1 – Plastic DeformationDislocation


Average Linear strain Stress Derived from


• Stress is not uniform: the stress equation is an average stress • Anisotropy between grains in a polycrystalline metal rules out uniformity of stress • Presence of more than one phase gives rise to nonuniformity • Nonuniformity occurs if the bar is not straight , not centrally loaded, with the presence of stress raisers or stress concentration.


• Below the elastic limit. Hook’s Law can be considered valid so that the average stress is proportional to the average strain: • The constant E is the modulus of elasticity or Young Modulus 4 .

Tensile deformation of ductile metal 5 .

Ductile versus Brittle behaviour 6 .

– A metal which is brittle in tension may be ductile under hydrostatic compression – A metal which is ductile in tension at RT can become brittle in the presence of notches. low temperature.• Brittleness is not an absolute metal property – Tungsten is brittle at room temperature but ductile at an elevated temp. high rates of loading or embrittling agents (hydrogen) 7 .

What constitutes failure? • Structural members and machines can fail for perform their intended function in three general ways: – Excessive elastic deformation – Yielding or excessive plastic deformation – Fracture 8 .

• Two general types of excessive elastic deformation – Excessive deflection – Sudden deflection or buckling • Yield occurs when the elastic limit of the material has been exceeded – Permanent change of shape – In a ductile metal. yielding rarely results in fracture under static loading at RT because the metal strain hardens as it deforms and an increased stress is required to produce further deformation 9 .

metals can continuously deform at constant stress in a time dependant yielding known as CREEP • Failure criterion under creep conditions is complicated by: – Stress and strain are proportional – Mechanical properties may change 10 .• Failure by excessive plastic deformation is controlled by the yield strength of the metal for a uniaxial loading condition • For complex loading conditions. the YT is the significant parameter but use a suitable failure criterion • At T> >RT.

• Metal fail by fracture in three ways – Sudden Brittle fracture (DTBT) – Fatigue (failure under cyclic loading) – Delayed fracture (stress-rupture in creep or hydrogen embrittlement at RT) 11 .

the working stress of ductile metals is based on the yield strength and for brittle materials on the ultimate tensile strength 12 .• All engineering materials show a variability in mechanical properties • Mechanical properties can be influenced by change in heat treatment or fabrication • Provide a margin of safety and protect again failure from unpredictable cause – Safe stress or Working stress • For static applications.

Concept of Stress and type of Stress • Stress: force per unit area • Surface forces: Hydrostatic pressure • Centrifugal forces due to high speed rotation • Thermal stresses due to temperature differential over the body 13 .

Stress at the point O on plane mm Of body 2 14 .

• The total stress can be resolved in: – Normal stress – Shear stress 15 .

Concept of Strain and type of Strain • Linear strain • True strain 16 .

• Elastic deformation may result in a change of any initial angle between 2 lines 17 .

• Shear strain: angular change 18 .

Example 19 .

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1 1 10 100 1000 Cooling Rate (ºC/s) • Processing can change structure ex: structure vs cooling rate of steel . Processing.01 0. & Properties • Properties depend on structure ex: hardness vs structure of steel (d) 600 Hardness (BHN) 500 400 300 200 30 µm 30 µm (c) (a) (b) 4 µm 30 µm 100 0.Structure.

Material Identify candidate Material(s) Material: structure. Pick Application Determine required Properties 2. vapor deposition. annealing. Identify required Processing Processing: changes structure and overall shape ex: casting. joining.The Materials Selection Process 1. Properties 3. sintering. doping forming. composition. 22 .

Atomic Structure • Relationship between atomic structure and plastic behavior of materials • Much of the fundamental work on the plastic deformation of metals are performed with single crystal to eliminate the effect of grain boundary and restrains imposed by neighboring grains and second phase particles • Plastic deformation and dislocation theory .

Crystal Geometry Simple Cubic Structure Found in ionic crystals (NaCl) but not in metal 24 .

FCC (face centered cubic) crystal structure or HCP (Hexagonal closed packed structure) 25 .• Metals have either BCC (body centered cubic).

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• FCC and HCP are closed packed structure – 74% of the volume is occupied by atoms • In contrast for: – BCC ( 68 % Volume occupied by atoms) – Simple Cubic Cell (52%) Plastic deformation is generally confined to the low index planes. which have a higher density of atoms than the high-index plane 28 .

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Deformation by Slip • The usual method of plastic deformation of metals is by sliding of block of crystal over one another along defined crystallographic planes 30 .

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• Slip occurs in specific direction on certain planes • The slip plane is the plane of greatest atomic density and the slip direction is the closest packed direction within the slip plane • Slip system is together the slip plane and the slip direction 32 .

there are 3 slip systems – Limited number of slip systems is the raison for the extreme orientation dependence and low ductility in hcp crystals • In FCC structure. 12 possible slip systems 33 .• In HCP structure. { 1 1 1} and <1 1 0> are the closed packed systems. 4 sets of { 1 1 1} planes each contains three <1 1 0> directions. Therefore.

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slip is found to occur on the {110}. {112}.• BCC is not a closed packed structure like FCC or HCP • There is no one plane of predominant atomic density • In BCC. {123} planes and always in the closed packed <111> which is common to each of these planes • Dislocation can readily move from one type of plane to another by cross sip giving rise to the irregular wavy slip bands 35 .

• In all cases.• Certain metals show additional slip systems with increased temperature • Al deform on {110} plane at elevated temperature while in magnesium plays an important role in deformation slip above 225 Celcius. the slip direction remains the same when the slip planes changes with temperature 36 .

Slip in perfect lattice 37 .

• Shear stress and displacement can be estimated by: • Hook’s law at small value of displacement 38 .

5 to 10 MPa.With a = b (approximation) Shear modulus for metals is in the range 20 to 150 Gpa Therefore this equation predict theoretical shear stress in the range (3 to 30 Gpa) Actual values of shear stress required to produce plastic deformation in metal single crystals are in the range of 0. 39 .

• Dislocations provide such mechanism 40 .• Even if more refined calculations are used to correct the sine wave assumptions. the value of the maximum shear stress cannot be made equal to the observed shear stress • Since the theoretical shear stress is 100 times greater that the observed shear strength. it must be concluded that a mechanism other than bodily shearing of planes of atoms is responsible for slip.

Critical Resolved shear stress • Slip begins when shearing stress in the slip plane and the slip direction reaches a threshold value called Critical resolved shear stress • This value is really the single crystal equivalent of the yield stress of an ordinary stress-strain curve • The value of CRSS depends on composition and temperature 41 .

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Deformation of single crystals • Since plastic flow occurs by slip on certain planes along particular directions • The increase in length of a specimen (subjected to a tensile test) for a given amount of slip will depend on the orientation of the slip planes and direction with the specimen axis • Plastic strain is measured by crystallographic glide strain 47 .

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• Important differences between metals • Typically FCC metals exhibit greater strain hardening than HCP metals 52 .

Deformation by twinning 53 .

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Stacking Faults • Atomic arrangement of {111} plane in fcc structure and {0001} in hcp could be achieved by stacking the closed-packed planes 56 .

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• The lower Stacking Fault Energy (SFE) the greater the separation between partial dislocations and the wider the stacking fault • SFE for stainless steel is very sensitive to chemical composition • Stacking faults influence the plastic deformation in several ways 58 .

• Metals with wide stacking fault (low SFE): – strain harden more rapidly – twin easily on annealing – Show a different temperature dependence of flow stress than metals with narrow stacking faults 59 .

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Lattice Defects • Lattice defects help explain mechanical properties of materials such as: – Yield strength – Fracture strength – Creep strength • Practically all mechanical properties are structure-sensitive properties • Defect or imperfection is used to describe any deviation from an orderly array or lattice point 61 .

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Point Defect 63 .

small numbers of vacancies are created by thermal activation and these are thermodynamically stable at temperature greater that absolute zero • A equilibrium • n is the number of vacant sites in N sites Es is the energy required to move an atom from the interior of a crystal to its surface 64 .• In pure metals.

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• By rapidly quenching from close to the melting point. it is possible to trap high number of vacancies • High number of vacancies that equilibrium can be achieved by: – Extensive plastic deformation (cold work) – Bombardment with high energy nuclear particles • When densities of vacancies become large it is possible for them to cluster to form 66 voids .

• If the defect extends through microscopic regions of the crystal it is called Lattice imperfections • Line defects • Surface or place defects • Low angle boundaries and grain boundaries are surface defects 67 .

foreign atoms are added in 1 to 50 % to obtain special mechanical properties 68 .01 to 1 % impurities • In alloys.• Important to realize that no metal is completely pure • Most commercially ‘pure’ materials contain 0.

Dislocation • The most important defect • Dislocation is a line defect responsible for the phenomenon of Slip by which most metals deform plastically 69 .

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creep.• In the absence of an obstacle. fatigue and brittle failure 71 . a Disl. Moves freely in the application of a small force • Dislocations are connected to: – Strain hardening. yield point.

are: – Edge dislocation – Screw dislocation 72 .• Basic types of Disl.

Edge dislocation 73 .

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• The lattice is distorted in the region of the dislocation • There is one more vertical rows of atoms above the slip plane than below it • Compressive stress above the slip plane • Tensile stress below the slip plane 75 .

moves down. atoms would have to be added 76 .• A pure dislocation can glide or slip in direction perpendicular to its edge • May move vertically by a process known by climb if diffusion of atoms or vacancies can take place at an appreciable rate • For the edge dislo. it is necessary to remove the extra atom above the symbol or to add a vacancy on this spot • Conversely. if the dislo. to move Upward.

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Width determines the force required to move the disl. through the crystal lattice. 78 .• Disl. This force is called the PeierlesNabarro force • The Peierless stress is the stress required to move the disl.

Screw dislocation 79 .

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Observation of dislocations • Experimental techniques for detecting dislocations utilize the strain field around the dislocation to increase its effective size • Chemical reactions • Physical changes 81 .

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Burgers vectors and dislocation loop 85 .

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Stress field and energy of dislocation • Dislocation is surrounded by a stress field • Approximation of the stress field by mathematical theory of elasticity for continuous media 89 .

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. no tensile or compressive normal stress (no half plane) 91 .• For screw disl.

92 .• Strain energy in edge disl.

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• Strain energy of a disl. Is about 8eV for each atom plane threaded by the disl. • Core energy in the order of .5 eV • Large positive strain energy means that the free energy of the crystal is increased by the presence of the disl. • Since nature tries to minimize the energy, crystals will try to lower its energy by the elimination of disl. Example: annealing

Forces on dislocations
• When external force is applied, the disl. Move and produce slip


Forces between dislocation
• Disl. of the same sign with same bugers vector will repel each other • Disl. of opposite sign with same burgers vector would eliminate the disl.


97 .• 2 parallel screw dislo.

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• Force of attraction on a dislocation at the free surface since escape from the surface would reduce its strain energy • When disl. This is the case in metal surfaces generally coated with thin oxide films 99 . approach a surface with a coating of an elastically harder material. repulsive force is observed.

Moving it out of the slip plane • Kink is a sharp break in the disl. Which remain in the slip plane 100 . Line • Jog is a break is a sharp break in the disl.Intersection of dislocations • Intersection of disl. creates a sharp break in the dislo.

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as the result of the growth of the crystal from melt or vapor phase (exception whiskers) • Completely annealed metals contain a density of • Heavy cold worked: 103 .Dislocation Sources • All metals contain disl.

• Emission from grain boundaries is an important source of disl. In the early stages of plastic deformation • Disl. can form by aggregation and collapse of vacancies to form a disk or prismatic loop 104 .

Multiplication of dislocations 105 .

Dislocations pile up 106 .

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