted by permisThe Life and Writ- New York. Quoted on p.BIBLIOGRAPHY The line 355 the oligocentric world view. 227 of this edition. 161-175. London. Lon- The passage quoted on Appendix). London. THOMAS ROBERT An Essay on the Principle of Population. Vol. 2 don. Quoted on pp. Emilie Ashurst Venturi. 1879. by Accident in Invention and Discovery. Addressed ings of Joseph Mazzini. 325. vols. 325. Philosophy. 1857. 18. 1879. 217-237. pp. London. Andrews. p. MAZZINI. The Monist. January. Chapters on Socialism. JOSEPH (GIUSEPPE) The Duties of Man. JOHN STUART A System of Logic. 298-309. p. 1877. THOMAS BABINGTON. Principles of Political New York and London. Popular Science Monthly. Lady Tre- MACH. 1879. Quoted on p. 103. Economy with some of their applications to Social Fourth Edition. Feb. Sister. Quoted on same pages as the preceding. 1879. II on p. to Workingmen. pp. p. MILL.

13. Also quoted on p. 1892. encores fault il marcher de nos jambes et au plus esleve' throsne du monde. at the head of Chapter VII. Edited by Edward Arber. The passage placed ernized and in des eschasses. Arguments Mall. MORE. p. Quoted on p. and London. 131.N. MICHAEL G. 188. R. No. et avec des sommaires analytiques et de nouvelles notes. London. p." semble. 1756. il me qu'on 1'a mise parmi du paradis. is a modsomewhat altered form of a longer passage that occurs " Si avons nous beau his essays. No.356 * APPLIED SOCIOLOGY MONTAIGNE. SIR THOMAS Utopia. See also p. 1864. NAPOLEON BONAPARTE Napoleon in Council. 14 (bound with Latimer's Sermons. 332. See pp. 1837. 149. or the Council of State. VI. 244. Paris. Public's d'apres l^dition la plus authentique. London. cit. 251. Proof of a Deity. one of monter sur des eschasses . SIR ISAAC Four Letters from Sir Isaac Newton to Doctor Bentley. Pall That Gravity should be innate. Printed for R. See p. 1556. 323. English Reprints. 1874. Quoted on p. 31. 13). which runs as follows : car. Ill. MULHALL. CHARLES DE SECONDAT. au contraire. In Maximes et Pense"es Diverses." Op. London. containing some J. 249. Paris. Dictionary of Statistics. Letter III. Opinions delivered by Bonaparte in the Translated from the French of Baron Pelet (de la Lozere) by Captain Basil Hall. inherent and essential to Matter. Quoted on p. NEWTON. The passage referred to is as follows " : . MICHEL EYQUEM DE Essais de Montaigne. 321. Pensdes Diverses de Montesquieu. Vol. so that one Body See p. MORLEV. London. in Dodsley. See above under La Rochefoucauld.. 84. 1869. Liv. 23-32. par Amaury Duval. 1822. si ne sommes nous assis que sur nostre cul. See also p.. MONTESQUIEU. Translated into English by Ralph Robinson. 72. sur Chapter XIII. 5 vols. pp. 1808. The les original runs as follows : " On aurait du mettre I'oisivete' parmi peines de 1'enfer les joies . Paris. BARON DE De 1'Esprit des Loix. JOHN On Compromise. . See p. Nouvelle Edition. CEuvres de Montesquieu.

NITTI. tions) Besides these literal quotations (transla- numerous tables are adapted from Vol. 158. 300. An Examination of the Mineralized Remains of the Vegetables and Animals of the Antediluvian World generally termed Extraneous Fossils. 213-214. 254. 153. restituite nell' ordine e nella lezione del testo originario. 134." This passage occurs in the third letter and on pp. 193-194. Paris. 245. 209-210. VII. 560. Paris. 238-239. p. 157. ALFRED Genese des Grands Hommes. Novicow. ChronoLettres Tome Premier Tome Second: Tableau Liste de 6382 logique de la Litte'rature Frangaise. The quotation placed at the head of Chapter XI. 166. 259. p. 192. that I believe no Man who has in philosophical Matters a competent Faculty of thinking. 234. Philadel- phia. 200. PATTEN. is to me so great an Absurdity. January. 1894. JACQUES L'Affranchissement de la Femme. ODIN. 123.BIBLIOGRAPHY may act 357 upon another at a Distance thro' a Vacuum. panying pp. 181. accomfrom the text (Vol. 143. I). . 195. 1896 (separately paged). as well as the four maps and one graphic chart. 168-169. 1804. 151. Lettres Frangais Modernes. 218. 125. These quotations occur on pp. Population and the Social System. 155-156. 1895. Vol. London. of Political Academy Supplement to the Annals of th American and Social Science. I. Odin placed at the head of Chapter IX. See pp. 155. 233. 179-180. Gens de (text). Gens de Frangais accompagnee de 33 Tableaux et de 24 Planches hors Texte. by and through which their Action and Force may be conveyed from one to another. See p. 212. In all other cases the page is given in the text. London. Plates I-V. occurs on p. The Theory of Social Forces. occurs on p. 160. without the Mediation of anything else. 1902. PETRARCH (PETRARCA). JAMES Organic Remains of a Former World. 219. I containing the Vegetable Kingdom. No. 25-26 of the pamphlet. PARKINSON. See p. 129. 257-258. and the second on p. Vol. 204. 202. 323. 193. 161. 80. sugli autografi col sussidio di altri codici e di stampe. 285. The first of the two quotations from M. 240. 211. SIMON N. FRANCESCO S. 235-236. FRANCESCO Le Rime di Francesco Petrarca. can ever fall into it. II. 207. See p.

314. 187 188 he says. They were not embodied tive until 1854. ADOLPHE Sur 1'Homme et le DeVeloppement de Sociale. : : supra. p. No. Leitgedanken fiir den Aufbau einer allgemeinen Rechtswissenschaft auf sociologische Basis. il n 'y a done pas eu de sa part tentative d" appropriation. International Journal of Ethics. Quoted on p. PLATO Phaedon.. 236. naissance des publications de Comte de 1822-1824. I." One can readily accept 1 this statement. Firenze. s' altro amante a piti destra f ortuna. October. De Greef in his recent work See p. 324. 259. probable that RATHBONE. . See Theaetetus. p. Edizione critica. discusses at length the question of social physics and the use of the expression by Comte and Quetelet (see pp. Mille piacer non vaglion un tormento. 1884. 1898. See p. 151 ff. i Philadelphia. which appeared in 1830. on p. tive. "En 1835 Quetelet n'avait aucune conff.358 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY e corredate di variant! e note da Giovanni Mestica. 60. POST. in the following connection I' mi vivea di mia Senza lagrime e senza invidia alcuna. sorte contento. 347). p. Vol. ses FaculteX ou Essai de Physique See also Pure Sociology. occurs in : CXCV. The Sonetto line placed at the head of Chapter XIII. and on p. 236.). Quetelet was equally ignorant of that work. 43. 149. IX. as Comte's early papers were then so in the fourth little known. See p. 136. QUETELET. See p. volume of his Politique Posi- but the expression was used in his Philosophic PosiIt is 22. pp. 1896. On the statue of Quetelet which stands in front of the Palais des Academies in BrusCreateur de la Physique Sociale. p. ELEANOR Review of Herbert Spencer's Various Fragments. 1835. PLUTARCH De Placitis Philosophorum. 1835. Paris. Oldenburg. Ch6. Vol. p. sels are engraved these words La Sociologie Economique (see Dr. 115-117. ALBERT HERMANN Die Grundlagen des Rechts und die Grundziige einer Entwicklungsgeschichte.

34. 145. Leipzig. January. A Psychological Study of Consequences. 1882. See p. L'He"reditd Psychologique. Richter. Vol. 138. 1887. and From the French of Th. JOSEPH ERNEST Averroes et 1'Averroisme. See Heredity : p. The Social Forces. RENAN. Life of Jean Paul F. 1876. Many of his doctrines were very ambiguous. 40. 43-44. See p. and sevIt is to these rival disciples and not to the literal words of their master that the saying in question is to be ascribed. See also p. New York. 1873. V. In Chapter II. Quoted on Second Edition. London. 1902. Quoted on p. Essai historique. he sets forth the religious doctrines of Averroes. See p. RIBOT. THEODORE Paris. 3 e Edition. Ross. Die Kritik des Intellects. pp. pp. 215-216. Quoted on pp. RAUBER. American Journal of Sociology. Trans- Quoted on p. Ribot. 1898. New York. JEAN PAUL F. 1845. lated from the German. Renan in this work exhaustively discusses all aspects of Averroism. 270. No. 181. p. Moot Points See p. READE. 2^ Edition. 87. oder die Zustande der Verwilderten und ihre Bedeufiir Wissenschaft. XXV. 1875. 1852. 144. Vol. its Phenomena. EDWARD ALSWORTH in Sociology. Laws. 4. 138.BIBLIOGRAPHY RATZENHOFER. The Forum. AUGUST Homo tung sapiens ferus. 50. together with his Autobiography. April. JOHN MACKINNON The Economics of Genius. and Chapter III. 1904. p. GUSTAV Die sociologische Erkenntnis. and especially their relation to Christianity. See the alleged saying of Averroes placed at the head of Chapter VI. 290. Chicago. IX. Politik und Schule. 526-548. 1885. Positive Erkenntnistheorie. 178-190. RICHTER. 359 Positive Philosophie des socialen Lebens. ROBERTSON. xvi. Quoted on pp. WINWOOD Martyrdom of Man. Leipzig. 1 898. Causes. eral schools arose differing in their interpretation of them. Paris. Leipzig. 47. xi. . London. See p. 335.

1813. . 1901. CLAUDE HENRI. : les jure*s. I. Quoted on p. 87. Quoted on p. pp. 369-387. Chicago. Stuttgart und Tubingen. Lucius ANN^EUS CEuvres completes de Se"neque le Philosophe. Vol. Episc. WILLIAM Julius Caesar.C. 224-242. The Economic Interpretation of History. 636-637 of this edition of Seneca's works. Nisard. Publications of the American Economic Association. prononcer sur 1'accusation intense centre lui. ARTHUR Ueber die vierfache Wurzel des Satzes vom zureichenden Grunde. pp.. SELIGMAN. avec la Traduction en FranPublie'es sous la direction de M.ais. See See p. 290. SCHOPENHAUER. Quoted on p. Wille und Vorstellung. 4. 87. The Economic Interpretation of History. A. p. 1844. January. New York. 50. 1869. EDWIN R. SENECA. COMTE DE La Parabole Lettres de Henri Saint-Simon a MM. SCHAEFFLE. p. Ill. Dritte verbesserte und betrachtlich vermehrte Auflage. 1899. Leipzig. im November. i. SCHILLER. D. IV. The passage placed under the title of Part II. pp. : Die Sociologische Erkenntnis. 41. 251. New York. Ru- dolstadt. 37. JOHANN CHRISTOPH FRIEDRICH VON Was heisst und zu welchem Ende studirt man Universalgeschichte? Eine akademische Antrittsrede. 1902. Paris. No. p. (Erschien zuerst im deutschen Mercur. Q. December 27-30. The quotation placed at the head of Chapter VI. Sextii et Veterum Sapientium Laudatio. 528-543. Parerga und Paralipomena. Third Series. Washington. See Die Welt als p. ALBERT Review of Ratzenhofer See p. Neunter Band. American Jour- nal of Sociology. 41. Kleine philosophische Schriften.) Sammtliche Werke in zehn Banden. tola occurs on pp. pp. Siebente Auflage.360 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY SAINT-SIMON. 230. 1820. 1789. as true of human achievement to-day as it was at the beginning of our era. Papers and Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Meeting. 1859. 1891. 244. 1902. 1-8. SHAKESPEARE. herausgegeben von Julius Frauenstadt. qui doivent Paris. Leipzig. Quoted on p. Vol. No. LXIV. occurs on p.

Quoted on pp. LVII (New Series. 1902. 468-501. 361 Some Demands ology. Vol. pp. Scientific. Vol. 1874. EDOUARD VAN DER 1'Essor. Socialism and the Social of the Social bury. 6. and Physical. 9-32. 272. The The on p. London. Quoted on pp. p. les Causes de ses Progres. Translated by Anson P. HERBERT A Theory of Population deduced from the General Law of Animal FerWestminster Review. La Population. ALBION W.59-8o. 102. Reasons for dissenting from the Philosophy of Comte. New York. Classification of the Sciences. occurs 9 of SMISSEN. See p. et les Obstacles qui en arretent Bruxelles. Westminster Review. Lontility. Decennial Publications. Vol. Vol. LXVII (New Series. and Speculative. of Sociology of Soci- The Significance of Sociology for Ethics. 1874. New York. Ill. . 314. IV (reprint). 18. its Law and Cause. Reprinted Political. See SPENCER. 323. 93. 67-69. 41. and Speculative. I. 1857. Moral. Originally published in 1864. Ill. I). 1852. 1877. Vol. Quoted on Vol. PP. 310-311. upon Pedagogy. Vol. p. 2 vols. p. SOMBART. (Published anonymously. 1866. See 323. American Journal May. 1893. 839-849. Reprinted in Essays. Scientific. 1899. 289. Clark. Political. pp. With an Introduction by John p. Vol. 310. 1898. AtterB.BIBLIOGRAPHY SMALL. April Quoted on p. No. London.. New York. 1897. Intellectual. Reprinted from the Sixth Edition with an Introduction by Ernest Belfort An Bax. Quoted on pp. London. Education. Chicago. II. 445-485. See p. don. this reprint. Originally published in 1864. with a Chronicle Movement 1750-1896.) Progress. XI). pp. Quoted on pp. WERNER Movement in the igth Century. in Essays. The Principles of Sociology. quotation placed at the head of Chapter XIII. London. April. 304. ADAM Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. University of Chicago. Vol. Chicago. pp. SMITH. I.

1901. Paris. Van Vloten et J. Quoted also on pp. Abdruck a. Seconde Edi- Quoted on p. 663-665. 1895. The Principles of Ethics. p. 47. 1883. Recognoverunt J. See p. 318. der Sociologie. New See York. BENEDICT Ethica (Benedict! de Spinoza Opera quotquot reperta sunt. GABRIEL La Croyance et le Ddsir et la Probability de leur Mesure. 1890. Reprinted under the title La Croyance et le De'sir. See p. p. 17. Les Lois Sociales. 235-308. 314. See p. Paris. pp. La Richesse Paris. pp. 335. N. SPINOZA. See also p. LUDWIG Wesen und Aufgabe See p. WILLIAM GRAHAM What Social Classes owe to each Quoted on pp. 1897. Hagae Comitum. See STEIN. Paris. 84. Les Lois de I'lmitation. 1880. et le Pouvoir. L'Opposition Universelle. 256-257 quotation placed at the head of Chapter VII. Quoted on pp. 277-278. 71. f. New York. 259-260. Bd. 1891. Esquisse d'une Sociologie. Volumen prius. TARDE. Berlin. p. Essai d'une The'orie des Contraires. systema- SUMNER. Lyon-Paris. Being Part IV of the Principles of Ethics. New York. 17. See p. p. 47. 1904. Being Part I of the Principles of Ethics. 1898. in Essais et Melanges Sociologiques. 46. 1895. Aout et Septembre. Etude Sociologique.362 * APPLIED SOCIOLOGY The Data of Ethics. The Justice. New York. 123. at the head of Chapter XIII. other. Land. Quoted on pp. Revue Philo- sophique. Vol. 47. 422. La Logique Sociale. 9 Anne'e. IV. The quotation placed 1895. Aout-Septembre. 1879. 40. occurs on p. An Autobiography. See also p. on pp. P. Paris. New York. 31. I. 1892. 1882. Archiv tische Philosophie. d. Ethica Ordine Geometrico demonstrata). 318 and 335. 1898. Revue Internationale de e Sociologie. occurs ( 97). 123. Paris. . tion. Paris.

ALFRED RUSSEL Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection. Class. 287. LESTER F. II. In Vol. An Economic Study in the Evolution New p. 349. Paris. CEuvres completes de Voltaire (in 70 vols. Translated from the Fourth German Edition by Geo. 89. Quoted on pp.563-573See p. London. 1884. See p. 1870. 1883. New York. and Man as a Member of Translated from Society. 319. See further notes on this in The Psychic Fac- tors of Civilization. 279. Sec- See pp. 339. Quoted on p. 280. 1899. A Series of Essays. Quoted on pp. 84. 241. 19. 1904. 1876. pp. Quoted on p. Draper. Virgilii Maronis /Eneis). The Theory of Business Enterprise. IX. 33. or Applied Social Science. VEBLEN. or Man as an Animal. 1872. the Author's Manuscript by Thomas J.. 1784-1789. IX. 312. FRANCOIS MARIE AROUET DE Le Chapon et la Poularde. New York. The Local Distribution lar of Plants and the Theory of Adaptation. 1899. 297-300. Quoted on p.BIBLIOGRAPHY TOPINARD. as based upon Statical Sociology and the Less Complex Sciences. 2 vols. and those of the Italian school that claimed to follow him. New York. Vol. UEBERWEG. PUBLIUS) JEneid (P. 141-142. Morris. : . See Averroes. 676-684. WALLACE. 124-125. 36. 307. Chicago. New York. New York. York. above. 287-288. Dynamic Sociology. WARD. THORSTEIN The Theory of the Leisure of Institutions. and Renan. 41. McCormack. 298. the views of Averroes are discussed. 309. Quoted on p. October. 310. 278. 231. London. VOLTAIRE. pp. 242. No. VIRGIL (VIRGILIUS MARO. Quoted on 243. 463 ff. Popu- Science Monthly. PAUL 363 Science and Faith. October. S. with a Discussion of Animal Societies. FRIEDRICH A History of Philosophy. PP. 68. Mind Philosophy. 70. 302.. Vol. Mind A Quarterly Journal of Psychology and as a Social Factor. 238. p. 34. Dialogue XIV. ond Edition. 189*7.). 274.

234-235. 4. 6. Neo-Darwinism and Neo-Lamarckism. January. New York and Boston. President of Section 301-321 . 6. Review of The Theory of the Leisure Class. 1893. Vol. 4. Social 3. Ill. 302. 2. X. Annales de 1'Insti- tut International de Sociologie. pi. Vol. 203-220. See pp. phrase referred to occurs on p. 289. 1893. American Journal of Sociology. 319. occur on pp. No. 11-71. 338. Political Science Quarterly. No. 305. The references to the views of Malthus. 1896. 535. . pp. 89-132. 120-121. New York. Vol. American Journal of Sociology. 529-536. 1892. Vol. 1886. Journal of Sociology. 333. New York. Washington. American I. Rochester Meeting. December. 1891. No. See p. 1898. pp. pp. VI. Washington. Chicago. II. IX. 1892. 464-482. Philadelphia. 31. See pp. 4. in: "La ten- Tome dance subjective de la philosophic moderne. May. 305. Quoted on pp. Annual Address of the President of the Biological Society of Washington. November. V. 31. XLI. pp. mentioned on p. No. January. June. 77. 1885. Quoted on pp. 289. Static and Dynamic Sociology. The phrase occurs on p. 1895.364 APPLIED SOCIOLOGY Sketch of Paleobotany. VI." Utilitarian Economics. No. 829-837. 319. Chicago. ^ L'Economie de la Douleur et 1'Economie du Plaisir. Salem. See p. Fifth Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey. 1898. 238. pp. See p. Quoted on pp. to The Purpose of Sociology. 244. by Thorstein Veblen. Address of the Vice- Economic Science and Statistics. Ivi-lviii. Paris. No. Vol. The Data of Sociology. 264-265. Social Economics. Philosophy. Outlines of Sociology. American Journal of Sociology. August. pp. Chicago. Annals of the Academy of Political and Social Science. pp. No. 357-452. No. 31. 738-752. 321. See p. tions of the Academy. May. The Psychologic Basis of I. pp. pp. Ill. 1898. pp. Chicago. Vol. See p. 446-460. Contributions II. Broadening the Way to Success. 453-454. The IV. The Psychic Factors Boston. Proceedings. 1896. pp. Vol. Publica- Vol. Vol. 340-350. The Forum. See pp. 142. See p. of Civilization. 1883-1884. Contributions to Social Philosophy. of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. 1900.

Une Utopie Sociologique. 1892. No. 721-745- See p. Chicago. 1902. Edited by Edward B. 1902. 50. March. 153. American Journal of Sociology. Social Differentiation and Social Integration. A Treatise New on the Origin and Spontaneous Development York. Herbert Spencer's Autobiography. Edited by Edward B. AUGUST Essays upon Heredity and Kindred Biological Problems. 5. The numerous La Diffe'renciation et 1'Intdgration Sociales. 1903. English translation of the American Journal of Sociology. Authorized translation. originally published in 1881 (The and 1883 respectively. 33. 1892. pp. 120-121. : The Das Keimplasma. 22. Vol. 4. 25. Oxford. WETSMANN. 121. Paris. Jena. Annales de PInstitut International de Sociologie. pp. New Series. Tome IX. Shipley. Poulton. 1903. Quoted on p. 6. Quoted on p. Poulton and Arthur E. 1903. 749-762. 49~ 8 5See pp. II. and Arthur E. Eine Theorie der Vererbung. Aufsatze iiber Vererbung und verwandte biologische Fragen. 108. [Treated as Vol. 146. 1904. VII. of this volume. 260. 475-500 No. Jena. June 10. 305. No. p. p. Essays upon Heredity and Kindred Biological Problems. although they had probably appeared separately earlier. references to this work need not be specified here. 259. 1902. 256. of Society. Shipley. Quoted on pp. pp. quotation placed at the head of Chapter VI. 249. truth often lies through inevitable error. . 261. 1889. . See p. Chicago. though not so called. Vol. pp. Quoted on pp.] His celebrated doctrine of the immortality of the set forth chiefly in the first germ-plasm Duration of is and third lectures Life. p. last. Vol. Life and Death). Pure Sociology. II. 6. See pp. May. 330-331. See. but which appeared in all English in advance of this work. May. 680. See pp. pp. I. 1892. 330. GEORGE Farewell Address. 330. Selmer Schonland. Authorized translation. 144." See Vol. Oxford. pp. 108.BIBLIOGRAPHY 365 Contemporary Sociology. VIII. XIX. occurs on "The path to It is rendered by the English translators p. 873-879. See p. This contains the original German of practically all the lectures contained in the two volumes cited above. 106. Vol. January. WASHINGTON. 629-658 . Science. No.

I place at the head of Chapter It is I. 1893 (Translation of the See p. 1900. p. February 8. New Series. Compte rendu des Stances et Texte des Mdmoires public's par la Commission Permanente Internationale de 1'Enseignement Social. 290. APPLIED SOCIOLOGY A Theory of Heredity. -2. 141-157. logie. quotation placed after the title of Part III. July. [Rapport au] Congres International de 1'Enseignement des Sciences Sociales [Exposition Universelle de 1900 a Paris]. Quoted on 291. 5 pages. Philadelphia. Vol. vols. occurs on WINIARSKY. pp. Stuttgart. Objetdes Sciences Sociales. WUNDT. 1897. XII. The p. I. ROBERT SIMPSON An Historical Survey of the Science of Mechanics. Paris. 76. incorporated along with all the other reports in the volume subsequently published by the Congress under the title Le Premier Congres de 1'Enseignement des Sciences Sociales. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. New York. WHITE.. Vol. 290. last). 265. 1901. 2 Forschung. der Erkenntniss und der Methoden Auflage. FREDERICK HOWARD Sociology and Philanthropy. New York. WORMS. . 49. LEON L'Enseignement de 1'Economie Politique Pure et de la Me'canique Sociale.. p. Eine Untersuchung der Principien wissenschaftlicher vols. 1898. Address delivered at the New York Academy of Sciences. 1903. 121. ANDREW DICKSON A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom. Science. 1895. distributed to the members of the Congress. Translated by W. Paris.366 The Germ-plasm. 1894. 40. the opening paragraph of : this report. Zweite umgearbeitete 1895. WlLHELM Logik. 283. pp. 341-345- WOODWARD. See pp. 3 e Extrait de la i. Quoted on p. See p. Newton Parker and Harriet Ronnfeldt. See Philosophie des Sciences Sociales. Revue Internationale de Socio- Annde. See p. p. 307. 49-57. RENE La Sociologie et le Droit. November 26. 3. I. Janvier. pp. WINES. No. 1895. Paris. p. Brochure.

INDEX
[Figures in black type refer to headings]

Abbadie, Jacques, 257. Abbot, Charles, ist Lord Colchester, 165. Abbott, Charles, Baron Tenterden of Henden. See Tenterden.
Ability distinguished from genius, 115. Latent, 1 14.
,

Air, Primitive ideas of, 59, 75.

Akbar, Emperor Mohammed, 270. Alexander the Great, 199.
Allbutt, T. Clifford, 341.

Abstract reasoning, 103, 104, 106.
sciences, 106, 304, 306.

quoted, 265-266. Alleged self-made men, 251, 252. Allen, Grant, 104, 105, 139, 341.
, ,

Academia Leopoldino-Carolina Naturae
Curiosorum, 235.

quoted, 104, 297, 298. Altruism an unreliable principle, 272.
, ,

,

Luxury

of, 29.

Academies of
272.

science, 138, 197, 231, 235.
for, 256,

Accident, Opportunity mistaken

Ameliorative function of society, 38. Ampere, Andre Marie, 148, 200.

Anarchism,

1 1.

Achievement, 111.
altruistic, 291.
,

Ancestor-worship, 57, 61. Ancients versus moderns, 274, 298.
292.
Ancillon, Charles, 165. Jean Pierre Frederic, 165.
,

Assimilation

of,

.

Conditions

to, 116.

consists in knowledge, 106.
,

Andamanese,
232.

68.

Market

for, 294, 295, 300.

Androcentric world view, 79, 80, 98, 231,
Anicet-Bourgeois, Auguste, 217. Animals, Life of, 32, 33, 51.

,

,

Potential, 113, 127, 128, 141, 285. Social, 6, 15, 17, 37.

,

Socialization of, 21.
to whom due, 132, 133. versus genius, 241, 242.

,

Animal-worship,

57, 73.

Animism,
285
ff.,

52.

improvement,

6, 21, 84, 113,

33Acquired characters, 120. Action at a distance, 332.

Anlagen, 122. Anthropocentrism,

6.

Anthropomorphic ideas, 51, 75. Appearances the opposite of reality,
107, 113.

65,

Dynamic, 6. Addison, Joseph, 165, 263. Adamses, The, 118.
,

Applied science,
versus
sociology, 5.
,

8, 9, 283.

art, 8, 10, 297.

Adaptation,

Law

of, 125.

Adler, Felix, 28. Administration of the social estate, 300. Adversity not needed as a spur to

Ethics as, 28, 317, 318.

,

Method

of,

296.
314.

not an art, 10.
,

achievement, 245, 265.
Aerial navigation, 316.

Problems

of, 96,

,

Purpose

of, 18, 36, 234, 292. to, 3, 21, 85.

^Eschylus, 199. Affective faculties, 42, 268.
Agassiz, Louis, 85, 98, 164, 165. Agents of civilization, 132, 145, 149, 221, 224, 231, 242, 261, 296.
,

,

Relation of pure

,

,

Subject-matter of, 5, Synthetic treatment

6, 21.

of, 141.

Women
61.

as, 231.

Ahriman,

Arabian Nights' Entertainments, Arago, Dominique, 148. Archimedes, 199. Ariosto, Ludovico, 263.
367

58.

3 68

APPLIED SOCIOLOGY
Bernard, Claude, 239. Bertrand, Alexis, 306.
Berzelius,
Billaut,

Aristocracy of brains, 94, 271. The leisure class as an, 244.
,

Aristotle, 199, 236, 341.

Johan Jacob,
217.

164, 165.

quoted, 224. Art distinguished from applied
,

Adam,

science,

Biography, Fallacy
222, 235.
,

of, 188, 189, 200,

202,

8, 10,
,

297.
1

The

social,

1.

Mercenary schemes
Relation

of, 222.

Artificial

environment, 131, 293.

,

of, to history, 224, 235, 343,

of the, 11, 22. , Superiority Asceticism, 30, 72. Assimilation of achievement, 292.
,

344Biologic law, 319, 321, 322.

Biological statics, 124, 125, 127.

Social, 26, 109, 338.
8, 9.

Astronomy, Applied,
,

Place

of, in
9.

the hierarchy, 304.

Biology, Applied, 8, 9. Place of, in the hierarchy, 304. Birth rate of rich and poor, 323, 324.
, ,

,

Sidereal,

Schemes

to increase the, 324.

Astrophysics,

9.

Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince
von, 134. Blackstone, Sir William, 74, 342. Blatchford, Robert, 342.
, quoted, 97. Boccaccio, Giovanni, 263. Bochart, Samuel, 165.
,

Atavism, 120, 121.
Attraction, 332.
, Principle of, 313, 331Attractive labor, 334, 339.

legislation, 313, Australians, 68.

337.

Avebury, The Right Hon. Lord, 34,67, 354.
Averroes, 341, 347, 359, 363.
,

Boerhaave, Hermann, 164. Booth, Charles, 322.
Bouffe, Marie, 217.
Bourgeoisie, 27, 98, 207, 243. Boursault, E., 217, 218.
Boyle, Robert, 145. Brain compared to soil, 236, 237. mistaken for the mind, 267, 268.
Brains, Aristocracy of, 94, 271. Bretons, 159, 227.

quoted, 50.

Babylonians, 60. Bach, Johann Sebastian, 239.

Bacon, Francis, 101, 145, 200, 263.
,

,

quoted, 68, 84, 117, 285, 288. Roger, 199.
,

Bacteriology, 8, 9. Baer, Karl Ernst von, 98, 287.

Bagehot, Walter, 342. quoted, 33, 34, 181. Bain, Alexander, 260.
, ,

Broca, Paul, quoted, 249. Brown, Robert, 164.

Browning, Robert, 263.
Buccleuch, Duke of, 262. Bucke, Richard Maurice, 342. quoted, 34. Buckle, Henry Thomas, 149, 263, 342. quoted, 84, 88, 274, 275, 343. Buffon, Georges Louis Leclerc, 200.
,
, , ,

Balzac,

Honore

de, 263.

Barth, Paul, 47, 342.

Basques, 157-159, 227. Bastian, Adolf, 43, 342.

Beaumarchais, Pierre Augustin Caron de,
352Beccaria, Cesare, 342.
,

Bunyan, John, 239, 255, 256, 343.
quoted, 255-256. Burke, Edmund, 263. Burnouf, Jean Louis, 258. Burns, Robert, 239, 255. Business class, 26, 98, 321.
, ,

,

quoted, 31.

Belgians, 157.
Beliefs, 45, 106.

Bellamy, Edward, 316. Benevolence, 292.

Byron, George Gordon, Lord, 263.
Cables, Ocean, 316.
Caesar, Julius, 256.

Bentham, Jeremy, 342.
quoted, 31. Beranger, Jean Pierre, 217, 218, 239, 263,
, ,

275-

Calculus, 307.

INDEX
Camoens, Luis de, 263. Camper, Peter, 164. .Candolle, Alphonse de,
146,

369
182227,

Chastity, 166.

Chateaux, Literary productivity
133, 194, 138, 196, 145, 197,
184, 188,

of,

191,

194, 195, 212,

161,

169, 181,

231, 232.

203, 204, 209, 213, 221, 231, 242,

3o.
,
,

343-

Chaucer, Geoffrey, 263. Chemistry, Applied, 8, 9.
,

quoted, 145, 146, 162, 164-165,

Place

of, in

the hierarchy, 304.
of, 71.

200, 201, 204, 211, 245, 272-273. Candolles, de, The, 264. Capacity for truth, 101, 241.

Cheops, Pyramid
Chinooks, 68.

Chinese, Intellectual capacity of the, 109.
Christianity, Immortality doctrine of, 60. Church, Origin of the word, 62.

Capital and labor, Relations

of, 315.

Cardoon,
Carlyle,

124. Caribs, 68.

Cicero,
125, 149, 263, 264, 343,
,

Marcus
,

Tullius, 344.

Thomas,

344-

quoted, 129. Cimbrians, 157.

quoted, 126, 224, 343, 344. Carnegie, Andrew, 266, 344.
,
,

Circumstances, Mother Power of, 267.
,

of,

274.

quoted, 266. Carnegie Institution of Washington, 223,
, ,

versus genius, 127, 220.
Cities, Influence of,

266.

on intellectual development, 173, 177, 181 ff., 211, 212,
220.

Casper, Johann Ludwig, 321. Catalans, 157, 158.
Catalepsy, Savage interpretation of, 55. Categorical imperative, 28. Catholic Church, Censorship of the, 77.

University, of France, 212. Civil justice versus natural, 12, 22.
,

Civilization,

Agents

of,

132,

145,

149,

221, 224, 231, 296.
,

Catholicism, Effect

of,

on

literary pro-

Definitions of,

n,

106, 129, 131, 132.

ductivity, 162, 163, 167-169.

,

Causa

efficiens, 58.

Oriental versus occidental, 48, 49, 109. versus progress, 84, 285, 286.
feeling, 29.

finalis, 58.

Claims of

Causality, 303.

Clark, John B., 344.

Causation, 58, 87, 89, 303 ff. Cause, Savage ideas of, 58, 59. Causes, Adequate, 89, 90.
,

Efficient, 58, 87, 89.

quoted, 328-329. Classes, Social, 91, 92, 96. Classification of knowledge, 302, 303. the sciences, 303 ff.
> .

favorable to the production of scientific
,

Clausius, Rudolf M., 164.
Clay, Artificial utilization of, II.

men,

144, 145, 148, 162, 194, 211.

Final, 58, 87. Cazales, J. A. M., 217, 218.

Cleavage, Social, 26, 93. Climate, 149.
Colbert, Jean Baptiste, 217. Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, 263. Collective telesis, 12.

Celibacy, 162 ff. Censorship of the press, 77, 78.

Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de, 263. Chaldeans, 60. Chamfort (Champfort), Sebastien Roch
Nicolas, 258.

Columbus, Christopher, Committee of Ten, 310,

256.

Champagne, Wild girl of, 269. Champmesle, Madame Marie Desmares,
217.

311. Community, Definition of a, 271. Competition, Effect of removing, 123. motives to, than those of gain, , Other
320, 321.

Chance, Opportunity mistaken
272.

for, 256,

versus emulation, 321.

Character, Slow improvement
Charity, Objects of, 326.

of, 316.

Competitive system, 320, 321. Comte, Auguste, 8, 9, 19, 41-44, 70, 71,
99, 163, 171, 262, 263, 289, 290, 317, 344. 345. 35 8 3 DI
> -

Charlatanry, 222.

370
Comte, Auguste, quoted,
290, 3 6 334, 345i,

APPLIED SOCIOLOGY
41, 42, 51, 69,

101-102, 108, 170, 224, 248, 285, 289,

Dead languages, 246. Death, Savage ideas of, 54, 56,
Definition of justice, 22. De Foe, Daniel, 263.

75.

Conation, 291. Concrete sciences, 106.

Condorcet, Marie Jean Antoine, 345. quoted, 66-67, 102, 244-245, 247-248. Confucius, quoted, 272.
,
,

Defregger, Franz von, 239. Degeneration, 96, 122, 133, 142, 143, 162,
271,

3', 33quoted, 43, 245, 306, 328, 358.

De

Greef, Guillaume, 40, 41, 46, 305, 346.
, ,

people, 68. Conquest of nature, 85.

Congo

Deism,

182.

Deity, Evolution of the conception of, 61.
Delille, Jacques, 258.

Conrad, Johannes, 321.
Conrart, Valentin, 217. Consequences of error, 68, 82.

Delirium, Savage interpretation of, 54,
55, 75-

Consumption of wealth, 329, 330.
Contents of the mind, 268 Continuance theory, 60.
Continuity^ Social, 271. Contract, System of, 281.
ff.

Democracy, 16, 27, 44, 338. Democratic party, 11.

Demos,

99.

Density of population, 1691!., 194, 212. Dynamic versus material, 171,
,

Cooley, Charles H., 144, 255, 345. quoted, 144, 263, 265, 275-276.
,

172, 193, 194, 212.

,

Copernicus, Nicolas, 199. Corn, Indian, 126.
Corneille, Pierre, 256, 263.

Deprivation, 25, 318, 319, 327. Descartes, Rene, 76, 86, 88, 262, 263, 306,
347, ,

quoted, 31, 86, 262, 288.

Corrozet, Gilles, 217. Coste, Adolphe, 89, 172, 181, 345.

Desire,
,

how

related to beliefs, 45-48.
of, 25. of, 14, 289.

True nature

quoted, title-page, 67, 291. Cowper, William, 263,
, ,

Despair, Philosophy

Creation, Special, 85. Creeds, 81.
Criminals, 312, 313. Crossing of strains, 119, 121.

Cunningham, William,
Curare, Moral, 17.
Curiosity, 234.

289, 345.

Despotism, 27. Destouches, Philippe Nericault, 254. Determinism, Historical, 85. Dickens, Charles, 263. Differentiation, Race, 331. Diffusion of knowledge, 307.

Diogenes the Cynic, 117. -- Laertius, 117.
Directive agent, 129.

Curriculums, 298, 305. Cuvier, Georges, 85, 148, 200, 264, 346. quoted, 285.
, ,

Discovery, Scientific, 221. versus learning, 102.

Dahomans,

68.

Discussion of opportunity, 137. Method of, 135.
,

Dakotahs, 68. D'Alembert, Jean le Rond, 239, 253-255. Dallemagne, Jules, 181, 346. Damnation, Eternal, 94. Dana, James Dwight, 346.
,
,

Disinherited,
Disraeli,

The

intellectually, 96, 107.

Benjamin, Earl of Beaconsfield,

263. Dissenters, 74. Distribution, Social versus economic, 294, 295, 328, 339.

quoted, 85.

Dante

Alighieri, 263.

Double, Wide-spread belief

in a, 54.

Darwin, Charles Robert, 124, 137, 262,
,

264, 265, 346. quoted, 262.
,

Doubt the condition to progress, 88. Draper, John William, 76, 341, 347, 363.
,
,

quoted, 164, 347.
of, 54, 55,

Dassoucy, Charles Coypeaud, 217. Davy, Sir Humphry, 239.

Dreams, Savage interpretation
75-

INDEX
Drudgery, 96, 241, 244. Dryden, John, 33, 263. Dualism, Ethical, 28.
,
,

371

Educational environment, 147, 211, 229.
Efficacy of effort, 13, 131, 279. Efficiency, Intellectual, 115, 116.
, Social, 109, 113, 339. Efficient cause, 58.

Psychological, 85. Theological, 61.
Bellay, Joachim, 217.

Du

Effort, Efficacy of, 13, 131, 279.
,

Dumas, Alexandra,
Durkheim,
347,
,

217, 218, 239.

The

sociological principle of, 13, 291.
107,
.

fimile, 19, 171, 172, 193, 290,

Egalitarianism, 7, 273. .Intellectual, 95, 106,

113, 230,

quoted, 171-172.
action, 6.

Dynamic

agent, 43, 129. density of population, 171, 172, 193, 194, 212.
Ecclesiastes, 352.
, quoted, 352. Ecclesiastical institutions, 62.

236, 240, 272, 273, 313. Eldon, Earl of (John Scott), 117. Electric motors, 316.
Electricity, Utilization of, 8, 9,
filite,

n.

Effect of destroying the, 133.
165.

Emerson, Ralph Waldo, Emotional development,

99.

Echoes, Savage interpretation
75-

of, 54, 55,

Empedocles, 199. Emulation versus competition, 321. Encke, Johann Franz, 164.

End
228,
,

or purpose of sociology,
234, 292.
ultimate, 287.
Social, 26.

5,

18, 24,

Eckermann, Johann Peter, 275, 347. Economic environment, 147, 198,
327-

The

interpretation of history, 40, 82.

Endoderm, The Ends, Means to,

4, 279, 280, 287.

Economy, Pain versus pleasure,
36, 51, 62, 327.

32, 35,

Ennui, 25, 244, 245, 356. Environment, Artificial, 131. 293.
as a factor in

Ecstasy, 56.

the development of
all

Ectoderm, The
Education,
230.
,

social, 26.

Amount
of,

of possible, 102, 229,
ff. ff.

genius, 123, 139. conceived as the cause of
130, 132, 165.

progress,

Anthology

247

,

Economic,

147, 198, 228, 327.

as opportunity, 246, 280, 298 , Chaotic condition of, 309 ff.
,

,

,

Educational, 147, 211, 229. Ethnological, 147, 156, 169.

Defects of the current, 81, 3091!.
Definitions of, 231, 299, 310. does not pretend to furnish knowledge,
81, 310.

,

Knowledge

of the, 106.

,

,

Local, 147, 169, 228.
Physical, 147, 148, 169.

,

,

Religious, 147, 161, 169.

,

,

,

,

False ideas about, 102, 309. Influence of, on great men, 126, 139, 215 ff., 229. Literary versus scientific, 246. Means or instruments of, 307.

represents opposition, 123, 128, 130,

3,

Role of

the, 116, 123, 127, 128, 130,

i39ff., 149.

,

Negative, 242. of experience, 299. information, 299.
nature, 102.
Positive, 242, 246, 299, 300.

Social, 147, 204, 228. versus genius, 127, 130. Environmental factors, 145,
,

224,

228,

230, 232, 238, 257, 293, 300.
,

Negative, 233.

,

Epicurus, 32.
Epilepsy, Savage interpretation of, 54, 75.
of

,

,

Proper object of, 307. Synthetic and analytic methods
treating, 299.

Equal freedom,
rights, 281.

13.

,

The word,

298, 299.

Equalization of intelligence, 93, 281, 314,
316, 326, 336.

,

Universal, 231.

372

APPLIED SOCIOLOGY
Faith, Scientific, 86, 88, 89. Fallacy of biography, 188, 189, 200, 202,
222, 235.
history, 234, 241.

Equalization of opportunity, 276, 294, 295. Equipment, Mental, 95, 109.

Erasmus, Desiderius, 263.
Error, 65.
as great a burden to the
101.
attractive, 80, 81.
,

mind as

truth,

statistics, 136, 147, 148, 233, 235.

superstition, 117, 147, 235, 236.
of,
?

Consequences
is it

68, 82. m
65.
of, 81.

,

ever useful

,

Most minds mere bundles

Falsehood, Justified, 78, 79. Faraday, Michael, 85, 239. Fear of spiritual beings, 63, 64, 67. Perpetual state of, among animals,
,

,

,

,

Prevalence of, 91. Principal source of, 91. Psychological nature of, 90.
to social motion,

32, 33. ,

savages, 33-35, 51, 62,

63. 94-

- the chief obstacle no.
,

Feeling, Claims of, 29. Interest consists in, 45.
, ,

Truth and, 50.

Language
Relation

of, 270.

versus ignorance, 65, 67, 81, 93. Espinas, Alfred, 290. Ethical character of all science, 287, 317,
318.

,

of, to

ideas and opinions, 48.

versus function, 30.
intellect, 288.

Fernow, Bernhard Eduard,
Feudalism, 27, 98.
Fichte,

17, 347.

dualism, 28. sociology, 317.

Fetishism, 53, 61, 67, 69, 82.

Ethics as applied sociology, 317, 318. Negative, 326. of restraint, 28.
, ,

Johann Gottlieb, 263.

Fielding, Henry, 263.
Fijians, 68.

Position

of, in

the hierarchy, 317, 318.

Final cause, 58.

,

Positive, 318, 326.
Privative, 318, 326.

,

Fine arts, Object of the, 330. Fish Lake, 90.
Fiske, John, 139, 348. Folkmar, Daniel, 348.
, quoted, 108. Fontenelle, Bernard, 76. Fool's puzzle, 131.
,

,

The new,

28, 84, 318.
32.

Ethnological environment, 147, 156, 169.

Eudemonism,

Eugenics, 119, 141.
Euler, Leonhard, 164, 165. Evolution, Progress versus, 18.

Evolutionary teleology, 86. Exceptional man theory, 266, 277, 293.
Exercise of the faculties, 25, 26, 244, 327, 328.336. Experience, All knowledge derived from, 236, 268 ff.
'

Forces, Social, 319, 320, 332, 333, 338. , Sociogenetic, 84. Fouillee, Alfred, 17, 47, 348.

quoted, 44, 45. Fourier, Charles, 10, 334, 335, 336.
, ,

Fourth

estate, 98.

,

Education

of, 299.
ff.

France, Parochial schools of. 10. Physical conditions of, 149.
,

,

Mind

without, 236, 269

Experimentation, 332, 333, 338, 339.
Exploitation, 244, 292.

Races of, 1 56 ff Frederick the Second's diary, 78. Free will, 85.
, .

Freedom, Equal,
Fabre d'figlantine, Philippe Fra^ois Nazaire, 217.
,

13.

National, 26.
Political, 26, 27.

,

Fabricius, David, 164. Faculties, Exercise of the, 25, 26, 244,
327. 328, 336-

,

Social, 26.
letters

French men of

and of

science,

Birthplaces of, 149.
,

Faire marcher, 17. Faith in the supernatural, 88.

Number
ff.

of,

148,

150, 172, 176, 225

INDEX
French men of
letters

373
of,

and of

science,

Genius, Sporadic character
286, 292, 293, 295.
,

233, 234,

Odin's treatment
,

of, 148.
1

Statistics of,

50

ff.,

172

ff.

Universality of, 236. versus ability, 1 1 5.

Froude, James Anthony, 344, 348. Fuegians, 68. Function, Ameliorative, of society, 38. Prevailing subserviency to, 35.
, ,

achievement, 241, 242.
circumstances, environment, opportunity, 127, 220.

Protective, of society, 38.

versus feeling, 30.

talent and merit, 148. Genlis, Stephanie Felicite (Madame), 217. Geometry, Ability of students to under-

Funerals, Costly, 70. Sacrifices at, 68 ff. ,
Futility versus utility, 244.

stand, 104, 105.

-

Gain, Other motives than, 320, 321. Galileo Galilei, 262.

based on experience, 311. George, Henry, 349. quoted, 256-257, 271, 273. Germ-plasm, The social, 95.
, ,

Germs, Immortality
Gessner, Jean, 165.

of, 121.

Galland, Antoine, 257. Galton, Francis, 104, 115, 116, 119-122,
125,
149, 211,

127,
165,

134,

137-139. I4i
197,

H2,

Gibbon, Edward, 263. Giddings, Franklin Henry, 349.
, ,

194,

2OI, 2O5-2O8,

quoted, 109, 170, 181.
of, 61.

226,

215, 22O, 221, 223, 225, 231, 237, 239, 254, 255, 266, 213,

Gods, origin
, ,

299, 348.
,

quoted, 117, 118, 119, 120, 123, 20 5> 2 47> i37> r 38, 162-163, 20I
, >

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 263, 349. quoted, 275. Gould, George M., 349.
,
,

quoted, 224.
17.

251, 253-254, 255, 267.

Gournay, Jean Claude de,
Gravitation, 332.

Garcilasso [Inca] de la Vega, 69.

Gardin-Dumesnil, Jean Kaptiste, 258.
Gauls, 157.

Gray, Asa, 86, 349.
,

Thomas,
,

349.

Geddes, Patrick, 324, 349.
Generalization, 10. Genius a fixed quantity, 128, 129, 220. a natural force, 128, 129.
,

,

quoted, 113.

Great

man

theory, 149.
of,

- men, Birthplaces
197, 198.
ff.,
,

181,

188,

189,

Amount

of,

in society, 172;

225

231, 236, 266.
,

,

Apotheosis of, 24, 1 28. Circumstances that repress, 274, 276.
Definition of, 115.

Number of, 172, 225 ff. regarded as exceptional beings, 235. Role of, 132, 133. Greatest happiness doctrine, 31.
,

,

,

distinguished from other faculties, 115. False ideas of, 235, 266, 292, 293.

Greek Church, Censorship of the, Grew, Nehemiah, 164. Group sentiment of safety, 64, 65.

77.

,

Finest types of, easily repressed, 264,
265.

Growth

force, 127.
17,

Guizot, Fra^ois Pierre Guillaume,
122, 137,
,

,

Hereditary, 115, 118, 121,
138.

349,

quoted, 40.
19, 350.

,

,

,

produced, 122, 269. in what sense declining, 238, 239. Irrepressibility of, 115, 137, 238-240.

how

Gumplowicz, Ludwig, Gunton, George, 350.
, ,

quoted, 273-274, 278.

,

Moral

qualities in, 114, 122, 268.

Gynaecocentric theory, 98.

.Potential,

114,

115,

134,

141, 145,

231, 240, 293. present in all classes, 239, 253.
,

Haeckel, Ernst, 78.

Hai ben Yokthan,

269.

Relativity of, 232, 236.

Hallam, Henry, 165.

374
Ilalley

APPLIED SOCIOLOGY
Edmund,
J.,

262, 265.
in

Hanstein, L.

164.

Happiness consists
,

the normal exer-

History as a mental discipline, 310-312. defined, 234, 311-312. Fallacy of, 234, 241.
,
,
,

cise of the faculties, 25, 244.

Greatest, doctrine, 31.
little

Interpretation of, 40, 82. Relation of biography to,
343. 344-

224, 235,

thought

of, in

a pain economy,

326, 327.

Organization of, 339. Pursuit of, 32. Hardwicke, Earl of (Philip Yorke), 117,
,
,

239,

Devonshire, 263.
19, 20, 72, 350.
,

Hartmann, Eduard,
,

Hobbes, Thomas, 165, 263, 264. Holmes, Oliver Wendell, quoted, Homer, 199. Homeric poems, 58. Hooker, Sir Joseph, 260. Hookers, The, 264. Hugo, Victor, 263.
,
,

79.

quoted, 350. Hartsoeker, Nicolas, 164. Harvey, William, 263. Hase, Charles Benoit, 165.

quoted, 296.

Huitzilopochtli, 69.

Hauser, Kaspar, 269, 270. Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 239.

Humanitarianism, 99. Humanities, The, 103. Humboldt, Baron Alexander von, 34,
263.

Haydn, Joseph,
Hebrews, 60. Hedonism, 32. Paradox of,
,

239, 256. Heat, Artificial utilization of,

u.

Hume, David, 263. Hunger a form of privation,
Huss, John, 239. Hutcheson, David, 341.

25.

19.

,

Francis, 350.
,

Heer, Oswald, 164.
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 263. Heine, Heinrich, 263. Helvetius, Claude Adrien, 19, 92, 97,
103, 126, 236, 244, 247, 350.
,
,

quoted, 31. Huxley, Thomas Henry,
,
,

20, 260, 264, 350.

quoted, 18, 37, 266, 289, 314. Hypotheses, Method of discussion by,
,

136, 178.
,

quoted, 77, 247, 256, 272.
115,

Working,

115.

Herbart, Johann Friedrich, 247.

Hereditary genius,
137. 138-

118,

121,

122,

Iberians, 157.

Idea-forces, 44, 47, 48.
in, 119, 120.

Heredity, Latent elements
,

Ideas, Anthropomorphic, 51, 57, 59, 75.

Social, 95, 96, 107, 298.

/Dynamic
, ,

,

homologue

of, 123.

versus environment

or opportunity,

quality of, 82, 83. Primitive, 50 ff. Religious, 52, 65, 82.

123, 127, 142, 264, 273. Heresy, 74, 75, 82, 88.

rule the world, 40.

Idees-forces, 44, 47.

Heretics, 74.

Ideological interpretation of history, 41,
social, 95, 96,

Heritage,

The

101,

107,

82.

no,

281, 292, 300-302, 307.

Ideomotor actions,
Ignorance versus

45, 48.

Herodotus, 71. Heroes and hero-worship, 130, 132, 134,
149, 199.

error, 65, 67, 81, 93.

Illegitimacy, 165, 166, 254.
Illusions, Optical, 91. Imitation, 80, 89, 132, 301. the sociological homologue of heredity,

Herschels, The, 118, 264. Heuristic method, 143.

Hierarchy of the sciences, 9, 303 ff. Pedagogic value of the, 304.
,

123.

Historical intellectualism, 40.

Immortality, Christian and doctrine of, 60.
of germs, 121. Pre-Christian belief
in,

Mohammedan

materialism, 40, 204.
races, 107.
,

60.

89.. 113. Equalization 326. 06. . Recent awakening of the. 164. 292. 62. 248. 172-173. Interjection. 78. Judges of England. 263. Beliefs rest on. of savages too keen for their good. 338. 23. . Transcendental. 270. Instinct of sportsmanship. Narrow use John James. Ben. defined. . 351. 281. 299. 92. . . 23. 96. Intellect a guide to the will. Johnson. 140. 237. Paul. 286. quoted. 125. 375 Intelligence. The. 197. 22. 118. 21.. 162. 200. Thomas. 134. . Robert G. 243. . 226. 113. Kennan. Nature of human. 95. 165. William. 149. Irrepressibility of genius. Judaism. Instruction. 221. Information. 115. 12. 263.. 40. Social. 66. mind. . 115. Jussieu. 67. . 21. 313. 283. John. 65. 288. Oligarchy of. 288. 162. rules. 93. 236. . . Inheritance. 109. 91 ff. Natural versus civil. 22. Introduced plants. 77. 263. Josephus. Truthfulness of the. 39. Social versus political. 78. 84. egalitarianism. 351. 267. 309. Juvencius. 22. . 351. Intelligence defined. Antoine. 28. 95. Samuel. James. 141. Reproduction inversely proportional to. 126. . 115. 336. 165. 113. 5. Jesuits. . Artificial. 287. 129. 268. . Indirect or intellectual method. Men of letters among. versus feeling. 39. Mechanical. 339. 181. . Existing inequality of. Intelligent and unintelligent classes. 4. of. 167. 252. 293. 113. Social. Japanese. 45. Improvement. 351. 263. 177-178. Achievement versus. The. Education Ingalls. 140. 46. -*. 107. Immanuel. developed in excess of man's needs. Intellectual development. Keats. . 324. Invention in the Tardean sense. 94. Inadaptation. Intellectualism. 40. . Improvement in. 128. 46. 82. Intellectual. quoted. 74. 12. 62. . 140. 123. Inequalities. 331. . 75- Savage interpretation of. . 179. Jussieus. Justice. 10. 132. 238-240. natural phenomena. . 24. inequalities. 267. of. . 54. 323. 49. Latent. quoted. 169. 272. 316. 339. 137. 246. on literary productivity. Laurent. 23. Ingersoll. Men of letters among. 299. Quantity of force not increased by. 79. 1 Jonson. 80. 113. 351. 85. 227. 174-176. Integration. Interpretation of history. Definition of. Natural. Jefferson. Origin of. Jenner. Sacerdotal. 240. 239. 139. Inquisition. 285 ff. 351. 314. 19. quoted. . 235. Israelites. 318. 1 15. 4. Indexes of prohibited books. 46. 316. 230. of learning. 243. of the term. 231. quoted. . 270. Social. Edward. 309. 200. 267. 300. 75. Individual telesis. 273. 213. .INDEX Imperatives. 139. 250. Religious. Interest. Henri. 55. Joly. Indian corn. Ecclesiastical. 352. . Kant. Inferior. Insanity. . Effect of. 93. 352. 264. Institutions. . 286. . 292. workmanship. 118. Jacoby. 238. 106. 320. 331. 167. . 163. Intellectual versus material. George. 5.

.354. 129. 269. 68. Charles Fra^ois. 162. Franfois. 148. 256. . 102. Joseph Louis. n. 35. Small literary productivity of. 285. Small amount of. 92. 103. 82. magic. 353. Loyalty of the lower classes. R. quoted. Latin races. General. Lubbock. 322. 352. 143. Local distribution of plants. Walter Savage. . Benjamin. Kidd. . quoted. 86. 334. Lafitau. 263. 123-125. Lewes. 148. utilized. quoted. 313. 307. artificial. Labor. Leidy. . 270. Light. 315. Mandatory and prohibitory. 239. . . Position of. 58. 262. 85. Relation of. illustrating the superiority quoted. 278. Laschi. 239. Carolus (Karl von Linne). intellect. . Literature a monopoly of privilege. Due de. ( ). 236. Scientific. 258. 142. 181. 353. Littre. 169. Logic of. 135. 71. 299. quoted. 260. Francis H. 148. . Latimer. 302. Marcus Annasus. 120. 207 ff. 247. 295. -1 58. VV. . . for. 242. elements in heredity. 18. 188. 141. quoted. Laborers. Lagrange. Lecky. 72. Laplace. 307. . 228. Gotthold Ephraim. 214. APPLIED SOCIOLOGY Legislation. Leisure as opportunity. 303. 114. 74. 67. Lombroso. . Hugh. 78. 164. . 354. 90. quoted. King. 302. 213. Levy-Bruhl. . 147.. Leverrier. Cesare. 263. . 270. 354. 247. 354. 263. 258. 34. no. 352. Language as of the . 335. 353. of parsimony. Natural. opportunity. . 29. Study of. Ligurians. 130. 13-17. 263. 11. La Rochefoucauld. 239. 188. 66. Lhomond. of opportunity. Franz. Diffusion of. 143. 321. Landor. 323. Artificial utilization of. Luck. 108. of feeling. Laws. Luxury of altruism. 165. . Johann. License. 339. 352. . 243. John. Rudolph Hermann. of. to truth. 69. 128. 207 ff. . Jean. 228. 336. the three stages. Capital and. 134. 157. Attractive. 306. Attractive. Rudyard. quoted. 181. Lightning. . 270. 353. Opportunity mistaken Luther. 264. of nature.. . William Edward Hartpole.. 243. . quoted. 224. 98. 352. 338. 308. Law.376 Kepler. Classification . 75. quoted. 30. . Knowledge. 247. 307. 242. 334. 12. Lenbach. Letourneau. 302. . 73. 337. 87. Joseph. 239. Lessing. George Henry. manual. environment. Odium of. Ambiguity of the word. Sir John (Lord Avebury). Latent ability. . Leibnitz. 58. 214. Longevity of rich and poor. 352. 135. . 239. 58. . 25. 322. Locke. Lotze. Martin. Charles. Lords spiritual and temporal. Philosophy of. Logic of law. 106. 165. 338. 354. Koofoo. . 263. of the environment. 310. as a science. classes. 353. Liberation. 220. 42. n. Lamarck. 233. 17. 119. Gottfried Wilhelm von. 290.. quoted. Pierre Simon. L. Love a form of privation. Joseph Fra^ois. Lucanus. Kipling. 250. 279. Gospel of. 354. Linnaeus. Ko'heleth. fimile. 260. Repeal of. Logical. Utilization of. 94. Urbain Jean Joseph. 312. quoted. easy to acquire when once discovered. the proper object of education. 98-100. 245. Laissez faire. 339. 217.

Monotheism. Newtonian laws of. Utilization of the. test of ability. 28. 325. Montesquieu. 332. 82. Mach. 328. Wolfgang. . 104. John 355* Stuart. . Mitscherlich. Place of. 60. 10. Eilhard. quoted. 256. 334-335Milton. 248. Misarchism. 296. Mesocentric theory. 89. . 287. 263. men 198. Magic. 377 73. 356. . 1. Morgan. 356. 95. 257. Philip. 269 Minimization of pain. 311.INDEX Macaulay. . The 136-138. Means quoted. Thomas Robert. Applied. 164. 325. 56. no. . Jean Fran9ois. Maoris. Mill. Movement. Motherhood. Horace. Materialism. Michael G. . 1 3. of letters. . Tools of the. 80. Mars. 5. The planet. ff. .of other countries. 244. Metals. 221. 60. 356. Mann. 311. 122. . II. Mobilization of society. 268 ff. Middle Ages. Primary meaning of the word. 264. 28. qualities in genius. James. 211. quoted. quality of. 355. 23. . Manes. 331. 114. 102. quoted. 307. 48. 204. Brain or intellect mistaken 267. Motion. 295. Small literary productivity of. 135. . 268. Mediumship. 135. Sir Thomas. . Mediocrity. False views of. 356. . 84. 118. Martin. 10. to ends. 334. statistical. 165. 355. 4. Market for achievement. 98. 40. . Meliorism. 320. 98. Melancthon. The real. Jean Baptiste. no. Michel Eyquem. 294. 6f. Monism.. Mortality. 306. Marx. 251. 356. 102. 274. . quoted. 263. 89. French. Immortality Moliere. Modification of phenomena. 131. Machinery. quoted. 307. 41. iii. progress. 310. 85. Moral. quoted. 355. 37Matter. Social. Dynamic Montaigne. Method . Joseph (Giuseppe). Martineau. . Malthusian law. 249. . 113. 92. 321 ff. Marmontel. . 8. without experience. 268. 207 ff. Mother of circumstances. . Historical. 72. Logic of. Abuse of the word. 26. Morality. 307. 248. Mandatory and prohibitory laws. . 279. Jean de. 263. 258. Merit distinguished from talent and genius. 19. 84. Muller. Mulhall. as a mental discipline. 316. 338. Race. 108. 273. Statistics of. 220. 1 1. . 126. for. 8-10. 280. Meusel. More. Lewis H. social structures. Mind. 263. 247. Charles de Secondat. of applied sociology. 58. 263. Mesoderm. Thomas Babington. Harriet. 210. 60. Metamorphosis. 236. 132. iii. no. The social. 84. Mission Maecenases. of. 116. Menial service. 344. 289. 148. 28. 330. Maximization of pleasure. 260. quoted. 31. doctrine Mathematics. 56. 74. Mexicans. 300. quoted. Mohammedanism. 355. 88. . 12. 149. Maize. H. Mesologists. 356. 103. Metempsychosis. Spiritual nature of. Newell. 28. 69. . 325. Contents of the. 4. Karl. John. John. 96. . of. Baron de. 316. Mazzini. Manual laborers. 197. See French Men of letters. 323. 264. Malthus. quoted. 149. Ernst. 59. 321. 355. discussion of opportunity. .. Morley. . 356. . among the sciences.

Literary productivity of the. 204 214.. Barthold Georg. 256. 135. 264. 323. . 184. of. species. . 234. Friedrich. Fran9ois Joseph Michel. Literary productivity of. 85. 183. 212. 114. 318. 267. 168-169. Education . 82. 156-160. Obscurantism. John. Paradoxes . 273. 257-259. 298-300. 274. 128. Ossianic poems. 23. 357. 224. 264. 129. 227. Mysticism. Newtonian laws. as. Parable of Saint-Simon. 193-195. 155-158. 234. 356. 326. 166. 116-128. 191-194. 233. Negative education. 113. Parochial schools of France. Laws of. 142. 295. 12'. Parkinson. 145. 58. Paine. 116. 208-210. 206. 75. . 300. . Nitti. Negroes of Africa. 252. 276. 254. 145. Olbers. Optical illusions. 1 80. 164. 48. 135.. 174. Napier. 204. Novicow. 280. The.378 Mutation. 145. 209-214. Owen. 166. 116-128. 181. 235-236. Occupations of literary men. Officers. 66. 94. 28. 332. Richard. quoted. Francesco S. 207 . . 109. Public. 188. Logic of. 302. Newton. 131. 277. Order of nature. 321. .and . 245. 113. 24. 87. Mutual repulsion. 107. Jacques. 132. 17. heredity. 293. 194. political 97. quoted.. versus genius. 356. 145. 169. 356-357. 238-240. 32. New New Neo-Malthusianism. 121. 237. . 85. 223. Leisure as. National freedom. 90. 147-154. 207. 12. economy. 233. Nurture. 294. certain to come to . require only mediocre talents. to science. Oligarchy of intelligence. 118. 264. ff. Degeneracy of the. 68. 119. 38. 260. of. of.. Nirvana. Sir Isaac. 21. Equalization of. 281. ff. 114. 251. 209. Natural inequalities. Not genius but achievement. 228. Nobility. 243. a condition to achievement. 273. The order ethics. Conquest . nurture. Opinions distinguished from beliefs. 93. 129. Caledonians. 124. 10. 113. 68. 295. Nietzsche. 202. 160. . The social. 2I 9. 35. 241. . 167. 161. 127. 328. 242. 134. 66. 80. 273. 249. 194. 26. ethics. 302. 98. Oligocentric world view. Success implies. . Nature. 336. 45. 200. 206 ff Odin. 123. 256.. 332. 28. 335. 2l8. 143. Paris. Odium Napoleon Bonaparte. Heinrich Wilhelm Mathias. . 298. 97. Niebuhr. of labor. 294. 306. 36. 141. James. Overproduction. Alfred. as a leisure class. . 243. Nature and. 218. 215. 49. Literature of. 220. 196198. . justice. 275. 7. 179-181. 246. 272. 264. Opportunity. 242. all. 51. 134. -. Organization of happiness. 231. Minimization of. Thomas. 217. 237. quoted. 202. 187. 214. Pain economy. 262. 225-227. 22. Paradoxes of nature. 116. Opposition represented by the environment. . 140. 251. 257. 141. 324. 195. Social. 19. Paradox of hedonism. 264. 357. 84. 357. . 123. Oriental civilization. 265. 257. 231. 77 ff. 91. 127. 357. varies with character. mistaken for luck or chance. 1 66. 62. 130. 327. 339. Pai-Ute Indians. . 258. Noel. 221. 230. . 122.263. 263. 86. 37. 107.

. Primogeniture. ). Paul. The real moral. 117. . 24. of Lombroso. Interpretation . Subjective trend of modern. achievement. 61. 358. Obstacles to. 357. Problems. problems. 316. 94. 244. Liberal. Pleasure consists in the normal exercise . Social. 242. 141. economy. 304. 91. 63-65. . 295. 240. 114. . 104. Origin of the. Political. 314. Maximization of. 314. 334. 74. 215. license. 26. Progress. 314. 207 ff. 44. the surplus population. . 36. of. 139. . Albert Parties. parties. . 107. Potential Pascal. 4. Plants. Claims Scientific. Passy. 236. Production. Genetic. increases with wealth. 316. 142. of. 326. 289. Philip of Macedon. 263. Blaise. Place of. 321. Joseph. Origin of the. . 31. on genius. Pre-efficients of intelligence. 312. 84. Proletariat. 194. Edgar Allan. 18. . Plutarch. A. Privileged men. 293. 199. quoted. 96. Priestley. Perception. 236. 41. 357. 358. 243. 43. The. Intellectual capacity of the. Definitions of. . Paradoxes Purpose of. - Power of circumstances. Politics. kills off Pessimism. Private enterprise. 12. 113. 83. 357-3S 8 ( - . Pope. 314. . schools. genius. 44. 136. Phenomena. Modification of. 29. E. Practical knowledge. 322. Philosophy of despair. Persecution.INDEX Parsimony. 242. 285. 90. Political . 233. 379 Law of. 230. Philanthropy. . 25. . 10. evolution. 268. 141. . 302. 358. 228. Scientific. Literary productivity of. of. Prediction. 145. . 133.. of. Possession of truth. Hermann. 18. 1 10.. 169. Pottery. freedom. Alexander. 97. 163. 82. 299. Polytheism. 84. 134. Applied. 286. 338. Prohibitory laws. 309. as a leisure class. Physics. ethics. 148. 127. 27. Hippolyte. justice. 26. 328-330. 8-10. . 326. 294. Physical environment. 228. 316. Social. 19. 60. 323- Prevalence 322 ff. 303. 130. 68. Priesthood as a leisure class. 14. 293. 128. 231. of. Privative ethics. 318. 83. 267. Professions. . 199. 318. 65. Social. 239. 115. 28. 65. 317. . Poor versus rich. 123. Post. 289. Prevision. in the hierarchy. 162. 1 23. Principle of attraction. Rise of the. 308. Conditions to. Effect 20 1. style. Poverty a bar to achievement. Petrarch (Petrarca). Means employed by the. of the faculties. Intellectual versus economic. 123-125. 283. 139. 202-204. Post-efficients of intelligence. 147. versus civilization. Increase of. II. 285. 8. 271. Local distribution of. Privilege. 331. Patten. 62. 17. 339. Poe. 105. 263. Plato. 30. . of applied sociology. 20. Insoluble. 339. 84. Mortality of. 313. 93. quoted. 323. 286. II. 327. 321 ff. 31. . 315. 123. Way out of. Polynesians. 300. Proper use of the term. 75. Introduced. 263. . 292. 31. 285. Positive education. Social versus. 14. . 358. 19. 246. . Polarization. Francesco. Simon N. Effect of. 261. economy.

Rise of the proletariat. Republican party. Destruction of. Fra^ois. 82. 304. 35. Beginnings of. Reutter. Regnault. 270. 215-216. 243. 1 56 ff. 289. 359. ideas. . Johann Karl. 136. 108. 90. Pursuit of happiness. 130. 359. Robertson. Protestantism. 335. 28. 72. 360. 333. 64. . 359. differentiation Johann Adam Karl Georg. Edward Alsworth. Puritanism. 224. 127. 5. Psychics. 44. 147. Restif. minimum definition of. 321 ff. 228. Jean Paul F. Rivarol. 46. Relativity of genius. 123. 135- opinion. Psammetichus. quoted. Public officers as a leisure class. 28. Relation of knowledge to truth. 32. Restraint. Pyramids of Egypt. Rabelais. 54. 138. 290. Repeal of laws. 62. Reconciliation of achievement with improvement. 108. Jean Louis Ar- mand de. Mortality of. 162 ff. Antoine. 85. 53. Henri Victor. 236. 9. 359.. 93. 1 -. . 21. quoted. Property. Protective function of society. n. 149. 21. 52. 323. 214. . 259. Reformation. quoted. 38. 181. of France. 167-169. Resources of society.. Ethics of. Quetelet. . 63. 28. quoted. The so-called lower. 221. 70. 102. Equivalency of. 358. . 5.quoted. Rich versus poor. 341. 116. 58. Rights. 256. 47. Place of. 145. 78. 109. 107. 108. 281. Religious environment. The Protestant. Theodore. 3. 41. Renan. Literary productivity of. .do 207 ff. 289. 258. i39ff. 99. Reflections. and integration. 34. 18. 65. of. . Rathbone. 270. 97. 1 06. Historical. Rousseau. Adolphe. schools. 144. . Ratio sufficiens. 165. . 108. Resistance to truth. Equal. 263. . 3^9. 165. Winwood. Blending . morality. pure to applied sociology. 3. 75- 135. 331. Origin Tylor's of. Eleanor. 65. . Purpose of political economy. . Quintilian (Marcus Fabius Quintilianus). 31.3 8o APPLIED SOCIOLOGY Rationality. in the hierarchy. Savage interpretation of. Role of the environment. .. Samuel von. 359. Puffendorf. 269. 50. safety. Ross. Rauber. 24. quoted. Reproduction inversely proportional to intelligence. 258. . Races. 74 ff. Rodbertus. Protoplasm. not require great talents. 169. Religion as a cause of progress. 292. Psychology a pure science. Race as a factor in achievement. on literary productivity. 134. 256. August. 18. . 359. . to applied. 236. 10. Racine. 89. 128. 202-204. . 363. 263. . interests. 263. Effect of. 4. . 156. Ribot. 82. 236. Nicolas Edme. science. 17. Rationalism. 7>- Prospective investigations. sociology. Joseph Ernest. Gustav. Quatrefages de Breau. 107. 3. Reform. Ratzenhofer. at funerals. 40. 82. John Mackinnon. 321. -- Pure sociology. 239. Ambiguity of the word.. 283. structures. 359. 161. Richter. 43-44. 358. 71. Rational. Relation of. 87. 328. 58. . 285. 287 ff. 85. Reade. 347. Intellectual equality of. Jean. 234. 232. the economic and ideological interpretations of history. Jean Jacques. . 324.

. Lucius Annaeus. . 239. 252. quoted. for education. 1 06. 303. 71. 338. quoted. Science as a mental discipline. 109. 6. 8. quoted. John. Scott. 289. in India. 240. Smissen. Capacity of. 251. 18. Edwin R. Schopenhauer. 1 1 1 Sensori-motor actions. A. 287 versus art. Schiller. Albert. Seligman. Schiaparelli. . 306. 361. . Administration of the. 263. 109. . . 256. 163. 41. Private.. 294. men. . 176. 263. 88. . Classification of the. 37. . . Julius Caesar. 113. not happy.. 72. 33. Parable of. environment. Serfdom. for. 9. 84. 147. 272. 165. Savages. Giovanni Virginio. . . Great talents not needed . Sismondi. 244. Sacrifices. Johann Christoph Friedrich von. 3. 148. 92. 65. 271. 228. Race. Shufu. 68 ff. Arthur. Olaus. Comte de. 9. . 318. Jean Charles Leonard de. Social achievement. 10. 330. quoted. assimilation. 9. 255. Samuel. 164. 300. 305. . 37. 360. Schwanthaler. 34. quoted. 339. 221. to. 360. of. ff. Slums. Sacerdotal institutions. 72. 360. 45. Scientific discovery. 1 06. Self-consciousness. 287. See Eldon.INDEX Routine work. 263. 242. 257. 230. too keen for their good. 360. 251 Alleged. 75. Life of. 319.forces. . 297. Claude Henri. 26. 103. 360. 263. Wilhelm. 263. 145.. . 304. Ruskin. . Pure versus applied. 117. Snake bite. 328. Smith. . Slavery. 339. Hierarchy of the. 8. 50. 5. 310-311. Practical results of. Self-education. 21. 8. Rudbeck. 83. . Self-torture. Safety. 339. 61. 240. ff. 263. . 65. 27. 96. freedom. Gottfried. Abstract and concrete. 204. Self-made men. . appropriation of achievement. Scientific legislation. 162. ff. Scheighaeuser. 64. Relative applicability of the. Sir Walter. estate. John. 241. Schaefrle. Ethical character 287. endoderm. efficiency. 26. Adam. 312. 3. . Self-mutilation. Roux. 27. Shelley. truth. 106. . . 165. 19. quoted. Seneca. Public. 93. Schweizer. 28. Self-orientation. 314. 117. . Saint-Simon. 79. Shakespeare. 303 . 35. 144. Slander. 73. Albion W. . 194. 239. Mortality from. 283. 271. Shadows. 381 Ruling class. 303 . 75. Purpose of. 26. 97. 262. how it advances. 28. 290. Small. 65. Scavenger. classes. Causes favorable to the production of. 257. 211. 45. Ludwig Michael. Intellect of. ff . cleavage. Sciences. William. 239. 317. 309. 338. Smiles. 26. Savage interpretation 360. . Salvation. 87. 164. 62. 33. 361. Social importance of the. Wilhelm Philip. 332. . Johann. 120. 333. 37. Opposition betterment. 54. continuity. 361. 251. 360. Percy B. 84. . 338. of. . 26. Schools. 17. . 320. 64. Conditions to. Earl of Eldon. 26. Special social. Scaliger. Schimper. 109. 164. Edouard van der. 283. 244. 313. distribution. Siamese twins. 241. Satan. 263. 323. 15. 91. Group sentiment of. 286. 241. ectoderm. . 312. 295.

19. 148. versus political justice. . 121. no. Fallacy of. The. . 120. 96. 263. 307. Sumner. 59. 4. 64. II. 4. Swooning. Steele. 96. 330. primogeniture. Principal source of. 326. 337. Spinoza. 107. 54. Statistics. Sportsmanship. 365. 2 77 Fallacy of. heredity. Edmund. . 10. 5. 24. Spirit identified with wind. . 310. 298. Success implies opportunity. Sir Richard. bonum. of. 117. Bernard. Sun-worship. quoted. of. Supernatural. structures. 233. Socrates. 304. Nirvana. 26. welfare. 18. Primitive ideas of. 362. 336. Sufficient reason. 101. Struggle among the parts. of. in the hierarchy. . 56. . Spencer. 125. Biological. 41. Benedict. Instinct Standard of living. 88. Sociogenetic forces. 21. nature of matter. 3. tissues. 316. 331. 307. integration. Herbert. no. 84. 93. 99. 301. Spenser. Special creation. 149. Frederic Jacob. 84. Repressive. End or purpose of. Jonathan. Subject-matter of sociology. 277-278. heritage. 100. 339. 85. 236. Stein. 325. 99. 119-121. 3. Specialism. Stirp. 58. Special.235. Style. 10. as a cause of progress. Sympathy an 325. n. 122. 275. 147. 292. 300-302. wealth. Soret. motion. 95. Nature and action Resources of. Ethical. 119. Applied. 98. 30. Spiritual beings. 338. 6 1. 22. 136. 31. Submerged tenth. The. 32. 35. 263. Ameliorative function of. 10. Artificial utilization of. Society. 318. 180. 335. mesoderm. 54. . 147. 349. 337. prediction. State functions. 5. 6. 88. 18. 85. 239. . . 321 ff. Superstition a consequence of error. 72. 303. New. Swift. Modification Abuse of. 264. 339. 317. Development of. 5. physics. 10. unreliable principle. Philosophy 71- Sociology. perspective. 338. 124. 257. 319. 149. Stoics. Origin of the. . 339. 17. 326. Economic. 292. Stability of. 78. 243. 71. 136-138. Socialism. 45. Summum . 63. 118. no. 60. 53. 305. 23. . 18. 91. 164. 38. 178. 300. Superiority of the artificial. . 21. . 361. 199. for existence. Superior. 24. 107. Stone. 89. Savage interpretation 56. 199. 259-260. William Graham. 42. Place of. Enlargement .^7?) 215. order. 44. 84. 107. Subjective trend of modern philosophy. 17. . quoted. Narrow use of the term. 165. 312.APPLIED SOCIOLOGY Social germ-plasm. 317. of. 317. 20. Stirpiculture. 127. 136. pleasures. . 6. 16. 362. 361. 29. 95. 234. 67. 65. Sophocles. 292. 358. Species. Pure. 26. 17. 88. 263. 25. . 242. 305. of. 251. Ludwig. 139. Werner. Relation of pure to applied. invention. . 59. 285. 11. 87. 298. Sociological experimentation. Fear of. 235. social sciences. Studer. 102. utility. of. 39. Statics. Socialization of achievement. 95. Sombart. 263. 323. Lorenz von. 61. 5. Artificial character of. 236. 362. of mortality. . 224. 304. . 247. not recognized by educationists. 38. Statistical method. . 339. . 98. 281. 67-69. 235. sciences.

Virgil (Publius Virgilius Maro). of. Washington. 46. error. 244. Tyndall. 99. Edward B. 98. 216. 131. 98. 199. for. 205-208. 136. 84. Tencin. Francois Marie Arouet de. Trance. 32. 95. 138. Gabriel. Vries. John. Wants. 201. Urban population. 287. Thorstein. Thackeray. Teleology. Unattractive character of. 327. Utilization Watt. . Telesis. Tombs. James. Arthur. 315. 91-94. 75- . Telegraphy. Vega. Volkergedanken. Tables of literary and productivity. 203. Verne. 80. Utilization of the materials nature. 335. 136. 263. 137. Third estate. 33. 71. 363. 128. 292. 263. Valat. 254. Paul. 43. no greater mental burden than IOI. . Trois etats. 80. versus futility. George. Virchow. Universite Nouvelle. 131. 182186. 50. 362. 82. Tasso. 224. 363. . Garcilasso de la. . ). 314. Triticum asstivum. 148. Universal education. 263. 1 1 Totemism. error. 93. Tarde. . 200. 249. 244. Truth. 68. 99. 196. Tools of the mind. 46. Tennyson. 26. Theses. 330. 312. 72. William Makepeace. Tasmanians. 89. . 70. 61. James. . Social. 324. 289. 278. 277. John. Voltaire. Capacity 101. 80. 365. 92. 217. 363. . Savage interpretation of. Tongans. 219. Relation of knowledge to. . . 6. Ueberweg. Truth easy to acquire when once covered. 82. Transmigration of souls. 328. Claudine Alexandrine Guerin de. Costly. Method of discussion by. . 90. 243. See Garcilasso. quoted.. Alfred. 231. . . 27. 102. 239. quoted. quoted. 73. of. Jules. Peter Wilhelm. Wireless. Evolutionary. . 363. 137. Synergy. Savage interpretation 54-56. 349. 90. Friedrich. Hugo de. New. 117. Leo. 276. 316. ( Three stages. 263. quoted. Thomson. . 19. and . Water. 241. 363. Ultra-rational sanctions. dis- Syncope. J.. Utopianism. 168. 164. 42. 286. 344. 210. Syntheses. . 307. . Psychological nature of. 74 ff. 121. . 98. 129. Tolstoi. Taine. 308. Wallace. 40. 56. 68. Topinard. . Tastes versus talents. Wargentin. 316. quoted. Torquato. Galton's. Tenterden. to. Hippolyte Adolphe. . 316. Resistance to. 72. quoted. 195. 365. Talent distinguished from genius and merit. 53. Law of the. Utility. 60. 140. Lord (Charles Abbott). 164. Wallis. 25. scientific . 72. 123. n. Tory party. Method of discussion by. 81. 180. Social appropriation of. Alfred Russel. Material.INDEX Sympathy as a motive to reforms. quoted. Veblen. Possession of. Transcendental interests. I73ff. 60. 363. 341. 12. 86. 41. 42. 188-192. 165. 115. Tissues. 365. 127. 260. 47. should be made attractive. Rudolf. . and forces of n. Theological conceptions. 12. Tylor. Unintelligent classes. 236. Thales. Want. 175. Utilitarianism. 85. P. 83. 305. Social. 152-154.

Spiritual. 78. 126. 120. World views. 274. 73. Women as agents of civilization. Worms. 277. Weismann. 70. 286. 119. 243. of. Rene. . 164. Zoolatry. Ormond. . 79. 291. Zola. 316. Wesley.3*4 Wealth. . 47. . Edward. 196. Utilization of. Weltanschauung. 121. 241. Robert Simpson. 132. Weltschmerz. 44. Yokthan. Welfare. Zeitgeist. 269. Wollaston. 263. n. 232. 298. 265. 231. Sir Christopher. quoted. 165. Wheat. Wells. 254. John. . 23. 232. Arthur. 316. 275. J. 164. Free. Wilkie. Wordsworth. 231. . 270. quoted. August. 89. 366. 366. Science of. 69. 366. 19. 366. 290. . 85. Wild men. 25. . 105. 80. quoted. 339. Routine. . 366. 256. White. . 73. 96. 74. Wilhelm. William Hyde. 3. . Workmanship. 165. 232. H. 366. 269. J. Wireless telegraphy. Xavier. 7. Young. Witchcraft. Social. 239. 165. 98. All motion primarily attributed . Wrangling. 281. Wurtz. 76. 235. See Winiarsky. 129. 59. Wines. identified with spirit. APPLIED SOCIOLOGY Amount of. Wind. Women Wonder. Equalization letters. 365. Work all mental. n. Wren. Wundt. 104. Christoph Martin. 307. Woodward. 40. Le Pere 9. 127. 40. Andrew Dickson. Earl of Hardwicke Hardwicke. quoted.. 300. Yorke.. 241. 195. . X-rays. quoted. 123. . Weeds. G. Yncas of Peru. 301. 270. Artificial utilization of. Wilson. Hai ben. Wieland. 119. 165. 104. 231. Leon. 318. 293. Philip. . 74. Will a true natural force. of genius. 82. 366. 164. Charles Adolphe. 165. Wood. 1 1 . Zea Mays. 283. fimile. 232. . . 50. to. 328. Instinct of. Frederick Howard. Whig party. David. William. 69.

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Lester Frank Applied sociology PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE FROM THIS CARDS OR SLIPS POCKET UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY .51 W368 Ward.