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Chapter 9 Variations

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9 Contents

Home

9 Variations

9.1 Introduction to Variations

can use an equation to express the relation.

to its radius r.

When r = 2, A = π × 2 2 = 4π

When r = 3, A = π × 32 = 9π

Home

P. 2

9 Variations

9.2 Direct Variations

Direct Variation

mean that y = kx for a non-zero constant k. Symbolically, we write y ∝ x.

The graph of y = kx is a straight line which passes through the origin, with

a slope k as shown below.

Home

Content

P. 3

9 Variations

9.3 Inverse Variations

Inverse Variation

Both statements ‘ y varies inversely as x’ and ‘ y is inversely proportion al

k

to x’ mean that xy = k or y = for a non - zero constant k. Symbolically,

x

1

we write y ∝ .

x

k

The graph of y = (or xy = k ), with k > 0,

x

is shown :

Home

Content

P. 4

9 Variations

9.3 Inverse Variations

Example 9.7

At a fixed temperature, the pressure P of a gas with a fixed mass varies

inversely as its volume V. If the volume of a balloon is doubled, find the

percentage change of the pressure of the gas in the balloon.

Solution:

1

Since P ∝ , we have PV = k.

V

Let P' be the new pressure, PV = k = P' (2V).

1

P '= P

2

If the percentage

Home P'− P

Percentage change of the pressure = × 100% change is negative, it

P means the value is

Content

− 0.5 P decreased.

= × 100% = −50%

P

The pressure exerted by the gas in the balloon decreases by 50%.

P. 5

9 Variations

9.4 Joint Variations

variables. The variation may be a combination of direct variations and /

or inverse variations. It is known as joint variation.

Joint Variation

variables (either directly or inversely), it is called a joint variation.

Home

For example, if z varies jointly as x and y2, then we have

Content z = kxy 2 ,

P. 6

9 Variations

9.4 Joint Variations

Example 9.8T

Suppose z ∝ x 2 y . Find the percentage change of z if both x and y increase

by 10%.

Solution:

Since z ∝ x 2 y , we have z = kx 2 y , where k ≠ 0.

= k × 1.12 × 1.1x 2 y

Home = 1.269kx 2 y

Content 1.269kx 2 y − kx 2 y

Percentage change = × 100% = 26.9%

kx 2 y

∴ z increases by 26.9%.

P. 7

9 Variations

9.5 Partial Variations

A. z is Partly Constant and Partly Varies Directly/Inversely as x

each part may be either fixed or may vary as other variables.

Partial Variation

(1) If z is partly constant and partly varies directly as x, then

Content

k

z = c + , where c is a constant and k is the variation constant.

x

P. 8

9 Variations

9.5 Partial Variations

Example 9.10T

The price $P of a globe is partly constant and partly varies directly as the

square of the radius r m of the globe.

When r = 0.2, P = $250.

• Express P in terms of r.

Home

Content

P. 9

9 Variations

9.5 Partial Variations

Solution:

P = C + kr 2 , where C and k are constants. P = 50 + 5000 × 0.32

178 = C + k × 0.16 2............(1) = 500

250 = C + k × 0.2 2.............(2) ∴ The price is $500.

(2) – (1):

250 − 178 = 0.2 2 k − 0.16 2 k

0.0144k = 72

Home k = 5000

Substituting k = 5000 into (1),

Content

178 = C + 5000 × 0.16 2

C = 178 − 128 = 50

P = 50 + 5000r 2

P. 10

9 Variations

9.5 Partial Variations

B. z Partly Varies as x and Partly Varies as y

We say that z partly varies as x and partly varies as y2, that is,

Partial Variation

• If z partly varies directly as x and partly varies directly as y, then ,

z = k1x + k2y, where k1 and k2 are variation constants.

Home

(4) If z partly varies directly as x and partly varies inversely as y, then

Content k

z = k1 x + 2 , where k1 and k 2 are variation constants.

y

P. 11

9 Variations

9.5 Partial Variations

Example 9.11T

Q = 26 when x = 1 or 3.

• Express Q in terms of x.

(Give the answers in surd form in

necessary.)

Home

Content

P. 12

9 Variations

9.5 Partial Variations

Solution:

k2

(a) Let the equation of the variation be Q = k1 x 2 + , where k1 and k 2

x

are constants.

k2

26 = k1 × 12

+

1

26 = k1 × 33 + k 2

3

26 = k1 + k 2 ...............(1)

k2

26 = 9 k1 + ........(2)

3

(2) × 3 − (1) : 26 × 3 − 26 = 27 k1 − k1

Home

k1 = 2

Content

Substituting k1 = 2 into (1), we have k2 = 24.

24

∴ Q = 2x2 +

x

P. 13

9 Variations

9.5 Partial Variations

Solution:

24 24

Q = 2 × 62 + 20 = 2 x 2 +

6 x

= 76

2 x 3 − 20 x + 24 = 0

x 3 − 10 x + 12 = 0

( x − 12)( x 2 + 2 x − 6) = 0

− 2 ± 2 2 − 4 × 1 × (−6)

x = 2 or

2 ×1

Home

− 2 ± 28

= 2 or

Content 2

= 2 or − 1 ± 7

P. 14

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