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Compiled by: Sunil Kamath Enrolment no. 033260423

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Table of Contents
Description Page No.
Introduction 3

About Jet Airways 4

System Analysis -Preliminary Investigation 4

Objective & Scope Statement 6

Feasibility Study report 7

Software Engineering Paradigm 10

Software & Hardware Specification 11

System Design- Data Flow Diagram 12 – 22

System Design – Entity Relationship Diagram 23 – 27

Table Structure 28 – 33

Program Structure 34

Module description 34 – 40

Validation Checks 41

Implementation & Maintenance 42

Testing Techniques & Security Measures 42

Cost Estimation 43

Source Code 46 – 406

Application Screen Snap shots 407 – 457

Project Schedule 458

Future Scope & Enhancement 459

Glossary 460 - 470

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Airline Industry
Airline is a very dynamic industry as it involves high operating cost and low profit
margins. The fast paced growth in the economy, further liberalization of economic
policies, changes in the life style and introduction of segment based market schemes
has resulted in a market growth of 25% in 2004-2005. This explosive growth in this
industry can be seen by the number of new airlines cropping up. Most of the airlines
lease aircrafts from an external agency as it is quite expensive to buy. As a result the
lease rental are exorbitant and this further adds to the fixed operating cost. In order to
survive in this cut throat competition an airline must be geared to minimize its cost of
operations by optimizing the various functions in an airline. There are various operating
departments in an airline and Flight Operations is one of the important departments. The
primary function of a Flight Operations department are:
o Efficient routing of aircrafts as per the airline schedule.
o Safe and efficient dispatch of flights.
o Monitoring and tracking of flights on a 24x7 basis.
o Crew tracking.
o Monitor Weather for various cities.
o Monitor the Aircraft Defect list.
o Disseminate Fuel information to the internal departments and to the external
oil companies.
o Create an Log of events and information.
o Assign Gates/Bay number for the aircraft in consultation with the Apron
o Reconcile the Route Navigation charges billed by the Air Traffic control based
on the actual operations.
o Dissemination of flight information such as aircraft tails, delays to all other
operating departments on a timely basis.
o Provide flight list for Air Defence Clearance of flights.
In order to achieve all the above functions a efficient system support is of prime
importance. For the purpose of this project I have chosen India’s premier airline Jet
Airways India Ltd.

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About the Jet Airways
Jet Airways currently operates a fleet of 39 classic and next generation Boeing 737-
400/700/800/900 aircraft, 3 A340-300 E aircraft and 8 modern ATR72-500 Turboprop
aircraft. With an average age of a little over 4.6 years, the airline has one of the
youngest aircraft fleet in the world. Approximately 24,000 passengers travel daily on Jet
Airways’ 280 flights to 48 destinations that span the length and breadth of India and
beyond, including Colombo in Sri Lanka, Kathmandu in Nepal, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur
in Malaysia and London Heathrow, UK.

Since inception in May 1993 until end-July 2005, Jet Airways has flown over 53.5 million

About Flight Operations – Jet Airways

In Jet Airways the Flight Operations has been using the Conventional White board to
track the departure and arrivals of it flights. They have 2 gigantic white boards primarily
used for writing the departure/arrival of the flights & Operating Crew details, etc. With the
increase in the number of departures out of Mumbai the White Board has already
exceeded its usable capacity. It is very cumbersome and time consuming to manage this
board manually. Hence a need is felt to automate the process of flight tracking and
facilitate the various tasks in Flight Operations.

System Analysis
♦ Preliminary Investigation

The main reason for originating this project is to achieve greater speed in processing
data, better accuracy, improved consistency, faster information retrieval, integration of
business areas, reduced cost and better security.

A short study of the present manual process was done and various requirements were
identified after discussing with the staff and managers. The study also considered the
present staff strength handling the present manual process and the volume of work
involved, time taken to get the required information, delays in issuing reports. A list of the
all the forms and documents were inspected to understand the work flow.

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Also information available from some other existing systems in the airline were also
discussed and identified for interfacing with the proposed system.

After studying the various aspects of the Flight Operations such as the requirement, the
manual system and the other isolated island systems we are in a position to define the
scope of the system.

♦ Drawbacks of the present manual system:

1. Updates of Flight movement on Board is totally manual.
2. Requires regular and constant updation.
3. Any incorrect/erroneous updation might delay the flights. E.g. Incorrect
Registration to fueling company or to the crew.
4. During schedule disruption due to fog or adverse weather or aircraft
grounding due to numerous changes in ETD and registration it is difficult to
get the complete information on time.
5. There is a communication gap at times between the department.
6. The large number of telephone calls are required to be made to external oil
companies for passing the flight and fuel information and the schedule
changes in a day. On an average 3 telephone calls per flight.
7. A hand written manual shift log is maintained in a long book, searching for a
log made for a specific day, say 1 or 2 months back is a tedious task and also
to maintain the paper logs is a problem.
8. Limited Flight information is available on connecting to a hosted Reservation
system in (USA) but the communications cost through SITA are expensive as
there is a character based charge for information retrieval.

Hence a system is required to eliminate the above mentioned drawbacks and automate
the flight tracking aspect to support the growth of the company.

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♦ Objectives :
1. Automate the Flight tracking process to facilitate efficient delay recovery and
2. Provide complete flight information from the Base Station Perspective and
network wide view
3. Provide statistical reports
4. To eliminate/minimize the communication gap within the department and
other departments due to lack of timely information and co-ordination.
5. Facilitate efficient administration.
6. Up-to-date flight information with crew information on desktops of Executives
and staff.
7. Reduce the current communication costs.
8. Conventional White Boards to be replaced by a PC based System.

♦ Scope of the Project:

1. Automatically receive and process the flight information from airline hosted
2. Automatically receive and process Crew Information from AIMS- crewing
3. Timely automatic updates of Flight information to eliminate possible causes of
delays to the flight due incorrect, improper manual updates.
4. Provide a tool to Operations Control Centre (OCC) to take timely
appropriate action for Delay Recovery.
5. Ability to view and update aircraft defect list.
6. Automate the process of Fuel Information dissemination to external Fuel
companies and internal departments
7. Able to maintain a shift log for the events of the day, instructions, flight
schedule changes electronically for staff.
8. Provide support for Parking Stand (Bay/Gate) allocation for incoming and
outgoing flights for generation of Apron sheet.
9. Provide a report to facilitate reconciliation of the Route Navigation charges
billed by the Air Traffic control based on the actual operations.
10. Prepare a flight list for submission for Air Defence Clearance of flights.

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11. Disseminate Fuel information to the internal departments and to the external
oil companies through electronic means.
12. Provide statistical reports for On Time Performance.
13. Provide Weather information received from external system.

♦ Feasibility Study
Based on the data collections done in the preliminary investigation I examined the
system feasibility and I conclude that the system will be beneficial to the organization.
The detailed analysis for feasibility study done is given below:
 Technical Feasibility
Flight information can be downloaded from the hosted mainframe system and
uploaded in the JETSOFT system for user required displays. Similarly crew
information can also be obtained from the crewing system and uploaded in the
JETSOFT system for user use. However it is not feasible to connect to the ATC /Air
Defense systems to upload the flight information for Air Defence clearance as same
is not acceptable to ATC due to system security policy. Also information can be sent
to the mainframe system only as messages and cannot be directly uploaded in
hosted system.

The system can be configured to provide warnings/alerts as per the rules defined by
the users in this document and any new rules which may arise after the project
initiation will need to be handled separately. The proposed system is based on user
inputs through the use of keyboard, mouse and touch screens and not designed to
handle the user voice commands. Voice recognition is possible but due to the
various complexities involved and considering the requirement of cost reduction this
option is not proposed.

In order to provide up-to-date flight information with crew information on desktops of

Executives and staff across the network including over the internet for traveling
executives a web based solution is more suitable. Also this would eliminate/minimize
the need for any specific software requirements on the client computers. The system
needs to be designed keeping in mind that user will use normal desktop PCs with a
browser such as Internet Explorer. Suitable measures for information security such
as login authentication needs to be used to prevent unauthorized access. Users will

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be allowed to access information depending on the access rights provided to the

Also two information updation intensive process will have to run at the server end for
periodic update of flight information and crew information.

 Operational Feasibility
The system is operationally feasible to implement and a good majority of users
seemed to be very enthusiastic about the possibility of getting a computer system
which can give them a integrated view and also eliminate the manual laborious
tasks. Also with the proposed expansion of the flight schedule the system will
definitely be able to provide a good support and increase the staff productivity. The
users are looking forward to get rid of the huge White board which is used to record
the flight details manually as it has exceeded its capacity and there is no space to
install any more white boards. Thus the PC based solution is also a necessity
considering the space constraints.

Inputs have been considered from most of the users in the operational areas with
respect to what is their focus on and what information is a must, what is good to have
and what is optional, to provide the information is a concise manner.

The system will go a long way in increasing the staff productivity and ability to handle
a number of flights with ease. Also the verbal communication can be reduced to a
great extent and thus reducing the chances of miscommunication. With information
being available across the network with the staff the latest information may be
disseminated to the passengers proactively resulting in a more satisfied customer.

The system requires users to have basic knowledge of computers and ability to
handle the peripherals like mouse, etc. Elementary working knowledge of Windows
and internet explorer will be essential. Also a good support level IT staff is required
who can perform the basic functions of server maintenance such as database
backups, database administration and system administration to ensure a good
uptime. Also there is a requirement of a good communication network links for the
users accessing application over LAN/WAN to get response in a reasonable time.

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The network links may be required to be upgraded to handle the application
bandwidth requirements.

 Political Feasibility
The management has shown a good deal of interest to implement the new system
due to the increasing cost constraints and also the space constraints. This support
would go a long way in making the system a successful system and facilitate the
growth as planned by the company.

 Economical Feasibility
The proposed system would be providing a good number of Tangible and Intangible
Tangible Benefits
a. Additional space required to continue the manual system.
b. Facilitate reconciliation of the Route Navigation charges billed by
the Air Traffic control based on the actual operations will minimize
the erroneous billings.
c. Most of the existing desktop PCs can be utilized for this client
access and a new PCs if procured will also permit access to other
d. The manpower requirement will be reduced as the present staff will
be able to handle the proposed expansion and the present flights
more efficiently. Thus saving the salaries cost.
e. Reduced/minimized errors/delays as a result of staff error.
f. Communication Cost of all the individual staff accessing the hosted
system for the same flight information can be reduced/minimized.

Intangible Benefits
a. Increased staff productivity and quality of work.
b. Ability to relocate/redeploy existing staff.
c. Reducing repetitive or monotonous work for staff
d. Developing as better reputation in the market as passenger will get
up to date information.
e. Minimal staff training.

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Tangible Costs
a. System development cost.
b. Cost of upgrading the network links to support WAN Access.
c. Cost of procuring the Servers, System software, Backup software etc.
d. Cost of additional IT support staff.
e. Recurring Maintenance costs.

The benefits definitely outweigh the costs as the costs are more related to a
infrastructure cost and will also help in expanding other systems across the network. The
system maintenance and support may be outsourced as per the policy of the company.

♦ Software Engineering Paradigm

Software Engineering Paradigm applied for this project is the waterfall model since the
requirements for the system are clearly outlined. The waterfall model has the following
steps :
 System Analysis – In this phase all the Flight Operations requirements are
analyzed and various feasibility study done. The outcome is the objective and
scope statement.
 System Design – In the phase the scope statement is analyzed further in detail
and structure of the system identified to achieve the objective. The various Data
Flows are identified, the relationship between the entities is identified, the
algorithms, program structure, database design and process logic is laid down.
Also various modules and interfaces required are identified.
 Coding – In this phase the actual development takes place in a modular fashion.
In this project the two server running modules are coded in Visual Basic and for
web based access the programs are coded using a combination of Microsoft
ASP, Javascript and Vbscript and HTML.
 Testing - In this phase each module is tested individually and collectively as a
package. The testing strategy applied is to perform unit testing and system
 Implementation – In this phase the software is installed at the client company
and the key users are provided access to the system for inputs and user

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 Maintenance – Any bugs reported by the user are rectified, any specific issues
which may need further fine refinement and within the scope of the project are
taken and re-coded and provided to users for acceptance. Any new requirements
outside the scope statement have to be treated as enhancement and the revised
cost and time estimates are calculated and provided for the client company

♦ Software and Hardware Requirement Specifications

Client Side
Platform : Windows 98/2K/XP
Front-end : Internet Explorer ver. 5.5 or above.
Standard Configuration Desktop PCs with 128 MB RAM
21 inch Monitor (Recommended) or Big screen Projector Display/ Wall Unit 42 inch LCD
TFT (display for crew members)

Server Side
Platform : Windows 2000/2003 Server
Backend: Oracle 8.0 or above
Microsoft Internet Informations Services (IIS)
Backup Software – Veritas (Recommended)

Hardware :
Intel® Xeon™ Processors/Up to 3.0GHz (with 2MB L2 cache) or equivalent
DDR2 Memory 2GB (Minimum)
Internal hard disk (GB) 36.4 (Minimum)
Optional zero channel Ultra 320 SCSI RAID 5 with ServeRAID 6i+
Hot swap redundant power supplies
Integrated dual 10/100/1000 Ethernet Card

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♦ System Design
Complete Structure of the Program

Level 1 DFD

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DFD Level 2 – Schedule Fuel Update MODULE

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DFD Level 2 – Movement Sheet Module:

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DFD Level 2 – Crew Update Module:

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DFD Level 2 – Crew Information Module:

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DFD Level 2 – Power Gantt Module:

DFD Level 2 – Fuel information Module:

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DFD Level 2 – Reports Module:

DFD Level 2 – Weather Information Module:

DFD Level 2 – E-Logbook Module:

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DFD Level 2 – Database Maintenance Module:

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Complete Entity Relationship Diagram for JETSOFT

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Entity Relationship Diagram LEGEND

The above ER Diagram is shown blown up below for clarity.

Option has the list of Module/Sub module codes and OPASUSER contains the
user details. The relation TACCESS contains the Option Codes assigned to the

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Aircraft Data contains Aircraft Defects Zero or more for each aircraft.
Aircraft Operates the Daily flights – Flight Main.

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(FLIGHT MAIN) Flights operate to and from a Station

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CREW operates Multiple Flights on a given day (FLIGHT MAIN).
Each (FLIGHT MAIN) Flight has a Fuel Figure (FUEL DATA) associated with it.
Each FUELDATA for a flight has a OIL Company (FLIGHT SCHDEULE) assigned.

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Data Structure
The Oracle Tables structure for supporting the above functionality is given below:
Table Name Description
OPASUSER The users ids and profile for access to system.
TACCESS The access codes for modules assigned to the user
OPTIONS Module name and access codes
FLIGHT Referential Table for List of flights in Schedule
STATION Referential Table for list of Stations to where the flights Operate.
AIRCRAFT Referential Table for Aircraft Information
FUELDATA Fuel related information for flights on a daily basis.
MISC_CODE Miscellaneous Code Descriptions and Codes
FLTMAIN Main Table holding the Day to Day Flight Data
ACFTDATA Table holding the Aircraft Defects assigned to Aircraft on a Day to Day Basis
CREW Table holding the Crew information for flights on a Day to Day basis


MET Table holding the Aviation Weather report as received from ATC.

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Program structure

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Number of Modules and their Description: There are total 11 modules in this project.
They are named as under
o Schedule and Fuel Update
o Crew Information Update
o Movement Sheet
o Power Gantt
o Crew Information
o Weather Information
o Fuel Information
o Bay View
o E-Logbook
o Referential Tables Maintenance
 USER Master
 FLIGHT Master

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 STATION Master
 MISC_CODE Master
o Reports
 Flights Operated
 On Time Performance

Schedule and Fuel Update

This is a Visual Basic code module running on the server in the backend. The primary
purpose of this module is to update the is to receive the multiple line flat file with
DDMMM.FLD and translate the information, perform validations and update the
appropriate tables. This file received downloaded every 2-3 from the hosted system for
all the flights for the day.

Crew Information Update

This is another Visual Basic code module running on the server in the backend. The
primary purpose of this is to receive the flat file from Crew Scheduling system AIMS as
ROSTER.TXT. The file contains the flight number and cockpit crew names, id, etc. The
program will update the corresponding tables for each flight. The program also checks
for the changes in the crew and makes appropriate updates to facilitate the crew
information module.

Movement Sheet
This is one of the main modules accessible to the end user. This would be coded using a
combination of Microsoft ASP, VBScript and JavaScript. The information is presented in
a tabular manner. The main functions of this module are:
1. Displays all Departure and Arrivals of any of the selected Base Stations.
2. Display is based on Aircraft Registration Departing from Station and Arriving in to
3. Delayed Flights - ETD is shown in RED. Also a # sign is added to timings of
Delayed flights.
4. Arriving Flight the ETA is shown in Green under column ETA/ON.
5. Provisional ETA is show in RED under the column PRE.

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6. Flights are shown in the Order of Departure Time and the Arrivals side is
arranged based on the next arrival of the aircraft in the station.
7. Buttons are provided to select between any of the Base Stations.
8. Keeping a cursor on the Flight number will tell you where this aircraft arrived from
or what time it is arriving.
9. Toggle Button is provided to "Show All Flights" or "Show Latest Flights" Clicking
"Show Latest Flights" will hide some of the flights and show pending
departures/arrivals and flights which have arrived within last 1 hour 15 minutes.
10. The Operating Cockpit Crew Information is also shown against the flight. In
addition to this in case if any crew is operating multiple flight legs then the crew
information would also indicate the previous arriving and next departing flight leg.
11. Aircraft Pattern is also displayed on clicking the Flight number.
12. Departure Bay numbers are color coded in the following manner:
a. Black - Bay is allotted for Flight but Aircraft is NOT on ground.
b. Green - Aircraft is on Ground on the displayed bay.
c. Maroon - Aircraft is Off Chocks or Airborne.
d. Light Blue - Aircraft has landed at destination/diversion airport.
13. Cancelled Flights are displayed as 'XXLD' when the flights are cancelled.
14. Aircraft Defect (MEL) information can also be updated and indicated on the
affected flights.
15. A plain text display of aircraft pattern can be generated from Movement sheet.
16. Generate ADC sheet for submission to ATC.
17. Toggle to see the data in UTC (GMT) times or local station times.
18. The Display is set to Auto Refresh every 2 minutes and can be manually
refreshed by pressing F5.

Power Gantt
Flight information Display in the form of a Gantt chart. This would be coded using a
combination of Microsoft ASP, VBScript and JavaScript. The flights are shown as a chain
of flights tagged to a particular aircraft. This gives the complete view of all the flights in
Jet Airways Network. The main user of this system is the Operations Control Centre,
Mumbai. This provides an aircraft registration wise display of flights. The flight boxes are
color coded to display of Flight Status. The main features of this modules are outlined

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o Facilitates monitoring of flights and shows different colors for missing timings.
o Highlights delayed flights and flights with ‘Insufficient Ground Time’.
o Non-normal flights like Diverted, Air Interrupt, Ground Return flights are shown
with appropriate colors.
o Cancelled Flights and Unassigned Flights are shown separately.
o Crew information is also available for each flight as received from Crew
scheduling system – AIMS.
o Filtered view by Aircraft Registration, Departing Station, etc is possible
o Problem Alerts displays all the flights that are having ETD, missing timings, Late
Arrivals and Insufficient Ground times.
o Bay Monitor advises if there are any bay clashes between flights arriving.
o The Bay check also warns for any improper Bay assignments like Boeing 737-
700 aircraft assigned to ATR bay and other apron bay allocation violations for
Mumbai airport.

Crew Information

This displays crew information with respect to crew base as to which crew are departing
and arriving also as to what flights they are operating with a crew base wise view. If they
are operating multiple flights then each flight will indicate the previous flight from where
they are arriving and the This would be coded using a combination of Microsoft ASP,
VBScript and JavaScript. This is used from the point of optimizing the crew transport
arrangement for pickups and drops.

Weather Information
This module displays the aviation weather METAR report received from the ATS unit.
This information is pulled from another Oracle based system. This would be coded using
a combination of Microsoft ASP, VBScript and JavaScript. The system displays the
information for all the reports received for the station or latest one in order of the time of
validity. A typical weather report for station Delhi look like this:
METAR VIDP 250930Z 31003KT 2500 HZ FEW035 SCT040 FEW040CB BKN100 42/26
Q0996 TEMPO 29030KT VIS 0800 DS/TSRA=

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Fuel Information
Fuel information is meant for dissemination of fuel information to internal departments
and external agencies like fuelling company. This would be coded using a combination of
Microsoft ASP, VBScript and JavaScript. Fuel information of each flight is received in the
Flat file received from the hosted system and updated by the SKED FUEL update
module. This information is available for editing to the operations staff/dispatcher who
would confirm and verify the details. Once flight is verified this information is available for
display to external fuelling companies like Indian Oil, HP, BP. The fuelling/Oil companies
can view only flights allocated to them. The information is also made available to the
Customer Services personnel for preparation of the flight paper work (Load & Trim
Following information is available in the Fuel Sheet:
• Flight no.
• Sector
• Aircraft Registration
• Estimated/Actual Arrival Time of the A/c from previous flight.
• Bay number a/c is or will be parked.
• Standard Time of Departure
• Actual Time of Departure
• Status of Flight – Scheduled/ETD-Delayed/Departed/Airborne/Arrived
• Departure Fuel
• Trip/Burn Fuel
• Name of Person Updating
• Time of Update
The changes in Fuel figures are recorded internally in the history and can be used for
any investigation.

Bay View
Bay View is used for actual bay allocation of flights. This would be coded using a
combination of Microsoft ASP, VBScript and JavaScript. This module has a built in logic
which checks for each bay assignment made. It checks for conflicting bays, ground time

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and type of aircraft. Bay view automatically displays the flights in arrival departure format
as per aircraft registration and the departure time.

Operations Control BOM will use this for bay allocation of flights arriving in /departing
from BOM. Bay view considers the ETA, ETD and the actual information display when
preparing the Apron sheet. In BOM the Apron sheet is then submitted to the Apron
Control for their approval. The bay allocation rules for BOM would be set in the System.

Electronic logbook is meant for Flight Dispatch and Operations Control staff. Traditionally
all the events, messages and information are updated in paper log book and over a
period of time this becomes voluminous. With computerizing the logbook it is easy to
refer to a log details for past or future or present date. This facilitates a paperless
logbook and provides the flexibility to view the logbook on anywhere in the Jet Intranet
network. E- Logbook is meant for recording of their significant briefings, events and
rescheduling of flights. This would be coded using a combination of Microsoft ASP,
VBScript and JavaScript. Log files are written as flat files on the server as “PROFILE
NAME” DDMMMYY.log. Each individual user has a profile (group) assigned to him/her
and he/she can view/write logs for only for his profile/group. A security feature also exists
which enables or disables a person from viewing or editing a logbook.

The E-Logbook also has a feature where a log entry can be made for a range of
continuous date by specifying the Start and End Date and the entry will get appended to
the logs of all these dates for the user profile. Also the Log books are of 2 kind one
append only and the other where editing can be done.

Referential Tables Maintenance

This contains the database maintenance programs pertaining to USER Master, FLIGHT
Master, AIRCRAFT Master, STATION Master, MISC_CODE Master and ACCESS
RIGHTS tables.

Reports -Flights Operated

This is a report that is to be sent to the Airport Authority of India, RNFC section on a daily
basis. This contains details of flight operated out of any given station on a given day.

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RNFC bills received have a quite a number of incorrect details of aircraft registrations,
timings , etc. With this report the instances of these errors will come down.

Reports – On Time Performance

This is a report that contains a On Time Performance report for a given day. This lists the
Fleet wise No. of flights Scheduled, Operated, Cancelled, Delayed and the On Time
Performance Percentage with a tolerance of 0 mts, 5mts, 15mts, 30mts and more than
30 mts.

In this project the two server running modules are coded in Visual Basic and for web
based access the programs are coded using a combination of Microsoft ASP, Javascript
and Vbscript and HTML. The backend modules are invisible to the end user and are
responsible for periodic updation of the Oracle database. The user web front end has a
automatic refresh which gives seamless continuous update. The entire module wise
code listing is given below.

Code Efficiency
The algorithms used are optimized for best performance. The use of graphical images
files is restricted to only small GIF files where essential. In most of the screens the colors
have been used to generate the desired effect and to speed up the page loading time.

Special attention is paid to the pages users use the most and they have been optimized
for performance and speed. The database structure is also defined considering the likely
complex queries. Thus database structure is optimized to avoid nested sub-queries
which take additional time as the database size grows.

Optimization of code
Special care has been to taken to optimize the code by addition functions, subroutines
for repeated tasks to minimize the lines of code. Also care has been taken to use
concise JavaScript code and also the function and variable names are always short. The
cumulative effect of these optimizations result in significant savings due to reduced size
of page. Unwanted tags have also been eliminated to reduce the page size. Also in
server running VB modules there is no front end forms for display and everything is run

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in background and all notifications/errors are written in log file. This results in memory

Validation checks
In a majority of the places drop down menus are provided to the user for selection to
minimize the cases of invalid user entry. Validations are performed for data types
mismatches e.g. where in user enters alphanumeric instead of numeric , etc.

Validation is a process of checking input data to ensure that it is complete, accurate, and
reasonable. Although it would be impossible to guarantee that only valid data are
entered into a computer, a suitable combination of validation checks should ensure that
most errors are detected.

Character-type check
Each input data item is checked to ensure that it does not contain invalid characters.
For example, an input name might be checked to ensure that it contains only letters of
the alphabet, or an input six-figure date might be checked to ensure it contains only

Field-length check
The number of characters in an input field is checked to ensure that the correct number
of characters has been entered. For example, a six-figure date field might be checked to
ensure that it does contain exactly six digits.

Control-total check
The arithmetic total of a specific field from a group of records is calculated – for example,
the hours worked by a group of employees might be added together – and then input
with the data to which it refers. The program recalculates the control total and compares
it with the one entered to ensure that entry errors have not been made.

Check Date
Check the Date entered is valid .e.g 30-FEB-2005 is a invalid date.

Range check

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An input numerical data item is checked to ensure that its value falls in a sensible range.
For example, an input two-digit day of the month might be checked to ensure that it is in
the range 01 to 31.

Implementation and Maintenance

After testing and installation, we need to maintain and supports the system, unless the
client specifies otherwise. Installation includes migrating the system to its final location,
often called the “production environment.” Installation is considered complete once the
system is operating in the production environment in accordance with the defined
requirements. This involves populating the database servers (referential tables) with the
required data and monitor the Web and database servers for continued performance in
accordance with user requirements, making system modifications when needed.

The users are trained on the use of the system and the key users complete the user
testing and compare the manual procedures with the system output and give a final

Subsequently further optimization or refinement of any specific modules could be taken


Testing Techniques
Unit Testing
Each of the independent modules are tested in isolation to find any errors. Database
was loaded with sample data for flights with different stages and tested in each of the
modules. Different flights status like Diverted flights, Ground return flights, Aircraft
registration changes were tested. Subsequently the output for each of the modules was
checked and found working as planned. Individual modules were tested for various
parameters as found working satisfactory.

System Testing
The system was tested against the scope statement and found to be meeting the
requirements subject to the user acceptance. Information updated in Bay view module
was being represented correctly in the movement sheet module.

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System Security measures
The website has a 3 level security which can be further increased. The user can access
the web site only of he knows the IP address and the port number. Secondly the access
to the website is further restricted to the IP address of the of the client machines which is
maintained by the web master in the IIS web site configuration. The third level security is
the user name and password access which again provides the users only the options to
which he has access rights to. When the user logs in the access right codes are saved
as cookies and any access to the pages is limited to his access rights. In addition to this
each individual module again checks for the user access rights if activated by the user
using a direct URL.

Another tier of security can be added by introducing the domain authentication, where in
the user is able to access the website only once he enters the username, password and
domain name correctly in addition to the above security measures. Also security setting
in the IIS have been set to allow the user to read access and there is no write or
directory browsing access provided to the website. The Web site access is to execute
scripts only. Also the log is maintained by the IIS of each login activities. Lastly the
connection timeout can be set to acceptable limits e.g. 900 secs of inactivity and then
the user needs to login again to prevent unauthorized access. Also a the website uses
IFRAMES so the normal File-Save option does not save the page correctly unless the
user specifically selects the frame to save.

Cost Estimation of the Project

The Cost Estimation Model used for this project is COCOMO II (Constructive Cost
Model) model.
The Estimated Lines of Code (LOC) = 10000 lines = 10 KLOC
The Intermediate COCOMO model is used here where the effort is measured as:
E = aKLOC^b x EAF

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B = 1.01 + 0.01 x SUM(Wi)
B = 1.01 + 0.01 x 2.96 = 1.0396

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KLOC = 10
EAF = 0.4900
A = 2.55
Effort = 2.4 x 10 ^ 1.0396 x 0.4900
Effort = 12.887 ~ 12.9 Person Months
Cost per Person Month = USD $150
Cost of the Project = 12.9 * 150 = USD $1935

The system has 2 built in reports Flights Operated and On Time Performance. The users
can generate reports based on various criteria. E.g. On Time Performance report can be
generated by selecting Specific Flight no, specific Departing station, specific Arriving
station, Aircraft, Fleet, etc and their combinations.

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Project Source Code
This is the listing of the project Source code.

Directory Structure of the JETSOFT Website



End of Project Coding

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Application Screen Shots
Login Screen

Main Menu After Successful Login

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Movement Sheet in UTC Times – Show Latest Option

Movement Sheet in Local Times – Show Latest Option

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Base wise View Option of Movement Sheet

Movement Sheet - Show All Flights Option

This option shows all the flights from the start of the day. Show Latest option shows only
recent departure and arrivals to minimize the need to scroll.

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Movement Sheet – MEL Option
This option allows the user to enter the aircraft defect, view them and update them.

Aircraft Defect Creation

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View Aircraft Defect

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Show Aircraft Defect for the affected flights in the Start/End Time.

Movement Sheet – ADC (Air Defence Clearance) option

Base Wise Selection

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Movement Sheet – Aircraft Pattern Option
Showing the aircraft rotations in sequence.

Power Gantt – UTC Option

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Here the Flights are arranged in a Gantt Chart representation. With each box
representing a flight and the color the flight status.

Power Gantt- Local Option

The above screen can be viewed in Local times as well..

Power Gantt- Crew

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Selecting the on the box opens a window showing the crew information for the flight.

Power Gantt – Problem Alerts

This option lists all the problems like Insufficient ground time, Delays, Late arrivals and
missing times for Ops controller to monitor.

Power Gantt – Bay Monitor Option

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This option Shows the bay assignments which have become invalid as a result of tail
changes or delays. Unassigned Bays are also shown.

Crew Information
This option provides a listing of crew arriving and departing from a given base or all
bases and the flights operated by them.

Weather Information

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This option retrieves the Aviation weather data from a external database/system which
receives the data from the AFTN drop circuit.

Fuel Information – UTC option

This screen is used by the external fueling companies for getting flight information and
fuel information. The customer services also use this for preparation of the Load and
Trim of the aircraft.

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Fuel Information – Local Option
Fuel Information is also available in Local times option using the View Local button.

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Fuel Information – Base Selection

Fuel Update
The Fuel information is updated by the user once he confirms the details it is available to
all the external users.

Bay View – UTC option

The Bay number assigned to the flights can be viewed and entered here.

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Bay View – Local option
The latest arrival and departure shown in Local times.

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Fuel Info - Base Selection

Bay View – Bay Allocation option

The entries are validated for the apron rules and for the clashing bay assignment.
If the same bay is assigned to two different flights arriving before the first flight departs a
warning is shown.

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Invalid Bay assignment are alerted.

E-Log Book
The staff uses this option to make shift log. There is complete flexibility in entering and
viewing the details. The log is viewable/editable only as per the user profile. Any log
entries made for future date are also available. As can be seen that on 020805 a log
future log is available for 20-Aug-05.

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Future Log of 20-Aug-05

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Log Updates

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E-Log Book - Multiple Update
This option allows a single log to be appended to multiple dates.

Reports Option

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2 reports are available – Flights Operated and On Time Performance.

Flights Operated – Local Option

Flights Operated – UTC Option

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On Time Performance Report
This report provides the statistics Fleet wise for On Time Performance. This shows the
flights Operated, Cancelled, Delayed. The On Time performance percentage with 0, 5,
15,30 and >30 minutes tolerance. Also the OTP percentage with 0, 5, 15,30 and >30
minutes tolerance.

Both these reports can be further filtered to get a very specific report based on the
CRITERIA selection.

The criteria option helps is setting the filtration criteria for the reports and all other

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Criteria is for:
Date: Start Date and End Date
Flight – Domestic/ International
Flight Type – Scheduled, Charter, Test ,Ferry, or combination

In addition to this the various options Flight no, Sector, Departure Station, Arrival station,
Registration, Aircraft Type, Fleet, Aircraft Category, Airline, Day of Week and STD and
STA option can be selected for further nailing the criteria.

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The Domestic/International selection has a drop down.

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The Flight Type can be also be selected.

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Specific Criteria like departing station can be selected which presents another dialog
allowing the user to select among the possible departing stations.

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Multiple Options can be selected forming the “AND” criteria.

For Example if we want to get the On Time Performance for all flights departing out of
BOM and DEL station. We select the Criteria:

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Select the Departing Station and type the start and end date.

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Next select the BOM and DEL from the Departing Station button.

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Now Select the reports- On Time Performance- This gives the Departure and Arrival
OTP statistics for BOM and DEL.

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Similarly if we want to now the OTP for BOM-DEL flights. We select Sector.

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We Select the BOMDEL in the Sector button.

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Generate the OTP report- Showing the Departure and Arrival statistics for BOM-DEL

The Criteria is always saved and now if we select the Flight Operated it will show all the
BOM-DEL Flights.

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Database Maintenance Screens

Flight Maintainence

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The Flights are listed as a master reference to enable dropdown selection in the criteria
option. Selecting any Flight Opens a edit window as shown below:

Option is available to Go to Next and Previous flight , to make changes and Update and
also to go back to the listing.

Clicking the ADD option in the list opens a window for user input:

The Dropdowns are provided for users to select the station pairs and Flight type.

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Selecting the Check box of the flight and pressing Delete option allows the user to delete
the record.

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Aircraft Maintenance
The Aircraft listing is shown along with a/c types, manufacturer and category.

Selecting any aircraft opens a window for editing as shown below:

The user has the option to go to the Next and Previous Aircraft entry and update the
same. List option takes the user back to the initial aircraft listing.

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Selecting the ADD option opens a screen for the user

Dropdowns are provided for the user to select the Aircraft Type.

Dropdowns are provided for the user to select the Aircraft Manufacturer.

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Dropdowns are provided for the user to select the Aircraft Category.

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Selecting the checkbox for any entry and pressing delete button deletes the aircraft

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Station Maintenance
Shows the listing of the valid stations with IATA, ICAO codes & ground times.

Selecting the Checkbox against any station entry and pressing delete button, deletes the

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Selecting any Station record opens a screen for the user to edit the station record.

Selecting the add option opens a screen similar to the screen shown above for user

Miscellaneous Codes Maintenance

This is a very important table and provides a basis for providing the dropdowns and
validations for various screens in the project.

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Selecting the Add Option allows the user to add records.

Drop downs have been provided to add valid values for Miscellaneous Codes.

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Miscellaneous codes have entries such as Aircraft Types which are used to provide drop
down for aircraft type selection and validation. This allows the flexibility to the user to
add new aircraft types.

Aircraft Type 7374 B737-400

Aircraft Type 7377 B737-700
Aircraft Type 7378 B737-800
Aircraft Type 7379 B737-900
Aircraft Type A343 AIRBUS 340
Aircraft Type AT72 ATR-72

Selecting the check box against the miscellaneous code entry and pressing delete
deletes the record.

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Miscellaneous Code Listing
The following are the valid Miscellaneous codes used in this project.

Misc Type Desc Misc Code Description
Airlines 9W Jet Airways
Airlines KL KLM
Aircraft Type 7374 B737-400
Aircraft Type 7377 B737-700
Aircraft Type 7378 B737-800
Aircraft Type 7379 B737-900
Aircraft Type A343 AIRBUS 340
Aircraft Type AT72 ATR-72
AB Airbus 4
AT Turbo Prop Aircraft 3
CL Classic B737 400 500 1
Aircraft New Generation B737 700
NG 2
Category 800 900
Department CUS Customer Services 2
Department ENG Engineering 3
Department OPS Flight Operations 1
Flight Type C Charter 2
Flight Type E Test 3
Flight Type F Ferry 4
Flight Type S Schedule 1
Flight Type T Training 5
Group OPS Normal User
Group SUP Super User
Group VO View Only
Location BLRDES BLR Despatch
Location BOMOCC BOM Ops Control
Manufacturer A ATR 2
Manufacturer B Boeing 1
Manufacturer C Airbus 3
Status:Flight A Air Interrupt
Status:Flight C Leg Created by Diversion
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Status:Flight D Diversion Leg
Status:Flight G Ground Interrupt
Status:Flight N Normal
Status:Flight R Returned Leg
Status:Flight V Virtual Leg
Status:Flight X Leg Cancelled/Deleted
Status:Leg E ETD/ETA 2
Status:Leg F Off Ground 5
Status:Leg G On Ground 6
Status:Leg I In 7
Status:Leg N Indefinite delay 3
Status:Leg O Out 4
Status:Leg S Scheduled 1
Status:Leg X Leg Deleted 8

User Data Maintenance

Listing showing the user details.

Selecting the user entry opens screen for editing the contents, changing profile, etc.

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Selecting the ADD option in the listing opens a window for new user entry.

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Drop downs are provided for selection as defined in the Miscellaneous Code table for
user Profile.

Drop downs are provided for selection as defined in the Miscellaneous Code table for
user Group/user type .

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Drop downs are provided for selection as defined in the Miscellaneous Code table for
User department.

Selecting the Checkbox against the user entry and pressing the delete button deletes
the user record.

Access Rights
This shows the two drop downs the Group and the User list and the rights assigned to
the user selected.

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The Group dropdown shows the available user groups.

The User drop down shows the users in the group selected.

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Next the List box in the left shows the Options which are not assigned to the user and

can be selected using this button and selecting submit. To de-assign select the

entries in the list box on the right side and select the button to deselect and press

As can be seen below 3 additional option have be assigned to the user.

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The user can change his password from the main screen after login.

Project Schedule - Gantt Chart

• Gantt charts (also referred to as project timelines) are bar graphs that help plan
and monitor project development or resource allocation on a horizontal time
scale. Typically, Gantt charts indicate the duration of specific tasks.

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Future scope and further enhancement of the Project
The program to start with has Base user stations. Over a period of time as the Airline
network gets developed the same can be expanded to provide flight information to all
station over the intranet.

The communication cost incurred due to all users accessing the hosted system for
limited information access can be eliminated.

This project can be further expanded for providing more sophisticated reports for
management. Where in the users will need to update the actual delay reasons which
may be classified further as Avoidable and Unavoidable delays. These codes can then
be further categorized under various departments.

Reports can then be made to generate statistics for Flight Wise On Time Performance,
Station Wise On Time Performance, Department Wise On Time Performance and the
combination thereof. This will enable the Jet Management to pin point the areas
needing improvement.

Apart from this the Power Gantt option can be further enhanced to be more interactive
with users being able to move and change the aircraft and schedule using click and drag
in a browser. These would then generate the corresponding updates in the database and
trigger a special message to all the users.

Crew information module can be further enhanced to perform some limited crew
scheduling functions such as check for crew availability in case of crew reporting sick.
Monitor the crew duty time limitations.
Weather information can be further enhanced to include more aviation report such as
satellite pictures and forecasts.

Aircraft defect module can be further enhanced to integrate with the Engineering
technical systems.

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With the airline getting more sophisticated aircrafts which can send lot of flight
information through ACARS on aboard, the system can be tailored to receive and
process these messages.

The project has immense scope as it presently centers around just one Department
functions of an airline. These flight related activities which are common to all the other
departments can be included.

JETSOFT is an evolving program and has seamless boundaries for future expansion.
Also with the increase in the number of users the hardware and the program structure
will need to be reworked for optimum performance.

A number of websites have been used through the Google search for ASP and VB.


Air Defence Clearance
Each flight being operated requires to gave a Air Defence clearance number which is
obtained from the Military Liaison Unit.

Air Interrupt
When the flight after getting airborne has to return back to the departing station due to
any reason it is termed as Air Interrupt.

Air Traffic Control (ATC)

The agency responsible for the safe conduct of flights in the Indian airspace. ATC
controls the departure and arrivals from the airports and facilities.

Aircraft Defect
Any snag in the aircraft which is pertaining to any part being unserviceable is termed as

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Aircraft Pattern
The sequence of flights to be operated by a particular aircraft in a predefined sequence.
E.g. JAM – 321 – 322 – 401 – 402 which indicates that aircraft JAM will be operating
Flight 321 and then 322 and then 401 and 402.

Aircraft Tail
The unique registration assigned to the aircraft by the Civil Aviation Ministry. In India the
aircrafts are assigned registrations like VT-ZZZ where typically the ZZZ keeps changing.

Aircraft Type
The aircrafts are categories under various types by the Aircraft Manufacturer depending
on the Aircraft model number assigned. E.g. Boeing 737-400, 737-700, 737-700W, 737-
800, etc.

The part of an airport in which aircraft are turned around or loaded and parked.

Apron Sheet
The sheet prepared by the airline for allocations of parking stands for approval by the
Apron authorities. There a rules defined for which aircraft types can be parked on what
bays and also there are specific number of bays allotted to the airline.

Base View
The perspective of viewing the flights departing and arriving from a specific station. Base
Station is a station where the aircraft has a major number of its operations. E.g. BOM is
a Base station or HUB for Jet Airways.

Bay Allocation
The process of assigning the parking stands/bays to the each arriving aircrafts keeping
in mind the various constraints, rules of bay assignment.

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Cancelled Flights
Flights which are not operating and declared as cancelled due to various reasons such
as bad weather, etc.

Conventional White Boards

The White boards (which replaced the old black boards) for manual recording of the
flight information and crew information with a marker pen.

Crew Schedule
A crew may operate a number of flights in a day as per the scheduling rules. You have a
case when the crew operating a flight and would be operating another flight after the
present flight.

Crew Tracking
The process of tracking the crew departure and arrivals which is required to facilitate the
various other tasks of flight operations.

A flight is said to be delayed if it is operating after the scheduled departure time.

Delay Recovery
The process of re-sequencing the flights assigned to a aircraft registration with or without
the combination of revising the departure times and cancellations as required.

Departure Fuel
The fuel confirmed by the crew to be loaded in the aircraft for the conduct of the flight.

A flight is said to be diverted when it is airborne from the departure station for destination
station and subsequently lands at the destination alternate airport due to Weather, etc.

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Estimated Time of Arrival

Estimated Time of Departure

Flight Status
The flight status is the status of the flight such as Normal, Diverted, Ground Return, Air
Interrupt, Cancelled, etc.

Flight Times- IN
When the flight arrives at the destination airport and the aircraft comes to a halts and the
chocks are put on it is termed as the IN Time.

Flight Times- OFF

When a flight departs from a departing station and the time it get airborne is termed as
OFF time.

Flight Times- ON
When a flight departs from a departing station and the time it touch down at the arriving
station is termed as ON time.

Flight Times- OUT

When a time the flight departs from a departing station.

Fuel Information
The fuel parameters such as Departure Fuel, Burn, Status used by the Oil companies
and the Customer Services department.

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Fuel Status
Fuel status if the fuel shown is Confirmed or HOLD meaning tentative,

Gate/Bay number
The allotted place in the apron where the aircraft if parked.

Ground Return flights

When a flight departs from the departing station and returns back to the parking stand
before getting airborne is termed as Ground return. E.g. due sick passenger, etc.

Ground Time
The ground halt of the aircraft at the arriving station before the next flight is conducted.


Insufficient Ground Time
When the incoming flight is delayed which results in reducing the available ground time
for the subsequent flight scheduled to be operated by the aircraft. In such cases the
subsequent flight needs to be either delayed or reassigned to another aircraft available
at the station.


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Late Arrival
When the incoming flight arrives after the scheduled/planned arrival time it is said to be
delayed or late arrival.

The local time of the station. In India the local time for all the station is IST. In USA each
station may have different local time depending on the time zone it comes under and the
applicable day light savings.

METAR is the scheduled observation taken at the end of half hour. SPECI is an
observation taken at an unscheduled time due to certain criteria that is met such as low
visibility, low clouds, frozen precipitation, or thunderstorms. E.g. of METAR is shown

METAR VABB 041656Z 19020G26KT 5000 SHRA BKN070 12/08 NOSIG=

Minimum Equipment List (MEL)

The allowed aircraft defects under which a particular aircraft may depart legally by the
regulatory authorities once the necessary steps are taken.

Missing timings
When the OUT, OFF, On or IN times are not reported within the tolerance time limit of
the estimated time it is termed as missing times. E.g if the Standard departure time in
1000 hrs and not flight information of the departure is available till say 1010 hrs the OUT

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time is said to be missing unless the flight is delayed and then needs to have a
Estimated Time if Departure (ETD).

Network View
The network wide view of flights contrary to the Base view. This shows the entire
schedule with flights assigned in sequence to the various aircrafts in a Gantt chart

Oil Companies
The authorized fuelling companies such as Indian Oil, Hindustan Petroleum, etc. fueling
the aircrafts.

Operations Control Centre

The section in Flight Operations responsible for delay recovery and flight tracking.

On Time Performance (OTP)

The On Time Performance report of the airline indicates the percentage of flights
scheduled vs Flights Operated and Flight Delayed with various tolerance levels. E.g. No
of flights delayed by say 0 mts. 5mts, 15mts ,30 mts and >30 mts and the percentage of
such delayed flights compared to the number of flights operated. This may again be
based on station, Aircraft type, etc.

Provision Estimated Time of Arrival.


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The unique registration assigned to the aircraft by the Civil Aviation Ministry. In India the
aircrafts are assigned registrations like VT-ZZZ where typically the ZZZ keeps changing.

Route Navigation Charges

The charges levied by the Air Traffic Control authorities for providing the facilities for the
conduct of flight. These include the charges for use of Navigation facilities to the flight.

The sequence of the flights assigned to a particular aircraft.

The Flight Schedule indicates the flights scheduled to operate with times and the
departing and arriving stations.

Shift Log
The log of events recorded by the staff in the conduct of flights. These include recoding
of events, instructions, notices, etc.

Standard Time of Arrival

Standard Time of Departure

Tracking Flights
The process of keeping track of the various flight positions, the tails assigned to the
flights and their flight status at any given point of time.

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Trip/Burn Fuel
The fuel which is likely to be burned during the course of the flight which is included in
the Departure fuel apart from the other contingency fuel like Holding fuel, Alternate fuel

Unassigned Flights
Flights which are not assigned any aircraft tails and/or have been de-assigned from a
particular tail due to various reasons.

UTC Time
UTC (or GMT/Zulu)-time is the Coordinated Universal Time, GMT is Greenwich Mean
Time. It is the local time at 0° longitude used as a standard time reference across the
world. Any time represented in UTC time can be then converted to the local time of the
city after the conversion factor is applied. E.g. India is 5 hrs 30 mts ahead of UTC time
so 0000 hrs UTC is 0530 hrs IST.


Weather information
The various aviation weather reports like METAR, SPECI providing aviation relevant
information parameters.


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*** End of Project Report ***

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