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Further Applications (2)

13 Contents

13.1 Euler’s Work in Algebra

13.2 Travel-graphs

13.3 Applications of Percentage and Rate


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13 Further Applications (2)
13.1 Euler’s Work in Algebra
A. Introduction

Definition 13.1:

A prime number is a natural number greater than 1 and it can only be


divided by 1 and itself.

Notes:
2 is the smallest prime number and it is the only even prime number.

Home For example,


(a) 13 is divisible by 1 and 13 only, so 13 is a prime number;
Content
(b) 12 ÷ 3 = 4

12 is divisible by 3. Therefore, 12 is not a prime number.

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13 Further Applications (2)
13.1 Euler’s Work in Algebra
Definition 13.2:

A composite number is a natural number which is the product of two


positive integers other than 1 and itself.

Notes:
1 is neither a prime number nor a composite number.

If two integers are both divisible by a certain number, then that number
is called the common factor of the two integers.
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Consider two numbers, 8 and 12. Since both numbers are divisible by 4,
Content we say that 4 is a common factor of 8 and 12.

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13 Further Applications (2)
13.1 Euler’s Work in Algebra
Definition 13.3:

A natural number is called a perfect number if it is the sum of all its


factors excluding itself.

Notes:
The smallest perfect number is 6, the factors of 6 are 1, 2, 3 and 6.
Since 1 + 2 + 3 = 6, 6 is a perfect number.

In about 300 BC, the famous Greek mathematician, Euclid ( 歐幾里得 )


devised a simple method for generating perfect number.
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Content
If the number 2n – 1 is prime, then 2n – 1(2n – 1) is a perfect number.

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13 Further Applications (2)
13.1 Euler’s Work in Algebra

In 1747, the great Swiss mathematician, Leonard Euler ( 歐拉 ), found the


eighth perfect number after he had showed that 231 – 1 = 2 147 483 647 is a
prime number.
He also proved that all even perfect numbers are of the form 2n – 1(2n – 1).

Euler also discovered some special properties of perfect numbers:

• Every even perfect number ends with a ‘6’ or an ‘8’.


• All even perfect numbers are triangular numbers.
• Every even perfect number (except 6) is the sum of
Home consecutive odd cubes.

Content Today, mathematicians


still cannot find any odd
perfect number.

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13 Further Applications (2)
13.1 Euler’s Work in Algebra
B. Euler’s Formula

For thousands of years, mathematicians have believed and accepted the


following theorem:

For any positive number k ≥ 2, there does not exist a polynomial f (n)
with degree k such that f (n) are prime numbers for all natural numbers
n.

Euler claimed that he found a simple formula to generate prime numbers.

Home Euler’s formula:

Content n2 + n + 1 is a prime number for all natural n.

What will happen when substituting n = 40 to the Euler formula?

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13 Further Applications (2)
13.2 Travel-graphs

Speed is a rate to measure the distance travelled by an object per


unit of time.

Distance travelled
Speed =
Time taken

A travel-graph can be used to show the relation between the distance


travelled by an object and the travelling time.
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Content

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13 Further Applications (2)
13.2 Travel-graphs
For example, the following travel – graph show the distance travelled by a
train in an hour.

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Travel-graph is also called
Content distance-time graph.

Fig. 13.1

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13 Further Applications (2)
13.3 Applications of Percentage and Rate

A. Taxation

In Hong Kong, there are three major types of tax for individuals:

1. Salaries tax is charged on the income received from an employment.


2. Property tax is charged on the rents received from a property.
3. Profits tax is charged on the profits earned from a business, trade or
profession,

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Content

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13 Further Applications (2)
13.3 Applications of Percentage and Rate
(a) Salaries tax
The salaries tax is calculated as follows:
1. Calculate the annual income.
The allowance depends on
2. Calculate the deductions and allowances to the family composition.
get the net chargeable income.

Net chargeable income = Annual income – Deductions – Allowances

3. Calculate the payable salaries tax for the net chargeable income.
Home Notes:
(a) The annual income includes salary, commission, bonus, share option
Content
gain and so on.
(b) The deductions include expenses of self-education, home loan interest
and so on.

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13 Further Applications (2)
13.3 Applications of Percentage and Rate
After deducting the allowance and deductions, the payable salaries tax is
calculated on the amount of net chargeable income.
The net chargeable income is split into four parts with different tax rates.
The sum of all these parts is the actual amount of payable salaries tax.

The salaries tax rates for the year 2004 to 2005 are given below.

Net chargeable income Tax rate


1 On the first $30 000 2%

2 On the next $30 000 8%


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3 On the next $30 000 14%
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4 On the remaining 20%

Table 13.5

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13 Further Applications (2)
13.3 Applications of Percentage and Rate
(a) Property tax

Property tax is charged on rents received from a piece of land, building or flat
in Hong Kong. This is computed at the standard rate of 16% for the year 2004
to 2005 on the net assessable value of the property and is charged annually.

The net assessable value is calculated in the following way:

Net assessable value = Annual rent – Allowance


In calculating the net
assessable value, rates may
be deducted if the owner is
The allowance is 20% of the annual rent. Then responsible for the payment
Home of the rates of the property

Content Property tax = Net assessable value × 16%

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13 Further Applications (2)
13.3 Applications of Percentage and Rate
(a) Profits tax

Profits tax is charged on the profits earned from a business, trade or


profession. The net assessable value is calculated as below:

Net assessable value = Annual gross profits – Operating expenses

The profits tax is calculated as below:

Profits tax = net assessable value × Profits tax rate

Home Notes:
There are two different tax rates:
Content
• For corporations, the profits tax rate is 17.5%.
• For unlimited company, the profits tax rate is 16%.

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13 Further Applications (2)
13.3 Applications of Percentage and Rate
B. Taxi - rates

The question on how to charge a taxi fare $C is a complicated problem. It


consists of four parts:

1. The minimum charge for the fist two kilometres (M).


• The charge for extra distance travelled after 2 km (D).
• The charge for waiting time (W).
• Additional charge (A).
The additional charges
include baggage, pets,
Home tunnel fare, etc.

Content Thus, C = M + D + W + A, where M and A are constants, D depends on


the extra distance travelled after 2 km and W depends on the waiting
time in minutes.

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13 Further Applications (2)
13.3 Applications of Percentage and Rate

The charge for distance travelled by the taxi can be represented by the
following graph.

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Content

Fig. 13.18

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13 Further Applications (2)
13.3 Applications of Percentage and Rate
C. Water Bills

The water bill is charged at four different levels, according to the levels of
consumption:

Units of consumption Charge per m3


On the first 12 m3 Free
On the next 31 m3 $4.16
On the next 19 m3 $6.45
Remainder $9.05
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Table 13.6
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For example, if one uses 10 m3 of water, then it is free of charges; if one
uses 20 m3 of water, then the charge = (20 – 12) × $4.16 = $33.28.

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