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Chapter 13 Further Applications (2)

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You are on page 1of 16

13 Contents

13.2 Travel-graphs

Home

13 Further Applications (2)

13.1 Euler’s Work in Algebra

A. Introduction

Definition 13.1:

divided by 1 and itself.

Notes:

2 is the smallest prime number and it is the only even prime number.

(a) 13 is divisible by 1 and 13 only, so 13 is a prime number;

Content

(b) 12 ÷ 3 = 4

P. 2

13 Further Applications (2)

13.1 Euler’s Work in Algebra

Definition 13.2:

positive integers other than 1 and itself.

Notes:

1 is neither a prime number nor a composite number.

If two integers are both divisible by a certain number, then that number

is called the common factor of the two integers.

Home

Consider two numbers, 8 and 12. Since both numbers are divisible by 4,

Content we say that 4 is a common factor of 8 and 12.

P. 3

13 Further Applications (2)

13.1 Euler’s Work in Algebra

Definition 13.3:

factors excluding itself.

Notes:

The smallest perfect number is 6, the factors of 6 are 1, 2, 3 and 6.

Since 1 + 2 + 3 = 6, 6 is a perfect number.

devised a simple method for generating perfect number.

Home

Content

If the number 2n – 1 is prime, then 2n – 1(2n – 1) is a perfect number.

P. 4

13 Further Applications (2)

13.1 Euler’s Work in Algebra

eighth perfect number after he had showed that 231 – 1 = 2 147 483 647 is a

prime number.

He also proved that all even perfect numbers are of the form 2n – 1(2n – 1).

• All even perfect numbers are triangular numbers.

• Every even perfect number (except 6) is the sum of

Home consecutive odd cubes.

still cannot find any odd

perfect number.

P. 5

13 Further Applications (2)

13.1 Euler’s Work in Algebra

B. Euler’s Formula

following theorem:

For any positive number k ≥ 2, there does not exist a polynomial f (n)

with degree k such that f (n) are prime numbers for all natural numbers

n.

P. 6

13 Further Applications (2)

13.2 Travel-graphs

unit of time.

Distance travelled

Speed =

Time taken

travelled by an object and the travelling time.

Home

Content

P. 7

13 Further Applications (2)

13.2 Travel-graphs

For example, the following travel – graph show the distance travelled by a

train in an hour.

Home

Travel-graph is also called

Content distance-time graph.

Fig. 13.1

P. 8

13 Further Applications (2)

13.3 Applications of Percentage and Rate

A. Taxation

In Hong Kong, there are three major types of tax for individuals:

2. Property tax is charged on the rents received from a property.

3. Profits tax is charged on the profits earned from a business, trade or

profession,

Home

Content

P. 9

13 Further Applications (2)

13.3 Applications of Percentage and Rate

(a) Salaries tax

The salaries tax is calculated as follows:

1. Calculate the annual income.

The allowance depends on

2. Calculate the deductions and allowances to the family composition.

get the net chargeable income.

3. Calculate the payable salaries tax for the net chargeable income.

Home Notes:

(a) The annual income includes salary, commission, bonus, share option

Content

gain and so on.

(b) The deductions include expenses of self-education, home loan interest

and so on.

P. 10

13 Further Applications (2)

13.3 Applications of Percentage and Rate

After deducting the allowance and deductions, the payable salaries tax is

calculated on the amount of net chargeable income.

The net chargeable income is split into four parts with different tax rates.

The sum of all these parts is the actual amount of payable salaries tax.

The salaries tax rates for the year 2004 to 2005 are given below.

1 On the first $30 000 2%

Home

3 On the next $30 000 14%

Content

4 On the remaining 20%

Table 13.5

P. 11

13 Further Applications (2)

13.3 Applications of Percentage and Rate

(a) Property tax

Property tax is charged on rents received from a piece of land, building or flat

in Hong Kong. This is computed at the standard rate of 16% for the year 2004

to 2005 on the net assessable value of the property and is charged annually.

In calculating the net

assessable value, rates may

be deducted if the owner is

The allowance is 20% of the annual rent. Then responsible for the payment

Home of the rates of the property

P. 12

13 Further Applications (2)

13.3 Applications of Percentage and Rate

(a) Profits tax

profession. The net assessable value is calculated as below:

Home Notes:

There are two different tax rates:

Content

• For corporations, the profits tax rate is 17.5%.

• For unlimited company, the profits tax rate is 16%.

P. 13

13 Further Applications (2)

13.3 Applications of Percentage and Rate

B. Taxi - rates

consists of four parts:

• The charge for extra distance travelled after 2 km (D).

• The charge for waiting time (W).

• Additional charge (A).

The additional charges

include baggage, pets,

Home tunnel fare, etc.

the extra distance travelled after 2 km and W depends on the waiting

time in minutes.

P. 14

13 Further Applications (2)

13.3 Applications of Percentage and Rate

The charge for distance travelled by the taxi can be represented by the

following graph.

Home

Content

Fig. 13.18

P. 15

13 Further Applications (2)

13.3 Applications of Percentage and Rate

C. Water Bills

The water bill is charged at four different levels, according to the levels of

consumption:

On the first 12 m3 Free

On the next 31 m3 $4.16

On the next 19 m3 $6.45

Remainder $9.05

Home

Table 13.6

Content

For example, if one uses 10 m3 of water, then it is free of charges; if one

uses 20 m3 of water, then the charge = (20 – 12) × $4.16 = $33.28.

P. 16

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