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Variations

9 Contents

9.1 Introduction to Variations

9.2 Direct Variations

9.3 Inverse Variations

9.4 Joint Variations


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9.5 Partial Variations


9 Variations
9.1 Introduction to Variations

Variation describes a relation between two variables, and we


can use an equation to express the relation.

For example, A = πr 2 is an equation which relates the area A of a circle


to its radius r.

When r = 2, A = π × 2 2 = 4π
When r = 3, A = π × 32 = 9π

We note that as r increases, A increases.


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Content Fig. 9.1

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9 Variations
9.2 Direct Variations

Direct Variation

Both statements ‘y varies directly as x’ and ‘y is directly proportional to x’


mean that y = kx for a non-zero constant k. Symbolically, we write y ∝ x.

The graph of y = kx is a straight line which passes through the origin, with
a slope k as shown below.

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Content

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9 Variations
9.3 Inverse Variations

Inverse Variation
Both statements ‘ y varies inversely as x’ and ‘ y is inversely proportion al
k
to x’ mean that xy = k or y = for a non - zero constant k. Symbolically,
x
1
we write y ∝ .
x

k
The graph of y = (or xy = k ), with k > 0,
x
is shown :
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Content

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9 Variations
9.3 Inverse Variations
Example 9.7
At a fixed temperature, the pressure P of a gas with a fixed mass varies
inversely as its volume V. If the volume of a balloon is doubled, find the
percentage change of the pressure of the gas in the balloon.

Solution:
1
Since P ∝ , we have PV = k.
V
Let P' be the new pressure, PV = k = P' (2V).
1
P '= P
2
If the percentage
Home P'− P
Percentage change of the pressure = × 100% change is negative, it
P means the value is
Content
− 0.5 P decreased.
= × 100% = −50%
P
The pressure exerted by the gas in the balloon decreases by 50%.

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9 Variations
9.4 Joint Variations

In many applications, a variable may vary jointly as two or more other


variables. The variation may be a combination of direct variations and /
or inverse variations. It is known as joint variation.

Joint Variation

If one variable z varies jointly as two (say x and y ) or more other


variables (either directly or inversely), it is called a joint variation.

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For example, if z varies jointly as x and y2, then we have
Content z = kxy 2 ,

where k is a non-zero constant.

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9 Variations
9.4 Joint Variations
Example 9.8T
Suppose z ∝ x 2 y . Find the percentage change of z if both x and y increase
by 10%.
Solution:
Since z ∝ x 2 y , we have z = kx 2 y , where k ≠ 0.

If both x and y increase by 10%, then

new value of z = k × [(1 + 10%) x]2 × (1 + 10%) y


= k × 1.12 × 1.1x 2 y
Home = 1.269kx 2 y
Content 1.269kx 2 y − kx 2 y
Percentage change = × 100% = 26.9%
kx 2 y
∴ z increases by 26.9%.

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9 Variations
9.5 Partial Variations
A. z is Partly Constant and Partly Varies Directly/Inversely as x

In many practical situations, a variable is the sum of two or more parts;


each part may be either fixed or may vary as other variables.

The above relationship is a partial variation.

Partial Variation
(1) If z is partly constant and partly varies directly as x, then

Home z = c + kx, where c is a constant and k is the variation constant.

(2) If z is partly constant and partly varies inversely as x, then


Content
k
z = c + , where c is a constant and k is the variation constant.
x

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9 Variations
9.5 Partial Variations

Example 9.10T

The price $P of a globe is partly constant and partly varies directly as the
square of the radius r m of the globe.

When r = 0.16, P = $178;


When r = 0.2, P = $250.

• Express P in terms of r.

(b) Find the price of a globe of radius 30 cm.


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9 Variations
9.5 Partial Variations
Solution:

(a) Let the equation of the variation be (b) When r = 30 cm = 0.3 m,


P = C + kr 2 , where C and k are constants. P = 50 + 5000 × 0.32
178 = C + k × 0.16 2............(1) = 500

250 = C + k × 0.2 2.............(2) ∴ The price is $500.

(2) – (1):
250 − 178 = 0.2 2 k − 0.16 2 k
0.0144k = 72
Home k = 5000
Substituting k = 5000 into (1),
Content
178 = C + 5000 × 0.16 2
C = 178 − 128 = 50
P = 50 + 5000r 2

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9 Variations
9.5 Partial Variations
B. z Partly Varies as x and Partly Varies as y

Let z = A + B, where A varies directly as x and B varies directly as y2.


We say that z partly varies as x and partly varies as y2, that is,

z = k1x + k2 y2, where k1 and k2 are variation constants.

Partial Variation
• If z partly varies directly as x and partly varies directly as y, then ,
z = k1x + k2y, where k1 and k2 are variation constants.
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(4) If z partly varies directly as x and partly varies inversely as y, then
Content k
z = k1 x + 2 , where k1 and k 2 are variation constants.
y

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9 Variations
9.5 Partial Variations

Example 9.11T

Q partly varies directly as the square of x and partly varies inversely as x.


Q = 26 when x = 1 or 3.

• Express Q in terms of x.

• Find the value of Q when x = 6.

(c) Find the possible values of x such that Q = 20.


(Give the answers in surd form in
necessary.)
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9 Variations
9.5 Partial Variations
Solution:
k2
(a) Let the equation of the variation be Q = k1 x 2 + , where k1 and k 2
x
are constants.
 k2
 26 = k1 × 12
+
1

26 = k1 × 33 + k 2
 3
26 = k1 + k 2 ...............(1)

 k2
 26 = 9 k1 + ........(2)
3
(2) × 3 − (1) : 26 × 3 − 26 = 27 k1 − k1
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k1 = 2
Content
Substituting k1 = 2 into (1), we have k2 = 24.
24
∴ Q = 2x2 +
x

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9 Variations
9.5 Partial Variations
Solution:

(b) When x = 6, (c) When Q = 20,


24 24
Q = 2 × 62 + 20 = 2 x 2 +
6 x
= 76
2 x 3 − 20 x + 24 = 0
x 3 − 10 x + 12 = 0
( x − 12)( x 2 + 2 x − 6) = 0
− 2 ± 2 2 − 4 × 1 × (−6)
x = 2 or
2 ×1
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− 2 ± 28
= 2 or
Content 2
= 2 or − 1 ± 7

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