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Chapter 6 Further Applications (1)

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6 Contents

6.2 More about Exponential and Logarithmic

Functions

6 Further Applications (1)

6.1 Golden Section

A. The Golden Ratio

the ratio of the longer part to the whole is the same as the ratio of the

shorter part to the longer part.

Fig. 6.2

Consider the rod AB as shown in Fig. 6.2, if we say the point C divides the rod

AC CB

in the golden section, then we have = .

AB AC

Content

This specific ratio is called the golden ratio.

P.2

6 Further Applications (1)

6.1 Golden Section

Definition 6.1:

This ratio approximat ely equals to 1.618 : 1 or 1 : 0.618. The exact value

5 +1 5 −1

of the golden ratio is : 1 or 1 : .

2 2

Examples:

a right pyramid with height 146 m and a square base of side 230 m.

The ratio of its height to the side of its base is 146 : 230 ≈ 1 : 1.58.

Content

• Another famous pyramid, Horizon of Menkaure ( 高卡王之墓 ) , is

also a right pyramid with height 67 m and a square base of side 108

m. The ratio of its height to the side of its base is 67 : 108 ≈ 1 : 1.61.

P.3

6 Further Applications (1)

6.1 Golden Section

Consider a line segment PQ with length (1 + x)cm.

Fig. 6.5(a)

Divide the line segment into two parts such that PR = 1 cm and RQ = x cm.

Fig. 6.5(b)

PR RQ

= .

PQ PR

1 x

Therefore, =

1+ x 1

Content 1 = (1 + x) x

0 = x 2 + x − 1 < By quadratic formula

−1+ 5 −1− 5

x= or (rejected)

2 2

P.4

6 Further Applications (1)

6.1 Golden Section

B. Applications of the Golden Ratio

The Parthenon ( 巴特農神殿 ), which is situated in Athens ( 雅典 ),

Greece, is one of the most famous ancient Greek temples.

Content

Fig. 6.8

P.5

6 Further Applications (1)

6.1 Golden Section

The tower is 320 m high. The ratio of the portion below and

above the second floor (l1 : l2 as shown in Fig. 6.9) is equal

to the golden ratio.

Content

Fig. 6.9

P.6

6 Further Applications (1)

6.1 Golden Section

C. Fibonacci Sequence

great Italian mathematician, Leonardo Fibonacci ( 斐波那契 ). This sequence

was first derived from the trend of rabbits’ growth.

Suppose a newborn pair or rabbits A1 (male) and A2 (female) are put in the

wild.

1st month : A1 and A2 are growing.

2nd month : A1 and A2 are mating at the age of one month. Another pair of rabbits

B1 (male) and B2 (female) are born at the end of this month.

3rd month : A1 and A2 are mating, another pair of rabbits C1 (male) and C2

Content v (female) are born at the end of this month. B1 and B2 are

growing.

If the rabbits never die, and each female rabbits born a new pair of rabbits

every month when she is two months old or elder, what happens later?

P.7

6 Further Applications (1)

6.1 Golden Section

Content

Fig. 6.12

P.8

6 Further Applications (1)

6.1 Golden Section

Definition 6.2:

Tn = Tn −1 + Tn − 2 for n ≥ 3,

According to the definition of the Fibonacci sequence, the first ten terms of

the sequence are

1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55.

Content

P.9

6 Further Applications (1)

6.1 Golden Section

Consider that seven squares with sides 1 cm, 1 cm, 2 cm, 3 cm, 5 cm, 8 cm,

13 cm respectively. Arrange the squares as in the following diagram:

Fig. 6.13

Content has width and length that are consecutive terms in the Fibonacci sequence

Then the ratio of the length to the width of the rectangle will tend to the

golden ratio.

P.10

6 Further Applications (1)

6.1 Golden Section

D. Applications of the Fibonacci Sequence

(a) In Music

in Fig. 6.14, 8 of them are white in colour, while the

other 5 of them are black in colour. The 5 black keys

are further split into groups of 3 and 2.

consecutive terms of the Fibonacci sequence.

Fig. 6.14

Content

phi point (61.8%) of the song, as opposed to the middle or end of the song.

P.11

6 Further Applications (1)

6.1 Golden Section

(b) In Nature

1, 3, 5, 8, 13 and 21.

Content

P.12

6 Further Applications (1)

6.2 More about Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Applications

(a) In Economics

times a year with annual interest rate r%, then the total amount $A in the

account at the end of t years can be calculated by the following formula

kt

r

A = P 1 +

100k

In this case, the earned interest is deposited back in the account and also

earns interests in the coming year, so we say that the account is earning

Content compound interest.

P.13

6 Further Applications (1)

6.2 More about Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

(b) In Chemistry

scale, or hydrogen ion index.

pH Value of a solution

[ ]

If H + denotes the hydrogen ion concentrat ion in mol/dm − 3 , then

[ ]

pH = − log H +

10 − 8 mol/dm − 3, then its pH value is

[ ]

pH = − log H +

pH = − log[10 ]

Content −8

=8

P.14

6 Further Applications (1)

6.2 More about Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

(c) In Social Sciences

exponentially.

function

P = 20 000 × (1.08) n ,

Content From the equation, the population of the city after five years will be

approximately 29 000.

P.15

6 Further Applications (1)

6.2 More about Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

(d) In Archaeology

Scientists have determined the time taken for half of a given radioactive

material to decompose. Such time is called the half-life of the material.

carbon-14 present in the object.

t after it dies follows the formula:

t

−

A = A0 × 2 , h

Content

its half-life.

P.16

6 Further Applications (1)

6.3 Nine-point Circle

Theorem 6.1:

mid-points of the three sides and the mid-points

of the segments from the three vertices to the

orthocentre, all lie on the same circle.

Fig. 6.17

Content

P.17

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