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**Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
**

Contents

3.1 Rational Indices 3.2 Logarithmic Functions 3.3 Graphs of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 3.4 Applications of Logarithms

3

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

3.1 Rational Indices

A. Radicals

n For a positive integer n, if x = y , then x is and n th root of y, denoted by the radical n y .

However, if n is even and y > 0, then x = + n y or − n y is the solution of the equation xn = y. But in this chapter, we shall only consider the positive value of x. If x n = y , then x = n y . Remarks:

Content

•

For n = 2, we call x the square root of y. For n = 3, we call x the cube root of y.

1.

2

y is usually written as

y.

P. 2

3

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

3.1 Rational Indices

B. Rational Indices

The laws of indices are also true for rational indices. For y ≠ 0 , we define the rational indices as follows: y =n y y = (n y ) m = n y m where m, n are integers and n > 0.

Content

m n 1 n

P. 3

3

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

3.1 Rational Indices

C. Using the Laws of Indices to Solve Equations

For equation x = b where b is a non-zero constant, p and q are integers with q q ≠ 0 , we take the power of p on both sides,

p q q p q p q p

p q

(x ) = b x

Content

p q × q p

=b

∴

x=b

q p

P. 4

3

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

3.2 Logarithmic Functions

A. Introduction to Common Logarithm

If a number y can be expressed in the form ax, where a > 0 and a ≠ 1 , then x is called the logarithm of the number y to the base a. It is denoted by x = log a y.

**If y = a x , then log a y = x, where a > 0 and a ≠ 1.
**

Content

P. 5

3

Notes : 1. • 1.

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

3.2 Logarithmic Functions

If y ≤ 0 , then log a y is undefined. When a = 10 (thus base 10), we write log x for log10 x. This is called the common logarithm. By the definition of logarithm and the laws of indices, we can obtain the following results directly. (a) (b)

Content

1 = 10 0 , 10 = 101 , 100 = 10 2 , 0.1 = 10 −1 , 0.01 = 10 −2 ,

∴ ∴ ∴ ∴

log1 = 0 log10 = 1 log100 = 2 log 0.1 = −1

(c) (d) (e)

∴ log 0.01 = −2

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3

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

3.2 Logarithmic Functions

B. Basic Properties of Logarithmic Functions

The function f ( x) = log x , for x > 0 is called a logarithmic function. Properties of Logarithmic functions:

**For M, N > 0, 1. log(MN ) = log M + log N 2. log
**

Content

M = log M − log N N

n 3. log M = n log M

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Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

3.2 Logarithmic Functions

C. Using Logarithms to Solve Equations (a) Logarithmic Equations

Logarithmic equations are the equations containing the logarithm of one or more variables. For example, log x = 2 is a logarithmic equation. In order to solve these kinds of equations, we need to use the definition and the properties of logarithm.

Content

For example, if log x = 2, then x = 10 2 = 100

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3

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

3.2 Logarithmic Functions

(b) Exponential Equations

Exponential equations are the equations in the form ax = b, where a and b are non-zero constants and a ≠ 1. For such equations, we take logarithm on both sides and reduce the exponential equation to a linear equation, that is, log a x = log b x log a = log b

Content

x=

log b log a

P. 9

3

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

3.2 Logarithmic Functions

D. Other Types of Logarithmic Functions

For bases other than 10, such as the function f ( x) = log a x for x > 0, a > 0 and a ≠ 1, they are also called logarithmic functions. The logarithmic functions with different bases still have the following properties:

1. 3.

Content

log a a = 1 log a ( MN ) = log a M + log a N log a M n = n log a M

2. log a 1 = 0 4. log a M = log a M − log a N N

5.

P. 10

3

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

**3.3 Graphs of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
**

A. Graphs of Exponential Functions

For a > 0 and a ≠ 1 , a function y = ax is called exponential function, where a is the base and x is the exponent.

x −x The following diagram shows the graph of y = 2 and y = 2 for –3 ≤ x ≤ 3.

Content

Fig. 3.2

P. 11

3

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

**3.3 Graphs of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
**

Properties of the graph of exponential function:

Fig. 3.2 • • Content • 4. y = ax and y = a–x are reflectionally symmetric about the y-axis. The graph does not cut the x-axis (that is y > 0 for all values of x). The y-intercept is 1. For the graph of y = ax, (a) if a > 1, then y increases as x increases; (b) if 0 < a < 1, then y decreases as x increases.

P. 12

3

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

**3.3 Graphs of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
**

B. Graphs of Logarithmic Functions

Fig. 3.5 shows the graph of y = log x.

Content

Fig. 3.5

P. 13

3

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

**3.3 Graphs of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
**

The function f (x) = 10x is called the inverse function of the common logarithmic function f (x) = log x. Properties of the graph of logarithmic function:

1. •

The function is undefined for x ≤ 0. For the graph of y = log x, (a) (b) x-intercept is 1; it does not have y-intercept; y increases as x increases.

Content

(c)

Fig. 3.5

P. 14

3

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

3.4 Applications of Logarithms

A. Transforming Data from Exponential Form to Linear Form

We can actually transform data from exponential form to linear form. Suppose y = kxn, where k > 0 and n ≠ 0. Taking logarithm on both sides, we have log y = log(kx n ) log y = log k + n log x Y = a + bX ,

Content

which is a linear function with Y = log y, X = log x, a = log k and b = n.

P. 15

3

1.

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

3.4 Applications of Logarithms

B. Applications of Logarithms in Real-life Problems

Loudness of Sound Decibel (dB) is the unit for measuring the loudness L of sound, which is defined as L = 10 log I , I0

**where I is the intensity of sound and I0 is the threshold of hearing for a normal person.
**

Content

Notes: I0 is the minimum audible sound intensity which is about 10−12 W/m2.

P. 16

3

1.

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

3.4 Applications of Logarithms

Richter Scale The Richter scale (R) is a scale for measuring the magnitude of an earthquake. It is calculated from the energy E released from an earthquake and is given by the following formula, log E = 4.8 + 1.5R where E is measured in joules (J).

Content

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