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Chapter 3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

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3 Logarithmic Functions

Contents

3.2 Logarithmic Functions

3.3 Graphs of Exponential and Logarithmic

Functions

3.4 Applications of Logarithms

3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

3.1 Rational Indices

A. Radicals

n

. radical n y

the

equation xn = y.

If x n = y , then x = n y .

Remarks:

For n = 3, we call x the cube root of y.

1. 2 y is usually written as y.

P. 2

3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

3.1 Rational Indices

B. Rational Indices

follows:

1

y =n y

n

m

y = (n y ) m = n y m

n

Content

P. 3

3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

3.1 Rational Indices

q

q

q ≠ 0 , we take the power of p on both sides,

p q q

(x ) = b

q p p

p q q

×

x q p

=b p

Content ∴ x=b p

P. 4

3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

3.2 Logarithmic Functions

It is denoted by x = log a y.

Content

P. 5

3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

3.2 Logarithmic Functions

Notes :

1. If y ≤ 0 , then log a y is undefined.

• When a = 10 (thus base 10), we write log x for log10 x. This is called

the common logarithm.

1. By the definition of logarithm and the laws of indices, we can obtain the

following results directly.

(a) 1 = 10 0 , ∴ log1 = 0

Content

(d) 0.1 = 10 −1 , ∴ log 0.1 = −1

P. 6

3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

3.2 Logarithmic Functions

For M, N > 0,

M

2. log = log M − log N

Content N

3. log M = n log M

n

P. 7

3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

3.2 Logarithmic Functions

of one or more variables.

to use the definition and the properties of logarithm.

x = 10 2

= 100

P. 8

3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

3.2 Logarithmic Functions

and b are non-zero constants and a ≠ 1.

For such equations, we take logarithm on both sides and reduce the

exponential equation to a linear equation, that is,

log a x = log b

x log a = log b

log b

Content

x=

log a

P. 9

3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

3.2 Logarithmic Functions

For bases other than 10, such as the function f ( x) = log a x for x > 0, a > 0

and a ≠ 1, they are also called logarithmic functions.

The logarithmic functions with different bases still have the following

properties:

1. log a a = 1 2. log a 1 = 0

M

3. log a ( MN ) = log a M + log a N 4. log a = log a M − log a N

Content N

5. log a M n = n log a M

P. 10

3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

3.3 Graphs of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

where a is the base and x is the exponent.

−x

The following diagram shows the graph of y = 2 and y = 2 for –3 ≤ x ≤ 3.

x

Content

Fig. 3.2

P. 11

3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

3.3 Graphs of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Properties of the graph of exponential function:

Fig. 3.2

• The graph does not cut the x-axis (that is y > 0 for all values of x).

• The y-intercept is 1.

Content

4. For the graph of y = ax,

(a) if a > 1, then y increases as x increases;

(b) if 0 < a < 1, then y decreases as x increases.

P. 12

3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

3.3 Graphs of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Content

Fig. 3.5

P. 13

3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

3.3 Graphs of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

The function f (x) = 10x is called the inverse function of the common logarithmic

function f (x) = log x.

function:

• For the graph of y = log x,

(a) x-intercept is 1;

(b) it does not have y-intercept;

Content

(c) y increases as x increases.

Fig. 3.5

P. 14

3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

3.4 Applications of Logarithms

log y = log(kx n )

Y = a + bX ,

Content

which is a linear function with

Y = log y, X = log x, a = log k and b = n.

P. 15

3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

3.4 Applications of Logarithms

1. Loudness of Sound

which is defined as

I

L = 10 log ,

I0

a normal person.

Content

Notes:

I0 is the minimum audible sound intensity which is about 10−12 W/m2.

P. 16

3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

3.4 Applications of Logarithms

1. Richter Scale

earthquake.

is given by the following formula,

Content

P. 17

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