42 Alternative Solutions The BCA successfully combines a dual approach.

It provides a strong degree of ce rtainty, combined with a high degree of flexibility, so that: • If compliance is achieved with the deemed-to-satisfy provisions, a building prop osal is deemed to have complied with BCA96; however • If a building proponent wants to take an alternative approach, they have the opp ortunity to do so - on the understanding that their proposal must achieve the performance requirements of the BCA. The first step in using the BCA is to choose the means by which the building pro posal will achieve compliance with the BCA. This will be by either: • A deemed-to-satisfy solution; or • An alternative solution; or • A mixture of deemed-to-satisfy and alternative solutions. Deemed to Satisfy (DTS) provisions is the prescriptive solution that accompanies the BCA, which is deemed to meet the BCA performance requirements. They generally consist of the technical provisions of the previous BCA and contain many of the traditional con struction methods that are commonly used. A building solution that meets the DTS provision s needs no further assessment for compliance with the performance requirements. The term alternative solution is a building solution that complies with the perf ormance requirements by means other than the DTS provisions. Examples of this approach m ay include the use of differing methodologies or approaches such as those in fire e ngineering. Part 3 43 Another example is the use of other international construction codes that differ from the Australian Standards referenced in the BCA DTS provisions. To ensure that an alternative solution, when using a building solution, meets th e performance requirements, it must be assessed according to one or more of the sp ecified assessment methods outlined in BCA Clause A0.9. The nature of the assessment met hod to be used will vary depending on the complexity of the alternative solution. Evidence of Suitability BCA Clause A2.2 allows the following evidence (in some cases subject to conditio ns) to be submitted in support of a proposal that a material, form of construction or desi gn meets a performance requirement or a deemed-to-satisfy provision: i) A report from a Registered Testing Authority. ii) A current Certificate of Accreditation or Certificate of Conformity. iii) A certificate from a professional engineer. iv) A current certificate issued by a product certification body that has been a ccredited by the Joint Accreditation System of Australia and New Zealand (JAS-ANZ). v) A current Scientific Services Laboratory (SSL) Product Listing Data Sheet. vi) Any other form of documentary evidence that adequately demonstrates suitabil ity for use.

Verification Methods A verification method is defined in the BCA as a test, inspection, calculation o r other method that determines whether a building solution complies with the relevant performan ce requirements. It provides a methodology under which a building solution can be a ssessed, and includes a benchmark or predetermined acceptable criteria that the solution must achieve. 44 There are two types of verification methods specified in Clause A0.9: i) The verification methods contained in the BCA ii) Other verification methods as the appropriate authority accept for determini ng compliance to the performance requirements. The verification methods contained in the BCA are CV1 and CV2 and are used for measuring ‘radiant heat flux’ as part of assessing matters associated with fire spre ad between buildings. Other verification methods by definition allow almost any met hodology or procedure to be used to verify an alternative solution, subject to that method b eing suitable and used in the appropriate way. An example, may be an overseas design standard or even, an Australian Standard covering design methodologies eg AS 3600 – concrete structures. Expert Judgement – Who Is an Expert? The BCA defines an ‘expert’ for the purposes of making expert judgement. The BCA definition of expert judgement is the judgement of a person who has the qualific ations and experience to determine whether a building solution complies with the BCA perfor mance requirements or DTS provisions. In some instances, there can be a degree of overlap between expert judgement and other assessment methods. This is particularly the case with: i) The acceptance of documentary evidence complying with: ii) BCA Clause A2.2 (a) (iii) - ‘other appropriately qualified persons’: 45 and iii) Clause A2.2 (a) (VI) - ‘other documentary evidence’; and iv) Comparative assessment with the DTS Provisions Prior to accepting an opinion or report using expert judgement as an assessment method, it is necessary to determine whe ther the person providing the report or opinion is an expert and can provide the necessar y expert judgement. To determine if the report or opinion can be accepted, it would be ne cessary to assess the ‘experts’ qualifications and experience relevant to the matter that needs consideration. If the person providing the report or opinion is considered by th e approval authority to be appropriate to provide expert judgement, an approval authority c an accept a report or opinion that concludes that a building component, material, design or system satisfies the relevant BCA performance requirements. Unit 4 Apply Fire Protection Requirements.

4.1 Passive and active fire control elements for low-rise building required by t he BCA and other legislation are identified and applied. Part 2.3 of the BCA outlines the Objective, Functional Statement and Performance requirement for Fire Safety Understanding Fire Resistance Levels A Fire Resistance Level, (FRL) is a term used in the Building Code of Australia to provide a uniform nomenclature for the “fire rating” or the prescriptive or “deemed-to-satisfy” requirements for specific element of construction. 46 FRL ratings are determined by subjecting a representative test specimen to the s tandard fire test; defined in the BCA as AS1530/4 and AS4072/1, the latter providing mor e detailed advice to for service penetration and control joints, complementing Section 10 o f AS1530/4. The FRL consists of three ratings in minutes, (rounded down to the nearest 30 mi nute time increment), namely Structural Adequacy, Integrity and Insulation, designated in the following format: FRL = Structural Adequacy / Integrity / Insulation. Example = 120/120/60 These ratings are determined from the standard fire test or by way of formal opi nions or assessments by Registered Testing Authorities in strict accordance with the acce ptable protocols for variations to tested specimens outlined in the relevant product st andard. Structural Adequacy In terms of the standard fire test, failure for structural adequacy is deemed to have occurred when the element collapses or the rate of deflection for the element is in exces s of prescribed limits Integrity In terms of the standard fire test, failure for integrity criteria, for elements intended to separate spaces and resist the passage of flame from one space to another, is de emed to occur when continuous flaming occurs on the non-exposed side of the tested speci men, or when cracks, fissures and other openings through which hot flames and gases can pass through are present, (the method of measurement is given in the test method). 47 Insulation In terms of the standard fire test, failure for insulation criteria, again for e lements intended to separate spaces and resist the passage of flame from one space to another, is de emed to have occurred when the temperature rise of the non-exposed side exceeds predeter mined thresholds, typically being a temperature rise of (average) 140K and maximum 180 K. For penetration seals, only the maximum failure criteria of 180 degrees are used. Self Assessment Exercise Read Part 2.3 of the BCA and determine the Objective, Functional Statement and Performance Requirements for Fire Safety. How are heating appliances affected?

Are there any requirements for bushfire prone areas? What are the typical areas of potential fire spread? What are the requirements for alpine areas? Where is the alpine area in Australia (look at part 1.1 Passive fire control relates to the prevention of the spread of fire before it h appens. This is carried out by the fire rating of building materials and early warning systems. Active fire control is the requirements for the protection of persons and proper ty during an actual fire. These requirements could include emergency procedures, alarms etc. Part 3.7.1 Fire Separation Acceptable Construction Practice Self Assessment Exercise Read part 3.7.1 External walls of class 1 buildings need to designed to prevent the spread of fi re from adjacent properties What is the minimum distance between buildings? What if the building is closer to the boundary than the required minimum distanc e? How is the measurement of distances calculated? 48 4.2 Level Of Fire Resistance Required For The Construction Of Various LowRise Buildings Is Determined. Construction of external walls Part outlines the requirements of the construction of external walls for meeting the fire resistance requirements. Self Assessment Exercise Read section and figures a and b What is the FRL of the external wall? What is the type of material required for the wall? What are the requirements for windows in openings of fire resistance walls? Detail the concessions for non-habitable rooms? Protection of Class 1 Buildings between Classes 10a. Figure, 5, 6, 7 outlines the requirements for protection of these buildi ngs. Self Assessment Exercise What are the minimum distances between class 10a and class 1 and under what circumstances? What are the fire resistance requirements for the construction of walls between a carport and a building? Separating Walls The spread of fire between buildings can be detrimental to the safety of the occ upants. A fire can spread through the walls and the roof area The BCA outlines the requirements for separating walls (Part 49 Self Assessment Exercise Read part and figures and What are the requirements for separating walls? How is fire prevented from spreading under non-combustible roof cladding? Smoke Alarms Part 3.7.2 outlines the requirements of smoke alarms Acceptable Construction Practice Self Assessment Exercise What are the requirements for smoke alarms? Where must they be located?

What is the Australian Standard for smoke alarms? Does there need to be any lighting to assist evacuation? 50 Practice From the layout of a class 1 building, determine the position of smoke alarms th at comply with the BCA Heating Appliances Part 3.7.3 outlines the requirements for fire resistance of heating appliances What is the acceptable construction manuals referred to? There are various heating appliances mentioned such as oil-fired, solid fuel, bo ilers and pressure vessels. Lounge Kitchen Bedroom Bedroom Laundry WC Bath 51 Reading Read part What are the requirements for the construction of a fireplace? What are the requirements for the construction of a chimney? What is the minimum distance of a flue from a wall? Bushfire Areas Part 3.7.4 outlines the requirements of buildings in bushfire prone areas. • What is the acceptable construction manual referred to? • What are the State and Territory variations? The categories of bushfire attack are stated in AS 3959. These categories can be medium, high and extreme depending on the location of the dwelling to the bush. Reading What are the requirements for medium category for floors, external walls, window s, external doors, roof coverings etc? (Tables Attempt Assessment Event 3 *************************************************

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