You are on page 1of 113

第十一章 连词

A. 并列连词

and, or, but 连 接 两 个 相 同 的 句 子 成 分 或 句 子 .

1.and

2.but

3.or/ otherwise/or else ( 用 法 or 与 相 同 但 语 气 较 重 )

Hurry up, or else you’ll miss the last bus.

The book must be here, or else you’ve lost it. 书一定在这儿 , 不然的话就是你弄丟了 .

考 点 ( 1 ) : 祁 使 句 ,and( 那 么 )/or( 否 则 ) sb’ll do.·

Eg. Study hard, and you’ll pass the exam.

Study hard, or you’ll fail in the exam.

4. both,… and, neither… nor 只 连 接 两 个 相 同 的 句 子 成 分 , 不 能 连 接 句 子 .

5.as well as 以 及 as well=too 也

考 点 ( 2 ) : and 和 as well as 的 区 别

and 连 接 俩 个 并 列 句 子 成 分 --- 谓 语 用 复 数 ;as well as+ 名 词 — 作 为 状 语

eg. Mr Wang and his wife are doctors.


1
Mr Wang as well as his wife is doctor.

6.not only…but also/ not…but not only … but also 既 可 以 连 接 相 同 的 句 子 成 分 , 又 可 以 连 接 两 个 并 列 句 , 强 调

的重点在后一个并列成分上

7.either…or

考点( 3 ):主谓一致必须按:紧位原则

eg.Not only the students but also our teacher has seen the film.

Not only our teacher but also the students have seen the film.

8.though/but ,because/so

考点( 4 ):英语中,说了“因为”不说“所以” ; 说了“虽然”不说“但是” .

9.yet 然 而

eg.Though he is a young boy, yet( 不 用 but) he knows a lot.

He was very tired, yet he kept on working.

考点( 5 ):两个特殊的并列连词

a.when + 时 间 从 句 ( 当 … 时 ) 从 属 连 词

但 是 : was/were about to do+when+ 并 列 句 正 要 做 sth, 就 在 此 时 ( 突 然 )

过 去 进 行 时 +when+ 并 列 句 正 在 做 sth, 就 在 此 时 ( 突 然 )

had just done+when+ 并 列 句 刚 做 了 sth, 就 在 此 时 ( 突 然 )

2
.when 相 当 于 "and then" 或 "at the time that" 也 是 常 见 考 点 , 主 句 为 特 定 时 间 , 从 句 表 达 的 多 是 偶 然 性 的 动

作。 如 :

    eg. I was about to leave when it began to rain.

I was going home when it began to rain.

I had just left when it began to rain.

He was about to tell me the secret____ someone patted him on the shoulder. (2002 上 海 )

    A.as B.until C.while D.when

b. while+ 时 间 从 句 ( 当 … 时 ) 从 属 连 词

+ 并列句 , 意为 " 而,虽然 " 。 while 连 接 两 个 在 意 义 上 相 互 对 比 或 相 反 的 句 子 .

注 意 在 while 之 前 , 一 般 有 逗 号 与 前 一 个 句 子 分 开 . 如 :
eg.She thought I was talking about her uncle,while in fact,I was talking about my uncle.
My mother is cooking supper, while my father is reading a newspaper.

While I like the color of the hat, I do not like its shape. 虽 然 我 喜 欢 帽 子 的 颜 色 , 但 不 喜 它 的 形 状 .

B. 主 从 连 词 ( 从 属 连 词) 主 句 + 从 属 连 词 + 各 类 从 句

( 一 )that,what

1. 两 者 都 可 引 导 名 词 性 从 句。

1)that 本 身 无 词 义 , 常 引 导 名 词 性 从 句 , 此 时 的 从 句 意 义 已 完 整 , 常 不 省 略 ( 宾 语 从 句 除 外 ) 。 如 :

    ____ fashion differs from country to country may reflect the cultural differences from one aspect.(2002 上 海 春 )

    A.What B.That C.This D.Which

   ( 注:有下划线的选项为正确答案,下同 )

3
    It worried her a bit that her hair was turning gray.(it 为 形 式 主 语 )

2)what 引 导 名 词 性 从 句 时 , 在 从 句 中 常 作 主 语 或 宾 语。 如 :

    ____ we can't get seems better than we have.(NMET1996)

    A.What;what B.What;that C.That;that D.That;what

    A computer can only do____ you have instructed it to do.(NMET2001)

    A.how B.after C.what D.when

2.what 一 般 不 可 引 导 定 语 从 句 , 不 能 用 作 强 调 词 ; 而 that 既 可 引 导 定 语 从 句 ( 由 其 前 的 先 行 词 确

定 ) , 又 可 作 强 调 词。 如 :

    All that is needed is a supply of rice.

    It was only when I reread the article last night that I realized the extended meaning.

3.what 可 作 为 感 叹 词 引 导 感 叹 句 , 而 that 不 可。 如 :

    What a long way it is from Beijing to Lon-don!

( 二 )whether ,if

1. 两 者 都 能 引 导 名 词 性 从 句 之 异 同 :
1) 当 引 导 一 个 没 有 疑 问 词 的 问 句 时 , 两 者 均 可。 如 :

    I'm not sure whether(if)I'll have time.

2) 当 提 出 两 种 选 择 时 要 用 whether 。 如 :

    Let me know whether you can come or not.

3)whether 可 用 在 介 词 后 , if 则 不 可。 如 :

    I haven't settled the question of whether I'll go back home.

4)whether 可 与 不 定 式 连 用 , if 则 不 行。 如 :

    She doesn't know whether to get married now or wait.

4
5) 引 导 主 语 从 句 时 , if 不 能 放 句 首 , whether 在 句 首、 句 中 均 可。 如 :

    ____ we'll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather.(NMET1996)

    A.If B.Whether C.That D.Where

    It is doubtful if(whether)he is coming.

2.if 还 可 以 引 起 条 件 状 语 从 句 , whether 不 可 以。 如 :

    If we try hard,we'll be able to complete the task in time.

3.whether...or( 无 论 ) , 引 起 让 步 状 语 从 句 , if 不 可。 如 :

    Whether you come or not,I'll set off on time.

a). 只 能 用 whether 不 能 用 if 的 场 合 : if 不 能 用 在 句 首 引 导 名 词 性 从 句 , 而 whether 则 可 .

如:
________we‘ll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather. ( N M E T 96)

A . If B . Whether C . That D . Where

乍 一 看 此 题 四 个 选 项 均 无 相 似 之 处 , 但 只 要 稍 作 比 较 就 可 发 现 A、 B 两 项 有 意 同 之 处 , 即 作 " 是

否 " 解时 , if 可 以 等 于 whether , 则 答 案 有 可 能 就 在 A、 B 之 中。 然 后 运 用 已 学 知 识 , if 不 能 用 在

句首引导名词性从句, 而 whether 则 可 .

b). 只 能 说 whether…or not,whether to do 不 能 说 if…or not/if to do

( 三 )in case , if + 条 件 从 句

    两 者 都 引 导 条 件 状 语 从 句。

1)in case 作 " 如 果 " 意 义 时 , 常 放 在 句 前 , 可 与 if 替 换。 如 :

    In case(If)he comes, let me know.

2)in case 作 " 免 得 , 以 防 " 意 义 时 常 放 在 主 句 后 , 是 目 的 状 语 从 句 , 不 能 用 if 替 换。 试 比 较 :

5
    You should insure your house in case there's a fire.

    John may call tonight.I don't want to go out in case he phones.

    I don't think I'll need any small change but I'll bring some in case.

( 四 )unless( 除 非 , 如 果 不 ) , if...not

    两 者 都 引 导 条 件 状 语 从 句。 如 :

    He is sure to come unless he has some urgent business.

    = He is sure to come if he hasn't any urgent business.

    The men will have to wait all day unless the doctor works faster.

    1. 当 从 句 是 虚 拟 形 式 时 , 只 用 if...not, 不 用 unless 引 导。 如 :

    The flowers would have died,if you had not watered diligently.

    2. 当 主 句 为 疑 问 句 时 , 不 用 unless, 而 用 if...not 。 如 :

    What shall we do if he doesn't reply to our letter?

    3. 当 unless 引 导 的 从 句 带 有 否 定 词 时 , 不 能 用 if...not 代 替。 如 :

    I'll go unless no one else goes.

( 五 ) 当…时 + 时间从句

a).when= at or during the time that when+ 瞬 间 动 词 表 示 时 间 点 ;

when+ 延 续 性 动 词 表 示 时 间 段 , 可 与 while 换 用

eg. When /While I was in the kitchen, someone knocked at the door.

When( 不 可 用 while) I woke up, Mum was preparing breakfast.

6
b).while+ 延 续 性 动 词 表 示 时 间 段 = during the time that

eg. While I was reading, the telephone rang.

c).as 常 常 可 与 while, when 通 用 , 强 调 主 从 句 动 作 同 时 发 生 ,

通 常 译 为 “ 一 边 … 一 边 ” ,” 随 着 “

eg. As you grow, you know more and more. 随 着 年 龄 的 增 长 , 你 的 知 识 越 来 越 丰 富 .

The girls are talking and laughing as they are walking.

d).the moment+ 时 间 从 句 =as soon as

when 的 用 法 是 高 考 的 考 点 之 一 , 也 是 中 学 生 学 习 中 的 难 点。 高 考 试 题 中 when 用 法 的 命 题 方 式 :

一、测试 when 引导的时间状语从句谓语动词的时态。

1.-When will you come to see me, Dad?

  -I will go to see you when you ____ the training course.( 北 京 2003 春 )

    A. will have finished B. will finish C. are finishing D. finish

    【分 析】 在 when 引 导 的 时 间 状 语 从 句 中 , 常 用 一 般 现 在 时 表 示 一 般 将 来 时。

2.Tom ____ into the house when no one ____.(MET92)

    A.slipped;waslooking B.hadslipped;looked C.slipped;hadlooked D.wasslipping;looked

    【分 析】 when 引 导 的 时 间 状 语 从 句 可 兼 指 " 时 间 点 " 与 " 时 间 段 " 。 " 溜 进 门 " 是 一 时 的 动 作 ,

而 且 发 生 在 " 没 人 看 见 " 的 过 程 中 , 所 以 第 一 个 空 用 一 般 过 去 时 , 第 二 个 空 用 过 去 进 行 时。

    【 提 示 】 when 引 导 时 间 状 语 从 句 时 , 表 示 " 当 … … 的 时 候 " , 从 句 的 谓 语 动 词 可 以 是 延 续 性 的 ,

也 可 以 是 非 延 续 性 的。 它 引 导 的 时 间 状 语 从 句 通 常 用 一 般 现 在 时 表 示 一 般 将 来 时 ; 用 一 般 过 去 时 表
示 过 去 将 来 时 ; 用 现 在 完 成 时 表 示 将 来 完 成 时。

7
二、 测 试 when 引 导 的 时 间 状 语 从 句 的 省 略。

When ____, the museum will be open to the public next year.( 上 海 2002 春 )

    A.completed B.completing C.being completed D.to be completed

    【分 析】 when 引 导 时 间 状 语 从 句 时 , 若 从 句 的 主 语 与 主 句 的 主 语 相 同 , 且 在 从 句 谓 语 中 含 有 be

时 , 通 常 省 略 从 句 的 主 语 和 be 。

    【提 示】 when 引 导 时 间 状 语 从 句 , 主 谓 具 有 被 动 关 系 时 , 省 略 之 后 , 谓 语 部 分 只 留 过 去 分 词 ;

主 谓 具 有 主 动 关 系 时 , 省 略 之 后 , 谓 语 部 分 可 以 是 现 在 分 词、 形 容 词、 副 词 或 介 词 短 语。

三、 测 试 when 作 并 列 连 词 的 用 法。

He was about to tell me the secret ____ someone patted him on the shoulder.( 上 海 2002)

    A.as B.until C.while D.when

    【分 析】 when 作 并 列 连 词 用 时 , 表 示 " 在 那 时 ; 突 然 这 时 " , 相 当 于 and then 或 at that time 。

四、 测 试 when 作 从 属 连 词 的 用 法。

1.Don't be afraid of asking for help ____ it is needed.(NMET2003)

    A.unless B.since C.although D.when

2.Why do you want a new job ____ you've got such a good one already?(NMET98)

    A.that B.where C.which D.when

    【分 析】 when 表 示 " 当 … … 的 时 候 " , 引 导 时 间 状 语 从 句 , 表 示 主 句 谓 语 动 词 所 表 示 的 动 作 发

生 的 时 间。 when 还 可 表 示 " 既 然 " , 引 导 原 因 状 语 从 句 , 相 当 于 since 。

    【提 示】 解 答 这 类 试 题 的 关 键 是 , 正 确 理 解 主 句 与 从 句 间 的 逻 辑 关 系 , 熟 记 when 作 从 属 连 词 的

各 种 用 法。

五、 测 试 when 作 关 系 副 词 的 用 法。

The film brought the hours back to me __________I was taken good care of in that far-away village.(NMET2001)

    A.until B.that C.when D.where

8
    【分 析】 when 作 关 系 副 词 用 时 , 引 导 定 语 从 句 , 修 饰 前 面 指 时 间 的 名 词 , 且 在 从 句 中 充 当 时 间

状 语。

    【提 示】 when 既 可 引 导 限 制 性 定 语 从 句 , 又 可 引 导 非 限 制 性 定 语 从 句 , 还 可 引 导 分 隔 式 定 语 从

句。

( 六 ) 在 … 前 ( 后 ) before/after

自从…以来 since 主 句 + 现 在 完 成 时 +since+ 一 般 过 去 时

( 七 )“ 一 … 就 … ” 的 四 个 句 型

as soon as( 不 倒 装 )= the moment

hardly had +sb+done+when----


No sooner had+sb+done+than----

On doing( 不 倒 装 )

She cried as soon as she heard the bad news.

Hardly had I arrived home when the phone rang.

The little girl smiled on seeing her mother.

( 八 ) 四个“因为” 的句型

because( 因 为 ) why?/ as( 由 于 ) /since( 既 然 ) 表 示 因 果 关 系

for( 因 为 ) 引 导 一 个 并 列 句 , 对 前 面 一 个 句 子 做 补 充 说 明 或 推 断 原 因

eg. The day broke, for the cocks began to cry.

考 点 ( 1 ) : 区 别 because + 从 句 / because of + 宾 语

9
eg. Li Ming is absent from class, because he is ill.

Li Ming is absent from class because of his illness.

考 点 ( 2 ) : It is because + 从 句 .( 用 于 口 语 ), because + 从 句 一 般 不 用 作 为 名 词 性 从 句 ,

eg. The reason why Tom is absent is that ( 不 用 because) he is ill.

( 九 ) so+ 形 , 副、 such+ 名 … ..that+ 结 果 从 句 or 目 的 从 句

eg. I got up so early this morning that I caught the early bus.( 结 果 从 句 )

I got up so early this morning that I could catch the early bus.( 目 的 从 句 )

( 十 ) 虽然 + 让步从句 though, although, as

  这三个词都有转折之意,表示 " 虽然 " 、 " 尽管 " 。

    1.though 和 although 引 导 让 步 状 语 从 句 时 , 常 可 互 换 , 只 是 although 的 语 气 较 强 些 , 其 主 句 前 可 用 副

词 yet,still,nevertheless 修 饰 , 也 可 不 用。 如 :

    Though / Although it was late,the farmer kept on harvesting the crops by the lights of the tractors.

    Though he was old,(yet)he worked hard.

    2.though 作 连 词 时 , 可 以 用 于 省 略 句 , 引 起 让 步 状 语 从 句 可 以 用 部 分 倒 装 语 序 ; 作 副 词 时 表 " 可

是 " 、 " 然 而 " , 常 放 于 句 末 , 但 上 述 用 法 不 适 用 于 although 。 如 :

    I've a bit of cold.It's nothing serious,though.

    3.as 引 导 让 步 状 语 从 句 时 , 从 句 用 倒 装 语 序 , 将 表 语、 状 语 等 置 于 句 首 , 可 与 though 互 换。 如 :

    ____,I have never seen anyone who's as capable as John.( 上 海 2001)

10
    A.As long as I have traveled   B.Now that I have traveled so much

    C.Much as I have traveled D.As I have traveled so much

    Poor though /as I am , I can afford it.

( 十 一 ) 无 论 + 让 步 从 句 however /whatever...,no matter how/what...

    1.no matter what /how 等 只 能 引 导 以 形 容 词 或 副 词 为 中 心 的 让 步 状 语 从 句 , 且 用 部 分 倒 装 形 式。 如 :

    However /No matter how hard it may be , I must try.

    2.however 无 论 怎 样 , whatever 无 论 什 么 , 既 可 引 导 让 步 状 语 从 句 也 可 引 导 名 词 性 从 句 , 要 视 具 体

情 况 而 定。 如 :

    These wild flowers are so special that I would do whatever I can to save them.

    However late he is,Mother will wait for him to have dinner together.

    We will have to finish the job,however long it takes.

( 十二 ) 即使 + 让步从句 even if,even though

    " 即 使 " 、 " 纵 使 " 都 可 引 导 让 步 状 语 从 句 , 但 even if 更 强 调 假 定 性。 如 :

    Even if he is poor,she loves him. = He may be poor,yet she loves him.

    Even though he is poor,she loves him. = He is poor,yet she loves him.

    Even though /if I didn't know anybody,Ihad a good time.

( 十三 ) 仿佛,好象 + 方式从句 as if / as though

eg. She felt sad, as if the whole world had turned against her.

﹔( 十 四 ) till,until( 直 到 … … , 直 到 … … 才 )

    1. 都 可 引 导 时 间 状 语 从 句 , 当 从 句 在 主 句 后 面 时 , 二 者 均 可 用 ; 主 句 谓 语 动 词 为 延 续 性 动 词 ,

11
用 肯 定 式 ; 若 是 短 暂 性 动 词 , 用 否 定 式。 如 :

    Sandy had left his keys in the office so he had to wait until /till his wife came back.

    They watched the train until /till it disappeared in the distance.

    I didn't leave until /till he came back.

    2. 但 是 在 句 首 或 强 调 句 中 时 , 一 般 用 until 而 不 用 till ; 在 句 首 时 , 主 句 谓 语 要 部 分 倒 装 而 从 句 不

倒 装。 如 :

    Not until all the fish died in the river did the farmers realize how serious the pollution was!

( 十 五 ) in order that,so that,so...that

    1. 前 两 者 都 可 以 引 导 目 的 状 语 从 句 , 从 句 中 通 常 要 有 can /could,m ay /might,will /would 等 情 态 动 词 ,

而 且 , 当 从 句 的 主 语 与 主 句 的 主 语 一 致 时 从 句 可 转 化 为 in order to do sth. / so as to do sth. / to do sth.。 如 :

    John shut everybody out of the kitchen so that he could prepare his grand surprise for the party.

    They set off for the station very early in order that /so that they might not miss the first bus.   They set off for the station

very early in order not to miss the first bus.

    2. 后 两 者 都 可 以 引 导 结 果 状 语 从 句 , 此 时 从 句 中 一 般 不 能 用 can /could,may /might,will /would 等。 如 :

    He got up very early so that he caught the first train.

    The research is so designed that once begun nothing can be done to change it.

    So difficult did I feel it to live in an English-speaking country that I determined to learn English well.

    I devoted all my time to my studies so that I got good marks in all my subjects.

I felt so nervous that I shook like a leaf.

( 十六 )

起连词作用的名词词组
NMET’99 第 78 题是这样的:
  I ___(认出)Mike the moment I saw him.
  该题中的 the moment 是一个名词词组,在现代英语中,它已被用作连词,引导时间状语从句,意思是“一…
12
…就……”,等于 as soon as,因此该题的意思是“我一看见迈克就认出了他。”又如:
  I started the moment I got your letter.
  我一接到你的信就动身了。
  英语中类似于 the moment 起连词作用的名词词组还有其它一些。现举例如下:
一、the minute,the instant,the second,与 the moment 用法相同,意为“一……就……”。
  例如:
  I'll tell him the news the munute he comes.
  他一来我就告诉他这消息。
  I sent you the news the instant I heard it .
  我一听到这消息就立刻通知你了。
  Telephone me the second you get the result.
  你一得到结果就给我打电话。
二、由 time 构成的名词词组。如:the first/last time,each/every time,next time,all the
time,any time 等。例如:
  He had impressed me that way the first time I met him.
  我第一次碰到他时他就给我这个印象。
  He was seriously ill the last time I saw him.
  我上次见到他时,他病得很厉害。
  Each time I called on him he was busy with his work.
  我每次去看他,他都忙于工作。
  Do not stop every time you come to a word or phrase you don't know.
  不要每碰到一个不认识的单词或短语就停下来。
  He was thinking of something else all the time you were talking to him.
  你和他谈话的时候,他一直在想别的事情。
  Be sure to call on us next time you come.
  你下次来时一定来看我们。
  You are welcome to come back any time you want to.
  你什么时候想回来,我们都欢迎。
三、the day,the week,the year,the spring,the summer to,the autumn,the winter 等。
  例如:
  The day I left here,they all came to see me off.
  我离开这里的那一天,他们都来给我送行。
  He left Europe the year World War II broke out.
  第二次世界大战爆发的那一年他离开了欧洲。
  The summer Mary was 14 her family travelled to that country.
  玛丽十四岁的那年夏天,她家人到那个国家去旅行。

( 十七 )nor 也不 ( 以 nor 开头的句子要倒装 )

He is not a teacher, nor am I. 他不是老师 , 我也不是 .

She didn’t come yesterday, nor did I. 昨天她没来 , 我也没来 .

All that is true, nor must we forget about it. 那全是真实的 , 我们可不能忘记 .

Part Three 句 法
13
英语句子的种类

A. 按句子结构分为 简单句,并列句,主从复合句

B. 按使用目的分为 陈述句,疑问句,感叹句,祈使句

第十二章 简单句和并列句 p.150

1 . 英 语 句 子 的 基 本 句 型 及 句 子 的 基 本 成 分 ( 参见教材
p150)

1. 英语句子的基本句型 :

1. 主语 + 连系动词 + 表语 eg.The map is on the wall.

We are Chinese.

2. 主语 + 不及物动词 eg.He came yesterday.

Her father died two years ago.

3. 主语 + 及物动词 + 宾语 eg.Children often sing this song.

She is writing a grammar book.

4. 主语 + 及物动词 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语

eg.Please show me your photo.=show your phote to me


We wish you a merry Christmas!

5. 主语 + 及物动词 + 宾语 + 宾语补足语

eg.I heard her singing.


The news drove him crazy.

6. there be 结构

eg.There is a blackboard on the wall.


There are not any students in the classroom.
Is there any water in the glass?
Will there be a lecture on English next Friday?
How many red stars are there in the picture?

there be 结构的时态 :
14
There was a basketball match at our schoolyesterday.

There is going to be a report tomorrow morning.( 不用 have)

There have been many kinds of news about the war.


there be 结构的情态动词:
There must be something wrong with my watch.

There can’t be any political rights for the poor in the past.
There seems/happens to be no boubt about it.

there used to be的一般疑问句和反意疑问句 :

Did there use to be a school near your home?


There used to be some trees in the field in front of our house, usedn’t/didn’t there?

2. 句子的基本成分 ( 参见教材 p150)

2 . 主谓一致 现代英语主谓一致大致要遵循以下三条原则 :

( 一 ) 语法一致 主语是单数,谓语动词用单数形式;主语是复数,谓语动词用复数形式 .

1). 单数名词 / 不定式(短语) / 动名词(短语) / 主语从句 ---- 谓语用单数

复数名词 ---- 谓语用复数

eg. Many natural materials are becoming scarce.

Serving the people is our duty.

To finish the work in advance is what he wants.

What seems easy in theory is difficult in practice.

What caused the accident is a complete mystery.

2). 用both..and, and 连接的并列主语,谓语用复数;

但是, and 所连接的两个单数名词作主语,指同一人、同一件事或同一概念时,其谓语动词用


15
单数。

Eg. Water and air are necessary to human beings. 水和空气对人类是必不可少的。

Our teacher and leader is Mao Tsedong.

A writer and poet is giving a talk on modern poetry.

A writer and poet 一个作家兼诗人,是同一个人,谓语用单数

但是,A writer and a poet are talking about one of their friends.

A writer and a poet 一个作家一个诗人 , 是两个人,谓语用复数

A knife and fork costs five dollars. 一副刀叉需 5 美元。

A knife and a fork cost five dollars. 一把刀子和一把叉子需 5 美元。

3). 单数名词当主语 , 后面跟着由 including, with, together with, along with, like, in addition to, as well

as, rather than, but, except, more than, accompanied by 等连接的短语时 , 谓语用单数

eg. Mr Smith with his wife and children goes swimming./ Doctor Richards, together with his wife and
three children, is to arrive on the afternoon flight

John,together with his parents, has gone to the party.

A woman with a baby is coming to the hospital.

The fact,together with what I have heard,proves him right.

The girl as well as the boys has learned to drive a car.

Mary as well as her sister likes listening to music.

16
4). 复数名词 or 短语,表示事件、机构、国名、作品等专有名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数

eg. The United Nations is an international organization.

The United States is a developed country which has advanced science and technology.

5). 表示时间、距离、重量、体积、金钱的复数名词,作主语时作为整体来看待,谓语动词通常用
单数;如果看作一个个的个体时,是复数意义,谓语用复数

eg. Twenty miles is a long distance.

Two kilometers is 2000 metres.

Five thousands dollars is quite a large sum of money to me.

The past two years have been the driest in the history.

6). one, one of, every, everyone, everybody, each, many a, either, neither, no one, nobody, anyone,
anybody, someone, somebody 用作主语或修饰主语时,谓语动词用单数形式

eg. Everyone is here.

Each man, woman and child has the same right.

Many a student doesn't like to do their homework.(many a student = many students)

Either of students is going to compete for the president of the students' union.

More than one person was involved in the case.

Neither of the young men who had applied for a position in the university ____.

A)has been accepted B) have been accepted C) was accepted D) were accepted

neither 用作主语或修饰主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。此外,定语从句用过去完成时,主句应用
一般过去时,故答案为C.

7). 在定语从句中,关联词作主语时,谓语的数决定于先行词
17
eg. The students who want to go there should meet at the school gate.

Each student who wants to go there should meet at the school gate.

先行词是 one of + 复数名词, ----在定语从句中 , 谓语用复数

先行词是 the only/the same one of + 复数名词, ----在定语从句中 , 谓语用单数 eg. He is one of the top

students who have made great progress.

He is the only one of the top students who has got full marks.

8). half,plenty of, a lot of, 1/3 of, 70% of + 复数名词, ----谓语用复数

half,plenty of, a lot of,1/3 of, 70% of + 不可数名词, ----谓语用单数

Half his weekends are spent in the country.

Half his time is spent on books.

( 二 ) 意义一致 主语和谓语的一致不是由主语的语法形式来决定,而是由主语所表达的意义

决定 .

1).news/means/works( 工厂 )/physics/politics/mathematics, maths, 等不可数名词作主语, ----谓语用单

eg.The news lasts half an hour. 新闻节目长达半小时。

Physics has made great progress in this century. 本世纪物理学的发展突飞猛进。

2).glasses/scissors (剪刀) /trousers/goods 等复数名词作主语, ----谓语用复数 ,

但是, a pair of glasses( 一副眼镜 ) 作主语, ----谓语用单数


18
3). 形单意复的名词作主语, ----谓语用复数 ,eg.people,police,cattle and so on

eg. Cattle were not allowed to go into the woods.

4). 集合名词: class,family ,army,crowd,group,team and so on , 集合名词作主语时,当名词表示整体

时,谓语动词用单数;当名词强调集体中的个体时,谓语动词用复数

eg.The baseball team is playing very well today. 那个棒球队今天打得很好。

The baseball team are all having baths now. 棒球队的队员都在洗澡。

The class are busying writing English passages.

The family is the basic unit of society.

The family have agreed among themselves to spend their vocation in Europe.

5).all,half,most,some,any,none 作主语

all,half,most,some,any,none 代替复数名词, ----谓语用复数;

代替单数名词, ----谓语用单数

eg.All of us are League members.

All is not gold that glitters.

6).None 作主语 , 谓语可单可复

7). A number of( 许多 ) 作主语, ----谓语用复数

the number of(…的数量 ) 作主语, ----谓语用单数

19
eg. The number of foreign visitors to China has been increasing over the last several years.

A number of books have been published on the subject.

8). “the +形容词”作主语,在表示一类人或事物时,谓语动词用复数 .

The aged are well taken care of by the government.

The poor are often looked down upon by the rich

(三)紧位原则 谓语动词的单、复数取决于最靠近它的主语 .

1). 用 or/either…or/neither…nor/not only…but also/not…but 连接并列主语。谓语与靠近的主语一致

eg. Not the student but his parents want to meet the teacher.

Neither he nor I am in the wrong.

Not only the students but also the teacher is going to climb the mountain.

Neither my friends nor I was able to persuade him to accept our advice.

Either he or she has broken the window, for there is no one else there.

2). 在 there is/are 的句型中。谓语与靠近的主语一致

eg. There is a pen and two books on the desk.

There are two books and a pen.

There is a teacher and fifty students in the classroom.

There is sure to be such a house somewhere. 在什么地方肯定有这样的一座房子。

单项选择题:

20
1.The whole class _____ the teacher attentively.
A. are listening to B. is listening to C. are listening D. is listening
2. The League secretary and monitor _____ asked to make a speech at the meeting.
A. is B. was C. are D. were
3. He played on the _____ for two hours and when he returned he found half his goods _____ stolen.
A. sand; were B. sand; was C. sands; were D. sands; was
4. _____ can be done _____ been done.
A. All; have B. All that; have C. All; has D. All that; has
5. About 40 _____ of the population of that country _____ on farms.
A. percent; lives B. percent; live C. percents; live D. percents; lives
6. The Olympic Games _____ held every _____ years.
A. is; four B. are; four C. is; five D. are; five
7. No one but her parents _____ it.
A. know B. knows C. is knowing D. are knowing
8. The results of the examination _____ that you have all made great _____ .
A. show; progress B. shows; progress C. show; progresses D. shows; progresses
9. No bird and no beast _____ in the lonely island.
A. are seen B. is seen C. see D. sees
10.Here _____ a new pair of shoes for you.
A. is B. are C. have D. has
(答案:一、 1. A 2. B 3.C 4. D 5. B 6. B 7. B 8. A 9. B 10. A

历届高考英语单项选择题精选(二)主谓一致
1.Nobody but Jane ____ the secret.

A.know         B.knows C.have known       D.is known         (86)

2.All but one _____ here just now.

A.is           B.was             C.has been D.were             (87)

3.Not only I but also Jane and Mary ____ tired of having one examination after another.

A.is           B.are             C.am     D.be

(89)
4.A library with five thousnd books _______ to the nation as a gift.

A.is offered   B.have offered   C.are offered   D.has offered

21
(90)
5.When and where to build the new factory _____ yet.

A.is not decided   B.are not decided C.has not decided D.have not decided   (91)

6.The number of people invited ____fifty, but a number of them ____ absent for different reasons.

A.were , was   B.was , was       C.was , were   D.were , were

(96)
7._____ of the land in that district _____ covered with trees and grass.

A.Two fifth , is     B.Two fifth , are C.Two fifths , is   D.Two fifths , are   (2000)

8.This is one of the most interesting questions that ____ asked.

A.have         B.has             C.have been             D.has been              

9.Between then two rows of trees _____ the teaching building.

A.stand       B.stands         C.standing             D.are

10.All that can be done______.

A.has been done B.has done C.have done       D.were done

11.They each _____ a new dictionary.

A.has           B.have           C.is                     D.are

12.The singer and the dancer ______ come to the meeting.

A.has           B.have           C.are                   D.is

13.I have finished a large part of the book ; the rest _____more difficult.

A.is           B.are           C.was                   D.were

14.The wounded _______ by the hospital.

A.have been taken in     B.has been taken in C.have taken in         D.has taken in  

KEYS: 1-5 BDBAA     6-10 CCCBA     11-14 BBAA

3 . 倒装句 p.156

1. 副词 + 动词 + 名词

eg. Here comes the bus!


22
Out rushed a lion from among the bushes.

In came the teacher and the lesson began.

Now comes your turn to speak.

但是,副词 + 代词 + 动词 不倒装 eg . Here you are! Here it comes.

2. 否定延续和肯定延续

a.so+ 助动词 + 另一个主语 ( 肯定延续 )

eg. I was at Centre School last year and so was my friend Bob.
I study in this school and so does my brother.
If you go to the cinema tonight, so shall I.
If you can finish it in time, so can we.
“ I like to eat fish.” “ So do I.”

b.Neither/nor+ 助 动 词 + 另 一 个 主 语 ( 否 定 延 续 )

Eg. Bob wasn’t at school last Friday, neither was Jack.


He isn’t wrong, nor are you.
“I don’t see the film last night.”Neither did I.”
If you don’t do it, neither/nor will I.

c.so+ 同一个主语 + 助动词 ( 表示赞同 or 证实 )

eg.”You’ve dropped a word here.””Yes, so I have.”


“Tom hopes to become a teacher.””So he does.”
“These books are really well written.””So they are.”
Our teacher asked me to go and see him after school and so I did.
“Mary is going to get married.””Yes, so I heard=did.”
“It’s going to be a cold winter.””Yes, so the newspaper says=does.”

d.So+it is/was with+ 另 一 个 主 语 ( 肯 定 和 否 定 延 续 )

Eg.Marx was born in Germany and German was his native language.So it was with Engles.
John likes Chinese but he is not good at it. So it is with Mary.
We read the books and didn’t go out. So it was with them.

3. 否定词放句首 , 主谓要倒装 常用的倒装句有 :

a. not until 放句首


23
eg. Not until I reminded him for the third time _____ working and looked up 。
   A. that he stopped    B. does he stopped    C. did he stop    D. that he stopped

b. no sooner, hardly 放句首

eg. Hardly had we finished homework when the bell rang.

No sooner had we finished homework than the bell rang.

Hardly___________the door when he rushed into the office out of breath.


A.I opened B.did I open C.I had opened D.had I opened

c. not only 放句首

eg. We not only learn English, but also we learn French.

=Not only do we learn English, but also we learn French.

d. neither/not…nor 引导两个分句时,这两个分句中的主谓均要倒装。如 :

   Neither do I know her address , nor does he. 我不知道她的地址,他也不知道 .

  Not could the patient eat, nor could he drink.   那个病人既不能吃,也不能喝。

Nor do I know that anyone else knows the secret. 我也不知道还有谁晓得这秘密。

f. 其它否定词放句首( scarcely , barely ,seldom, little,( in ) under no circumstance ,by

no means 等)。
eg. Seldom do I think about my past.
Little does she care about what happens to her children.

_____ the importance of wearing seat belts while driving.


A. Little they realize    B. They little do realize    C. Little realize do they D. Little do they realize
D

4.Only+ 状语(从句)放句首 , 主谓要倒装

eg. We realized the importance only then.

=Only then did we realize the importance.

Only by chance did he find his lost book.

24
Only in this way can you improve your English.

Only when her children were beside her, was she able to do her housework happily.

Only by shouting at the top of his voice was he able to make himself heard.

Only in this way can we achieve what we want.

Only in each afternoon does the university library open.

Only under such a condition will he make steady progress.


只有在这样的条件下,他才会取得扎实的进步。
Only this morning did I hear the sad news.
   我今天早晨才听到这不幸的消息。

不放在句首不倒装 , 不是状语是主语不倒装 .

    Only the teachers are allowed to use this room.

    The aim was achieved only after a bitter struggle.

5.so+ 形容词,副词+that-clause的句型, so+ 形容词,副词放句首 , 主谓要倒装

eg.The ice is so thick that we can skate on it.=So thick is the ice that we can skate on it.

So strange did she look that everyone stared at her.

So loudly did he speak that even people in the next room could hear him.

So little did I know about philosophy that the lecture was completely beyond me.

6. 以such(作表语)开头的句子

Such would be our home in the future. (我们未来的家庭就是这样的。)

Such was Albert Eistein.-(阿尔伯特 · 爱因斯坦就是这样一个人。)

7. 让步从句中的部分倒装

25
以 AS 开头引导的让步从句(表语或状语常放在句首, VERY , A / AN 要省略)

eg.Though he is a boy, he knows a lot.

=Boy as he is, he knows a lot.( 注意零冠词 )

Hard as he worked, he made little progress.(尽管他很努力,但他取得的进步很小。)


Hero as he is, he has shortcomings. (虽然他是英雄,但是他也有缺点。)

8. 虚拟语气条件从句中的 if 省略时, were,had,should 必须搬到主语前 .

Eg.Were I there, I wouldn’t agree to the plan.


Were there no sun, life could not exist on earth.
Had I taken her advice, I wouldn’t have made such a mistake.
Should it not rain, we could get there on time.
_____ you were busy, I wouldn’t have bothered you with my questions.
   A. If I realized B. Had I realized  C. Did I have realized that   D. As I realized   B
_____, I should ask them some questions.
   A. Should they come to us    B. If they come
to us  

C. Were they come to us D. Had they come to us    A

9. 用于某些表示祝愿的句子
May you succeed!(祝你成功!)
Long live the People’s Republic of China!(中华人民共和国万岁!)
1. My brother had a cold last week, _________.
A. so had I B. so did I C. I had so D. so I had
2. Not until _________ home __________ his parents had been ill for three days.
A. he got; he knew B. did he get; he knew C. he got; did he know D. did he get; did he
know
3. In hardly any situation ________ find her sad.
A. that you can B. that can you C. you can D. can you
4. Be quick! _________.
A. The bus comes here B. Here comes the bus C. The bus here comes D. Here is the bus coming
5. In ________ and the lesson began.
A. the teacher came B. the teacher coming C. came the teacher D. did the teacher come
6. On the wall _________ two large portraits.
A. hangs B. hang C. hanged D. hanging
7. --- Do you know Jim quarreled with his brother? --- I don’t know, _________.
A. nor don’t I care B. nor do I care C. I don’t care neither D. neither don’t I care
26
8. Only when _________ how important it is to master English.
A. did I work I realized B. I worked did I realize C. did I work did I realize D. I worked I
realized
9. _______ in the darkness that he did not dare to move an inch.
A. So frightened he was B. So frightened was he C. He was frightened so D. So he was
frightened
10. _______, she is still as strong as you.
A. As old she is B. Old as she is C. As she is old D. As old is she

答案: I. BCDBC BBBBB

1. I am going to the meeting, and___.

    A. so does Dave B. so is Dave C. so goes Dave D. Dave is so

2. ____ got on the train when it started to move.

    A. Scarcely I had B. Scarcely had I C. No sooner I had D. No sooner had I

3. He has finished his work. ____.

    A. I have finished so B. So finished I C. So can I D. So have I

4. Not only ____ about the food, he also refused to pay for it.

  A. the customer complained B. when the customer complained

C. did the customer complain D. the customer did complain


5. All animals need air. ___.

    A. So plants do B. So need plants C. So do plants D. Plants are so

6. If Bob's wife doesn't agree to sign the papers, ___.

    A. neither he will B. neither won't h   C. neither will he D. he won't neither

7. Barry never eats potatoes and___.

    A. so doesn't Molly B. so Molly doesn’t C. neither does Molly D. neither Molly does

8. Anne didn't like our new roommate, and___.

    A. I don't too B. neither did I C. neither I did D. I didn't also

9. Only if he helps us ____.

    A. we may succeed B. we succeeded C. can we succeed D. we can succeed

10. He can hardly drive a car, ___.


    A. so can't I B. can't either C. I can't too D. neither can I
27
11. Mrs. Jones does not like shopping, ___.

    A. and she does like gardening B. nor she does like gardening

    C. or does she like gardening D. nor does she like gardening

12. ____ from the tenth floor when the policeman pointed his pistol at him.

    A. Jumped down the burglar B. Down the burglar jumped

    C. The burglar jumped down D. Down jumped the burglar

13. ___than they started to work.

    A. No sooner they had got to the plant   B. No sooner had they got to the plant

    C. As soon as they had got to the plant D. When they had got to the plant

14. No sooner had the bell rung___.

    A. when the class began B. while the class was beginning

    C. then the class was going to being D. than the class began

15. We were lucky, for no sooner ___ home ___ it rained.

    A. we turned...and B. did we return...when C. after we returned...and D. had we returned...than

16. ____ that even people in the next room could hear him.

    A. So loudly did he speak B. Such loudly did he speak

    C. So loudly he spoke D. Such loudly he spoke


17. Hardly ___ the people ran toward it.

    A. had the plane landed when B. had the plane landed than

    C. the plane had landed when D. the plane was landing than

18. Not until Mr. Smith came to China ___ what kind of a country she is.

    A. did he know B. he knew C. he didn't know D. he could know

19. Tom couldn't go to school, ___find a job.

    A. either he could B. either could he C. neither he could D. neither could he

20. ____, I would give it up early.

28
A.Was I in your place B. I was in your place   C.Were I in your place D. I were in your place

练习与检测答案

    1-5 BBDCC 6-10 CCBCD 11-15 DDBDD 16-20 AAADC

第十三章 并列句 p.158

由并列连词 (and,but,or 等 ) 或分号(;)把两个或两个以上互相关联又互相独立的简单句连结

起来构成的句子,叫做并列句。
Eg.I help him with his English and he helps me with my maths.
It’s getting dark, so we must hurry.
注意;逗号(,)不能连结并列句。但是可用“, and” 连结并列句。并列谓语也有类似用法。

考点( 1 ):并列连词的使用

a. 用来连接两个概念 有 and, so, not only…but also, neither…nor 等

eg.Last summer, I met Kate in London, and we became good friends.


I was very tired, so I stayed at home all day.
Not only is he interested in the subject but all his students are beginning to solve an interest in it.
Mary neither has long hair, nor does she wear skirt.

b. 表示在两者之间选择其一 有 or, either…or 等

eg.I may see you tomorrow or I may phone later in thee day.
We must hurry up, or we’ll fall behind.
Either he comes in or I go out.

c. 说明原因 ( for)

eg. She looks pale, for she has been ill for a long time.
d. 表示转折 有but, yet等
eg. He looked weak, but in fact he was in good health.
They didn’t like it, yet they said nothing.

考点( 2 ):祈使句 +and/or+ 含有一般将来时的陈述句

eg.Work hard ,and you’ll do well in your lesson.(suggestion)


Think it over ,and you will find the answer.
Take a taxi ,or /otherwise you’ll miss the train.
Be there on time ,or/otherwise you’ll create a bad impression.
Drop that gun,or/otherwise I’ll shoot you.(order)

29
实例 .Take a taxi , _____ you'll miss your train .

A. and B. If C. otherwise D. otherwise

答案是 C 项。祈使句可用来取代 if 从句来表示评论、提出要求、发出忠告或威胁等。用祈使句

比用 if 从句表达更强的紧迫性。在表示评论和要求时,其连词用 and ,表示忠告时用连词


otherwise,表示威胁时,用连词or。例如: Fail to pay and they will cut off the electricity . ( 不交钱,
他们就会中断供电。 ) 这是客观的评论; Tell us what to do and we will get on with it . ( 如果你告诉我
们该做些什么,我们就会把它做好。 ) 这明显是请求; Put on you overcoat when you go out ,
otherwise you will catch cold . (外出时你应该穿上大衣,不然的话你会感冒的。 ) 显然这是忠告;
Drop that gun , or I will shoot you . ( 把枪放下,否则我就开枪打死你。 ) 很明显,这是威胁

考点( 3 ):并列连词的特殊点:

a). when 就在这时,突然

was/were about to do+when+ 并列句 正要做 sth, 就在此时(突然)

过去进行时 +when+ 并列句 正在做 sth, 就在此时(突然)

had just done+when+ 并列句 刚做了 sth, 就在此时(突然)

eg. I was about to leave when it began to rain.

I was going home when it began to rain.

I had just left when it began to rain.

eg. He had just gone to bed when the door bell rang.
He was about to go to bed when the door bell rang.
He was reading English when the door bell rang.
b).while 而(表示对比)
eg. Mother is cooking while Father is reading a newspaper
c).for 因为 (不表示因果关系)

eg.The day broke, for the cocks began to sing.

30
第十四章 基本句式
句子按使用目的分为 陈述句,疑问句,感叹句,祈使句

1). 陈述句 陈述句可分为肯定句和否定句

简单句中的否定形式。

1 完全否定:用 no( 与名词连用),not或 never( 与动词连用 ),none,nobody,nothing,nowhere,neither 等词,

否定主语、宾语、谓语或状语等其它成分。如:

   He made no mistakes in the exercises.

   I am not a fool.

   Neither sentence is correct.

2. 基本否定:用 hardly,seldom,little,few 等含否定意义的词,修饰动词或名词,否定谓语或主、宾语。

如:

   The old woman can hardly read.

   There is little or no hope.

3. 部分否定:用 all /both /everyone / everybody /everything + not... 或 Not all /both /everyone

/everybody /everything... 的句式。如:

  Not all the ants go out for food.

   Not every person can be a talent( 天才).

4. 没有否定词的 too...to... 句式表示否定。如:

  It's too dangerous to cross.

   I went too late to see him.

5. 双重否定句:一个句子出现两种否定形式,这种双重否定结构是一种强调手段。句子形式为否定
之否定,但实际效果是加强肯定。如:

   I can't disobey her. 我不得不服从她。


31
   No one has nothing to offer to society. 每个人都可向社会做出一点奉献。

6. 句中虽有带否定前缀的词,但却不视为否定句,其反意疑问句的附加问句用否定形式。如:

  You are unwelcome,aren't you?

   The girl was much disappointed at failing to win the prize , wasn't she?

7. 否定疑问句表示惊异、责难、赞叹、建议等。如:

   Didn't you have a good time at the ball?( 惊异 )

   Isn't it a lovely day?( 赞叹 )

   Won't you come in and have a cup of tea?( 建议 )

   Why are you so late?Didn't I tell you to come early?( 责难 )

must的三个否定式:

These books mustn’t be taken out of the readong-room.

There can’t be something wrong with the engine of her car.

You needn’t buy a new house somewhere for you to live in the future.

否定提前:

I don’t think that the prisoners of war can run away from the prison camp.

2). 疑问句

A.一般疑问句

否定疑问句的回答 : Yes,+ 肯定回答。 No,+ 否定回答 .

否定疑问句相当于汉语的反诘句,但是答案习惯与汉语不同

eg.Don’t they/Do they not care what she says? 难道他们不在乎她说什么?

----No, they don’t. 是的,不在乎。


32
Isn’t she/Is she not very angry with her friend? 难道他不生她朋友的气?

----Yes, she is. 不,她生气。

Jane wasn’t in when Jack came, was she ?


A.No,she was B.No,she wasn’t C.Yes,she was D.Yes,she wasn’t
B.特殊疑问句

考点( 1 ):what范围不确定; which 范围确定

考点( 2 ): how long, how far, how soon, how often

考点( 3 ): when, what time

考点( 4 ):三个“如何“不用how,而用 what 的句型 :

1.What is +S+like? What’s the weather like today?

2.What do you do with +sb/sth? What do you do with the old bike?

但是 How do you deal with+sb/sth?

3.What do you think of +sb/sth?但是 How do you feel+sb/sth?

C.选择疑问句

Eg.Have you have tea, or coffee?

Who is reading there, Jack or Tom?

Have you sent the letter or not?

Did he use to be a common soldier or an officer before going to university?

33
( 注意used to的一般问句 )

D. 反意疑问句

构成 陈述句,疑问句?

肯定,助动词(否定) + 主语 ( 必须是人称代词 ) ?

否定,助动词(肯定) + 主语 ( 必须是人称代词 ) ?

Eg.John left yesterday, didn’t he?

John didn’t go to the party, did he?

考点( 1 ):当主语是 everyone/someone/anyone 时 , 人称代词用 they, 但也可用 he.

当主语是 everything/something/anything 时 , 人称代词用 it

eg. Everyone wants to go, don’t they?

Everyone is here,aren't they /isn't he?

Nothing can stop us,can it?

考点( 2 ): There is … 句型的反意疑问句:

eg. There is a book on the desk, isn’t there ?

考点( 3 ):祈使句的反意疑问句

a) 第二人称祈使句

eg. Don’t stand up, will you?


34
Stand up,will you? 但也有用won't you表示提醒对方注意。如:

Fetch me a chair,won't you?


Be careful next time,_________?
A.don’t you B.are you C.will you D.aren’t you
b) 第一人称祈使句

eg.Let’s go home, shall we? 但是, Let us go home, will you?

Let’s not do, shall we?

考点( 4 ):含有否定词 no,little,few,hardly,seldom,never 的反意疑问句 .

Eg.Few people understood him, did they ?

He has never been abroad, has he?

She seldom goes to bed before 11 o’clock,does she?

He could hardly remember anything during his children, could he?

考点( 5 ):宾语从句否定提前的反意疑问句

eg. I don’t think you are right, are you ?

如果主句的主语是第一人称 (I,we), 应与宾语从句构成反意疑问句 ; 如果主句的主语不是第一人称

(I,we), 应与主句构成反意疑问句。
I don't think you are right,are you?

   I don't believe you've met my wife,have you?

   I think you'll be angry with me,won't you?

  若陈述句主语是第二、三人称,附加问句则与主句主语一致。如:

   They don't think I am right,do they?

35
考点( 6 ):陈述句部分有must表示推测时,其附加问句表示对现实情况推测用be,对过去推测用

didn't( 有过去时间状语 ) ,或 didn't,haven't /hasn't 均可 ( 没过去时间状语 ) 。如:

  They must be from Canada,aren't they?

   She must have stayed with Barbara last night , didn't she?

   You must have met her,didn't /haven't you?

考点( 7 ):陈述句部分有 ought to,used to 时,附加问句可用 oughtn't 或 shouldn't 和 didn't 或

usedn't 两种形式。如:

   You ought to know about it,oughtn't you/shouldn't you?

   You used to live in Paris,didn't /usedn'tyou?

考点( 8 ):反意疑问句的回答 : Yes,+ 肯定回答。 No,+ 否定回答 .

Eg. You aren’t going out, are you?Yes, I am. No, I am not.

You are a teacher, aren’t you? No, (A) .

A. I was B. I wasn’t C. I am D. I am not

3). 感叹句的构成及转换

a). 感叹句的构成 : what+ 名词 + 主 + 谓!

How+ 形、副词 + 主 + 谓!

How+ 整个句子!

Eg. What important information you offer us!

What a pity! What nonsense!

What a good girl she is!


36
How moving the story is!

How I miss my mother!

b).what 与 how 的转换

eg. What a good student he is!=How good a student he is!

4). 祈使句的构成及其反意问句

a) 第二人称祈使句

eg. Don’t stand up, will you?

Stand up,will you?

b)第一人称祈使句

eg.Let’s go home, shall we? 但是, Let us go home, will you?

第十五章 名词从句 p.179

A). 名词性从句:主语从句,表语从句,宾语从句,同位语从句

1. 主语从句的构成: 关联词 + 主 + 谓 + 其它成分

关联词有: 1.that( 没有词汇意义,不作句子成分 ) 不可省略

whether 是否。 不用 if

2. 疑问代词: who/whom,what,which whoever/whatever…

37
3. 疑问副词: when,why,where whenever/wherever…

主 语 从 句 在 从 句 中 作 主 语 , 它 可 以 放 在 主 句 谓 语 动 词 之 前 , 但 多 数 情 况 下 由 it 作 形 式 主 语 , 而 把 主

语 从 句 放 在 主 句 之 后。

[ 考 例 6]_______fashion differs from country to country may reflect the cultural differences from one aspect.(2002 上 海

春季 )

    A.What B.That C.This D.Which

    解 析 : 这 是 含 有 一 个 主 语 从 句 的 句 子。 因 为 主 语 从 句 是 一 个 完 整 的 句 子 , 所 以 要 填 写 that 。 这

句话的意思是 " 国与国之间的时装差异可以从一个方面反映出其文化的差异 " 。 答案为 B 。

[ 考 例 7]_______ she couldn't understand was_______ fewer and fewer students showed interest in her lessons.( 2000

上海 )

    A.What;why B.That; what C.What; because D.Why; that

    解 析 : 答 案 为 A 。 主 语 从 句 she couldn't understand 缺 少 宾 语 , 要 用 what 引 导 。 表 语 从 句 fewer and

fewer students showed interest in her lessons 是 一 个 完 整 的 句 子 , 要 用 why 引 导 , 意 思 是 " 为 什 么 越 来 越

少 的 学 生 对 她 的 课 感 兴 趣。 "

2. 形式主语it 的用法

a.It+is+adj.+for sb to do.

b.It+is+adj.+of sb to do.

c.It+is told /said/believed+that-clause.

It+seems+ that-clause.

eg. That China is a developing country is well known.

= It is well known that China is a developing country.

It doesn’t matter whether she agrees or not.

38
考点( 3 ):主语从句,表语从句中的“是否”不用if,而用 whether

可说whether…or not,不可说if…or not

1._____ was unimportant.


   A. Whether he enjoyed our dinner or not    B. No matter how he enjoyed our dinner
  C. If he enjoyed our dinner   D. What he enjoyed our dinner    A
2._____ I saw was two men crossing the street.
   A. What   B. Whom   C. Who    D. That    A
3._____ was not the way the event happened.
   A. Which the press reported    B. That the press reported    C. what did the press report
   D. What the press reported    D what 在从句中做宾语。
4.It’s urgent that a meeting _____ before the final decision is made.
   A. will be arranged   B. must be arranged  C. be arranged   D. would be arranged C
5.It is highly desirable that a new president _____ for this university.
   A. is appointed   B. will be appointed   C. be appointed   D. has been appointed C

2. 表语从句 表语从句在句子中作表语 , 位于主句中的系动词之后。

[ 考 例 1] - Are you still thinking about yesterday's game?

   -Oh, that's_______ . (2003 北 京 春 季 )

    A. what makes me feel excited_______     B. whatever I feel excited about

    C. how I feel about it     D. when I feel excited

    解 析 : 上 文 的 关 键 词 语 "still thinking about yesterday's game" 决 定 必 然 用 表 语 从 句 what makes me feel

excited , 表 示 比 赛 留 下 久 久 不 能 忘 怀 的 印 象 , 豪 情 激 发 , 现 在 还 在 thinking;B 项 是 泛 泛 而 指 , 当 然
不 行 ;C 和 D 项 内 容 与 上 下 文 问 题 无 关。 故 答 案 为 A.

[ 考 例 2]-I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week.

   -Is that_______ you had a few days off?(NMET1999)

    A.why B.when C.what D.where

39
    解 析 : 这 是 一 个 由 why 引 导 的 表 语 从 句 , 表 示 原 因 . 这 句 话 的 意 思 是 " 这 就 是 你 离 开 的 原 因

吗 ?" 。 故 答 案 为 A 。

[ 考 例 3]Perseverance is a kind of quality and that's_______ it takes to do anything well.( 2002 上 海 春 季 )

    A. what B. that C. which D. why

    解 析 :what 在 表 语 从 句 中 作 takes 的 宾 语 , 构 成 "It takes sth. to do sth." 的 句 型 。 答 案 为 A 。

3. 宾 语 从 句 宾语从句在句子中作及物动词或介词的宾语 . 如果主句的谓语动词是及物动词

make, find, see, hear 等 , 则 把 宾 语 从 句 置 于 宾 语 补 足 语 之 后 , 用 it 作 形 式 宾 语 . 另 外 , 某 些 作 表 语 的


形 容 词 , 如 sure, happy, glad, certain 等 之 后 也 可 以 带 宾 语 从 句。
Mr. Hall understands that_______maths has always been easy for him, it is not easy for the students. ( 2003
[ 考 例 4] 安徽春

季 )

    A. unless B. since C. although D. when

    解 析 : 该 题 考 查 连 词 在 宾 语 从 句 中 的 用 法 . 观 察 题 干 Mr. Hall understands 是 主 句 , 其 后 有 that 引

导 的 宾 语 从 句 , 可 将 该 句 简 化 为 : _______maths has always been easy for him,it is not easy for the students. 分 析
简 化 后 的 句 子 可 知 ,maths has always been easy for him 与 it is not easy for the students 之 间 含 有 转 折 关 系 , 其
他 选 项 不 合 题 干 逻 辑。 故 答 案 为 C 。

[ 考 例 5]When you answer questions in a job interview, please remember the golden rule: Always give the monkey

exactly_______ he wants .(2002 上 海 春 季 )

    A.what B.which C.when D.that

    解 析 : 这 是 一 个 宾 语 从 句 ,wants 后 面 缺 少 宾 语 ,Always give the monkey exactly what he wants 是 一 句 谚

语 , 意思是 " 永远给予他人他确实想要的东西 " 。 故答案为 A 。

a) 关联词有:

1.that+陈述句 He said that he had finished his homework.

that不作句子成分时可省略

2.whether/if+ 一般问句

He asked whether/if you had finished your homework.


40
3. 疑问词 + 特殊问句

He asked when you finished your homework.

b) 时态的搭配 :

1. 主句是过去时,从句用相应的过去时

He said that the policeman found/ had found his lost bike.

2. 客观规律永远用一般现在时

The teacher said that the sun rises in the east.

c) 宾语从句的否定提前

I don’t think you are right,are you?

d). 宾语从句的主谓不倒装

8.----- Do you see why he hasn’t turned up yet? ----- Sorry, I don’t know _______.
A. what the matter is   B. how matters stood   C. what is the matter   D. how is the matter
e) 分句替代词

so替代肯定意义的分句 ; not 替代否定意义的分句。常和分句替代词搭配的动词主要有 think,

hope,be afraid 等。习惯上我们说 I think so. I don’t think so.而不说 I think not.

可以说 I hope so. I hope not.

I’m afraid so. I’m afraid not.

Eg.1. “ Do you think he will come this afternoon?” “I don’t think so./ I think so.

2.”It is going to rain this afternoon.” “I hope so./I hope not.”

3.”Do you think your fater will be here soon?” “I’m afraid so./ I’m afraid not.
41
4. 同位语从句 在主从复合句中作同位语的从句称为同位语从句。同位语从句一般用
that,whether 等词引导,常放在 idea, news, promise, answer, belief, condition, doubt, fear, hope,
problem, proof, question, reply, report, suggestion, thought, truth, fact,news,idea,information 等名词后
面,说明该名词的具体内容。换言之,同位语从句和所修饰的名词在内容上为同一关系。

例:The news that they had won the game soon spread over the whole school.他们比赛获胜

的消息很快传遍了整个学校。

析: they had won the game 说明 The news 的全部内容,因此该句为同位语从句。

eg. 我们一致同意周末去野餐的计划。
We all agreed on the plan that we would go for picnic on the coming weekend.

[ 考 例 8]Information has been put forward_______ more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities.( 2001 上
海 )

    A.while B.that C.when D.as

    解 析 :that 引 导 从 句 作 information 的 同 位 语 , 解 释 information 的 具 体 内 容 . 这 句 话 的 意 思 是 " 有

消 息 说 , 有 更 多 的 中 学 毕 业 生 将 进 入 大 学 " 。 由 于 information 与 同 位 语 从 句 被 has been put forward 分

隔 开 来 , 增 加 了 试 题 的 难 度。

正确运用同位语从句的引导词,准确把握同位语从句

a.1. 如同位语从句意义完整,应用 that 引导同位语从句。

The general gave the order that the soldiers should cross the river at once.
   例 : 将军下达了战士们立即过河的命

令。
the soldiers should cross the river at once the order that
  析: 是 的全部内容,且意义完整,因此应用 引导同

位 语 从 句。

   2. 如同位语从句意义不完整,需增加 " 是否 " 的含义,应用 whether 引导同位语从句。

We'll discuss the problem whether the sports meeting will be held on time.
   例 : 我们将讨论运动会是否会如期举

行 的 问 题。

  析: the sports meeting will be held on time 意义不完整,应加 " 是否 " 的含义才能表达 the

problem 的全部内容,因此应用 whether 引导同位语从句。

   3. 如同位语从句意义不完整,需增加 " 什么时候 " 、 " 什么地点 " 、 " 什么方式 " 等含义,应

用when,where,how等词引导同位语从句。

42
  例 1 :I have no idea when he will be back.

he will be back " " idea


   析 : 意义不完整,应加 什么时候 的含义才能表达 的全部内容,因此应用

when 引 导 同 位 语 从 句。

  例 2 : I have no impression how he went home,perhaps by bike.

he went home " " impression


   析 : 意义不完整,应加 如何 的含义才能表达 的全部内容,因此应用

how 引 导 同 位 语 从 句。

考点 (1) 定语从句与同位语从句的区别

定语从句修饰限定先行词,它与先行词是修饰关系;同位语从句说明先行词的具体内容,它与先行
词是同位关系。同位语从句和定语从句相似,都放在某一名词或代词后面,但同位语从句不同于定
语从句。同位语从句对名词加以补充说明,是名词全部内容的体现,且名词和同位语从句的引导词
均不在从句中作成分;定语从句对名词加以限制,是名词内容的修饰性定语,且名词和定语从句的
引导词均在从句中作成分。
1 Information has been put forward ____ more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities.(NMET2001
例 : 上

海 )

   A.while B.that C.when D.as

  析:答案为 B 。 more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities 是 Information 的内

容,且 Information 不在从句中作成分,所以该句为同位语从句。应将该句区别于:

  It is said that more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities, this is the information

____ has been put forward.

   A.what B.that C.when D.as

  析:答案为 B 。 that has been put forward 为 information 的修饰性定语,且 information 在从句中

作主语,所以该句为定语从句。

例 2 :She heard a terrible noise,____ brought her heart into her mouth.(MET91)

   A.it B.which C.this D.that

  析:答案为 B 。分析语境含义、句子结构和句子成分可知,该句为非限制性定语从句,先行词

为a terrible noise,且它在从句中作主语。应将该句区别于:
43
   I can't stand the terrible noise ____ she is crying loudly.

   A.it B.which C.this D.that

  析:答案为 D 。she is crying loudly是 the terrible noise 的内容,且 the terrible noise 不在从句中作

成分,所以该句为同位语从句。

   The plane that has just taken off is for Paris. (定语从句)

刚刚起飞的那架飞机是开往巴黎的。
The fact that he has already died is quite clear. (同位语从句)
他已经去世了,这个事实很明了。

2, 同位语从句关联词只用 that, 并且不可省略

The news that he told me is true. (定语从句) 他告诉我的消息是真的。


The news that he has just died is true. (同位语从句) 他刚刚去世了,这个消息是真的。
The problem that we are facing now is how we can collect so much money.

( 定语从句 ) 我们现在面临的问题是如何筹集这么多资金。

The problem how we can collect so much money is difficult to solve.


(同位语从句) 我们如何筹集这么多资金,这个问题很难解决。
The question that he raised puzzled all of us. (定语从句) 他提出的问题让我们很为难。
The question whether he is sure to win the game is hard to answer. (同位语从句)
他是否一定会赢得那场比赛,这个问题很难回答。

巩固性练习:
1.The fact ____ she works hard is well known to us all.

   A.that B.what C.why D.which

2.The fact ____ he was successful proves his ability.

   A.that B.what C.which D.why

3.The news ____ he was kidnapped surprised us greatly.

   A.what B.that C.why D.when

4.His suggestion ____ the meeting be delayed was turned down.

   A.which B.that C./D.it

5.I have no idea ____ he will start.


44
   A.when B.that C.what D./

6.I've come from the government with a message ____ the meeting won't be held tomorrow.

   A.if B.that C.whether D.which

7.The thought ____ he might fail in the exam worried him.

  A.when B.which C.what D.that

8.The order ____ the prisoner be set free arrived too late.

  A.which B.whether C.that D.what

9.The nurses are trying their best to reduce the patient's fear ____ he would die of the disease.

   A.that B.as C.of which D.which

10.He often asked me the question ____ the work was worth doing.

   A.whether B.where C.that D.when

   Keys: 1-5 AABBA 6-10 BDCAA

5.what 从句

…的话 What he said satisfied me.

…的事(东西) What satisfied me most is his words.

…的样子 China is no longer what she used to be 10 years age.

  在高二上册我们学过了有关名词性从句的用法。名词性从句几乎每年高考都要考,在各种题目中也经常出现,它
也是复合句中比较难以掌握的语法内容之一,因此应切实掌握这一考点。其中名词性从句的连接词的考查是重中之
重,考生如何正确理解句子的含义,选取正确的连接词,是把握好这一类题目的关键。

    名 词 性 从 句 包 括 表 语 从 句、 宾 语 从 句、 主 语 从 句 和 同 位 语 从 句 . 其 关 联 词 有 that, if , whether, who,

what, which, when, where, why 等。

  笔者把最近几年的有关名词性从句的高考试题进行了分类整理 , 并加以分析 , 同时又加注了各

种 名 词 性 从 句 的 基 本 特 点 , 希 望 能 为 同 学 们 掌 握 好 名 词 性 从 句 的 用 法 提 供 一 些 帮 助。
一、 对 表 语 从 句 的 考 查
45
    表 语 从 句 在 句 子 中 作 表 语 , 位 于 主 句 中 的 系 动 词 之 后。

[ 考 例 1] - Are you still thinking about yesterday's game?

   -Oh, that's_______ . (2003 北 京 春 季 )

    A. what makes me feel excited_______     B. whatever I feel excited about

    C. how I feel about it     D. when I feel excited

    解 析 : 上 文 的 关 键 词 语 "still thinking about yesterday's game" 决 定 必 然 用 表 语 从 句 what makes me feel

excited , 表 示 比 赛 留 下 久 久 不 能 忘 怀 的 印 象 , 豪 情 激 发 , 现 在 还 在 thinking;B 项 是 泛 泛 而 指 , 当 然 不 行 ;
C 和 D 项 内 容 与 上 下 文 问 题 无 关。 故 答 案 为 A.

[ 考 例 2]-I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week.

   -Is that_______ you had a few days off?(NMET1999)

    A.why B.when C.what D.where

    解 析 : 这 是 一 个 由 why 引 导 的 表 语 从 句 , 表 示 原 因 . 这 句 话 的 意 思 是 " 这 就 是 你 离 开 的 原 因

吗 ?" 。 故 答 案 为 A 。

[ 考 例 3]Perseverance is a kind of quality and that's_______ it takes to do anything well.( 2002 上 海 春 季 )

    A. what B. that C. which D. why

    解 析 :what 在 表 语 从 句 中 作 takes 的 宾 语 , 构 成 "It takes sth. to do sth." 的 句 型。 答 案 为 A 。

二、 对 宾 语 从 句 的 考 查

    宾 语 从 句 在 句 子 中 作 及 物 动 词 或 介 词 的 宾 语 . 如 果 主 句 的 谓 语 动 词 是 及 物 动 词 make, find, see,

hear 等 , 则 把 宾 语 从 句 置 于 宾 语 补 足 语 之 后 , 用 it 作 形 式 宾 语 . 另 外 , 某 些 作 表 语 的 形 容 词 , 如
sure, happy, glad, certain 等 之 后 也 可 以 带 宾 语 从 句。
[ 考 例 4]Mr. Hall understands that_______maths has always been easy for him, it is not easy for the students. ( 2003 安 徽 春 季 )

    A. unless B. since C. although D. when

    解 析 : 该 题 考 查 连 词 在 宾 语 从 句 中 的 用 法 . 观 察 题 干 Mr. Hall understands 是 主 句 , 其 后 有 that 引

导 的 宾 语 从 句 , 可 将 该 句 简 化 为 : _______maths has always been easy for him,it is not easy for the students. 分 析
46
简 化 后 的 句 子 可 知 ,maths has always been easy for him 与 it is not easy for the students 之 间 含 有 转 折 关 系 , 其

他 选 项 不 合 题 干 逻 辑。 故 答 案 为 C 。

[ 考 例 5]When you answer questions in a job interview, please remember the golden rule: Always give the monkey

exactly_______ he wants .(2002 上 海 春 季 )

    A.what B.which C.when D.that

    解 析 : 这 是 一 个 宾 语 从 句 ,wants 后 面 缺 少 宾 语 ,Always give the monkey exactly what he wants 是 一 句 谚

语 , 意思是 " 永远给予他人他确实想要的东西 " 。 故答案为 A 。


三、 对 主 语 从 句 的 考 查

    主 语 从 句 在 从 句 中 作 主 语 , 它 可 以 放 在 主 句 谓 语 动 词 之 前 , 但 多 数 情 况 下 由 it 作 形 式 主 语 , 而

把 主 语 从 句 放 在 主 句 之 后。
[ 考 例 6]_______fashion differs from country to country may reflect the cultural differences from one aspect.(2002 上 海 春
季 )

    A.What B.That C.This D.Which

    解 析 : 这 是 含 有 一 个 主 语 从 句 的 句 子。 因 为 主 语 从 句 是 一 个 完 整 的 句 子 , 所 以 要 填 写 that 。 这

句话的意思是 " 国与国之间的时装差异可以从一个方面反映出其文化的差异 " 。 答案为 B 。


[ 考 例 7]_______ she couldn't understand was_______ fewer and fewer students showed interest in her lessons.( 2000 上 海 )

    A.What;why B.That; what C.What; because D.Why; that

    解 析 : 答 案 为 A 。 主 语 从 句 she couldn't understand 缺 少 宾 语 , 要 用 what 引 导。 表 语 从 句 fewer and

fewer students showed interest in her lessons 是 一 个 完 整 的 句 子 , 要 用 why 引 导 , 意 思 是 " 为 什 么 越 来 越 少


的 学 生 对 她 的 课 感 兴 趣。 "
四、 对 同 位 语 从 句 的 考 查

  同位语从句一般跟在某些抽象名词概念的名词后面 , 用以说明名词所表示的具体内容 , 常跟同

位 语 从 句 的 名 词 主 要 有 :idea, news, promise, answer, belief, condition, doubt, fear, hope, problem, proof, question,
reply, report, suggestion, thought, truth 等。
[ 考 例 8]Information has been put forward_______ more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities.( 2001 上 海 )

    A.while B.that C.when D.as

    解 析 :that 引 导 从 句 作 information 的 同 位 语 , 解 释 information 的 具 体 内 容 . 这 句 话 的 意 思 是 " 有

消 息 说 , 有 更 多 的 中 学 毕 业 生 将 进 入 大 学 " 。 由 于 information 与 同 位 语 从 句 被 has been put forward 分


47
隔 开 来 , 增 加 了 试 题 的 难 度。

[ 巩固练习 ]

1.Go and get your coat.It's_______you left it.

    A.there B.where C.there were D.where there

2._______he said at the meeting astonished everybody present.

    A.What B.That C.The fact D.The manner

3._______ the sports meet will be held depends on the weather.

    A.When ever B.If C.Whether D.That

4.The problem is_______ he has enough time.

    A.if B.whether C./ D.that

5.The fact_______ he didn't see Lao Li yesterday is true.

    A.which B.that C.when D.what

6.He made a promise_______ he would help me.

    A.what B.when C.that_______ D.which

7.I remember_______ this used to be a quiet village.

    A.how B.when C.where D.what

8._______ beat Xiao Wang black and blue is not known.

    A.Whom_______ B.Whoever C.Who D.What

9.It is generally considered unwise to give a child_______ he or she wants.

    A.however B.whatever C.whichever D.wherever

10._______we can't get seems better than_______we have.

    A.What; what B.What; that C.That; that D.That; what

答案与简析 :

1.B.where 引 导 表 语 从 句 , 在 从 句 中 作 状 语 , 表 示 放 东 西 的 地 点 .there 不 能 引 导 表 语 从 句 。
2. A.what 引 导 主 语 从 句 , 作 said 的 宾 语 。
3.C.whether 引 导 主 语 从 句 ,if 不 能 引 导 位 于 句 首 的 主 语 从 句 ,A 、 D 不 合 题 意 。
4.B.whether 引 导 表 语 从 句 , 而 不 用 if 。
48
5.B. 同 位 语 从 句 说 明 fact 的 具 体 内 容 , 只 用 that 引 导 , 不 能 省 略 . 不 用 which 引 导 ,that 只 起 连 接 作 用 ,

不 作 句 子 成 分。
6.C.that 引 导 同 位 语 从 句 , 说 明 promise 的 具 体 内 容 。
7.B.when 引 导 宾 语 从 句 , 表 示 " 那 时 , 这 是 个 僻 静 的 村 庄 " 。 village 已 有 quiet 修 饰 , 不 能 再 用 how

引 导 从 句 ,C 、 D 不 合 题 意 。
8.C. 首 先 排 除 D ,who 引 导 主 语 从 句 并 作 从 句 的 主 语 ,whom 不 能 作 主 语 ,whoever 则 表 示 " 无 论 谁 ", 与 句

意 不 符。
9. B.whatever 引 导 宾 语 从 句 , 在 从 句 中 作 wants 的 宾 语 。 用 whichever 引 导 , 则 表 示 " 任 何 一 个 ", 与 题 意

不 符 ,A 、 D 都 只 能 作 状 语 。
10. A.what 引 导 主 语 、 宾 语 从 句 , 可 作 从 句 中 的 主 语 或 宾 语 , 而 that 引 导 名 词 性 从 句 时 在 句 子 中 不 作

成 分。

http://www.sina.com.cn 2004/10/22 10:14 英语辅导报

  名词性从句包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。其命题规律:

    一、 考 查 名 词 性 从 句 的 语 序

    不 管 主 句 的 语 气 如 何 , 名 词 性 从 句 总 是 使 用 陈 述 语 序。

   [ 原题再现 ]

    No one can be sure ________ in a million years.

    A. what man will look like B. what will man look like C. man will look like what D. what look will man like 答 案 是 A 。

    二 、 考 查 it 作 形 式 主 语 的 用 法

    英 语 中 为 了 使 句 子 保 持 平 衡 , 常 用 先 行 词 it 代 替 主 语 从 句 , 而 把 主 语 从 句 放 到 句 子 的 后 面 。

   [ 原题再现 ]

    ________ is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language.

    A. There B. This C. That D. It 答案是 D。

    三、 考 查 关 联 词 的 正 确 选 用

    这 是 近 几 年 高 考 的 重 中 之 重。 解 决 这 一 问 题 可 以 从 以 下 几 点 入 手 :

    1. 依 据 " 缺 什 么 补 什 么 " 的 原 则 确 定 正 确 的 连 词

    认 真 分 析 句 子 成 分 , 看 从 句 中 缺 什 么 成 分 , 再 根 据 语 境 和 语 义 , 选 用 恰 当 的 连 词。 如 果 从 句 中

缺 少 主 语 , 指 人 用 who, 指 物 则 用 what; 如 缺 宾 语 , 指 人 用 whom, 指 物 用 what; 如 缺 时 间 状 语 用 when; 地 点

状 语 用 where; 原 因 状 语 用 why; 方 式 状 语 用 how; 定 语 用 what 或 which; 如 果 从 句 中 什 么 成 分 都 不 缺 , 用


that 。 例 如 :

    I don't know who will be our English teacher next term.( 缺 主 语 , 指 人 用 who)

    I know what should be done and what shouldn't be done.( 缺 主 语 , 指 物 用 what)

    I'm sure that he will come tomorrow.( 什 么 成 分 都 不 缺 , 用 that)

    Where he will go is still unknown.( 缺 地 点 状 语 , 用 where)

    I don't know which / what topic I should choose.( 缺 定 语 , 用 what 或 which)

   [ 原题再现 ]

    -I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week.


49
    -Is that ________ you had a few days off?

    A. why B. when C. what D. where 答案是 A。

    2. 注 意 几 组 易 混 连 词 的 使 用

    1) what 与 that

    这 是 高 考 测 试 的 一 对 热 点 连 词 , 同 学 们 一 定 要 将 其 掌 握 。 that 引 导 名 词 性 从 句 时 仅 起 连 接 作 用 ,

不 作 句 子 任 何 成 分 , 除 在 宾 语 从 句 中 外 一 般 不 可 省 略 ;what 引 导 名 词 性 从 句 时 , 除 起 连 接 作 用 外 , 还

在 句 子 中 担 任 主 语、 宾 语、 表 语 等 句 子 成 分。

   [ 原题再现 ]

    ________ he said is true.

    A. What B. That C. Which D. Whether 答案是 A。

    2) whether 与 if

    whether 与 if 在 引 导 动 词 的 宾 语 从 句 时 , 两 者 一 般 可 以 互 换 , 但 在 引 导 主 语 从 句 、 表 语 从 句 、 同

位 语 从 句 以 及 作 介 词 宾 语 的 宾 语 从 句 或 后 面 直 接 跟 or not 时 , 只 能 用 whether 。

   [ 原题再现 ]

    ________ we'll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather.

    A. If B. Whether C. That D. Where 答案是B 。

    3) "wh-+ever" 与 "wh-""wh-+ever" 引 起 的 名 词 性 从 句 不 含 疑 问 意 义 , 相 当 于 名 词 / 代 词 后 加 一 个 定 语

从 句 ; 而 "wh-" 如 what, which, who, whom, when, where 等 除 与 前 一 种 从 句 有 相 同 的 含 义 之 外 , 还 都 有 疑 问 意

义。

   [ 原题再现 ]

  ① Eat ________ cake you like and leave the others for ________ comes in late.

    A. any; who B. every; whoever C. whichever; whoever D. either; whoever

  ② ________ has helped to save the drowning girl is worth praising.

    A. Who B. The one C. Anyone D. Whoever

  ③ It's a matter of ________ would take the position

  A. who B. whoever C. whom D. whomever

答 案 分 别 是 C D A。

    3. 同 位 语 从 句 与 定 语 从 句 的 区 别

    同 位 语 从 句 和 定 语 从 句 都 跟 在 名 词 后 , 极 易 为 某 些 同 学 混 淆。 同 位 语 从 句 是 用 来 对 前 面 的 名 词

解 释 说 明 的 , 而 定 语 从 句 是 用 来 对 先 行 词 加 以 限 制 的 ; 引 导 同 位 语 从 句 的 that 在 从 句 中 不 作 任 何 成

分 , 而 引 导 定 语 从 句 的 关 系 代 词 that 则 在 定 语 从 句 中 担 任 主 语 或 宾 语 。

   [ 原题再现 ]

  ① Finally, the thief handed everything ________ he had stolen to the police.

    A. which B. what C. whatever D. that

  ② Information has been put forward ________ more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities.

    A. while B. that C. when D. as

    答 案 分 别 是 DB 。 第 ① 题 是 定 语 从 句 , 第 ② 题 是 同 位 语 从 句 。

B). 定语从句 p.189 A man who tries to learn from others will go far.
50
A clock is an instrument that tells time.

考点 (2) 定语从句关联词用法

先行词 关联词 + 主语 + 谓语

主语 宾语 定语

人 who whom/who/ 省略 whose

物 which which/ 省略 whose

that 可用与“人”和” 物”

考点 (3) 定语从句关联词只用 that 的场合

1. 当先行词是 everything, anything, nothing (something 除外 ), all, none, few, little, some 等代词

时,或当先行词受 every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much 等代词修饰时。,关联词只用 that

2. the+ 序数词 / 最高级 + 先行词,关联词只用 that

3. the ve ry/only/same等时,关联词只用 that

4. 先行词包括人和物,关联词只用 that

eg. Have you taken down everything that Mr. Li said? 李老师讲的你都记下来了吗?
There seems to be nothing that is impossible to him in the world.
对他来说似乎世界上没有什么不可能的事。
All that can be done has been done. 所有能做的都做好了。
There is little that I can do for you. 我不能为你干什么。
He stayed in the library and looked up any information that they needed.
51
他呆在图书馆查找所需的资料。
They talked about the persons and things that they remembered at school
他们谈论着他们所能记起的在校时的人和事。
This is the very dictionary that I want to buy. 这正是我要买的词典。
Wang Hua is the only person in our school who will attend the meeting.
王华是我校唯一出席会议的人。
The first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben. 在伦敦他们参观的第一个地方是大本钟。
This is the best film that I have ever seen. 这是我看过的最好的电影。
The first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben. 在伦敦他们参观的第一个地方是大本钟。

考点 (4) 定语从句关联词不用 that 的场合

1. 介词 + 关联词,时,关联词不用 that

eg.I’d like to join the club to which John belongs .


I’d like to join the tennis club _________which my friend belongs.
A.to B.for C.with D.in

2. 在非限制性定语从句中,不用 that

eg. I love our country, which is becoming stronger and stronger.

考点 (5) 先行句的关联词 : which, as

eg. I was late again , which made my teacher very angry.


He is a top student, as we all know.=As we all know, he is a top student.

实例 2. Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play , _____ , of course , made the others

unhappy .

A.who B.which C.this D.what

读完题干和答案的四个选项,就立即知道这是在检测定语从句的关系代词的应用能力在逗号后
是一个非限制性定语从句,由于 C 项的 this 与 D 项的what根本不是定语从句的关系代词,所以应立
即否定淘汰。虽然 A 项的 who 可以用在非限制性定语从句中,但此空缺处须填入的是表示事物的关
系代词,所以 B 项的 which 正好可以作为对前面句子整个句意概括总结的关系代词。 Note: 此处是
先行句,关系代词用 which 。

考点( 6 ):定语从句和同位语从句的区别

eg. So far we have got the news that you told us a monent ago.( 定语从句 )

So far we have got the news that our team won the first prize.( 同位语从句 )
52
考点( 7 ):定语从句和强调句型的区别

eg. It was during the late autumn that we could see the beautiful night sight of our country.( 强
调句型 )

It was the late autumn that we could see the beautiful night sight of our country.( 定语从句 )

如果结构词it is/was…that去掉,句子仍成立,则为强调句型;反之,为定语从句 .

定 语 从 句 de 高 考 " 热 点 "
  定语从句是中学阶段英语学习的主要语法之一,也是高考题的命题热点所在.因此我们一定要重
视定语从句的学习.下面通过分析历届高考题,对定语从句应注意的"热点"问题分析一下.

   " 热点 " 之一 :that 和 which 引导的定语从句的区别

  典型考题 :

  1. The weather turned out to be very good, _______ was more than we could expect.

   A. what B. which C. that D. if

   2. All _______ is needed is a supply of oil.

  A. the thing B. that C. what D. which

  分析 :1-2 BB① 在非限制性定语从句中通常只能用 which 不能用 that. 如题 1.② 在下列几种

情况下通常用 that 不用 which:1) 先行词为不定代词 anything, everything, all, nothing 等时 . 如题


2.2) 先行词前有形容词最高级、序数词修饰时 .3) 先行词被no, the only, very等修饰时 .4) 先行
词既有人又有物时 .

   " 热点 " 之二 : 定语从句中的 " 隔离 " 现象

  典型考题 :

  1. The film brought the hours back to me _______ I was taken good care of in that faraway village.

   A. until B. that C. where D. when

   2. Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, _______ of course, made the others
53
unhappy.

   A. who B. which C. this D. what

:1-2 DB① , , .
   分 析 因定语从句过长 为使句子保持平衡 常将定语从句和其所修饰的词分开

如 题 1,when 引 导 的 定 语 从 句 和 先 行 词 the hours 分 开 .② 在 定 语 从 句 中 使 用 " 插 入 语 " 以 增 加 语


言 的 灵 活 性 . 如 题 2 中 的 "of course" 为 插 入 语 .

   " 热点 " 之三 :as 和 which 引导的定语从句的区别

  典型考题 :

   1. _______ is known to everyone, the moon travels round the earth once every month.

   A. That B. It C. Which D. As

   2. The result of the experiment was very good, _______ we hadn't expected.

   A. when B. that C. which D. what 3. _______ is mentioned above the number of the students in

senior high schools is increasing.

   A. Which B. As C. That D. It

   4. Those houses are sold at such a low price _______ people expected.

  A. like B. as C. that D. which

  分析 :1-4 DCBB① 在 as, which 引导的非限制性定语从句中 ,as 和 which 可代替整个主句 ,

相当于 and this 或 and that.as 引导的定语从句可放在主句之前、之后或插在句中 , 而 which 引


导的定语从句通常只能放在主句后面 . 如题 1,as 引导的定语从句置于句首 .②as 引导定语从句
有 " 正如 " 、 " 就像 " 之意 , 具有描述性的特点 , 而 which 没有 , 如题 2 和题 3.③ 在固定结
构 "such/as /so...as", "the same... as" 中 , 用as而不用 which, 如题 4.

   " 热点 " 之四 : 定语从句与其近似句型

  典型考题 :

   1. It is the ability to do the job _______ matters not where you come from or what you are.

  A. one B. that C. what D. it


54
   2. You should make it a rule to leave things _______ you can find them again.

   A. when B. where C. them D. there

   3. She thought I was talking about her daughter, _______ in fact, I was talking about my daughter.

   A. whom B. where C. whileD. which

   4. Go and get your coat. It's _______ you left it.

   A. there B. where C. there where D. where there

  分析 :1-4 BBCB 在高考题和平时的练习中有一些句子像是定语从句而实际上是其他句型 .

如题 1 为强调句 ,that 在此处不是关系代词 , 而是强调句中的连词 . 题 2 为状语从句 ,where 为连


接副词而非关系副词 . 题 3 为并列句 ,while 表示 " 而 , 却 ". 题 4 为表语从句 ,where 在此是连接
副词 .
1. Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, , of course, made the others unhappy.
A. which B. who C. this D. what
2. After living in Paris for fifty years he returned to the small town he grew up as a child.
A. which B. when C. that D. where
3. The gentleman you told me yesterday proved to be a thief.
A. who B. about whom C. whom D. with whom
4. Please take any seat is free.
A. which B. where C. in which D. that
5. The old man has two sons, is a soldier.
A. one of whom B. both of them C. all of whom D. none of them

6. This is the ship we crossed the Pacific( 太平洋 ).

A. by which B. by that C. where D. in which

7. New York is famous for its sky-scrapers( 摩天大楼 ) , has more than 100 storeys.

A. the higher of them B. the highest of which C. the highest of them D. some of which
8. My home village is no longer the same it used to be.
A. which B. as C. where D. when
9. In the office I never seem to have time until after 5:30 p.m., many people have gone home.
A. whose time B. that C. at which D. by which time
10. The boy composition won the first prize is the youngest in the group.
A. who B. whose C. that D. which
11. The weather turned out to be very good, was more than we could expect.
55
A. what B. which C. that D. it
12. Mr. Wang is a boss, factory Li Ping worked.
A. in whose B. whose C. in whom D. of which
13. I don't like the way you speak to her.
A. / B. that C. in which D. All A, B, and C
14. I shall never forget the years I lived in the country with the farmers, has a good effect on my
life.
A. that, which B. when, which C. which, that D. when, who

15. is known to all, China will be an advanced and powerful country in 20 or 30year’stime.

A. What B. That C. As D. It
16. Is this book you want to borrow from the library?
A. that B. which C. the one D. /
17. Such a book you showed me is difficult to understand.
A. that B. which C. as D. like
18. The speaker spoke of some writers and some books were popular then.
A. / B. that C. which D. who
19. This is the store we visited the famous shop assistants.
A. where B. there C. that D. which
20. I’m going to spend my holiday in Beijing, live my old parents.
A. which B. that C. where D. there

练习答案: 1---5 ADBDA 6---10 DBBDB 11---15 BADBC 16---20 CCBAC

Choose the right answer


1.The radio set ______ has gone wrong.
A. I bought it last week B. which I bought it last week
C. I bought last week D. What I bought last week Answer C
2.This is the biggest library _______ we have ever built in our city.
A. which B. what C. where D. that Answer D
3.Is this the museum ______ you visited the other day?
A. / B. where C in which D. the one Answer A
4.Is this museum ______ you visited the other day?

A. that B. where C. in which D. the on   Answer D

5.______ they could do was to work hard.

A. All B All what C. All which D. That Answer A


6.Please pass me the dictionary ______ is black.
A. which B. of which C. its D. whose Answer D
7.We are going to spend the holiday in Guangzhou, _____ live my grandparents.
56
A. which B. that C. who D. where Answer D
8.Some of the roads were flooded, ______ made our journey more difficult.
A. which B. it C. what D. that Answer A
9.He is a man of great experience, _______ much can be learned.
A. who B. whom C. which D. from whom Answer D
10. Antarctic, _______ we know very little, is covered with thick ice all the year round.
A. which B. about which C. about that D. where Answer B
11. He has two sons, ______ work as doctors.
A. two of them B. both of them C. all of whom D. both of who Answer D
12. I remember clearly the reason _______ he gave for not coming.
A. / B. why C. how D. what Answer A
13. He arriver in New York in 1896, ______ some time later, he became a writer.
A. when B. where C. that D. which Answer B
14. The old minister came home drunk the other night,______ shocked the whole neighbourhood.
A. he B. which C. who D. that Answer B
15. The size of the audience, _____we had expected, was a thousand.
A. who B. which C. as D. that Answer C
16. This is the woman ______ the musician said was regarded as the best pianist in the country.
A. whom B. whose C. who D. which Answer C
17. She has fallen in love with silly Jack, ______ I find hard to imagine.
A. who B. this C. which D. as Answer C
18. We will discuss the benefits ______ I feel have resulted from the project.
A. what B. which C. about which D./ Answer B
19. He paid for the radio ______ took it home.
A. which B. that C. he D. and Answer D
20. He keeps a record of everything ______ has been bought.
A. he B. that C./ D. what Answer D
历届高考英语单项选择题精选(五)定语从句
1.His parents wouldn’t let him marry anyone ______ family was poor.

A.of whom    B.whom    C.of whose   D.whose           (89)

2.She heard a terrible noise, _______ brought her heart into her mouth.

A.it      B.which        C.this    D.that             (91)

3.In the dark street , there wasn’t a single person _____ she could turn for help.

A.that    B.who    C.from whom       D.to whom           (92)

4.The weather turned out to be very good , ____ was more than we could expect.

57
A.what  B.which    C.that        D.it              (92)

5.After living in Pairs for fifty years he returned to the small town ____ he grew up as a child.

A.which   B.where    C.that        D.when           (96)

6 .Carol said the work would be done by October._____ personally I doubt very much.

   A. it   B.that    C.when        D.which           (99)

7 . Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, ________,of course , made the others

unhappy.
   A . who    B . which    C . this    D . what           (2000)
8.Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase , _____ was very reasonable.

A.which price    B.the price of which C.its price    D.the price of whose

9._____ has already been pointed out , grammar is not a set of dead rules.

A.As         B.It         C.That        D.Which

10.He lived in London for 3 months , during ____ time he learned some English.

A.this        B.which        C.that         D.same

11.Oh the wall hung a picture, _____ color is blue.

A.whose       B.of which      C.which        D.its

12.Whenever I met him , ____ was fairly often, I like his sweet and hopeful smile.

A.what       B.which        C.that        D.when

13.The visitor asked the guide to take his picture _____ stands the famous tower.

A.that        B.where        C.which        D.there

14.The boss ____ department Ms King worked ten years ago look down upon women.

A.in which      B.in that       C.in whose      D.whose

15.I don’t like _____ you speak to her.

A.the way      B.the way in that  C.the way which    D.the way of which

16.I had neither a raincoat nor an umbrella ._______ I got wet through .

A.It’s the reason   B.That’s why C.There’s why   D.It’s how

17.He made another wonderful discovery , ____ of great importance to science.


58
A.which I think is    B.which I think it is C.which I think it D.I think which is

18.He was very rude to the customs officer, ____ of course made things even worse.

A.who         B.whom        C.what        D.whcih   

KEYS: 1-5 DBDBB   6-10 DBCAB   11-15 ABBCA  16-18 BAD           

C). 状语从句: p.198

1. 时间状语从句:

a. 当…时 when , while, as

b. 在前(后)before, after

c. 一…就 as soon as, hardly..when, no sooner…than, on+doing

d. 一旦 once

e. 在…片刻 the moment eg.The moment I saw her, I fell in love.

f. 直到 until/till 延续性动词 ( 肯定式 )+until

瞬间动词 ( 否定式 )+not…until

1 A good storyteller must be able to hold his listeners' curiosity ____ here aches the end of the story.(2003
[考例 ] 上海高

考 )

   A.when B.unless C.after D.until

  [分析]主句谓语动词 hold 是延续性动词,根据句意:一个优秀的讲故事的人必须能够把听众

的好奇心保持到他讲完故事为止。本题选 D 正确。
59
[考例 2 ] Come and see me whenever ____.(2003 北京高考 )

  A.you are convenient B.you will be convenient

   C.it is convenient to you D.it will be convenient to you

  [分析]在时间状语从句中,用一般现在时态表示将来。问某人是否觉得方便时,应该使用下
面句型: Is it convenient to sb.?convenient 也常用于 it 作形式主语的句型中: It is convenient for sb.to
do sth. 本题选 C 正确。

[考例 3 ] He made a mistake,but then he corrected the situation ____ it got worse.(2003 北京高考 )

   A.until B.when C.before D.as

before
[ 分 析 ] 根 据 句 意 : 他 犯 了 错 误 , 但 没 等 局 势 恶 化 , 他 就 扭 转 了 局 势。 引导时间状语从

句 , 本 题 选 C 正 确。
某些表示时间的副词、名词短语和介词短语也可引导时间状语从句。如
directly,immediately,the instant,the moment,the minute,the day,the year,each /every time,next time,the
first(second,last)time,by the time 等。

[考例 4 ]-Did you remember to give Mary the money you owed her?

   -Yes,I gave it to her ____ I saw her.(2001 北京、内蒙古、安徽春招 )

   A.while B.the moment   C.suddenly D.once

  [分析]名词短语 the moment 可直接引导时间状语从句,其后面不要再用其它连词。本题选 B

正确。

考点(1): not…until的强调句型

a). 倒装句 eg. We can’t finish the work until 9 o’clock.

=Not until 9 o’clock can we finish the work.

b). 用 强调句型 =It was not until 9 o’clock that we can finish the work.

考点 (2): 时间状语从句中时态的使用

a). 在时间从句,条件从句中的将来时用现在时代替
eg. I’ll let you know when the manager comes back.
The boy will soon settle down once he___________to know the others in the class.
60
A.will get B.is getting C. got D. gets
b). 长动作用过去进行时,短动作用一般过去时
eg.When the teacher came in, the students were reading English.
c). 过去的过去用过去完成时
eg.When we got to the cinema, the film had been on for half an hour.
He has already gone home. But before he left,he__________all the mistakes in his translation.
A.had corrected B.has corrected C.corrected D.would correct
d). 先完成的动作用现在完成时
eg. Don’t get off until the bus has stopped.

e)since 在时间从句中的用法 主句(现在完成时)+ since 从句(一般过去时)

2. 地点状语从句:关联词只用 where,wherever

eg. 请吧书放到原来的放。 Please put the book where it was.

无论你去到哪里,都会找到朋友 .You will have your friends wherever you go.

Wuhan lies where the Yangtze and the Han River meet.
武汉位于长江和汉水汇合处。
Where there is a will, there is a way. 有志者,事竟成。
You’d better make a mark where you have any questions.

( 这里 where 引导的从句不是定语从句 ) 哪儿有问题,你最好在哪儿做个记号。

He would keep in touch with us wherever he was .


他 无 论 在 什 么 地 方 , 总 是 与 我 们 保 持 联 系。

[考例 5 ] The famous scientist grew up ____ he was born and in 1930 he came to Shanghai.(2002 上海

春招 )

   A.when B.whenever C.where D.wherever

  [分析]根据句意:那位著名的科学家在出生地长大,于1930年来到上海。 where 引导地点状

语从句,意为 " 在……的地方 " ; wherever 引导地点状语从句时,意为 " 无论在哪里 " 。本题选 C
正确。

3. 原因状语从句: because 因为+原因状语从句 回答 why ?

61
as 由于+原因状语从句 不能回答 why ?

since 既然+原因状语从句 =now that 不能回答 why ?

for 因为+并列句( 不表示因果关系)


Some of his suggestions had been rejected____________they were quite impracticable.
A.as B.when C.until D.if

[考例 6 ] ____ you've got a chance,you might as well make full use of it.(NMET1999)

   A.Now that B.After C.Although D.As soon as

  [分析] now that 意为 " 既然 " ,常用来引导原因状语从句。本题选 A 正确。

[考例 7 ] The Italian boy was regarded as a hero ____ he gave his life for his country.(MET1985)

   A.according to B.because of C.on account of D.because

[分析]根据句意:那位意大利男孩被看作是英雄,因为他为祖国献出了生命。 because 引导

原因状语从句,而 B 和 C 两个选项连接名词或名词短语。本题选 D 正确。

[考例 8 ] We had better hurry ____ it is getting dark.(MET1984)

   A.and B.but C.as D.unless

  [分析]根据句意:由于天渐渐黑了,我们最好抓紧时间。as在此引导原因状语从句。本题选

C 正确。

4. 条件状语从句:常用来引导条件状语从句的关联词有 if,unless,when( 如果 ),

suppose,supposing,given that,in case(that),on condition that,as /so long as 等。

[考例11] ____ I know the money is safe,I shall not worry about it.(2003 北京高考 )

  A.Even though B.Unless C.As long as D.While

  [分析]as long as意为 " 只要 " ,引导条件状语从句。根据句意分析,本题选 C 正确。

[考例12] Don't be afraid of asking for help ____ it is needed.(NMET2003)

  A.unless B.since C.although D.when


62
[分析]根据句意分析, when 在此句中意为 " 如果 " ,引导条件状语从句,相当于 if 。本题

选 D 正确。

[考例13]I would appreciate it ____ you call back this afternoon for the doctor's appointment.(2003上海

春招 )

   A.until B.if C.when D.that

  [分析]根据句意分析,本句是由 if 引导的条件状语从句,本题选 B 正确。

[考例14] You will succeed in the end ____ you give up halfway.(2001 上海春招 )

   A.even if B.as though C.as long as D.unless

[分析]本句意为:如果你不中途放弃,你最终会成功。本题选 D 正确。

[考例15] I shall stay in the hotel all day ____ there is news of the missing child.(2000 上海春招 )

   A.in case B.no matter C.in any case D.ever since

  [分析] in case 意为 " 以防 " ,用来引导条件状语从句。本句意为:我将在旅店呆一整天,以

防有丢失孩子的消息。本题选 A 正确。

" 条件 " 表达法是英语中相当重要的语法现象 , 对 " 条件 " 表达法的了解 , 不能只停留

在 "if" 引导的 " 条件 " 句上。实际上 ," 条件 " 表达法的意义相当广泛 , 为了更好地复习和了解 " 条
件 " 表达法的考点和用法 , 拟就 " 条件 " 表达法的考点及相关知识归纳如下。

一、考查 "when, if, unless" 引导的条件句的用法

  典型题例
①Don't be afraid of asking for help ______ it is needed.
  A. unless B. since C. although D. when
②The WTO can't live up to its name ______ it does not include a country that is home to one fifth of
mankind.

   A. as long as B. while C. if D. even though

③You'll succeed in the end ______ you give up halfway.

   A. even if B. as though C. as long as D. unless

63
  解析 :when, if, unless 充当从属连词 , 其意义分别为 " 如果 "," 除非、如果不 " 。如:When there

is no gravity, our feet no longer stay on the ground. 如果没有地球引力 , 我们就不可能站在地面上。


You will be late unless you leave immediately. 快点走吧 , 要不然你会晚的。

  特别提示 : 在 if, when, unless 等引导的条件句中 , 应当注意时态的对应性。一般来讲,if引导的

条件句常用一般现在时表将来 , 而主句常用一般将来时。如 :If it doesn't rain tomorrow, we will hold


the sports meet. 如果明天不下雨 , 我们就开运动会。
  真题回练
1. ______ your composition carefully, some spelling mistakes can be avoided.

   A. Having checked B. Check C. If you check D. To check

2. If city noises ______ from increasing, people ______ shout to be heard even at the dinner table 20 years
from now.

   A. are not kept; will have to B. are not kept; have to

   C. do not keep; will have to D. do not keep; have to

3. The bell will ring ______ there is a fire.

   A. even B. that C. if D. although

4. The man will have to wait all day ______ the doctor works faster.

   A. if B. unless C. whether D. that

5. ______ he comes, we won't be able to go.

  A. Before B. Unless C. Where D. After

  Key:1-5 CACBB

二、考查 "in case" 引导的条件句的用法

  典型题例
I don't think I'll need any money but I'll bring some ______.

   A. at last B. in case    C. once again D. in time

  解析 : 本题考查 in case 引导的条件句的用法。 in case 引导条件句 , 其意义为 " 假使、以防 ( 万

一 )" 。

特别提示 :1) in case 的位置较为灵活 , 可置于从句的句首或句尾。其时态常用一般现在时表将来。


64
2) in case引导的从句也可以用虚拟语气 (should+ 动词原形 ) 。

  真题回练
1. John may phone tonight. I don't want to go out ______ he phones.

  A. as long as B. in order that   C. in case D. so that

2. I shall stay in the hotel all day ______ there is news of the missing child.

   A. in case B. no matter    C. in any case D. ever since

   Key: 1-2 CA

三、考查 " 祈使句 +and/then+ 陈述句 " 表示条件概念的用法

  典型题例
One more week, ______ we will accomplish the task.

   A. or B. so that C. and D. if

  解析 : 在 " 祈使句 +and/then+ 陈述句 " 这个结构中 , 前面 " 祈使句 " 相当于 if 引导的条件句 ,

表示 " 要是…… ( 就会)",表示该条件一旦实现 , 必然出现某一结果。但如果表示 " 该条件实现不了,


会出现什么结果 " 时 , 则用 " 祈使句 +or/or else/otherwise+ 陈述句 " 。如:Hurry up, or you will be
late for class. 快点儿 , 要不然上课就迟到了。
  真题回练
1. ______ it with me and I'll see what I can do.

   A. When left B. Leaning    C. If you leave D. Leave

2. ______ blood if you can and many lives will be saved.

   A. Giving B. Give    C. Given D. To give

3. ______ some of this juice, perhaps you'll like it.

   A. Trying B. Try    C. To try D. Having tried

   Key:1-3 DBB

四、考查省略句中条件概念的表达法
  典型题例
Unless ______ to speak, you should remain silent at the conference.

   A. invited B. inviting    C. being invited D. having invited

65
  解析 : 在条件状语从句中 , 如果从句主语与主句主语一致 , 且从句谓语部分含有be时 , 可将从

句主语及be省略而只保留连词 , 从而构成省略。
  真题回练
1. If ______ the same attention again, he is sure to get well.

  A. giving B. give   C. given D. being given

2. The research is so designed that once ______ nothing can be done to change it.

   A. begins B. having begun    C. beginning D. begun

  Key:1-2 CD

五、考查分词表示条件概念的用法
  典型题例
______more attention, the trees could have grown better.

   A. Given B. To give C. Giving D. Having given

  解析 : 该题考查过去分词表示条件概念的用法。 Given... 相当于 If 引导的条件句 , 表示一种假

定。本句可译为 : 假如照管得好 , 树木会生长得更快。

  特别提示 : 表示条件也可以用现在分词或独立主格结构。如:Supposing he is absent, what shall

we do?假如他迟到了咋办 ?Other conditions being equal, the pressure remains constant. 如果其他条件相
等 , 压力会保持平衡。
  真题回练
______in this light, the matter is not as serious as people generally suppose.

   A. Seen B. To see C. Seeing D. Having seen

  Key: A

六、考查暗含语境中条件概念的用法
  典型题例
-There were already five people in the car but they managed to take me as well.
-It______a comfortable journey.

   A. can't be B. shouldn't be   C. mustn't have been D. couldn't have been

  解析 : 从语境there were...可知是对过去事情的表述 , 下文 It... 应是对过去情况的推测 , 要

用 " 情态动词 +have+ 过去分词 ", 故 D 为正确答案。


  真题回练
66
1. -We should have walked to the station, it was so near.

 -Yes. A taxi______at all necessary.

   A. wasn't B. hadn't been C. wouldn't be D. won't be

2. He______you more help, even though he was very busy.

   A. might have given B. might give    C. will give D. may give

3. Yesterday, Jane walked away from the discussion, otherwise, she______something she would regret
later.

   A. had said B. said C. might say D. might have said

   Key:1-3 AAD

七、考查倒装虚拟条件概念的用法
  典型题例
What would have happened______, as far as the river bank?

   A. Bob had walked farther    B. if Bob should walk farther

   C. had Bob walked farther D. if Bob walked farther

  解析 : 虚拟语气中采用从句倒装句式 , 把助动词、情态动词或be置于主语之前 , 这种形式就相

当于 if 引导的条件状语从句。
  真题回练
1. ______for the free tickets, I would not have gone to the film so often.

   A. If it is not B. Were it not    C. Had it not been D. If they were not

2. ______it rain tomorrow, we would have to put off the visit to the Yangpu Bridge.

   A. Were B. Should C. Had D. Will

   Key: 1-2 CB

- "条件 " 表达法相关知识提示

1. with, without, on condition that 等引导的结构或句子表示条件概念。

   With your permission, we will start this work right now. 只要你允许 , 我们马上就着手做这项工作。

   You can borrow my umbrella on condition that you return it in time. 只要你能按时归还这把雨伞 ,
67
你可以借去用。

2. once充当连词引导从句 , 表示条件概念 , 意思是 " 一旦…… ( 就 )" 。

   Once you see him, you will never forget him. 一旦你看见了他 , 就再也忘不了他了。

3. as long as或so long as引导从句表示条件概念 , 其意为 " 只要 / 如果…… " 。

   They can go out as long as they promise to be back before eleven. 如果他们答应能在十一点前返回

就让他们出去吧。
4. but 用作并列连词隐含条件概念

   I should have come earlier, but I haven't enough time. 如果我有足够的时间 , 我本该早点儿来。

5. 动词不定式表示条件概念

  A man would be blind not to see that.一个人如果连那点都看不清楚真是瞎得够可以的。

6. 比较级形式表示条件概念

   A less difficult problem would have already been solved. 要是问题容易些早就解决了。

7. only if 或 if only 引导从句表示条件概念

  Only if you work hard, you will pass the exam.只要你努力 , 考试就会及格。

  If only I had come, I would have met him.我要是来的话 , 本来会碰到他的。

8. but for / except for 接名词或名词短语表示条件概念

   But for air and water, nothing could live. 没有空气和水 , 什么也活不了。

   She would have left her husband except for the children. 要不是为了孩子她那时可能就离开她丈夫

了。
9. 定语从句表示条件概念

   Anyone who should do that would be laughed at. 如果谁要是那样做只能让人笑话。

   A country that stops carrying out reform and open-door policy would not develop fast. 一个国家如果

不坚持改革开放就得不到快速发展。
5. 目的状语从句:

常用来引导目的状语从句的关联词有 that,so that,in order that,in case 等。从句的谓语常由 "can /


68
could , may / might +动词原形 " 构成,有时也用 "shall / should , will / would +动词原形 " 。

[考例10]Sally worked late in the evening to finish her report ____ her boss could read it first the next

morning.(2003安徽春招 )

   A.so that B.because C.before D.or else

  [分析]根据句意分析,本句应为目的状语从句。本题选 A 正确。

6. 结果状语从句: so/such…that, so that +主+谓

eg.He got up early in order that he could catch the earliest train.(目的状语从句 )

He got up early so that he caught the earliest train.( 结果状语从句 )

so…that 与such…that的区别在于:

so…that 的so是副词,后跟形容词或副词;

such…that 的such是形容词,后最终是一个名词。“最终”的意思是,该名词前也可以出现形

容词甚至出现修饰形容词的副词,但整个词组的中心词是这个名词。
They are _____ students that they all performed well in the nationwide examinations.
   A. so diligent   B. such diligent  C. so much diligent  D. such very diligent    B

但是,当名词前有many, much, few, little ( 少 ) 修饰时,要用 so, 不能用such。例如:

I have had so many falls that I am black and blue all over.
我摔了许多跤,以至于浑身青一块,紫一块。
He has so few friends that he often feels lonely. 他朋友很少,所以经常感到孤独。
I had so little money then that I couldn’t afford a little present.
我当时囊中羞涩,连一份小小礼物都买不起。

[考例 9 ] We were in ____ when we left that we forgot the airline tickets.(2003 上海高考 )

  A.a rush so anxious B.a such anxious rush C.so an anxious rush D.such an anxious rush

  [分析]本句是由 such...that 引导的结果状语从句,由于句中插入了 when we left 这一时间状

语从句,它起到了较大的干扰作用,从而增加了试题的难度。本题选 D 正确。

69
4. 比较状语从句:

a). 比较级+ than +从句 eg. You are taller than I (am).

b). as +原级+ as +从句 eg.You are as tall as I ( am).

It rains more often in Shanghai than in Beijing.


上海下的雨比北京的多。
Our country is as big as the whole of Europe.
我们的国家同整个欧洲一样大。
The result was not as/so good as I had expected.
结果不如我预料的那么好。
The busier he is, the happier he feels.(常见句型)他越忙越开心。

5. 方式状语从句:常用来引导方式状语从句的关联词有 as, as if /though,

the way, how, as...as, not so/as...as, than等。

eg. 天看起来快下雨了 . It looks as if it’s going to rain.

他说话的神气月球。 He spoke as if he had been to the moon.

He talks as if he _____ everything in the world.


  A. knows   B. knew    C. had known   D. would have known   B

Melted iron is poured into the mixer much _____ tea is poured into a cup from a teapot.
  A) in the same way like    B) in the same way which
   C) in the same way     D) in the same way as ( 答案是 C )
  融化的铁水倒进混合物中,很象是把茶壶里的水倒进茶杯。 。

  [考例19] John plays football ____,if not better than,David.(NMET1994)

   A.as well B.as well as C.so well D.so well as

  [分析]本题主要考查副词的比较等级,该句型属于表示比较的方式状语从句。本题选 B 正确。
70
6. 让步状语从句:

a). 虽然,尽管 though, although

eg. Although he is a boy, he knows a lot.

Note: 让步从句的部份倒装

Eg.Although he is a boy, he knows a lot.

= Boy as he is, he knows a lot.

b). 即使, even if/ even though

eg. 即使医生赶到,这个病人也不能救活 .

Even if the doctor had arrived, the patient would not have been saved.

c). 无论,不论 no matter+how/who/what/where/when…. only+让步从句

However/whoever/whatever/wherever/whenever….

+ 让步从句 or+ 名词性从句

Eg. 无论谁最后离开教室,不要忘记关灯。

Whoever is the last to leave the classroom, don’t forget to turn off the lights.

[考例16]-Dad,I've finished my assignment.

   -Good,and ____ you play or watch TV,you mustn't disturb me.(2003 上海高考 )

   A.whenever B.whether C.whatever D.no matter


71
 [分析]由题干中的or可知,这是由 whether...or... 引导的让步状语从句。本题选 B 正确。

[考例17] Mr.Hall understands that ____ math has always been easy for him,it is not easy for the

students.(2003安徽春招 )

   A.unless B.since C.although D.when

  [分析]根据句意分析,本句是由al-though引导的让步状语从句。本题选 C 正确。

[考例18]We'll have to finish the job,____.(NMET1999)

   A.long it takes however B.it takes however long C.long however it takes D.however long it

takes

[分析]根据句意:不管用多长时间,我们都要把工作做完。本题选 D 正确。

名词性从句单项填空专练
1. Someone is ringing the doorbell. Go and see ________ .

    A. who is he B. who he is C. who are they D. who it is

    2. ________ she couldn't understand was ________ fewer and fewer students were interested in her lessons.

    A. What; why B. That; what C. What; because D. Why; that

    3. -We haven't heard from Jane for a long time.

    - ________ has happened to her?

    A. Do you suppose that B. What do you suppose

    C. Do you think that D. What you think

    4. I don't care ________ she has no money. I care ________ she is honest or not.

    A. if; when B. whether; that C. if; whether D. what; if

    5. Word came ________ the PLA man approached the child slowly and helped him to safety.

    A. since B. so that C. that D. why

    6. The child is always lying, so none of us will believe ________ he says.

    A. whatever B. no matter what C. how D. which

    7. The fact troubles me so much ________ I have been unable to pass the driving test up to now.

    A. which B. because C. why D. that

    8. See to ________ the children don't catch cold.

    A. it what B. it that C. what D. that

    9. He, ________ is playing an important part, is well-known to us all.

    A. that who B. those who C. who that D. who

    10. It matters little ________ a man dies, but ________ matters so much more is ________ he lives.

    A. how; what; how B. how; it; how


72
    C. why; it; why D. which; what; that

    11. Pointing to the house, he said, "This is ________ I used to live when I was young."

    A. when B. what C. that D. where

    12. After ten years, he had changed a lot and looked different from ________ he used to be.

    A. why B. which C. what D. who

    13. Father made a promise ________ I passed the examination, he would buy me a bicycle.

    A. that B. if that C. whether D. that if

    14. -What about the speech he made this afternoon?

    - ________ he said so must be quite encouraging, I think.

    A. What B. That C. / D. All

    15. There are signs ________ restaurants are becoming more popular with families.

    A. in which B. which C. that D. whose

    16. Because they usually receive the same score on standardized exams, there is

    often disagreement as to ________ is the better student, Bob or Helen.

    A. who B. where C. when D. whose

    17. Scientists believe native Americans arrived by crossing the land bridge that connected Siberia and ________ more than
10,000 years ago.

    A. this is Alaska B. Alaska is now

    C. is now Alaska D. what is now Alaska

    18. The boy dived into the water and, after ________ seemed to be a long time, he

    came up again.

    A. what B. that C. it D. which

    19. ________ we can pass the coming examination will mainly depend on ________ we learn and ________ we learn it.

    A. Whether; what; how B. That; whether; why

    C. If; how; that D. Why; that; how

    20. Although most of them have no doubt ________ he will pass the exam, I still wonder ________ he has really got
everything ready.

    A. whether; that B. that; whether

    C. that; that D. whether; whether

    key: 1-5 DABCC 6-10 ADBDA 11-15 DCDBC 16-20 ADAAB

历届高考英语单项选择题精选 ( 四 ) 名词性从句、状语从句

1.These photograhps will show you _____.


A.what does our village look like B.what our village looks like

C.how does our village look like D.how our village looks like     (89)

2.Can you make sure ______ the gold ring?

A.where Alice had put           B.where did Alice put


73
C.where Alice has put      D.where has Alice put      (90)

3.No one can be sure _____ in a million years.

A.what man will look like          B.what will man look like

C.man will look like what       D.what look will man like      (91)

4.—-We haven’t heard from Jane a long time.


--What do you suppose _____ to her?

A.was happening   B.has happened C.to happen   D.having happened    (91)

5.Go and get your coat. It’s _____you left it.

A.there     B.where      C.there where      D.where there   (92)

6._____ the 2000 Olympic Games will be held in Beijing is not known yet.

A.Whenever   B.If       C.Whether        D.That       (92)

7._____ he said at the meeting astionished everyone present.

A.What   B.That        C.That fact       D.The matter     (93)

8.—-Do yopu remember _____ he came?


--Yes, I do . He came by car.

A.how   B.when        C.that          D.it        (94)

9._____ we can’t get seems better than ______ we have.

A.What , what  B.What , that     C.That , that     D.That , what     (95)

10.After the war, a new school building was put up ________there had once been a theatre.

A. that    B. where       C. which         D. when      (97)

1. Mother will wait for him to have dinner together.

A. However late is he   B. However he is late

C.However is he late D. However late he is            (97)

12.Dr,Black comes from either Oxford or Cambridge,I can‘t remember _____.

A.where B.there    C.which D.that                 (98)

13.Why do you want a new job_____you’ve got such a good one already?

74
A.that B.where   C.which D.when               (98)

14. -- I,m going to the post office.

  --_____ you‘re there. can you get me some stamps?


   A. As   B. While C. Because     D. If          (99)

15. _____ you’ve got a chance. you might as well make full use of it.

  A. Now that  B. After  C. Although   D. AS soon as         (99)

16.-- Idrove to Zhuhai for the air show last week.

  -- Is that _____ you had a few days off?


  A. why  B. when C. what       D. where           (99)

17. You should make it a rule to leave things_____ you can find them again

   A. when B.where C.then       D.there     (99)


18. We‘ll have tofinish the job. _____
   A. long it takes howewer      B. it takes howewer long
C. long however it takes D. however long it takes         (99)
19.______she couldn’t understand was _______ fewer and fewer studnets showed interest in her lesson.

A.What , why   B.That , what C.What , because D.Why , that    (2000)

20.Someone is ringing the doorbell. Go and see ___________.

  A.who is he   B.who he is C.who is it  D.who it is

(2000)

KEYS: 1-5 BCABB 6-10CAAAB    11-15 DCDBA   16-20 ABDAD

高考对动词和短语动词的考查
分析 近 几 年 的 高 考 试 题 可 以 看 出 , 短 语 考 查 主 要 体 现 在 以 下 几 个 方 面 :
同根动词+不同小品词;
不同根动词+相同小品词;
不同根动词+不同小品词;
介 词 短 语。
下 面 结 合 近 几 年 高 考 试 题 对 短 语 考 查 的 角 度 试 作 具 体 分 析。
一、 同 根 动 词 + 不 同 小 品 词

【例 1 】 Readers can ______ quite well without knowing the exact meaning of each word.

A. get over B. get in C. get along D. get through


75
【分析】该题考查动词 get +不同小品词构成的短语动词:

get over 含义是 " 克服;忍受;摆脱(疾病)等 " 。

get in 的含义是 " 进站;进去;回来;收进来;收回来;收割。

get along 的含义是 " 进行下去;继续下去;相处;走掉;走开 " 。

get through 的含义是 " 审阅;检查;学习;经历;完成 " 等。

该题正确答案为 C 项。

【例 2 】 The sports meet will be ______ till next week because of the bad weather.

A. put off B. put away C. put up D. put down

【分析】该题考查以动词 put 为中心词+不同小品词构成的短语动词,他们的含义分别是:

put off" 推迟;延期;关上;打消;使不高兴 " 。

put away" 收拾起来;存起来;放弃 " 。

put up"举起;架起;安装;盖起;修建;张贴;挂;住宿 " 。

put down" 写下来;镇压 " 。

根据句意 " 由于天气原因,运动会……下星期举行 " ,该题应选 A 项。

【例 3 】 I really don't want to go to the party, but I don't see how I can _____ it.(MET92)

A. get back from B. get out of C. get away D. get off

此题仍然考查短语动词的区别,从前后文看,意为 " 不想去参加晚会,但又不知怎么才能摆脱掉。

A 意义明显不妥, C 项 get away 中的 away 是副词,后面不能跟代词作宾语, D 为 " 脱下;下车 " ,


故选 B 。

【例 4 】 Readers can _____ quite well without knowing the exact meaning of each word.(MET93)

A. get over B. get in C. get along D. get through

此题考查短语动词的区别,全句意为 " 不知道每个单词的确切意思,读者也同样能继续下

去。 " 即 " 进行;进展 " 之意。故选 C ,也可用 "get on" 。


76
【例 5 】 I can hardly hear the radio. Would you please _____?(NMET95)

A. turn it on B. turn it down C. turn it up D. turn it off

此题考查 turn 构成的短语的区别,本句意为 " 我几乎听不清收音机,请开大声点 " 。 A 为 " 打开 " ,

D 为 " 关掉 " , B 为 " 关小声点 " , C 为 " 开大声点 " 。所以, C 为正确答案。
二、不同根动词+相同小品词

【例 6 】 Will somebody go out and get Dr White?

He's already been ______.


A. asked for B. sent for C. called for D. looked for

【分析】该题是考查不同根动词+相同小品词 for 构成的短语。

ask for" 要求 " 。 send for" 派人去请(找) " 。

call for" 叫(某人);接(某人);要;夺取;要求;需要 " 。

look for" 寻找 " 。

根据句意该题正确答案为 B 。

【例 7 】 .-Will somebody go and get Dr. White?

-He's already been _____ .(MET91)


A. asked for B. sent for C. called for D. looked for

此题考查短语动词之间的区别,从上、下文看,意为 " 要请医生 " ,只有 B 才有此意, A 意为 " 要

…… " , C 为 " 邀约;需要 " 。 look for 意为 " 寻找 " 。

【例 8 】 . It's wise to have some money _____ for old age.(NMET96)

A. put away B. kept away C. given away D. laid up

本句意为 " 存钱养老是明智?”,选 A 正确,还可用 put…aside.

三、不同根动词+不同小品词

【例 9 】 Nobody noticed the thief slip into the house because the lights happened to ______.

A. be put up B. give in C. be turned on D. go out

【分析】该题考查不同动词+不同小品词构成的短语,其中 put up 和turn on是及物性的短语动词,

give in 和 go out 是不及物性的短语动词,因此根据句子的逻辑关系, A 项和 C 项是被动结构,四个


77
短语动词的含义分别是:

put up"举起;架起;安装;盖起;修建 " 。

give in" 让步;屈服;妥协;投降;交进来 " 。

turn on" 开(收音机) " 。

go out"出去;熄灭;过时;罢工 " 。

根据句意 " 因为灯……,没有看到小偷溜进房间。 " ,选 D 正确。

【例10】 It is wise to have some money ______ for old age.

A. put away B. kept up C. given away D. laid up

【分析】该题是不同根动词+两个小品词up和 away 构成的短语,四个短语的含义分别为:

put away" 收拾起来;存起来;放弃 " 。

keep up" 保持;继续 " 。

give away" 背弃;出卖;泄露;散掉 " 。

lay up"积蓄 " 。

根据 " 为年老存点钱是明智的。 " 这一句意,该题正确答案为 A 。

【例11】 . She _____ his number in the phone book to make sure she had got it right.(NMET97)

A. looked up B. looked for C. picked up D. picked out

本句意为 " 她在电话号码簿里查到他的电话号码以确保号码正确 ?quot; 故选 A 答案,表示 " 查字典,

查工具书,查电话号码。 "

【例12】 Nobody noticed the thief slip into the house because the lights happened to _____.(NMET98)

A. be put up B. give in C. be turned on D. go out

本句意为 " 没有人注意到小偷溜进房间,因为那时灯碰巧熄了。 " 只有 D "go out" 意为(灯、火等)

熄灭 " 。扑灭火用 put out.


四、动词+宾语
在历届高考单选题中,动词一直是考查的重点之一,因此必须重视动词的学习。解题时关键是根据
78
上、下文意思来选答案,弄清其词义和用法。

【例13】 .The captain _____ an apology to the passengers for the delay caused by bad weather.(MET93)

A. made B. said C. put D. passed

此题考查短语 " 向……道歉 " ,答案为 A 。

五.考查动词之间的区别

【例14】 All the leading newspapers _____ the trade talks between China and the United

States.(NMET95)
A. reported B. printed C. announced D. published

此题考查动词之间的区别。从前后文意义上看,报纸应为 " 报道……的消息 " ,故选 A 。

【例15】 You are _____ your time trying to persuade him; he'll never join us.(NMET95)

A. spending B. wasting C. losing D. missing

从动词用法上看, A 、 B 均正确,但后文"he'll never join us"说明是白费时间,故选 B 。

【例16】 What did you think of her speech?

She _____ for one hour but she didn't _____ much.(NMET95)
A. spoke; speak B. spoke; say C. said; speak D. said; say

此题考查 speak 和 say 的区别。 speak 侧重 " 讲话 " 这一动作,而 say 侧重 " 讲的内容 " ,意

为 " 她讲了一个小时,但讲的内容并不多。 " 故选 B 。

【例17】 . _____ him and then try to copy what he does.(NMET99)

A. Mind B. Glance C. Stare at D. Watch

此题考查 " 看 " 的区别, A 明显不正确, B 为 " 瞥一眼 " , C 为 " 盯着看 " , D 为 " 观看 " ,本句

意为 " 仔细观察他,然后模仿他的样子 ?quot; ,故选 D 。

【例18】. -Do you think the Stars will beat the Bulls?

-Yes, they have better players, so I _____ them to win.(NMET99)


A. hope B. prefer C. expect D. want

此题是语境化题,并且也贴近生活,是学生们感兴趣的话题。hope不能接复合宾语, B 、 D 为 " 想

要……干…… " ,再从上、下文语意来看, " 明星队有很不错的运动员,因此我想他们能获


胜。 " 故选 C 。
六.习惯表达
79
【例19】 I don't know the restaurant, but it's _____ to be quite a good one.(NMET94)

A. said B. told C. spoken D. talked

此题从表面上看是动词之间的区别,实际上考查习惯表达 " 据说…… " ,即 "It is/was said…" ,故

选A。

【例20】 . I love to go to the seaside in summer. It _____ good to lie in the sun or swim in the

river.(NMET96)
A. does B. feels C. gets D. makes
"It be/feel+adj.+ " B A "do good to…" to prep
此题考查常用句型 不定式 ,故选 。 此题易误选 , 中的 为 ,

意为 " 对……有好处 " 。


七.介词短语

【例21】 Your performance in the driving test didn't reach the required standard ______, you failed.

A. in the end B. after all C. in other words D. at the same time


【分析】该题考查由介词构成的短语,四个短语的含义分别是:

in the end" 最后 " 。

after all" 毕竟 " 。

in other words" 换句话说 " 。

at the same time"与此同时 " 。

根据句意: " 你在驾驶考试中的表现没有达到合格标准――换句话说,你没有通过驾驶考试。 " 因

此该题的正确答案为 C 。
从以上的分析可以看出,短语的考查难度越来越大,综合性越来越强,尤其是99年的短语考查题给
我们一个很重要的信号――非谓语动词短语的考查。因此,在复习中既要注重对谓语动词短语的复
习,同时又要加强对非谓语动词短语的复习。
省略
  英语中的省略有两种:一是替代省略,即用其他词代替句子中重复或相同的部分;二是结构省略(单词省 略,成分省 略)。即根据语境需
要,承前或后省略句子中相同的某些句子成分。这类题型在历届高考试题中屡见不鲜。

一、 单 词 省 略
1. 不 定 式 符 号 to 的 省 略

① 四 看 (see,watch,notice,look at), 二 听 (hear, listen to), 一 感 觉 (feel), 以 及 let,make,help, 还 有 have 之 后 的 作 宾 补 的

不 定 式 , 但 其 被 动 语 态 中 的 to 不 能 省 略 . 例 如 :

    Though he had made his little sister cry, today he was made to cry by his little sister.
80
② 词 组 do nothing but...,can't help but...,prefer to do sth. rather than do sth...., would do sth. rather than...,why not.... 等 不 定 式

中 的 to. 例 如 :

    Rather than ______ on a crowded bus,he always prefers ______ a bicycle.

    A.ride;ride B.riding;ride C.ride;to ride D.to ride;riding

注 意 : 在 下 面 四 种 情 形 下 , 为 了 避 免 重 复 , 常 把 不 定 式 to 后 内 容 相 同 的 部 分 省 略 , 只 保 留 to.
① 作 hope,wish,like, want,expect,decide,mean,intend,refuse,try,need 等 宾 语 的 不 定 式 . 例 如 :

  -Will the Browns go abroad this summer?

  -No.They finally decided .

A.to B.not to C. not going D.not go

  -You should have thanked her before you left.

  -I meant________, but when I was leaving I couldn't find her anywhere.

   A. to do B. to    C. doing D. doing it

  The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him ________.

   A. not to B. not to do C. not do it D. do not to (NMET1995)

    析 : 正 确 答 案 是 A.to 后 省 略 了 ride his bicycle in the street.

  -I'll be away on a business trip.Would you mind looking after my cat?

  -Not at all. ________.

    A. I've no time B. I'd rather not   C. I'd like it   D. I'd be happy to (NMET1995)

    析 : 正 确 答 案 是 D.to 后 省 略 了 look after your cat。


② 作 tell,ask,want,expect,warn 等 宾 语 补 足 语 的 不 定 式 . 例 如 :

    The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street but his mother told him ______ .

    A.not to B.not to do C.not do it D.do not do

③ 在 某 些 形 容 词 , 如 :happy,glad,ready,anxious,eager,willing 等 后 作 状 语 的 不 定 式 . 例 如 :

    -I'll be away on a business trip.Would you mind looking after my cat?

    -Not at all, ______ .

    A.I've no time B.I'd rather not C.I'd like D.I'd be happy to

④ 在 某 些 结 构 , 如 :be able to,be going to,be about to,ought to,have to,used to 等 后 作 复 合 谓 语 的 不 定 式 . 例 如 :

    -Alice,why didn't you come yesterday?

    -I ______ ,but I had an unexpected visitor.


A.had B.would C.was going to D.did

但 当 不 定 式 是 由 be 或 have 构 成 时 ,to 后 必 须 保 留 be 或 have 。 例 如 :

  ① -Are you fond of classic music?

    -No, but I used to be.

  ② -Have you told Ann about her failure in the test?

    -Yes, but I oughtn't to have.


2. 表 虚 拟 的 名 词 性 从 句 中 should 的 省 略

① 一 坚 持 (insist), 二 命 令 (order,command), 三 建 议 (suggest,propose,advise), 四 要 求 (demand, require, request,ask) 后

的 主 语、 宾 语 从 句 中 . 例 如 :

    Jane's pale face suggested that she ill and her parents suggested that she ______ a medical examination.

    A.be;should have B.was;have C.should be;had D.was;has


81
② 一 个 主 意 (idea), 一 个 计 划 (plan), 一 个 命 令 (order), 三 个 建 议 (suggest, proposal,advice) 等 后 的 表 语 、 同 位

语从句中 . 例如 :

    The suggestion has been made that the football game ______ put off.

    A.should B.will be C.be D.has been

③It is necessary(important, impossible,strange, natural, a pity, no wonder) that... 主 语 从 句 中 . 例 如 :

    It is necessary that the problem ______ at once.

    A.solves B.should solve C.will be solved D.be solved

3. 在 虚 拟 条 件 句 中 , 如 含 有 had, were, should 等 时 , if 可 省 略 , 句 子 倒 装 。 例 如 :

  ______ it rain tomorrow ,we would have to put off the visit to the Yangpu Bridge.
A.Were B.Should C.Would D.Will

  What would have happened ________, as far as the river bank?

   A. Bob had walked farther B. if Bob should walk farther

  C. had Bob walked farther D. if Bob walked farther

4. 连 词 的 省 略

① 引 导 宾 语 从 句 的 连 词 that 在 口 语 中 常 常 省 略 , 或 并 列 的 宾 语 从 句 中 的 第 一 个 连 词 that 也 能 省 略 .

例如 :

    He said (that)he had come here an hour before and that he had lived in a hotel.
② 在 定 语 从 句 中 作 宾 语 , 且 其 前 没 有 介 词 的 关 系 代 词 , 或 先 行 词 为 way 或 time 等 时 , 常 省 略 关 系 代

词 . 例如 :

    Do you still remember the name of the company ______ we visited last month?

    A.whose B.as C.\ D.where

    I don't like ______ you speak to her.

    A.the way B.the way in that C.the way which D. the way of which

二、 成 分 省 略
1. 在 选 择 疑 问 句 、 反 意 疑 问 句 及 一 般 疑 问 句 、 特 殊 疑 问 句 、 反 意 疑 问 句 的 答 语 中 , 通 常 都 承 前 将 重

复 的 成 分 省 略。 例 如 :

    -He hasn't ever been to Dalian, has he(ever been to Dalian)?

    -No, he hasn't(been to Dalian).

    Do you like studying Chinese or(do you like studying)English?


2. 在 以 when, while, if, as if, though (although), as, whether, once 等 连 词 引 导 的 时 间 、 原 因 、 条 件 、 方 式 、 让 步

等 状 语 从 句 中 , 常 常 省 略 相 同 的 主 语 或 作 主 语 的 代 词 it 以 及 be 动 词 , 保 留 现 在 分 词 、 过 去 分 词 、

介 词 短 语、 不 定 式 等。 需 要 注 意 的 是 , 谓 语 为 实 意 动 词 时 , 若 其 与 省 略 的 主 语 间 为 主 谓 关 系 时 ,

则 用 现 在 分 词 ; 若 为 动 宾 关 系 , 则 用 过 去 分 词。 例 如 :

    Please send for a doctor as soon as(it is)possible.

    If ______ the same treatment again, he's sure to get well.


A.give B.giving C.given D.being given

    Generally speaking, ________according to directions, the drug has no side effect.

   A. when taking B. when taken C. when to take D. when to be taken

    When ________, the museum will be open to the public next year.

   A. completed B. completing C. being completed D. to be completed


82
    The research is so designed that once________nothing can be done to change it.

   A. begins B. having begun C. beginning D. begun

    If________the same treatment again, he's sure to get well.

   A. giving B. give C. given D. being given

    While building a tunnel through the mountain, ________.

   A. an underground lake was discovered

   B. there was an underground lake discovered

   C. a lake was discovered underground

   D. the workers discovered an underground lake

The research is so designed that once ______ nothing can be done to change it.

   A.begins B. having begun C.beginning D.begun (NMET2002)

    析 : 正 确 答 案 是 D. 连 词 once 后 省 略 了 it (the research) is.

  Though ______ money, his parents managed to send him to university.

    A. lacked B. lacking of C. lacking D. lacked in (2003 春 上 海 卷 )

    析 : 正 确 答 案 是 C. 连 词 though 引 导 的 状 语 从 句 完 整 结 构 应 该 是 though they (his parents) lacked


3. 主 、 谓 、 宾 等 成 分 的 省 略

    在 英 语 情 景 会 话 中 , 答 语 常 常 省 略 不 会 引 起 歧 义 的 主 语、 谓 语 或 宾 语 部 分 , 而 只 保 留 对 方 希 望

了 解 的 内 容。 在 复 合 句 或 并 列 句 中 , 也 有 省 略 主、 谓、 宾 的 情 况。 如 :

    -What do you think made Mary so upset?

    -________her new bicycle.

    A. As she lost B. Lost   C. Losing D. Because of losing

    One of the sides of the board should be painted yellow, and________.

    A. the other is white     B. another white     C. the other white     D. another is white

    -Would you like some wine?

    -Yes, just ________.

    A. little B. very little C. a little

4. 疑 问 句 及 其 省 略 回 答 .

1) 特 殊 疑 问 句 的 省 略 回 答

   [ 考例 ]

  -Susan, go and join your sister cleaning the yard.

  -Why ______ ? John is sitting there doing nothing. (NMET2003)

    A. him B. he C. I D. me

    析 : 在 日 常 用 语 中 , 当 人 称 代 词 用 在 不 带 谓 语 的 句 子 中 作 主 语 时 , 习 惯 上 用 宾 格 , 答 案 是 D. 完

整 回 答 应 该 是 Why do I have to go and join her cleaning the yard?

  -What do you think made Mary so upset?

  - ______ her new bicycle.

    A .As she lost B. Lost C. Losing D. Because of losing (1997 上 海 卷 )

    析 : 答 案 是 C. 完 整 回 答 应 该 是 Losing her new bicycle made her so upset.

  要解决这类特殊疑问句的省略回答问题 , 关键在于弄清 " 特殊疑问词 " 表达的意义 , 然后据此

作出合理的分析和推断 .
83
2) 含 情 态 动 词 的 一 般 疑 问 句 的 回 答

   [ 考例 ]

  12)-Could I call you by your first name? -Yes, you _______.

    A. will B. could C. may D. might (1998 上 海 卷 )

    析 : 答 案 是 C.

  此类题目考查了答语的省略 , 即保留相应的情态动词 , 省略了其后与前面出现的相同的部分 .

三、 替 代 省 略
1. 用 it, one, that 替 代 句 子 中 重 复 出 现 的 名 词 、 代 词 或 句 子 。

    one 是 指 代 同 名 称 的 另 一 样 东 西 ( 同 类 异 物 ), 代 替 前 面 句 子 中 重 复 出 现 的 可 数 名 词 ;that 替 代 特

指 可 数 或 不 可 数 名 词 , 后 面 常 跟 有 in 或 of 短 语 作 后 置 定 语 ;it 指 代 同 名 称 的 同 样 事 物 ( 同 类 同 物 ) 。

   [ 考例 ]
1) Meeting my uncle after all these years was an unforgettable moment, ______ I always treasure.

    A. that B. one C. it D. what (NMET2002)

    析 : 正 确 答 案 是 B.one 代 替 泛 指 的 an unforgettable moment, 在 句 中 作 同 位 语 , 起 补 充 说 明 的 作 用 .I will


always treasure 是 定 语 从 句 修 饰 one.

2) -Why don't you take a break?

  -Didn't we just have _____?

    A. it B. that C. one D. this (NMET2000)

    析 : 由 题 干 分 析 , 代 词 指 代 的 是 前 面 的 a break, 为 单 数 泛 指 概 念 , 故 答 案 为 C.one 代 替 泛 指 的 单

数 名 词 , 相 当 于 "a / an+ 单 数 名 词 ". 若 替 代 前 面 提 到 的 泛 指 复 数 名 词 要 用 ones, 替 代 特 指 复 数 名 词 则 用


those 或 the ones.

3) Equipped with modern facilities,today's libraries differ greatly from ________.

    A. those of the past   B. the past   C. which of the past   D. these past (2003 春 上 海 卷 )

    析 : 答 案 是 A.those 代 替 the libraries.


2. 在 两 个 分 句 中 , 当 两 者 ( 人 或 物 ) 情 况 或 意 思 完 全 相 同 , 第 二 个 分 句 用 so, neither, nor, either 等 引 出

时 , 出 现 省 略 现 象 , 其 中 neither, nor, so 还 可 引 起 倒 装 结 构 , 表 示 " 也 不 … … " 、 " 也 … … " 。

   [ 考例 ]

  4)-David has made great progress recently.

    - ______ and ______ .

    A. So he has; so you have     B. So he has; so have you

    C. So has he; so have you     D. So has he; so you have (1997 上 海 卷 )

    析 : 正 确 答 案 是 B 项 .So 置 于 句 首 , 构 成 "So+ 主 语 + 助 动 词 ( 情 态 动 词 )" 结 构 , 表 示 同 意 对 方

的 话 ;So 置 于 句 首 , 构 成 "So+ 助 动 词 ( 情 态 动 词 )+ 主 语 " 的 倒 装 结 构 , 表 示 "…… 亦 如 此 " 。


5)-I don't think I can walk any further.

    - ______ . Let's stop here for a rest.

    A.Neither am I B.Neither can I C.I don't think so D.I think so

3. 有 时 可 用 so 代 替 名 词 性 从 句 , 以 避 免 重 复 前 面 所 说 的 内 容 , 可 以 用 于 这 类 结 构 的 动 词 有 think,

believe, suppose, expect, imagine, guess, hope 等 . 肯 定 回 答 结 构 为 " 主 语 + 动 词 +so", 否 定 回 答 结 构

为 " 主 语 + 助 动 词 否 定 形 式 + 动 词 +so" 或 " 主 语 + 动 词 +not" 。 但 动 词 为 hope, guess 时 , 否 定 回

答 只 能 说 hope (guess) not, 不 能 说 don't hope (guess) so 。


84
   [ 考例 ]

  6)-The boys are not doing a good job at all,are they?

    -___________.

    A. I guess not so   B. I don't guess   C. I don't guess so   D. I guess not (2003 春 北 京 卷 )

    析 : 正 确 答 案 是 D.I guess not 相 当 于 I guess they aren't doing a good job at all 。

85
对称原则中的省略现象
NMET’99 有这样一道单项选择题:
  The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier,_____it more difficult.
 A.not make   B.not to make   C.not making   D.do not make
  在解这道题之前,我们先来探讨以下三个问题:
  一、对称原则及其在高考试题中的应用
  并列连词 and.or,but,while 等连接的前后两个部分有某种对称性,或曰前后的词形要一致。
比如说前面是动词,后面也要是动词;前面是过去式,后面也要是过去式;前面是主动语态,后面也要用主动语态,如此等
握这种对称原则,对解单项填空和短文改错有很大用处。下面举数例高考试题佐证。
  例 1:My brother ______while he ______his bicycle and hurt himself.(MET'89)
    A.fell,was riding         B.fell were riding
    C.had fallen,rode         D.had fallen,was riding
  [分析]答案 A。根据对称原则,and 连接的并列谓语时态要一致,后面 hurt 是过去式,前面也应用过去式 fell。while
fell 动作发生的时间是“在骑自行车时”,应用过去进行时。
  例 2:On saturday afternoon,Mr Green went to the market,_____some bananas and
     visited her cousin.(MET'91)
    A.bought    B.buying     C.to buy    D.buy
  [分析]答案 A。此题是含 and 连接的三个并列谓语,第一,三个动词用了过去式(went,visited),第二个必然要用过去式
  例 3:Playing football not only makes up grow up tall and strong but also give us a
sense of fair play and team spirit.(NMET'98)
  [分析] not only … but also … 在这里连接并列谓语,根据对称原则,前面用的是一般现在时单数第三人称形式
面一个应是一般现在时单数第三人称,故这行 give 应改为 gives.
  例 4:They eager to know everything about 93.______China and asked me lots of
questions.(NMET'96)
  [分析]在这道改错题中这句话的主语是 they,and 连接的并列谓语第二个是过去式 asked,
根据对称原则,第一个也应是过去式。但 eager 是形容词,前面须加 be 的过去形式 were.
  二、对称原则中的省略现象
  两个(或更多)作用相同的词,词组并列使用,后面一个为了避免重复而将与前面一个相同的情态动词,助动词、不定
的 to 和名词前面的冠词等省略。高考试题中并列结构第二个省略某些词语现象时有出现。又如:
  例 5:The police found that the house______and a lot of things ______.(MET'91)
    A.has broken into,has been stolen   B.had broken into,had been stolen
    C.has been broken into,stolen     D.had been broken into,stolen
  [分析]答案 D。主句谓语动词 found 后有两个并列的宾语从句,因为其主语 the house 和 a
lot of things 是物,谓语动词应用过去完成时被动语态。为避免重复第二省略了相同的助动词
had been.
  例 6:The car was quite old but in excellent condition.
     这部车子相当旧,但机器性能还非常好。
  [分析]but 后省略了相同的连系动词 were.
  例 7:The noun is the name of a person or thing.名词是人或物的名称。
  [分析]thing 前省略了相同的冠词 a.
  例 8:It was very kind of them to meet me at the railway station and drove me to
their home.(NMET'96)89._____.
  [分析]此题 it 是形式主语,and 连接两个不定式 to meet me 和 to drive me 是真正的主语。为避免重复第二个不定式
to,所以 drove 要改成 drive.
  三、具有对比意义时,第二个不定式不省略 to
  To be or not to be ——that is the question.是生是死,就是问题所在。
  I came not to scold,but to praise you.我来不是骂你,而是夸你的。
  To try anf fail is better than not to try at all.尝试失败总比不尝试好。
  两个不定式相距较远,即使中间没有对比关系,为避免意思上的含混,后面不定式 to 也不
省略。如:
  We are to take the train to Hancow and after that to travel up the Changjiang
River by ship.  我们将坐火车到汉口,然后再坐船沿长江往上行。
  现在回到本文开头的那道高考题,它含有用逗号分开的两个不定式短语,to make life
easier 和 not tomake it more difficulet,句中并列作连系动词 be(is)的表语,因为有强烈的对比意义,不定式符号
所以 B 为其正确答案。

平行结构
一、连词连接两个对等的词和对等的结构

并列连词 and, but, as well as, or, or else, both … and, neither … nor, either … or, not only
86
… but (also), rather than等以及从属连词 than 可连接两个对等的词和对等的结构。

1. 所连接的谓语形式必须一致

例 1 : He went downtown, bought some books and visited his daughter.

例 2 : Gunpowder was discovered in the twelfth century, but not used in warfare until two

hundred years later.


2. 所连接的词或短语形式必须一致

例 1 : Your semester grade is based not only on how well you do on each test, but also on

how you participate in class.

例 2 : We often go to the countryside as well as to factories.

例 3 : I would much rather go to the countryside than stay here.

3. 连接的非谓语动词的形式必须一致

例 1 :Some find swimming more enjoyable than sitting at home reading.

例 2 :He was engaged in writing a letter rather than reading the newspaper.

4. 所连接的句子结构必须一致

例 1 :She is pleased with what you have given and all that you have told him.

例 2 :The purpose of the research had a more different meaning for them than it did for us.

二、某些特定的固定结构。例如:
(1) 有些词后要用平行结构。例如:
prefer sth to sth
prefer doing sth to doing sth
prefer to do sth rather than do sth
1) I prefer rice to noodles.
2)I prefer watching TV to listening to music.
3) He preferred to die rather than surrender.
(2) 有些结构中要用平行结构。例如:
would / had rather / sooner do something than do something, would / had as soon do
something as do something ( 宁可……也不…… )
1) Liu Hulan said she had rather die than give up.
2) I would as soon stay at home as go.
III 部分强调句
87
要强调句子的某一部分,可以把句子的结构改变一下,通常有两种表示强调的句式:
It is / was … that … 结构和 What … is / was… 结构。

一、 It is / was … that … 结构

1.It is / was … that … 结构可以用来强调句子中几乎任何部分

例 1 : It was my mother that threw an egg at Mr. Li yesterday.

例 2 : It was Mr. Li that my mother threw an egg at yesterday.

2. 被强调的部分指人时,可用 who 枵 whom

强调主语时,如果指的是人, 可以不用 that 而用 who 来代替。强调宾语时,如果指

点的是人,可用 whom 。例如:

1 )It was the dean who walked by.

2 ) It was Mary whom the old lady missed most.

3 被强调部分指物时,要用 that

例如: It was an egg that my mother threw at Mr. Li yesterday.

4. 被强调部分是状语时,也只能用 that ,不能用 when 或where.

例 1 : It is during his spare time that John has been studying a course in French.

例 2 : It was in the hall that the mayor held the press conference.

5. 不能用 It is / was … that 结构强调动词

强调动词常用 do, 过去式用 did 。例如:

1) They did study very hard yesterday.


2) He does look forward to making the acquaintance of her.
What … is / was … 结构

二、 What … is / was … 结构常用来强调主语或宾语,在这种结构中, is/ was 后面是

强调的部分。例如:

1 ) What hurts is my left leg.


88
2 ) What I like is her style.

历届高考词序考点简析

词序是高考试题中常考的内容,同时也是中学教材的重点和难点。为便于同

学们复习,下面我们把高考中 所出现的各种词序题归类简析如下:
一、 短 语 动 词 中 宾 语 的 位 置

( 79MET ) . If you don‘t know the word, why don’t you______in the dictionary.

( A ) look at it ( B ) look after it ( C ) look up it ( D ) look it up

析:答案为 D 。 其意指“查(字典等)”, A 意为 " 看 " ,B 意为 " 照顾 " 均

不 符 题 意 , 故 排 除。 由 动 词 加 副词构成的短语,其宾语是名词时,宾语可放在
整个短语后面,也可插在动词与副词之间,但宾语是代词时, 代词宾语只能插
在 动 词 与 副 词 之 间。
试题选练:(画线项为答案,下同)

( 83MET ) .If you are at home this evening, I‘ll________.

( A ) ring you on ( B ) ring upon you ( C ) ring to you ( D ) ring you up

( 78MET ) .I need a day or two________

( A ) to think it over ( B ) to think over it ( C ) of thinking

二、 虚 拟 语 气 省 略 if 时 的 词 序

( 95 上 海 ) .______ for the free tickets, I would not havegone to the films so often.

( A ) If it is not ( B ) Were it not ( C ) Had it not been ( D ) If they were not

析:答案为 C 。 这是一个与过去相反的虚拟条件从句的省略形式,当从句中

的 if 省 略 时 , 从 句 要 用 倒 装 句。 这 类 倒 装 句 只 需 将 助 动 词、 情 态 动 词 或 系 动 词

提 至 主 语 前 即 可。 常 见 句 式 更 换 如 下 :

a. 与 现 在 相 反 : If I were you (=Were I you) , I would go with him.

89
b. 与 过 去 相 反 : If I had had time then (=Had I had time then), I would have gone with you.

c. 与 将 来 相 反 : If I were to visit/should visit/visited the Great Wall tomorrow, (=Were I to /Should I visit the Great

Wall tomorrow), I would take my son with me.

注 意 : 在 否 定 句 中 not 不 可 提 至 主 语 前 , 如 :

( 误 ) Weren’t I here now, I would be in the bus.

( 正 ) Were I not here now, I would be in the bus.

试题选练:

( 94 上 海 ) .______ it rain tomorrow, we would have to put off the visit to the

Yangpu Bridge.

( A ) Were ( B ) Should ( C ) Would ( D ) Will

_______ your letter, I would have written back two daysago.

( A ) If I received ( B ) Should Ireceive ( C ) Had I received ( D ) If I could have received

三、 否 定 词 放 在 句 首 时 的 词 序

( 91MET ) "Do you know Jim quarrelled with his brother?" "I don‘t know,_____

( A ) nor don’t I care ( B ) nor do I care ( C ) I don‘t care neither ( D ) I don’t care also

析 : 答 案 为 B 。 A 项 多 了 not , C 项、 D 项 分 别 要 改 neither 、 also 为 either。

否定词作状语放在句首时要用 倒 装 句 , 倒 装 句 只 需 将 情 态 动 词、 助 动 词、 系 动

词 be 提 至 主 语 首 即 可 ( 见 例 2 )。 实意动词的倒装要在主语前 面加助动词 do ,

does , did 等 , 此 时 谓 语 动 词 要 用 动 词 原 形 ( 见 例 1 )。 常 见 的 否 定 词 或 结 构 有 :

neither/nor /never/hardly/ little/seldom/ scarcely/ barely/ not until/no sooner than/hardly when/
not only…b ut also/at no time/not once/by no means

例 : 1.Little did Einstein care for money.

2.By no means( Never/At no time) will China besuperpowers.


试题选练:

( 85MET ) . "Did you enjoy that trip? " "I‘m afraid not. And_______."

90
( A ) my classmates don’t either ( B ) my classmates don‘t too

( C ) neither do my classmates ( D ) neither did my classmates

( 90MET ) .Not until I began to work _______how much time I had wasted.

( A ) didn’t I realize ( B ) did I realize ( C ) I didn‘t realize ( D ) I realize

( 95NMET ) .Not until all the fish died in the river____how serious the pollution was.

( A ) did the villagers realize ( B ) the villagers realize

( C ) the villagers did realize ( D ) didn’t the villagers realize

( 91 上 海 ) .Not only____ polluted but ____ crowded.

( A ) was the city, were the streets ( B ) the city was, were the streets

( C ) was the city, the streets were ( D ) the city was, the streets were

( 94 上 海 ) .Little ____ about his own safety, though he was in great danger himself.

( A ) does he care ( B ) did he care ( C ) he cares ( D ) he cared

四、 So…that 放 在 句 首 时 的 词 序

( 92 上 海 ) . So ______ that no fish can live in it.

( A ) the lake is shallow ( B ) shallow the lake is

( C ) shallow is the lake ( D ) is the lake shallow

析 : 答 案 为 C 。 在 so…that 句 型 中 , 当 so 后 的 部 分 提 到 句 首 时 要 用 部 分 倒 装。 如 :

So hard does he study that he is sure to succeed.

试 题 选 练 : So excited _____ that he couldn‘t speak a word.

( A ) he gets ( B ) he got ( C ) does he get ( D ) did he get

91
五、 so 含 " 也 " 意 时 的 词 序

( 87MET ) .John won first prize in the contest. ______.

( A ) So he did ( B ) So did he ( C ) So he did, too ( D ) So did he, too.

( 79MET ) . I like sports and ______ my brother

( A ) so does ( B ) so is ( C ) so ( D ) so like

- I like playing football. - _______.

( A ) So you do ( B ) So do you ( C ) You do so ( D ) So did you

析 : 答 案 分 别 为 A 、 A.So 开 头 的 句 子 , 如果是重复前面一句话的部分内容,

该 内 容 也 适 合 另 一 人 , 物。 要 用 倒 装 ( 但 谓 语 要 与 前 句 谓 语 时 态 , 形 式 一 致 )。
此 时 两 句 中 的 主 语 不 可 是 同 一 人 或 物。 如 :
He has got up, so have I.
You are honest, so am I, so are all of us.

但 So 开 头 的 句 子 , 如 果 是 重 复 前 面 一 句 话 的 意 见 , 表 示 对 别 人 说 的 话 加 以

肯 定 , 语 序 不 必 倒 装。 此 时 两 句 的 主 语 常 常 是 同 一 人 或 物。 如 :
He asked me to support him, so I did.
I have passed the maths exam. So you have.

六、 As 引 导 让 步 状 语 从 句 时 的 词 序

( 85MET ) ._____ , he doesn’t study well.

( A ) As he is clever ( B ) He is as clever

( C ) Clever as he is ( D ) As clever he is

析 : 答 案 为 C 。 As 引 导 让 步 状 语 时 要 将 句 中 作 表 语 的 形 容 词、 名 词 ( 前 面 不 可 用 冠 词 )、 作 状

语的副词或 部 分 谓 语 动 词 提 至 as ( though ) 前。
Child (Young) as she is, she knows a lot.
Fast as you run, I can catch you easily.
Try as you might, you are sure to fail again.

92
试 题 选 练 : _____ the dictionary, he could not afford to buy it.

( A ) Much as he liked ( B ) Liked as he

( C ) He liked very much ( D ) As he liked much

七、 多 个 形 容 词 排 列 时 的 词 序

( 95NMET ) . "How was your recent visit to Qingdao?"

"It was great. We visited some friends, and spent the ____ days at the seaside."

( A ) few last sunny ( B ) last few sunny

( C ) last sunny few ( D ) few sunny last

B
析:答案为 , 此 题 考 测 多 个 形 容 词 或 修 饰 语 并 列 时 的 位 置 问 题。 多个修饰语并列修饰一个名

词时的位置规则为:

a ) 限 定 词 如 : a, the, all, many, little, first, last, these, this 等。 ( 如 有 数 词 同 时 出 现 时 , 序 数 词 在 前 ,

基 数 词 在 后。 )
b )描绘性形容词如大小,长短,高低,新旧,颜色,国籍, 材 料 , 用 途 , 类 别 等。 同 类 形 容
词 排 列 时 短 的 在 前 , 长 的 在 后。

如 : He isa kind honest old man. (限定+短性质+长性质+年龄)

This useless old geography book doesn‘t belong me. ( 限 定 + 性质+新旧+种类)


My house is furnished with three comfortable dark brown chairs. ( 数 词 + 性 质 + 短 颜 色 + 长 颜 色 )
试题选练:

( 93NMET ) .Tony is going camping with ____ boys.

( A ) little two other ( B ) two little other ( C ) two other little ( D ) little other two

When I was a child, my grandmother told me ____ stories.

( A ) many such funny ( B ) such many funny ( C ) many funny such ( D ) funny many such

He saw nothing but a _______ table in the farm house.

( A ) round small wooden ( B ) small round wooden ( C ) round wooden small ( D ) small wooden

round
The ______ bridge in our village was built scores of years ago.

93
( A ) a stone old fine ( B ) an old stone fine ( C ) a fine old stone ( D ) an old fine stone

These are his cousin’s first two ______ paintings.

( A ) little red French interesting oil ( B ) interesting little red French oil

(C)interesting French little red oil ( D ) little red intersting oil French

八:词序不同意义不同的词

( 95 上 海 ) .It was_____ late to catch a bus after the party, therefore we called a taxi.

( A ) too very ( B ) much too ( C ) too much ( D ) far

B B
析:答案为 。 是 个 副 词 词 组 , 只 修 饰 形 容 词 或 副 词 以 加 强 语 气。 可 作 形 容 词 修 饰 名 词 , 也 可

作名词充当 主 语 , 宾 语 等 成 分。 A 中 too very 不 能 连 用。 D 不 能 修 饰 原 级 形 容 词 故 排 除。 常 见


的 词 序 不 同、 意义不同的词 组有:

in all 总 共 / all in 疲 倦 , in hand 在 手 中 / hand in 上 交 ,

turn in 上 交 / in turn 轮 流、 排 队 , from far 来 自 远 方 / far from 离 得 远、 远

非,

for good 永 远 / good for 对 … 有 好 处 , all for 都 赞 成 / for all 尽 管 … ,

much too 太 , 过 于 , 修 饰 形 容 词 或 副 词 / too much 太 多 , 充 当 名 词 或 修 饰 名 词 ,

if only 要 是 ( 常 与 虚 拟 语 气 连 用 ) / only if 只 有 ( 引 导 条 件 从 句 ) ,

long before 很 久 以 前 / before long 不 久 以 后。

试 题 选 练 : I knew you ____ I knew John.

( A ) before long ( B ) long before ( C ) long ago ( D ) after long

_____ you try your best to prepare your lessons well will you be able to pass the exam.

( A ) If only ( B ) Only if ( C ) Long before ( D ) Before long

九、 作 定 语 后 置 时 的 情 况 :

( 93NMET ) . "Mum, I think I‘m ______ to get back to school."

"Not really, my dear, you’d better stay at home for another day or two."
94
( A ) so well ( B ) so good ( C ) well enough ( D ) good enough

析 : 此 题 答 案 为 C 。 根 据 题 意 只 能 选 well 意 指 " 健 康 " 。 Enough 修 饰 形 容 词 或 副 词 时 要 放 在 所 修

饰的词的 后 面。 修 饰 名 词 时 可 置 于 名 词 前 后。 如 :
We haven‘t enough time (or: time enough) to lose.
常见的几种修饰语后置的情况有:

1 ) 形 容 词 修 饰 something, nothing, anything, everything 等 不 定 代 词 时 要 后 置。 present 作 " 出 席 的

" 之 意 时 , 要 放 在 所 修 饰 词 后。 如 :
I have nothing new to tell you. The people present areworkers.
2 ) 副 词 或 介 词 短 语 作 定 语 时 要 后 置。 如 :
The man upstairs (in charge of the factory) often comes home very late.

3 ) 以 A 开 头 的 表 语 形 容 词 如 alive, asleep, awake, alone 等 作 定 语 时 要 后 置。 如 :

Do you know the greatest poet alive in your country?


4 ) 非 谓 语 动 词 作 定 语 时 , 定 语 要 后 置。 如 :
The building built last year/being built now/to be built next year will be equipped with computers.

试 题 选 练 : ( 89MET ) .There was a terrible noise _____ thesudden burst of light.

( A ) followed ( B ) following ( C ) to be followed ( D ) being followed

( 87MET ) .Most of the people _____ to the party were famous scientists.

( A ) invited ( B ) to invite ( C ) being invited ( D ) inviting

十、 Only + 状 语 放 在 句 首 时 的 词 序 :

( 90 上 海 ) . Only by practising a few hours every day_____be able to master the language.

( A ) you can ( B ) can you ( C ) you will ( D ) will you

析 : 答 案 为 C 。 由 "only + 状 语 " 引 起 的 强 调 句 放 在 句 首 时 要 用 倒 装 结 构 ,

此 结 构 只 需 把 助 动 词、 情 态 动 词 或 系 动 词 be 提 至 主 语 前 即 可 , 故 排 除 A,C,B

中 的 can 与 be able to 意 义 重 复 故 也 排 除。

试 题 选 练 : ( 84MET ) .Only in this way _______ progress in your English.

95
(A )
you make ( B ) can you make ( C ) you be able to make ( D ) will you able to make

( 86 上 海 ) . Only when the war was over in 1945_____ to geta college education.

( A ) he was able ( B ) he is able ( C ) was he able ( D ) is he able

十 一、 副 词、 介 词 短 语 放 在 句 首 时 的 词 序 :
______ from the north to the south in winter.

( A ) Away do some birds fly ( B ) Away do a few animals run

( C ) Away fly some birds ( D ) Away run all the animals

析 : 答 案 为 C 。 某 些 副 词 如 here 、 there 、 up 、 down 、 in 、 out 等 以 及 介 词

短语放在句首引起的倒装句(不 可用助动词)要注意如下三点:

A. 主 语 是 名 词 时 ( 用 完 全 倒 装 ) 把 动 词 提 至 主 语 前 : Here ( In)came a lady.

B. 主 语 是 代 词 时 ( 用 部 分 倒 装 ) 只 将 上 述 副 词 提 至 主 语 前 即 可 :

Here ( In ) he come.

C. 介 词 短 语 放 在 句 首 时 要 用 全 部 倒 装 , 即动词提至主语前:
In front of the farmhouse sat a small boy who was cutting a cane.
试题选练:
_____ who had caught him three times for stealing bikes.

( A ) Before George stood the policeman ( B ) Before George the policeman stood

( C ) The policeman stood before George ( D ) Before the policeman stood George

____ from the 11th floor when the policeman pointed his gun at him.

( A ) Down jumped the murderer ( B ) Down the murderer jumped

( C ) Down jumped he ( D ) Jumped down he

十 二、 宾 语 从 句 的 词 序

( 91NMET ) . No one can be sure ______ in a million years .

( A ) what man will look like ( B ) what will man look like

( C ) man will look like what ( D ) what look will man like

96
析 : 此 题 答 案 为 A 。 连 接 代 词 who, which, what 等 和 连 接 副 词 why,where,

when 等 引 导 的 名 词 性 从 句 , 从 句 的 语 序 要 用 陈 述 句 语 序。 B 、 C 、 D 均 属 词 序 错 误 故 排 除。

试 题 选 练 : ( 89MET ) .These photographs will show you______.

( A ) what does our village look like ( B ) what our village looks like

( C ) how does our village look like ( D ) how our village looks like

( 90NMET ) .Can you make sure_____the gold ring?

( A ) where Alice had put ( B ) where had Alice put ( C ) where Alice has put ( D ) where has Alice

put

( 92NMET ) .He asked _______ for the violin.

( A ) did I pay how much ( B ) I paid how much ( C ) how much did I pay ( D ) how much I paid

十 三、 不 定 冠 词 的 位 置

( 84MET ) .He is ______ teacher that all of us like him.

( A ) a such good ( B ) such good a ( C ) a so good ( D ) so good a

析 : 答 案 为 D 。 A 、 B 中 冠 词 的 位 置 应 放 在 such 之 后。 C 中 冠 词 应 放 在 good

之 后。 当 so…that 与 不 定 冠 词 a / a n 连 用 时 , 冠 司 a / an 要 直 接 放 在 名 词 之 前。

类 似 结 构 有 too / rather / quite + adj + a / an + 名 词。

He is so clever a boy that we all like him.

= He is such a clever boy that we all like him.

如 果 此 句 改 为 复 数 时 , 只 可 用 such…that , 如 :

They are such clever boys that we all like them.

试 题 选 练 : ( 93 上 海 ) ._______ box cannot be lifted by a boy of five.

( A ) So a heavy ( B ) So heavy a ( C ) A such heavy ( D ) Such heavy a

97
十 四、 How 和 however + 形 容 词、 副 词 时 的 词 序

( 97NMET ) ._________ , Mother will wait for him to have dinner together.

( A ) However late is he ( B ) However he is late ( C ) However is he late ( D ) However late he is

析 : 答 案 选 D 。 当 how 或 however 修 饰 形 容 词、 副 词 时 , 要 把 被 修 饰 的 词 带 走。 故 排 除

B 、 C 。 从 句 部 分 不 可 用 倒 装 句 , 故 A 也 排 除。

如 : I don’t know how hard the problem is.

It‘s useless however hard you try.


试题选练:

( 95NMET ) . If we work with a strong will, we can overcome any difficulty, _____ great it is.

( A ) what ( B ) how ( C ) however ( D ) whatever

( 94 上 海 ) .You can’t imagine ______ when they receivedthese nice Christmas presents.

( A ) how they were excited ( B ) how excited they were

( C ) how excited were they ( D ) they were how excited

情景交际试题分析
情景交际试题是近年来的考查重点,因为它能检验出考生是否能把所学到的知识运用于实际中。
这种题除去在阅读中专门设计了一个( B )部分考补全对话之外,在单项选择题中所占的比例也越
来越大。它是难度相对较大灵活题,也是考生的薄弱环节。
情景交际试题多为日常生活中的口语,具有强烈的感情色彩和灵活,多变、简炼等特点。考生如
果不把自己“置身”于语境中,就很难做出正确的选择。现针对这种情况,谈谈怎样做好情景交际
题。
(一) 要根据习惯使用一定的表达方式,使之符合英美人的文化、风俗。
1. --- You speak English very well.
--- _____.
A. Thank you B. Not at all C. My English is poor D. Don’t mention it.

Answer 此题正确答案是 A . 按照中国的传统,当别人表扬我们时,我们应谦虚, 而英美人此时

会说Thank you 或 Thanks 以示自信和礼貌。


2. --- Hello . May I speak to Bob ?
--- Yes. _____ .
98
A. My name’s Bob. B. This is Bob speaking C. I’m Bob. D. Bob’s me.

Answer 此题是考查打电话的常用语。在打电话时, 英美人习惯用 this 来作自我介绍。故此题

选 B.

( 二 ) 要准确理解英语句子的意义,切不可望文生义

1. --- How do you like your Chinese teacher ?


--- _______ .
A. She is very kind B. No, I don’t like her . C. Yes, I like her. D. She’s much better.

Answer “How do you like...?” 相当于 “ What do you think of ...?” 是询问对方对某人、 某事的评

价性的意见,而不是问是否喜欢。在做情景交际题时, 切忌只注意孤立句子的语法是否正确,应
了解整个语境所表达的完整、 确定的意义。故此题选 A.
2. --- The light in the office is still on.

  --- Oh, I forgot _____.

A. turning it off   B. turn it off   C. to turn it off D. having turned it off

Answer 独立地看,答案A,C 和 D 在语法和意义上都对, 但在特定的语境中,只能选 C. Forget

to do sth. 意思是忘记做某事,表明此事未做, 而forget doing sth. 意思是忘记做了某事,表明此事


他做了,只是忘记了。 依题意他没有关灯,所以应选择 forget to do sth. 的句型。
下面我们结合练习,具体的体会一下:
1. --- You bought me a very beautiful present , Mr. Wise.
---____. I’m glad you like it.
A. No, just so so . B. Thank you C. Not at all D. I don’t think so

Answer (分析: C. 别人表示感谢时,可用此句做答)

2. --- I’m afraid I must be off now . ______ .


--- Glad to have seen you, too . Do come again when you have time.

 A. Pleased to meet you. B. Glad to see you . C. Thank you for your kindness. D. Nice to have seen

you

Answer (分析: D. 根据下面的答语 , 即可选出此答案。)

3. --- Is ____ here ?


--- No, Jenny and Betty have asked for leave.

  A. anybody B. somebody C. everybody D. nobody

99
Answer C. 根据句式,可排除 B, D 根据下文, 可看出并不是在问是否有人,而是问是不是大家

都到了
4. --- Don’t forget to come to the party tomorrow.
--- _____ .
A. I won’t B. I can’t C. I haven’t D. I don’t

Answer (分析: A. 根据上下文即可知,是到时候不会忘的。)

5. --- I wonder if I could use your dictionary for a while?


--- Sure . ____ .
A. Don’t be polite B. That’s right C. Here they are D. Go ahead.
Answer D. B C. A. D
根据语境,马上排除 项。 数 不 符。 为 汉 语 中 的 用 语。 在英语中表鼓励,支持

对 方 的 要 求 或 请 求。
6. --- Would you care of tea or coffee ?
--- Neither , ___. I’ve just had some tea.
A. coffee, please B. thank you C. to drink it yourself D. just a little

Answer B. 尽管 I’ve just had some tea . 和 Neither 已表示回绝, 但仍要对对方的邀请表示感


7. --- Congratulations on winning the first prize in the tennis game.
--- ______ .
A. It’s nothing unusual B. The same to you C. I’m just very lucky D. Success belongs to me.
Answer C. 英美人士在回答别人的“祝贺”时, 往往用“附和”的口吻,而不是汉语式的谦虚。
8. ---I expect everything will turn out as you wish.
--- ____ .
A. All right B. The same to you C. No, thanks D. I’d like to
Answer B. 在这种场合下接受别人的“祝愿”, 也给对方以同样的祝愿。
9. --- I wonder if I could go up by lift?
--- _____ .
A. Of course , here you are. B. I don’t wonder C. Sorry, it’s out of order D. You are welcome

Answer C. 意为“电梯出了毛病”。 D. 是用来回答 Thank you 的时候的谦词

10. --- _____ ?


--- No, thanks , but I can do it myself.
A. What can I do for you B. What are you going to do
C. Can I help you with the housework D. Can I go there with you

Answer C. 谢绝了别人的好意。A 和B 均是特殊疑问句, 不能用 Yes 或 No 来回答。 D 与本题

不符。
100
11. --- You look very beautiful in that dress. Where did you get it ?
--- _____ .
A. It’s none of your business B. Oh, yes. It was very cheap
C. Thank you . It’s a present D. Please don’t mention it.

Answer C. 用 Thank you 来回答别人的赞扬, 用 It’s a present. 来回答“你在哪买的”

12. --- How I enjoyed myself at the party last night .


---- _____ .
A. Congratulations B. It’s my pleasure. C. That would be very nice. D.Oh, I’m very glad to hear
that.
Answer D. 附和对方的愉快心情。
13. --- The music is too loud . Could you please turn down the radio a bit ?
--- _____ .
A. Sorry , I didn’t know you were reading. B. Don’t trouble. I like music.
C. Don’t you think the music is beautiful ? D.Oh, it’s an honour for me to do so.

Answer (分析: A. 打扰了别人应“道歉”)

14. --- Many thanks for having me in your home for so many days.
--- ________ .
A. The same to you B. Don’t care about it C. It’s my pleasure D.It doesn’t matter

Answer C. 接受别人“道谢”时,英美人士往往用 It’s a pleasure . 或 You are welcome. 等方式。

15. --- _____ ?


--- It depends on what it is.
A. How about going shopping with us B. Remember me to your family , will you

C. Will you please buy me some postcards there D . Would you please do me a favor

Answer (分析: D. 根据答语,可推断出对话一方在提出请求。)

16.--- How could you say that ? --- ____ . I didn’t mean to hurt you .
A. That’s all right B. I won’t regret C. Excuse me D I’m really sorry.

Answer (分析: D. “ 伤害”了对方后在“道歉”。 )

17. --- You seem to get lost. Need help ?


--- ______ .
A. Yes, would you please help me with the bag? B. Help me find my key , please .
C. Yes , give me a hand , please. D.I am looking for Zhongshan Road

Answer (分析: D. 由语境判断,答话者是“迷路”了。)

18. --- I think I’m coming down with a cold.


101
--- _____ .
A. You say that again and again B. Let’s get something to eat , shall we ?
C. Well , I suggest you go to have a rest. D. Then you’d better see a doctor.

Answer (分析: D. 对方“感冒”了, 建议去“看医生”)

19. --- May I speak to Miss Liu, please ?


--- Hold on a moment . Miss Liu ,____ on the phone.
A. Someone is looking for you B. Here is a telephone for you
C. You’re called D. You’re wanted

Answer (分析: D. 表示“电话里有人找”)

20. --- _____ .


--- It’s nothing to worry about . I never liked it anyway.
A. I lost my walkman this morning B. I feel awful . I’ve got a cold
C. I feel terrible , but I’ve left your tape somewhere. D. I’m sorry, but we don’t have that medicine.
Answer C. 由语境可知,对方是因给“你”丢了磁带而道歉。)

英语历年高考热点追踪

研究历年高考试题,我们会发现很多热门考点,有些考点甚至考题惊人的相似。了解这些热门考点,对于 同学
们复习迎考很有帮助。我们将这些热门考点归类分析如下:

一、 对 名 词 性 从 句 的 考 查 热 点
1. 宾 语 从 句 的 语 序

①These photographs will show you ____. ( ‘ 89 )

A.what does our village look like B.what our village looks like
C.how does our village look like D.how our village looks like

②Can you make sure ______ the gold ring? ( ’ 90 )

A.where Alice had put B.where has Alice put C.where Alice has put D.where had Alice put

③No one can be sure ______ in a million years. ( ‘ 91 )

A.what man will look like B.what will man look like C.man will look like what D.what look will man like

④He asked _____ for the violin. ( ’ 92 )

A.did I pay how much B.I paid how much C.how much did I pay D.how much I paid

分 析 : 无 论 主 句 是 什 么 句 式 , 宾 语 从 句 只 能 用 陈 述 句 的 语 序。 所 以 上 述 考 题 的 答 案 是 : BCAD 。

2. 连 接 词 what 和 that 的 用 法 区 别

102
①_______ you have done might do harm to other people. ( ‘ 87 )

A.That B.What C.Which D.This

②_____ we can’t get seems better than ____ we have. ( ‘ 96 )

A.What;what B.What;that C.That;that D.That;what

③______ he said at the meeting astonished everybodypresent. ( ’ 93 )

A.What B.That C.The fact D.The matter

④______you don’t like him is none of my business. ( ’ 92 上 海 试 题 )

A.What B.Who C.That D.Whether

分 析 : 在 名 词 性 从 句 中 , that 是 连 接 词 , 在 从 句 中 不 充 当 任 何 成 份 , 只 起 连 接 作 用 ; 而 连 接 代 词

what 在 从 句 中 充 当 主 语 或 宾 语。 所 以 上 述 考 题 的 答 案 是 : BAAC 。
二、 对 分 词 的 考 查 热 点
1. 分 词 作 状 语
①The secretary worked late into the night, _____ a longspeech for

the president. ( ‘ 91 )

A.to prepare B.preparing C.prepared D.was preparing

②The visiting Minister expressed his satisfaction withthe talks,______ that he had enjoy ed his stay here. ( ’ 94 )

A.having added B.to add C.adding D.added

③European football is played in 80 countries, ____ itthe most popular sport in the world. ( ‘ 98 )

A.making B.makes C.made D.to make

④_____ more attention,the trees would have grown better. ( ’ 90 )

A.Given B.To give C.Giving D.Having given

⑤_____ in thought,he almost ran into the car in front ofhim. ( ‘ 96 )

A.Losing B.Having lost C.Lost D.To lose


分 析 : 分 词 作 状 词 时 , 其 逻 辑 主 语 一 定 要 和 主 句 主 语 一 致。 如 果 逻 辑 主 语 与 其 非 谓 语 动 词 是 主 动
关系,就 用 现 在 分 词 ; 如 果 是 被 动 关 系 , 就 用 过 去 分 词。 所 以 上 述 考 题 的 答 案 是 : BCAAC 。
2. 分 词 短 语 作 后 置 定 语

①The first textbooks _____ for teaching English as aforeign language came out in the 1 6th century. ( ’ 94 )

A.having written B.to be written C.being written D.written

103
②The Olympic Games,_____ in 776 B. C. , didn‘t includewomen players untill 1912. ( ’ 97 )

A.first playing B.to be first played C.first played D.to be first playing

③The computer center,______ last year, is very popularamong the students in this school. ( ‘ 93 )

A.open B.opening C.having opened D.opened

④Most of the artists ____ to the party were from Africa. ( ’ 90 )

A.invited B.to invite C.being invited D.inviting

⑤Most of the people ____ to the party were famousscientists. ( ‘ 87 )

A.invited B.to invite C.being invited D.inviting


分 析 : 单 个 分 词 作 定 语 要 前 置 , 若 是 分 词 短 语 作 定 语 , 必 须 后 置。 如 果 分 词 与 所 修 饰 的 名 词 在 逻
辑 上 是 主 动 关 系 , 就 用 现 在 分 词 , 如 果 是 被 动 关 系 就 用 过 去 分 词。 所 以 上 述 考 题 的 答 案 是 :
DCDAA 。
三、 对 时 态 的 考 查 热 点
1. 过 去 进 行 时

①Tom _____ into the house when no one _____. ( ’ 92 )

A.slipped;was looking B.had slipped;looked C.slipped;had looked D.was slipping;looked

②As she ____ the newspaper,Granny _____ asleep. ( ‘ 95 )

A.read;was falling B.was reading;fell C.was reading;was falling D.read;fell

③I don’t think Jim saw me;he _____ into space. ( ‘ 95 )

A.just stared B.was just staring C.has just stared D.had just stared

④I first met Lisa 3 years ago,she _____ at a radio shopat the time. ( ’ 97 )

A.has worked B.was working C.had been working D.had worked

⑤Shirley _____ a book about China last year but I don‘tknow whether she has finished it. ( ’ 98 )

A.has written B.wrote C.had written D.was writing


分析:过去进行时表示过去某一时刻或某段时间正在进行的动作或存在的状态,试题常带有时间
状语或时 间 状 语 从 句。 若 没 有 时 间 状 语 , 就 把 过 去 某 一 动 作 作 为 叙 述 的 背 景 , 以 说 明 另 一 动 作 的
发 生。 所 以 上 述 考 题 的 容 案 是 : ABBBD 。
2. 现 在 完 成 时
①—I‘m sorry to keep you waiting

—Oh,not at all,I ______ have only a few minutes. ( ’ 94 )

A.have been B.had been C.was D.will be


104
②You don‘t need to describe her,I____her several times. ( ’ 95 )

A.had met B.have met C.met D.meet


③_______ my glasses?

—Yes,I saw them on your bed a minute ago. ( ‘ 96 )

A.Do you see B.Had you seen C.Would you see D.Have you seen
④Who is Jerry Cooper?

______? I saw you shaking hands with him at the meeting. ( ’ 97 )

A.Don‘t you see him B.Hadn’t you seen him C.Didn‘t you see him D.Haven’t you seen him
⑤You haven‘t been to Beijing,have you?

____.How I wish to go there. ( ’ 98 )

A.Yes,I have B.Yes,I haven‘t C.No,I have D.No,I haven’t


分析:现在完成时表示过去开始的动作或存在的状态一直延续到现在或动作过去发生且完成,但
对现在仍 有 影 响。 另 外 , 在 "This is(was) the first time (the second……) + that 从 句 ” 中 , 从 句 谓 语 只 能
用完 成 时 态。 所 以 上 述 考 题 的 答 案 是 : ABDDD 。
四、 对 强 调 句 的 考 查 热 点

1."It is ( was ) + 被 强 调 成 份 + that ( who ) + 其 它 成 份 " 强 调 结 构

①Was it in this palace____the last emperor died? ( ‘ 87 )

A.that B.in which C.in where D.which

②Was it during the second world war _____ he died? ( ’ 88 )

A.that B.while C.in which D.then

③It was about 600 years ago _____ the first clock with aface and an hour hand was made. ( ‘ 97 )

A.that B.until C.before D.when

④It was only when I reread his poems recently _____ Ibegan to appreciate their beauty. ( ’ 98 )

A.until B.that C.then D.so

分 析 : "It is ( was ) + 被 强 调 成 份 + that ( who ) + 其 它 成 份 " 结 构 可 以 强 调 除 谓 语 动 词 以 外 的

任何句子 成 份。 如 果 被 强 调 成 份 是 人 时 , 可 用 连 词 that 或 who , 如 果 被 强 调 成 份 是 物 时 , 只 能 用


连 词 that 。 所以上述考 题 的 答 案 是 : AAAB 。

2. 对 not…until… 结 构 的 强 调

105
①It was not____she took off her dark glasses___I realizedshe was a famous film star. ( ‘ 92 )

A.when;that B.until;that C.until;when D.when;when

②It was not until 1920 _______ regular radio broadcastsbegan. ( ’ 95 )

A.while B.which C.that D.since

③Not until all the fish died in the river _______ howserious the pollution was. ( ‘ 95 )

A.did the villagers realize B.the villagers realized


C.the villagers did realize D.didn’t the villagers realize

④Not until I began to work____how much time I had wasted. ( ‘ 90 )

A.didn’t I realize B.did I realize C.I didn‘t realize D.I realize

分 析 : not…until… 结 构 也 可 用 "It is ( was ) + not until … + that + 其 它 成 份 " 句 型 强 调 , 强 调 结

构 中 只 能 用 连 词 that 。 若 not until… 位 于 句 首 时 , 只 能 用 "not until … + 助 动 词 + 主 语 + 动 词 原


形 " 结 构 , 即 主 句 主 谓 语 要 部 分 倒 装。 所 以 上 述 考 题 的 答 案 是 : BCAB 。
五、 不 定 代 词 的 考 查 热 点

1.few ; a few ; little ; a little 的 用 法 区 别

①Although he’s wealthy,he spends ______ on clothes. ( ‘ 92 )

A.little B.few C.a little D.a few

②If we had followed his plan,we could have done the workbetter with____money and____people . ( ’ 87 )

A.little;fewer B.fewer;less C.less;fewer D.less;few

③As it‘s a stormy night, _____ people went to see thefilm. ( ’ 88 )

A.a few B.few C.several D.many

④If we had followed his plan,we could have done the jobbetter with ______ money and _____ _ people. ( ‘ 90 )

A.less;less B.fewer;fewer C.less;fewer D.fewer;less

分 析 : few , a few 与 可 数 名 词 连 用 ; little , a little 与 不 可 数 名 词 连 用。

few 和 little 在 意 义 上 是 否 定 的 , a few , a little 在 意 义 上 是 肯 定 的 , 它 们 可 作 主 语、 定 语、 宾 语。

所 以 上 述 考 题 的 答 案 是 : ACBC 。

2.neither , none 的 用 法 区 别

①Are the two answers correct?


106
No,_____ correct. ( ’ 86 )

A.no one is B.both are not C.neither is D.either is not


②Can you come on Monday or Tuesday?

I‘m afraid ______ day is possible. ( ’ 98 )

A.either B.neither C.some D.any

③______of them knew about the plan because it was kept a secret. ( ‘ 90 )

A.Each B.Any C.No one D.None

④We couldn’t eat in a restaurant because ______ of ushad ______ money on us. ( ‘ 91 )

A.all;no B.any;no C.none;any D.no one;any

⑤They were all tired,but _____ of them would stop totake a rest. ( ’ 95 )

A.any B.some C.none D.neither

分 析 : neither 表 示 两 者 都 不 是 , 否 定 说 法 , 作 主 语 时 , 谓 语 只 用 单 数 ; none 表 示 三 者 以 上 都 不

是,否定 说 法 , 作 主 语 时 , 谓 语 可 用 单 数 或 复 数。 所 以 上 述 考 题 的 答 案 是 : CBDCC。

六、 对 feel , taste , sound , look 等 动 词 作 连 系 动 词 用 的 考 查

1.Do you like the material?

Yes,it____very soft. ( ‘ 94 )

A.is feeling B.felt C.feels D.is felt

2.I love to go to the seaside in summer,it ______ good tolie in the sun or swim in the cool sea. ( ’ 96 )

A.does B.fells C.gets D.makes

3.These apples look ______. ( ‘ 83 )

A.nicely B.nice C.well D.sweetly

4.The story sounds _____. ( ’ 89 )

A.to be true B.as true C.being true D.true

5.These oranges taste ______. ( ‘ 91 )

A.good B.well C.to be good D.to be well

分 析 : feel , taste , sound , look 等 动 词 既 可 作 为 行 为 动 词 , 也 可 作 为 连 系 动 词。 它 们 结 构 不 同 ,

意思也 不 同。 这 类 动 词 还 有 get ,
107
go , grow , become , appear , remain , smell , stand , stay , keep , prove , turn 等。 所 以 上 述 考 题

的 答 案 是 : CBBDA 。

七、 对 介 词 besides , except 的 考 查

1.No one knew Mr Benson’s address ______ his daughter. ( ‘ 83 )

A.except B.excepts C.only D.besides

2.Do you know any other foreign language _____ English. ( ’ 85 )

A.except B.but C.beside D.besides

3.______ his wife,his daughter also went to see him. ( ‘ 86 )

A.Beside B.Besides C.Except D.Except for

4.Does John know any other foreign language ______ French? ( ’ 89 )

A.except B.but C.besides D.beside

分 析 : besides" 除 … 以 外 还 有 … " , 强 调 部 分 包 括 在 整 体 之 内。

except" 只 有 … 除 外 " , 强 调 从 整 体 中 除 去 一 部 分 。 所 以 上 述 考 题 的 答 案 是 : ADBC 。

英语中的省略现象

  在英语中,为了避免重复,句子中的某些部分经常省略,给考生的理解增加了困难。在近几年的 NMET 中,
省略现象十分常见,为帮助考生更好地迎战高考,现对省略现象总结如下:

    一、 并 列 复 合 句 中 某 些 相 同 成 分 的 省 略。

    1. This beeper works well , but that one doesnt (work well).

    这 个 寻 呼 机 工 作 正 常 , 但 那 个 就 不 行。

    2. All uranium atoms do not have the same atomic weight. Some of them weigh 234 units , some (of them)

(weigh) 235 units , and some (of them) (weigh) 238 units. 所 有 的 铀 原 子 并 非 都 有 相 同 的 原 子 量。 其
中 有 的 重 234 , 有 的 重 235 , 而 有 的 重 238 。

    二、 在 when , while , if , as if , though( 或 although) , as , until , once , wheth

er , unless , where 等 连 词 连 接 的 状 语 从 句 中 , 常 省 略 跟 主 句 相 同 的 主 语 和 be 动 词。

    1. When (water is) pure , water is a colorless liquid.

    水 纯 净 时 , 是 无 色 的 液 体。
108
    2. When (I am) in trouble I always turn to her for help.

    我 困 难 时 总 是 找 她 帮 助。

    3. Errors , if any , should be corrected.

    如 果 有 什 么 错 误 , 就 应 当 改 正。 (if 后 省 略 了 there are)

    4. Wood gives much smoke while (wood is) burning.

    木 头 燃 烧 时 , 它 放 出 很 多 烟。

    5. The letter is to be left here until (it is) called for.

    这 封 信 留 在 这 里 待 领。

    6. Henry looked about as if (he were) in search of something.

    亨 利 向 四 周 环 视 , 似 乎 在 寻 找 什 么。

    7. She studies very hard though (she is) still rather weak.

    她 尽 管 体 弱 , 但 学 习 仍 十 分 努 力。

    三、 当 见 到 “ when ( 或 if , where , wherever , whenever , as soon as , as fast a s , than 等 )

+possible/necessary 等 ” 时 , 可 理 解 中 间 省 略 了 it is( 或 was) 。

    1. Answer these questions , if (it is) possible without referring to the book.

    如 果 有 可 能 , 请 不 看 书 回 答 这 些 问 题。

    2. When (it is) necessary you can help us to do something.

    必 要 时 你 可 以 帮 助 我 们 做 些 事。

    四、 有 形 式 主 语 it 的 主 语 从 句 可 省 略 that 。

    1. It seems ( 或 appears) (that) Joe is out , not Jack.

    外 出 不 在 的 似 乎 是 乔 , 不 是 杰 克。

    2. It is an honor (that) I was invited to your birthday party.

    我 很 荣 幸 被 邀 请 参 加 你 的 生 日 聚 会。

    3. Its a pity (that) you cant operate a computer.

    很 遗 憾 , 你 不 会 操 作 计 算 机。

109
    4. It is the third time (that) I have come to China.

    这 是 我 第 三 次 来 中 国。

    五、 在 限 制 性 定 语 从 句 中 可 省 略 作 宾 语 的 关 系 代 词 whom , which , that 。

    1. That is the naughty boy (whom/that) we talked about last week.

    那 就 是 我 们 上 周 议 论 的 淘 气 男 孩。

    六、 在 direction( 方 向 ) , way( 方 式 ) , distance( 距 离 ) , time( 时 间 ) , times( 倍 数 ) 等 后

面 所 接 的 定 语 从 句 中 常 省 略 that , which , in which 。

    1. The direction (in which) we move a body can be changed.

    我 们 移 动 物 体 的 方 向 是 可 以 改 变 的。

    2. The distance (which 或 that) light travels in one second is 300 , 000 kilometers.

    光 每 秒 走 的 距 离 是 30 万 公 里。

    七、 以 there be 开 头 的 句 子 , 其 主 语 的 定 语 从 句 常 可 省 略 关 联 词 , 而 there be 结 构 作 定 语 从 句

时 , 省 略 作 主 语 的 关 系 代 词。

    1. There is a chance Dr. Li will be able to be back for May Day.

    李 博 士 也 许 有 机 会 能 回 来 过 五 一 节。

    2. We have to make a list of all the books there are on the subject.

    我 们 必 须 把 所 有 关 于 这 个 题 目 的 书 列 出 一 个 单 子。
    八、 命 令 句、 惊 叹 句、 部 分 第 一 人 称 的 陈 述 句、 部 分 问 句 和 答 句 中 省 略 最 为 常 见。

    1. Open the door! 开 门 !

    2. Why not? 为 什 么 不 ?

    3. Why so? 为 什 么 这 样 ?

    4. Anybody wishing to go? 谁 愿 意 去 啊 ?

    九、 用 so , not 或 其 它 手 段 来 省 略 上 文 或 问 句 中 的 一 部 分 或 整 个 句 义 , 是 NMET 的 常 考 项

目。

110
    1.—Can Emily do this work?

    埃 米 莉 能 做 这 件 工 作 吗 ?

    — I think so.

    我 想 她 行。

    — I think not ( 或 I dont think so).

    我 想 她 不 行。

    2.—Did you know anything about it?

    这 件 事 你 以 前 知 道 吗 ?

    — Not until you told me.

    你 告 诉 了 我 , 才 知 道。

    3. He has gone. No one knowsswheres(he has gone).

    他 走 了 , 谁 也 不 知 道 他 去 什 么 地 方 了。

    4. Jenny knows what (is to be done)!

    詹 妮 有 办 法 !

    十、 当 用 强 调 句 型 强 调 疑 问 词 时 , 常 省 略 强 调 句 型 中 的 that 。

    1. When was it (that) you received his email?

    你 收 到 他 的 电 子 邮 件 是 什 么 时 候 ?

    2. We dont know who it was (that) called the doctor? 我 们 不 知 道 是 谁 请 了 医 生 ?

〖 BJ(0 , 4 , 0 , 2*2〗 〖 CRTT38 , Z , BP#〗 〖 CRDD38 , ZX , BP#〗 〖 BJ) 〗

    十 一、 某 些 形 容 词 要 求 后 面 接 一 固 定 的 介 词 短 语 , 若 接 一 从 句 , 则 只 用 that 或 疑 问 词 直 接

引 出 从 句 , 从 而 省 略 原 有 的 介 词。

    1. We are certain( 省 去 of)that air is a mixture.

    我 们 可 以 肯 定 , 空 气 是 混 合 物。

    2. She is doubtful ( 省 去 about) whether she can complete it in time.

111
    她 怀 疑 她 能 否 按 时 完 成。

    十 二、 用 to 表 示 前 述 动 词 ( 包 括 谓 语 或 非 谓 语 动 词 ) 及 其 短 语。

    1. You may go online if you like (to) (go online).

    你 如 果 想 上 网 就 可 以 上 网。

    2. Nothing can stop the boy from playing video games when he wants to (play).

    当 这 男 孩 想 玩 电 子 游 戏 时 , 没 有 东 西 可 阻 碍 他 玩。

    十 三、 在 某 些 动 词 后 含 有 宾 语 补 语 或 主 语 补 语 的 复 合 结 构 中 省 略 to be 或 being 的 情 况。

    1. They found the answer (to be) correct.


    他 们 发 现 答 案 正 确。

    2. This conclusion proved (to be) correct.

    这 个 结 论 原 来 是 正 确 的。 〖 HJ*4/9 〗

    十 四、 新 闻 标 题 要 求 简 练 醒 目 , 需 根 据 上 下 文 的 语 境 推 敲 其 省 略 部 分。

    1. Boy 14 , rescued from cliff face.

    从 峭 壁 上 救 下 14 岁 的 男 孩 (A boy of 14 has been rescued from cliff face.) 。

    2. American President to fly to London.

    美 国 总 统 将 飞 往 伦 敦 (American President is to fly to London.) 。

    十 五、 注 意 在 一 些 固 定 短 语 中 某 些 介 词 的 省 略。

    have trouble (in) sleeping 难 于 入 睡。

    spend ones evenings (in) reading novels

    把 晚 上 的 时 间 花 费 在 看 小 说 上。

    be busy (in) doing sth.

    ( 他 ) 忙 于 做 某 事。

    They are (of) the same age.

    他 们 年 龄 相 同。

112
    There is no use (in) explaining it to her any more.

    这 件 事 再 向 她 解 释 是 无 用 的。

    He is carrying out this experiment (in) the same way as I did yesterday. 他 使 用 我 昨 天 采 用 的 方 法 在 做 他

的 实 验。

113