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# Exponential and

3 Logarithmic Functions
Contents

## 3.1 Rational Indices

3.2 Logarithmic Functions
3.3 Graphs of Exponential and Logarithmic
Functions
3.4 Applications of Logarithms
3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
3.1 Rational Indices

n

. radical n y
the

equation xn = y.

## But in this chapter, we shall only consider the positive value of x.

If x n = y , then x = n y .

Remarks:

## Content • For n = 2, we call x the square root of y.

For n = 3, we call x the cube root of y.

1. 2 y is usually written as y.

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3.1 Rational Indices

B. Rational Indices

## For y ≠ 0 , we define the rational indices as

follows:
1
y =n y
n

m
y = (n y ) m = n y m
n

## where m, n are integers and n > 0.

Content

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3.1 Rational Indices

## For equation x = b where b is a non-zero constant, p and q are integers with

q

q
q ≠ 0 , we take the power of p on both sides,

p q q

(x ) = b
q p p

p q q
×
x q p
=b p

Content ∴ x=b p

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3.2 Logarithmic Functions

## then x is called the logarithm of the number y to the base a.

It is denoted by x = log a y.

## If y = a x , then log a y = x, where a > 0 and a ≠ 1.

Content

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3.2 Logarithmic Functions
Notes :
1. If y ≤ 0 , then log a y is undefined.

• When a = 10 (thus base 10), we write log x for log10 x. This is called
the common logarithm.

1. By the definition of logarithm and the laws of indices, we can obtain the
following results directly.

(a) 1 = 10 0 , ∴ log1 = 0

## (c) 100 = 10 2 , ∴ log100 = 2

Content
(d) 0.1 = 10 −1 , ∴ log 0.1 = −1

## (e) 0.01 = 10 −2 , ∴ log 0.01 = −2

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3.2 Logarithmic Functions

For M, N > 0,

## 1. log(MN ) = log M + log N

M
2. log = log M − log N
Content N

3. log M = n log M
n

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3.2 Logarithmic Functions

## Logarithmic equations are the equations containing the logarithm

of one or more variables.

## In order to solve these kinds of equations, we need

to use the definition and the properties of logarithm.

## Content For example, if log x = 2, then

x = 10 2
= 100

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3.2 Logarithmic Functions

## Exponential equations are the equations in the form ax = b, where a

and b are non-zero constants and a ≠ 1.

For such equations, we take logarithm on both sides and reduce the
exponential equation to a linear equation, that is,

log a x = log b
x log a = log b
log b
Content
x=
log a

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3.2 Logarithmic Functions

## D. Other Types of Logarithmic Functions

For bases other than 10, such as the function f ( x) = log a x for x > 0, a > 0
and a ≠ 1, they are also called logarithmic functions.

The logarithmic functions with different bases still have the following
properties:

1. log a a = 1 2. log a 1 = 0

M
3. log a ( MN ) = log a M + log a N 4. log a = log a M − log a N
Content N

5. log a M n = n log a M

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3.3 Graphs of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

## For a > 0 and a ≠ 1 , a function y = ax is called exponential function,

where a is the base and x is the exponent.
−x
The following diagram shows the graph of y = 2 and y = 2 for –3 ≤ x ≤ 3.
x

Content

Fig. 3.2

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3.3 Graphs of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
Properties of the graph of exponential function:

Fig. 3.2

## • y = ax and y = a–x are reflectionally symmetric about the y-axis.

• The graph does not cut the x-axis (that is y > 0 for all values of x).
• The y-intercept is 1.
Content
4. For the graph of y = ax,
(a) if a > 1, then y increases as x increases;
(b) if 0 < a < 1, then y decreases as x increases.

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3.3 Graphs of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

## Fig. 3.5 shows the graph of y = log x.

Content

Fig. 3.5

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3.3 Graphs of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

The function f (x) = 10x is called the inverse function of the common logarithmic
function f (x) = log x.

function:

## 1. The function is undefined for x ≤ 0.

• For the graph of y = log x,
(a) x-intercept is 1;
(b) it does not have y-intercept;
Content
(c) y increases as x increases.

Fig. 3.5

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3.4 Applications of Logarithms

## Taking logarithm on both sides, we have

log y = log(kx n )

## log y = log k + n log x

Y = a + bX ,
Content
which is a linear function with
Y = log y, X = log x, a = log k and b = n.

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3.4 Applications of Logarithms

## B. Applications of Logarithms in Real-life Problems

1. Loudness of Sound

## Decibel (dB) is the unit for measuring the loudness L of sound,

which is defined as

I
L = 10 log ,
I0

## where I is the intensity of sound and I0 is the threshold of hearing for

a normal person.
Content
Notes:
I0 is the minimum audible sound intensity which is about 10−12 W/m2.

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3.4 Applications of Logarithms

1. Richter Scale

earthquake.

## It is calculated from the energy E released from an earthquake and

is given by the following formula,

Content

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