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Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 252 (2007) 270 – 280

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Facies architecture of an isolated carbonate platform in the


Hawasina Basin: The Late Triassic Jebel Kawr of Oman
Michaela Bernecker
Institute of Paleontology, University Erlangen, Loewenichstrasse 28, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany
Accepted 30 November 2006

Abstract

In the oceanic realm of the southern Tethys, carbonate production of isolated platforms ceased after the end-Permian mass
extinction and did not recover until the Late Triassic.
The Misfah Formation (MF) at Jebel Kawr in the Oman Mountains is interpreted as a relic of such an isolated Late Triassic
platform of the Hawasina Ocean, a part of the Neo-Tethys. Correlation of three sections at Jebel Kawr points to a sequence
architecture with four third-order sequences (MF1–MF4). The maximum flooding surface (mfs) of MF3 can be correlated to the
attached Arabian platform.
The shallow-water carbonates of Jebel Kawr comprise a platform rim reef facies and bedded inner-platform facies characterized
by stacked high-frequency cycles with subtidal to intertidal carbonate sequences.
The depositional profile of this Late Triassic isolated platform evolved during Carnian and Norian time from a low-relief
carbonate bank to a high-relief platform rimmed by reefs. The onset of the carbonate sedimentation is characterized by an initial
phase with volcaniclastic interruptions, followed by a carbonate bank stage with a shallow subtidal to peritidal interior and
marginal oolite shoals. In the Norian vertical accumulation caused an increase of the platform height and developed a relief along
the margins that progressively increased through the aggrading reef stage. The possibility that a reef rim existed and was later
removed by erosion is suggested by the Sint reef and olistoliths of similar reef limestones in the surrounding areas.
© 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Late Triassic; Isolated platform; Reef development; Neo-Tethys; Oman Mountains

1. Introduction platforms have rarely been reviewed (e.g., South China,


Lehrmann et al., 2001, 2003).
The recovery period of marine ecosystems following On the Arabian plate, tropical carbonate production
the Permian mass extinctions was extraordinarily pro- collapsed after the end-Permian mass extinction and was
longed. For metazoan reefs it extended from the end of replaced by microbialites and sea-floor cements during
Lopingian to early Middle Triassic (Flügel, 2002; Flügel the earliest Triassic. Tropical shallow-water carbonate
and Kiessling, 2002; Weidlich, 2002a,b). The impact of production resumed in the Middle Triassic (Weidlich
extinctions on biodiversity has been analysed in detail and Bernecker, 2007). Absence of shallow-water
(Erwin et al., 2002) but the influence on carbonate limestone from the Hawasina basin suggests that
carbonate production of isolated platforms ceased here
for about 30 million years and Neo-Tethyan isolated
E-mail address: bernecker@pal.uni-erlangen.de. platforms did not recover before the Late Triassic.
0031-0182/$ - see front matter © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2006.11.054
M. Bernecker / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 252 (2007) 270–280 271

The aim of this paper is to analyse the facies 2. Geological setting and study area
architecture of such an isolated Late Triassic carbonate
platform from the southern Tethys (Hawasina Ocean) Triassic shelf deposits crop out along the eastern rim of
based on integrated facies analyses with biostrati- the Arabian Shield. Tectonic nappes of the Oman
graphic and sequence stratigraphic data. The main Mountains containing relics of Middle-Permian to Late-
objectives of this study are (i) to describe the reef and Triassic carbonate platforms include the Arabian plate
platform deposits preserved as relics in the Hawasina (Saiq and Mahil Formations) and Hawasina basin (Neo-
nappes of the Oman Mountains, (ii) to document Tethys: Bai'id and Misfah Formations). According to
changes in architectural style of the Kawr platform, palinspastic reconstructions, the isolated Permian Ba'id
and (iii) to reconstruct the evolution of this isolated and Triassic Kawr platforms of the Hawasina basin were
platform in the Neo-Tethys. situated north to northeast of Arabian plate in Neo-Tethys

Fig. 1. (1) Location map of the southeastern part of the Arabian Peninsula. (2) Simplified geological map of the Oman Mountains. (3) Location of
measured sections at Jebel Kawr, the isolated platform of the Neo-Tethys. Section Sint (23°09′50ʺN, 57°03′10ʺE), section Ala (23°05′30ʺN, 57°07′30ʺ),
and section Amqah (23°04′30ʺN, 57°07′30ʺE).
272 M. Bernecker / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 252 (2007) 270–280

(Béchennec et al., 1990). Biostratigraphic and sequence the large scale stratigraphic architecture and regional sea-
stratigraphic correlation between the attached Arabian level curve (Weidlich and Bernecker, 2003). The nappes
platform and the isolated platforms allowed to reconstruct of the Hawasina complex (Fig. 1) document the evolution

Fig. 2. Stratigraphic logs of Kawr platform with lithofacies, biota and sequence stratigraphy of the Misfah Formation. Section Sint (1) represents the
rim of the isolated Kawr platform, section Ala (2) and Amqah (3) the inner platform.
M. Bernecker / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 252 (2007) 270–280 273

of Neo-Tethys. Relics of Middle and Late Triassic components (pellets, bioclasts, intraclasts and locally
shallow-water carbonates have been preserved as breccias porostromate algae). Distinct mottling due to bioturba-
or enormous mega-blocks attaining a size of several tion can be observed in some beds.
kilometers are exposed at Jibal Kawr, Misht, Misfah, and
Ghul (Kawr Group: Misfah Formation: Beurrier et al., 3.1.2. Bioclastic and peloidal wackestone to grainstone
1986; Minoux and Janjou, 1986). Banks of this grey facies type are 20 to 40 cm thick
The Subayb Formation of Jebel Misfah comprises a and contain varying amounts of bioclasts and peloids.
succession of mafic volcanics and dark nodular lime- The microflora and fauna, consisting of dasycladacean
stones dated as Ladinian and Carnian (Pillevuit, 1993; algae (Clypeina besici, Poikiloporella duplicata) and
Pillevuit et al., 1997). It is the precursor of the Misfah foraminifera (e.g. Aulotortus praegaschei), are age
Formation and is regarded as the lowermost unit of this diagnostic for the Carnian.
Neo-Tethyan isolated carbonate platform. The Misfah
Formation, exposed at Jibal Misfah, Misht, and Kawr 3.1.3. Volcanoclastic wackestone
(Beurrier et al., 1986, ‘Oman Exotics’ sensu Glennie et al., The reddish to yellow medium thick-bedded (ca. 30 cm)
1974) consists of 700–900 m bedded shallow-water volcanoclastic wackestone is located in the basal part of
platform carbonates of Late Triassic age. The termination the sequence. The mudstone and wackestone contain elon-
of shallow-water platform sedimentation at Jebel Kawr is gated millimeter-size volcanic extraclasts. These extra-
indicated by platform drowning during the Lower Jurassic clasts are indicators of ongoing volcanic eruptions in the
(Fatah Formation, section Ma'Wa; Pillevuit, 1993). Hawasina basin, which may have hampered carbonate
Misfah Formation exposures at Jebel Misfah, Misht, production on the isolated platform at the beginning of its
and Kawr (Fig. 1) are 700–900 m thick and located in development.
the Western Oman Mountains in the area SW of Jebel
Akhdar (Beurrier et al., 1986; Minoux and Janjou, 3.1.4. Oolitic grainstone
1986). Three sections (Fig. 2) from Jebel Kawr were The light grey thick-bedded medium-sorted oolitic
studied and cover positions of the Misfah Formation grainstone occurs in the sequence prior to reef growth.
extending from Carnian to Rhaetian. The size of the The marine ooids with a partly micritized tangential
Kawr platform is about 15 × 20 km (300 km2). Section microfabric probably formed in high-energy shoals.
Sint (Fig. 3) represents the rim of the platform, section
Ala (Fig. 4) and Amqah the platform interior. 3.1.5. Crinoid floatstone and rudstone
This grey massive to thick-bedded bioclastic float-
3. Facies description and depositional environments stone and rudstone is composed largely of crinoid
ossicles. The fabric varies from loose and disperse
The base of the Misfah Formation at Jebel Kawr packing to grain-support fabric. The crinoid stems are
represents the onset of shallow-water carbonate deposi- disarticulated, but the ossicles show no signs of sig-
tion in the Carnian. Volcaniclastic extraclasts prove per- nificant lateral transportation or abrasion. Some crinoids
turbations caused by volcanic activity. exhibit syntaxial cement rims. Only a Carnian-to-Norian
The upper part of the Misfah Formation at Jebel age can be assigned to this facies types, as fossils of
Kawr consists of shallow-water carbonates up to 800 m biostratigraphic relevance are absent.
thick and represents the development of the Kawr plat-
form with reefs during the Norian/Rhaetian. 3.2. Facies types of the upper part of the Misfah
Formation at Jebel Kawr
3.1. Facies types of the base of the Misfah Formation at
Jebel Kawr The main part of the isolated Kawr platform includes
reef facies (section Sint, 59–113 m), inferred to re-
Bedded wackestone facies with peloids and bioclasts present the platform rim as well as bedded inner plat-
(porostromates, dasycladacean algae and foraminifera) form facies (Fig. 2), section Ala and Amqah.
dominate in the interior, oolithic grainstones at the
margin (Fig. 2(1), base of section Sint). 3.2.1. Coral bafflestone with solenoporacean algae
and/or chaetetid sponges
3.1.1. Mudstone, locally bioturbated The light grey massive bafflestone consists of dendroid
This light grey monotonous facies type forms beds coral colonies together with large solenoporacean algae
20 to 50 cm thick. The mudstone contains only a few (diameter 2–5 cm) forming bioherms up to 20 m thick.
274 M. Bernecker / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 252 (2007) 270–280

Fig. 3. (1) Platform-rim facies at the northern escarpment of Jebel Kawr. Section Sint with sequences MF2 to 4. Reef-to-platform transition during
MF4 indicates strong platform progradation. (2) Biostratigraphic important foraminifer Triassina hantkeni, Rhaetian, and (3) dasycladacean alga
Poikiloporella duplicata, Carnian. Fauna of the Kawr reef. (4) Solenoporacean algae, (5) scleractinian corals: Gablonzeria and (6) Retiophyllia
(scale bars 1 mm in 2 and 3; 1 cm in 4, 2 cm in 5 and 6).

Common coral taxa are Retiophyllia norica, Cyclophyllia foraminifera (e.g. Alpinophragmium perforatum), and
cyclica, and Margarosmilia charlyana. The sediment small sponges (Uvanella norica). These framestones
between the colonies is a wackestone yielding bioclasts yield a fauna of Norian age dated and described by
and small foraminifera. The reef organisms indicate a Bernecker (1996, 2005).
Norian age. Corals (R. norica) and chaetetid sponges
(Blastochaetetes dolomiticus, Bauneia annosciai) also 3.2.3. Coral floatstone and rudstone
occur as isolated colonies in biostromal beds 30 to 50 cm The grey floatstone and rudstone up to 2 m thick
thick. contain angular to subangular reef derived bioclasts up to
10 cm in diameter. This facies occurs above the reef facies
3.2.2. Coral and sponge framestone and represents erosion at the end of reef development.
The grey massive framestone contain cerioid and
thamnasteroid coral colonies as dominant reef builders. 3.2.4. Bioturbated mudstone and wackestone
Common corals are Gablonzeria profunda, Pamiroseris The beds of this light grey mudstone and wackestone
rectilamellosa, and Seriastrea multiphylla. Sponges with dark grey dots are 40 to 70 cm thick. Bioturbation
such as Cryptocoelia siziliana, Cryptocoelia tenupar- is recorded by cylindrical tubes about 1 cm in diameter
ietalis, and Weltheria sp. are less abundant and build that differ in color and fabric from the surrounding
clusters within the reef framework. This framestone also mudstone. Burrow fill are wackestone containing re-
includes encrusting organisms like Spongiostromata crystallized bioclasts, peloids, and fecal pellets of
crusts, the microproblematicum Microtubus communis, decapod crustaceans (Favreina).
M. Bernecker / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 252 (2007) 270–280 275

Fig. 4. (1) Inner-platform facies at the eastern escarpment of Jebel Kawr-section Ala. The breccia in front is a younger debris flow deposit. (2 and 3)
Bedded platform facies with sequences of MF2 and MF3. (4) Subtidal facies with megalodontid bivalves (lens cap is 5.5 cm) and (5) intertidal facies
with microbialites.

3.2.5. Bioclastic wackestone (and rare grainstone) the shells. Single beds consist of several layers which differ
The light grey wackestone has a varying bed thickness with respect to packing density and shape of the shells.
between 20 and 40 cm. The components are recrystallized
bioclasts and peloids. Bioturbation is rare, but it is obvious 3.2.8. Laminated bindstone
from the grainstone texture of the burrow fills. The grey laminated bindstone forms beds varying
from 5 to 20 cm thick. This facies is ‘loferite’ (Fischer,
3.2.6. Megalodont floatstone 1964) and consists microbialites locally with fenestral
The grey well-bedded floatstone has bed thicknesses fabric. The microbialites are typically associated with
between 80 and 150 cm. Bivalves (e.g. Megalodon, fenestrae and desiccation cracks, and pointing to a supra-
Neomegalodon) up to 60 cm in diameter occur in to intertidal environment. The laminated sediment is
clusters or beds. The largest forms are common in the partly reworked at the top of the bank.
Norian. The sediment between the megalodont clams
and other large bivalves is a mudstone or wackestone. 3.2.9. Irregular unconformity surfaces
Most of the abundant molds are of articulated bivalves Red or green argillaceous micrite, carbonate silt, or
in life position. Megalodontids lived on shallow muddy marl contain millimeter- to centimeter sized intraclasts of
substrates in low-energy lagoonal environments. microbialites and scattered fenestral pores with geopetal
fills. Redcoated grains and aggregates with Fe-oxide
3.2.7. Molluscan floatstone staining and cement are probably of pedogenic origin.
The dark grey molluscan floatstone forms beds 40 to The inner platform facies is characterized by subtidal
60 cm thick beds that show local horizontal orientation of megalodont-rich floatstone, shallow-subtidal to intertidal
276 M. Bernecker / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 252 (2007) 270–280

fenestral mudstone, and laminated stromatolite. 5 to 20 m section (Fig. 3). Composite sequence MF1 is not ex-
cycles occur in inner platform sections with internal facies posed near Sint, but dominance of stromatolites of the
successions similar to the Lofer cyclothems (e.g. Fischer, inner platform facies (see sections Ala and Amqah, Fig. 4
1964, 1975; Goldhammer et al., 1990; Satterley, 1996; (5)) suggests moderate lateral depth gradients during this
Enos and Samankassou, 1998). phase. During MF2-TST, the inner-platform facies of Jebel
Kawr passes laterally from subtidal megalodont floatstone
4. Sequence architecture of the isolated platform near the rim into bioturbated bioclastic wackestone,
bivalve floatstone, and rare grainstone with dasycladacean
The sequence stratigraphic interpretation follows algae or oncoids. MF3-TST, dominated by crinoid float-
classic concepts (e.g., Haq et al., 1988; Van Wagoner and rudstone, differs in its biotic composition significantly
et al., 1988; Vail et al., 1991; Handford and Loucks, 1993) from MF2-TST. Crinoid ossicles are increasingly dis-
with emphasis on carbonate systems. Long-term trans- articulated toward the top, but are not transported. These
gressive–regressive cycles developed over periods of ap- crinoid-rich sediments correlate with a dark coral/chaetetid
proximately 5–20 my and represent second-order floatstone of the platform interior. This coral bio-
supersequences. They are composed of stacked composite strome facies yields chaetetids (B. dolomiticus) and corals
third-order sequences with a duration of 0.5–5 my (Sarg (R. norica) and is unique in its composition throughout the
et al., 1999). High frequency cycles (4th order and higher) isolated Kawr platform. This facies represents the only
were observed but not correlated in detail. The sequence occurrence of coral/chaetetid level-bottom communities
stratigraphic interpretation of the carbonate platforms is on the inner platform and is conspicuously dark and
based on the (1) investigation of key sections with bed-by- bituminous. It is the maximum flooding surface of the
bed analysis and description of representative samples/ platform and can be correlated with a similar zone of the
thin-sections with respect to facies and depositional envi- Mahil Formation of the Gondwana shelf (Weidlich and
ronment, (2) determination of depositional sequences Bernecker, 2003). MF4-TST is characterized by fully
using photomosaics, (3) identification of sequence bound- marine, bedded platform-interior facies with megalodonts
aries and maximum flooding surfaces (mfs) for correla- (Fig. 4(4)). As in composite sequence MF1, a differenti-
tion within the Arabian platform supersequences ation between TST and HST would be arbitrary, owing to
(Sharland et al., 2001). The maximum flooding surfaces the absence of significant facies changes, and is therefore
provide a framework of timelines, which allow the dis- not practiced.
parate lithostratigraphic units across the plate to be placed Tempestites are a ubiquitous phenomenon of Jebel
within a unifying chronostratigraphic framework. Max- Kawr platform and are striking in the prograding plat-
imum flooding surfaces, or better maximum flooding form facies above the coral reef (section Sint).
zones (Lehrmann and Goldhammer, 1999), were recog-
nized either by a change from monotonous, light grey 4.2. Facies variation of highstand systems tract (HST)
carbonates to thin-bedded, dark-colored limestones or and platform drowning
(more frequently) by diverse, fully marine faunas (e.g., the
occurrence of corals, bivalves and aulotortid foraminifera The inner platform facies of the highstand systems
within a thick sequence of monotonous carbonates). tracts is dominated by bedded Lofer cyclothems in
Permian and Triassic carbonate platforms of the Ara- which sub- to intertidal algal stromatolite as well as
bian Peninsula and Neo-Tethys are characterized by dis- mudstone are more common than subtidal megalo-
tinctive second order supersequences (P1–4 and Tr1–4, dont-rich floatstone. Subaerial exposure horizons are
duration 5–20 million years) and composite third order common. The greatest facies variation of the isolated
sequences (duration 0.5–5 my) (Weidlich and Bernecker, Kawr platform occurs at the platform rim (Fig. 3). The
2003). Triassic supersequence Tr4 can be correlated from HST commenced with coral reef facies evolving from
the attached Arabian platform to the isolated Kawr boundstone to floatstone and finally to lithoclastic
platform. Composite sequences of the Misfah Formation rudstone due to decreasing water depth and increasing
(designated MF) are represented at Jebel Kawr. turbulence. Composite sequence MF3 is terminated by
prograding platform facies with heterogeneous com-
4.1. Facies and variation of transgressive systems tract position including abundant bivalve floatstones,
(TST) oolites, and wacke/packstone. Several subaerial expo-
sure horizons point to short-lived, punctuated sea-level
Patterns and lithologies of TST facies at the platform lowstands as a result of decreasing accommodation
margin can be best described using the data of the Sint space.
M. Bernecker / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 252 (2007) 270–280 277

The youngest platform sediments have been eroded HST comprising ooid shoals at the platform rim and
and platform termination remains therefore enigmatic. megalodont mudstones within the platform. At the end
Matrix-rich debris-flow deposits with onlapping geom- of MF3-HST, coral reefs aggraded to near sea level, but
etries at section Ala (Fig. 4(1)) point either to a lowstand show no evidence for subaerial exposure. When the
wedge with long-lasting platform exposure at the end of reefs approached sea level, percentages of floatstone and
Triassic or to a rifting event related to extension of the rudstone increased and platform aggradation becomes
Neo-Tethys (e.g., Glennie et al., 1974; Robertson and dominant. Reef development therefore reflects shallow-
Searle, 1990; Loosveld et al., 1996). The youngest ing with changes in biotic composition and preservation
carbonates of the isolated Kawr platform are thin- of framework. The debris flow deposit at section Ala
bedded deep-water limestones, which record platform may indicate either subaerial exposure of the isolated
drowning subsequent to erosion. platform prior to drowning or drowning of the plat-
form related to rifting and opening of the Neo-Tethys.
4.3. Interpretation Drowning of carbonate platform may be associated with
debris flows (Zempolich, 1993) and it is known from the
Correlation of three measured sections of the Misfah southeast Bahamas that platform drowning may be
Formation from Jebel Kawr points to a platform archi- caused by downfaulting and platform collapse (Mullins
tecture with composite sequences MF1–MF4 (Fig. 5). et al., 1991). At present, subaerial exposure as control
Basal sequence MF1 is exposed only at Wadi Amqah mechanism is favored. A karst erosion surface, where the
and lacks biostratigraphic microfossils. The occurrence cavities are filled by a breccia with a red-brown matrix
of P. duplicata (Fig. 3(3)), C. besici (both calcareous (e.g., Bernecker et al., 1999), is described by Beurrier
algae), and A. praegaschei (foraminifer) at the base of et al. (1986) from the top of the Misfah Formation at
sequence MF2 at Sint section points to a Carnian age. Jebel Ghul. Subaerial exposure is also supported by
Sequence MF4 at the top of Wadi Ala yields Triassina evidence for long-lasting exposure of the Arabian plat-
hantkeni (foraminifer) (Fig. 3(2)) indicative of a form during the Rhaetian (Weidlich and Bernecker,
Rhaetian age. The termination of Jebel Kawr shallow- 2003).
water platform sedimentation is indicated by platform
drowning during the Lower Jurassic. A debris flow 5. Conclusion and discussion
deposit at section Ala is separated from the bedded facies
by normal faults (Fig. 4(1)). It is obviously younger than Jebel Kawr of Oman is interpreted as an isolated Late
the bedded facies of the Misfah Formation because the Triassic platform, composed of four third-order se-
breccia contains clasts of the Misfah Formation and older quences (MF1–MF4). The maximum flooding surface
than post-drowning sediments, which are not represented (mfs) of MF3 can be correlated to the attached Ara-
in the debris flows. Summarizing these data, a Carnian-to- bic platform. The shallow-water carbonates of Jebel
Rhaetian age for platform development is indicated by my Kawr belong to the Misfah Formation and comprise
biostratigraphic determinations. A Ladinian-to-Early- platform-rim as well as bedded inner-platform facies.
Jurassic age has been postulated in the literature (Pillevuit, Although platform-rim facies has been found only in the
1993; Baud et al., 2001) and cannot be ruled out. section near Sint, a margin with varying amounts of reef
All sequences MF1 to MF4 are characterized by and cross-bedded oolite is preserved analogous to other
variations of internal architecture. Differentiation of Triassic isolated platforms known from the Dolomites
TST and HST units is only possible near the platform (e.g., Gaetani et al., 1981; Bosellini, 1984; Blendinger,
rim (section Sint) due to a pronounced facies differen- 1986; Blendinger and Blendinger, 1989; Harris, 1993,
tiation in ooid shoal, reef, and bedded platform facies. In 1994). The inner platform is characterized by stacked
addition, only MF3 can be correlated on a platform-wide high-frequency cycles with subtidal to intertidal car-
scale, owing to a significant facies changes in other bonate sequences (e.g., Fischer, 1964; Goldhammer
sequences (Weidlich and Bernecker, 2003). The other et al., 1990; Enos and Samankassou, 1998; Haas, 2004).
TSTs and HSTs platform sequences are indistinct and, Two stages of development are postulated for Jebel
therefore, their differentiation would be too arbitrary. Kawr (Fig. 5) reflecting changes in the depositional
An apparent change in the architectural style from a profile of this Late Triassic isolated platform from low
low-relief bank to a platform rimmed by reefs took place relief to high relief. Carbonate deposition commenced on
during MF2. Until MF2-TST, the depositional system a bank based on the following observations: (1) The lack
corresponds to a low-relief bank with indistinct lateral of depositional relief is indicated by the absence of talus
gradients. Facies differentiation is obvious during MF2- breccias close to the margin of the bank. (2) Oolites and
278 M. Bernecker / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 252 (2007) 270–280

Fig. 5. Model for the isolated platform development in the Neo-Tethys: depositional architecture, sea-level reconstruction, and stratigraphic log
correlation for Jebel Kawr, Oman Mountains.

crinoid floatstone, interpreted as rim of the bank, lack the generally evolve from a low-relief bank to a rimmed
capability to create a high-relief slope. (3) Published platform (Cenozoic: Bahama Bank, Betzler et al., 1999;
studies show that new carbonate depositional systems Triassic: Great Bank of Guizhou, Lehrmann et al., 1998;
M. Bernecker / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 252 (2007) 270–280 279

Late Paleozoic: Capitan Reef Complex, southwestern US, tation: evidence from a spectacular outcrop (Adnet, Austria). Facies
Saller et al., 1999). Shallow-water sedimentation at Jebel 40, 229–280.
Betzler, C., Reijmer, J.J.G., Bernet, K., Eberli, G.P., Anselmetti, F.S.,
Kawr started with a phase of carbonate production 1999. Sedimentary patterns and geometries of the Bahamian outer
interrupted by volcanic episodes. The bank consisted of carbonate ramp (Miocene–Lower Pliocene, Great Bahama Bank).
a shallow subtidal to peritidal interior and oolite shoals at Sedimentology 46, 1127–1143.
the margin. The change in architectural style to a rimmed Beurrier, M., Bechennec, F., Rabu, D., Hutin, G., 1986. Geological Map
of Rustaq, Sheet NF 40-3D, Scale 1:100.000, Explanatory Notes,
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platform height and developed a relief along the margins Italy. Sedimentology 33, 159–183.
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(2) breccia intervals with clasts of reef limestone and (3) examples from the Triassic of the Dolomites, northern Italy. Sedi-
olistoliths of similar reef limestones in the surrounding mentology 31, 1–24.
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