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lesson 1   名 词 的 数   

内 容 提 要

名词分为专有名词和普通名词两大类。普通名词又分为个体名词和集体名词。在句子中可数
名词要么前边加冠词,要么用其复数形式。名词的复数通常加 s,但以 s,x,ch,sh 结尾的
词 es;以“辅音字母+y”结尾的词把“y”变成“i”,再加 es。不规则名词的复数有其特殊形
式。物质名词和抽象名词为不可数名词。名词有主格(作主语)、宾格(作宾语)和属格(表示所属
关系)。冠词分为不定冠词和定冠词,它们有其基本用法和特殊用法。数词分为基数词、序数
词和分数词,数词与名词在实际运用中要呼应。
第一节 名 词 的 数
一、可数名词
1. 可数名词有单复数之分。在句中,名词的单数形式前边要有冠词或表示单数的限定词,否
则就要用其复数形式。名词的复数形式通常是在单数形式后加词尾 s、es,或将 y 改为 i 再加
es。但如果名词前边有表示单数的冠词或表示单数的限定词,就不能用其复数形式
2. 有 少 数 名 词 的 复 数 形 式 是 不 规 则 的 , child→children, man→men, woman→women,
foot→feet, tooth→teeth, goose→geese, mouse→mice, ox→oxen
3. 英语里还有些名词的单复数变化较为特殊,需特别注意
analysis→analyses, bacterium→bacteria, basis→bases, crisis→crises, criterion→criteria,
datum→data, formula→formulae( 或 formulas), fungus→fungi,
phenomenon→phenomena,syllabus→syllabi, thesis→theses
4. 有些名词的单复数是一样的: aircraft, spacecraft, Chinese, deer, fish, Japanese, means, series,
species 等。
5. 如果前边有表示复数的限定词时名词用其复数形式
6. 在形容词最高级中,表示范围的 of 后要用名词复数形式
7. 有些集体名词在形式上是单数如 people( 人民,人们 ) , police( 警察 ) , cattle( 牲畜 ) ,
staff(全体人员,全体职员),但它们表达复数的含意。如果这些词做主语,其谓语须用复数
形式。
8. hair 和 fruit 一般情况下用单数,表示总体。但如果我们要表示若干根头发或几种水果时,
就要用这两个词的复数形式
eg: He bought apples, oranges and other fruits. (“fruits”在此处意为“多种水果”)
另外还要注意:police 和 cattle 的谓语形式总是用复数形式。
9. 名词做定语时,不能用作复数

二、不可数名词
1. 不 可 数 名 词 为 物 质 名 词 和 抽 象 名 词 , 如 information, proverty, advice, anger, applause,
baggage, cake, chalk, chocolate, cloth( 布), bread, damage(损害), equipment, fruit, furniture, gold,
information, ink, jewellery, luggage, mail( 邮 件 ), money, news, paper, protection, soap, sugar,
weaponry, machinery, scenery, personnel, work 等
注:不可数名词可以与表示量的可数名词连用,借以表示“可数”的概念,我们可以加
a(n) piece [ sheet( 张 ), suit( 套 ), tube( 管 ), packet( 包 ), item( 条 , 则 ), bar( 条 ), basket( 篮 子 ),
glass(杯),bunch(束), pair(双,对), bowl(碗), portion(份), herd(群), series(系列), shower( 阵) etc.
],如:a piece of advice(一条建议) /a basket of fruit(一篮水果) /an item of information (一
则信息)/a kind of protection(一种保护)等。
2. 有些抽象名词的意思可以转变成为具体名词,这时要用其复数形式
The insurance company paid $10000 in damages for the accident. (“damage” 本来为不可数名词
“损害”,变复数后意思是“损失赔偿费”。)
单复数含义不同的名词还有: communication( 通讯)——communications( 通讯系统,通讯工
具 ); cloth( 布 )——clothes( 衣服 ) ;content( 内容 )——contents( 目录 ) ;convenience( 便利 )——
conveniences( 便利设备 ) ; humanity( 人类 )——humanities( 人文科学 ) ; necessity( 需要 )——
necessities(必需品);pain(疼痛)——pains(辛劳);ruin(毁灭)——ruins(废墟,遗迹);sand(沙
子)——sands( 沙地,沙滩 );wood( 木材)——woods( 树林);work( 工作)——works(工厂,著
作)。
另外,有些名词通常只用复数形式,如: fundamentals( 基本原则 ) ,goods( 货物 ), means( 方
法), rapids(急流),shorts(短裤), sweets(欢乐), valuables (贵重物品)。

三、同步练习(Correct errors, if any,in the following sentences:)


1. The scholars met once a year to exchange esperiences.
2. Foreign ship are not allowed to fish in our territoral water.
3. I went to the doctor for an advice about my health.
4.The letter contained an important information.
5.In the afternoon I did some baby-sittings,for it is a fun looking after children.
6.The congregation was not numerous that night,but they seemed to be listening attentively to my
lecture.
7.Poultries are dear in the city.
8.The board of director is shaking heads at the chairman’s speech.
9.The merchandises have arrived undamaged.

四、答案
1. The scholars met once a year to exchange esperience.
2. Foreign ship are not allowed to fish in our territoral waters.
3. I went to the doctor for an advice about my health.
4.The letter contained an important piece of information.
5.In the afternoon I did some baby-sittings,for it is fun looking after children.
6.The congregation were not numerous that night,but they seemed to be listening attentively to my
lecture.
7.Poultry are dear in the city.
8.The board of directors are shaking heads at the chairman's speech.
9.The merchandise have arrived undamaged.

lesson 2   名 词 所 有 格     


第二节 名词所有格
名词有三个格:主格、宾格和所属格。这里我们只讲属格,属格表示所有关系,它有两种不
同的形式。
一、一是在名词尾加's
(如 my brother's toy 我弟弟的玩具, the hostes's living room 女主人的起居室 ),如果原名词
已经有复数词尾 s, 或 es ,只加 ' ( 如: soldiers' training ground 士兵的训练场, teachers'
reading eoom 教师阅览室)。注意,如果名词虽然是复数,但不是以 s 结尾,则仍加's (the
children's mother 孩子的妈妈)
1) It is widely believed that the pull of gravity on a falling raindrop changes round shape into a
teardrop shape.
[A] of the drop [B] the drop’s [C] drop of [D] drops their
2) The winner [A] photograph was of [B] an old barn(仓库) window covered with [C]
a [D] delicate, lacy frost(带花边的霜).
二、另外一种属格是由介词 of 加名词构成名词短语
3) At [A] birth, the [B] head of a bady is extremely large in [C] relation to a [D]
rest of the body.
三、例题解析
1) B 为正确答案。“It”是形式主语。“that…”引导的是主从句。主从句的谓语是“changes…
into…”“把……变成……”。其中“…into…”的前后应是对应的平行结构。很明显 A 和 D 都
不行,不能把“changes”误作名词。C 改变了“…into…”的平行关系。只有 B 既能与前边的
动词“changes”衔接,又能保持“…into…”的平行关系。
2) A 错。 改为 winner’s。
3) D 错。 改为 the。

lesson 3   冠 词     


冠词有两种,一是不定冠词 a/an,另外一种是定冠词 the(有的语法学家说有三种冠词,这
另外一种是零念冠词,这里我们不讨论)。
一、不定冠词及其用法
1. 可数名词在表泛指时,要加不定冠词“ a/an”表示“一个”,“每一”相当于 one 或表
示某一
2. a 用在辅音音素(即音标中的辅音而不是辅音字母)之前,如 a European scientist。an 用在元
音音素(音标中的元音而不是指元音字母)之前,如 an X ray examination
3. 跟汉语一样,并列的两个单数名词表示一个概念,第二个名词前的不定冠词 a 可以省去,
以避免重复
二、定冠词的用法
1. 一般来说,普通名词有特指和泛指,如果特指,就要加定冠词;如果泛指,可数名词前
加不定冠词,或用其复数形式
2. 定冠词 the 主要和名词连用,表示某些特定的人或事物
3. 由 of 引起的限定性短语(作定语)所修饰的词前加 the
4. 表示身体的某一部位,用 the 代替物主代词 my, our, your, his, her 等
5. 表示江河海洋,海峡海湾,山脉和群岛及有些湖泊之前用 the
6. 定冠词 the 加姓氏的复数,表示某某一家人,如果做主语,谓语动词要用复数
7. 当一个抽象名词,不表示一般的概念而是表示某一特定的内容时加定冠词 the
8. 由普通名词和一些其他词构成的专有名词前加 the
the People's Republic of China
三、同步练习
1. ____rose is____beautiful flower.
2.Mr. Smith always smokes____cigarette with ____cup of coffee.
3.____door of____garage is broken.
4.____donkeys are ____ stupid animals.
5.____bread is made from ____ flour,and ____flour is made from ____wheat.
6.She is ____good musician;she plays ____piano beautifully.
7.Thousands of ____visitors go to ____Great Wall every ____day.
8.When he was enghteen,he joined ____navy.
9.He sent me ____letter and ____postcard;____letter didn't arrive.
10.Li is not at ____office;I think he's gone____home.
11.Is there ____telephone here?
12.She is studying ____English and ____French.
13.I bought ____pen and some paper,but I left____pen in ____shop.
14.____machine is made of ____steel and ____copper.
15.____honesty is ____best policy.
16.____coal is 60 dollars ____ton at the moment.
17.I stay at ____home last night and listened to ____radio.
18.We went to Paris and saw ____Palace of Versailles.
19.He goes back to ____ country to see his people once ____year.
20.____Liu's are going to ____cinema.

四、答案
1.the(或 a),a 2.a,a 3.the,the 4.x,x 5.x,x,x,x 6.a,the
7.x,the,x 8.the 9.a,a,the 10.the,x 11.a 12.x,x 13.a,the,the
14.the,x,x 15.x,the 16.x,a 17.x,the 18.x,the 19.the,a 20.the,the

lesson 4   数 词    


  一、数词的分类: 数词分为序数词(one, two, three, four…)、基数词(first, second, third,
fourth…)和分数词(one third, two thirds, four fifths…) 。表示单一的数词与单数名词连用,但
有些数词和名词连用,表示复数时仍用单数形式
  four dozen eggs(四十八个鸡蛋), two score people (四十个人), three hundred years( 三
百年), a few thousand horses (好几千匹马), eight million pounds (八百万英磅)。
  注意:被这些数词修饰的名词一定是复数,反过来,如果被修饰的名词是复数,那么
就用数词的单数形式,如 a(one) thousand years:
  
  二、关于“千”“百”“百万”的数词: 如果“hundred”、“thousand”和“million”前
边没有表示数字和其他限定词修饰时(如“a few”、“one”、“ ten”等),则可用复数形式,表
示不定数,后面再加“ of +名词”: hundreds of ( 数以百计的 ) ,thousands and thousands of
(成千上万的),millions of (数以百万计的)
  三、关于连字符连接的数词: 在连字符连接的“数词+普通名词+形容词”中,“数
词”和“普通名词”都要用单数形式
  a three year old girl, a three mile long walk
  四、基数词中表示“几十”的复数形式可以表达人的岁数或年代
  He is in his late twenties. 他快 30 了。
  五、分数词:分数词是由基数词和序数词组成的,分子是基数词,分母是序数词。除了
表示“1”以外,分母序数词都用复数
  六、百分数: 表示百分比的 percent 用单数,如 ninty percent(90%)

lesson 5   形容词和副词(一)
内 容 提 要
形容词和副词在语法结构中主要用于比较级和最高级。形容词和副词的构成形式基本上一样,
它们的形式与单音节、双音节和多音节有关,当然还有其特殊形式。形容词和副词比较级的
基本用法分为同级比较、比较级和最高级三种形式。但这三种形式都有它们特殊的表达方式
以及它们的惯用法。对以下要点大家须一一掌握。
形容词比较级和最高级的形式
一、形容词比较级和最高级的构成
形容词的比较级和最高级变化形式规则如下
构 成 法 原 级 比 较 级 最 高 级
① 一般单音节词末尾加 er 和 est strong stronger strongest
② 单音节词如果以 e 结尾,只加 r 和 st strange stranger strangest
③ 闭音节单音节词如末尾只有 一个辅音字母,
须先双写这个辅音字母,再加 er 和 est sad
big
hot sadder
bigger
hotter saddest
biggest
hottest
④ 少数以 y, er(或 ure), ow, ble 结尾的双音节词,
末尾加 er 和 est(以 y 结尾的词,如 y 前是辅音字母,
把 y 变成 i,再加 er 和 est,以 e 结尾的词仍
只加 r 和 st) angry
clever
narrow
noble angrier
cleverer
narrower
nobler angrest
cleverest
narrowest
noblest
⑤ 其他双音节和多音节词都在前面加单词 more 和 most different more
different most
different
二、形容词比较级或最高级的特殊形式:
1. 三个或三个以上音节的形容词只能加 more 和 most
只能说 more beautiful 而不能说 beautifuller; 只能说 the most beautiful 而不能说 beautifullest。
但是,以形容前缀 un 结尾的三音节形容词不适合上述情况,如 unhappy,untidy,我们可
以说:unhappier→unhappiest, untidier→untidiest
2. 由 ING 分词和 ED 分词演变过来的形容词 ( 包括不规则动词如 know→known) 只能加
more 或 most 来表示它们的比较级和最高级
more(most) striking, more(most) interesting, more(most) wounded, more(most)worn 等。
3. 英语里有些形容词由于其词义而不可能有比较级形式
absolute fatal main right universal
chief final naked simulta- utter
entire foremost perfect neous vital
eternal inevitable possible sufficient whole
excellent infinite primary supreme wooden

三、不规则形容词的比较级和最高级形式
good
well better best
bad
ill worse worst
many
much more most
little
few less least
far farther farthest
further furthest
副词比较级和最高级的形式
副词比较级和最高级的变化形式与形容词基本上一样
一般 副词
hard→harder →hardest
fast→faster →fastest
late→later →latest
early→earlier →earliest
特殊 副词
well →better →best
much →more →most
badly →worse →worst
little →less →least 但是,开放类副词即以后缀 ly 结尾的副词不能像形容词那样加 er 或
est,如
quickly →more quickly →most quickly quietly →more quietly →most quietly
[注]: early 中的 ly 不是后缀,故可以把 y 变 i 再加 er 和 est
lesson 6   形容词和副词(二)

内 容 提 要——形容词与副词比较级和最高级的基本用法
一、原级比较的基本用法
1. 原级比较由“as+形容词或副词(或再加名词或短语 )+as ”构成“原级相同”比较句,表
示两者比较;其否定式,即“程度不及”比较句型为“ not so(as) +形容词或副词+as”,而
且 as…as 结构前可用 just, almost, nearly, quite 等表示程度的词修饰
2. “as (so)+名词+as+名词”进行名词比较,这时一般情况下有一个表示原级的比较词,
但如果第一名词前出现了形容词修饰该词或出现副词修饰谓语,应当用 so 而不用 as
二、比较级
1. 比较级由“形容词(副词)比较级+than+…,”构成表示在两者中间一方比另一方“更加
…”。连词 than 后可接句子,也可接名词、代词、名词短语、介词短语、动词、动词不定式、
ING 结构和 ED 结构,有时也可省去 than。
2. 注意 than 前后两项相比较的人或事物要一致
三、最高级
1. 最高级用于三者以上比较,形容词的结构形式是“定冠词+形容词最高级+名词+表示
范围的短语或从句”(如 all, of all, of the tree, in the world, that has ever taken place 等)
2. 副词的最高级与形容词最高级的区别在于最高级前没有定冠词 the
四、同步练习
1) Walking briskly for thirty minutes will burn as many calories as .
[A] to run for fifteen minutes
[B] running for fifteen minutes
[C] you run for fifteen minutes
[D] fifteen minute walking
解析:B 为正确答案。
2) The gorilla(大猩猩), while [A] not quite as curious than [B] the chimpanzee(黑猩猩),
shows more persistence [C] and memory retention(记忆力) in solving [D] a problem.
解析:B 错。改为 as ,和前面的 as 和形容词原形 curious 一起构成同程度比较。
3) Alaska is twice [A] as larger [B] as [C] the next largest [D] state, Texas.
解析:B 错。 改为 as large。
4) Thomas Jefferson’s achievements as an architect rival his contributions a politician.
[A] such [B] more [C] as [D] than
解 析 : C 对 。 动 词 rival( 胜 过 、 匹 敌 ) 前 后 是 两 个 相 比 较 的 成 分 achievements( 成 果 ) 和
contributions(贡献),由于前面的名词后出现了短语 as an architect,故空白处也应用 as,使
前后对比成分一致。
5) I should say Henry is not much a writer as a reporter.
[A] that [B] so [C] this [D] as
解析:B 为正确答案。
6) Natural mica( 云母 ) of [ A ] a superior [ B ] quality is cheapest [ C ] to obtain than
synthetic [D] mica.
解析:C 错。应改为比较级 cheaper。比较级后并不一定跟接连词 than,有时在其间有名词或
名词短语(被形容词所修饰),介词短语,不定式或其他成分隔开。
7) She is older than .
[A] any other girl in the group [B] any girl in the group
[C] all girls in the group [D] you and me as well as the group
解析:A 为正确答案。“She”作为单个不能跟全组比(C 和 D 不对),也不能跟全组所有相比,
因为“她”也是其中一员,自然“她”不能跟自己相比。这里“She”比较的是“这组中的任
何一个”,所以 A 对。
8) Josephine McCrackin joined [ A ] the “Santa Cruz Sentinel” in 1905 and , until her death
fifteen years late [B] , remained [C] active in journalistic [D] work.
解析:B 错。应改为比较级 later,因此处实为与 1905 年相比晚 15 年,故应使用比较级。
9) The purpose of the research had a more important meaning for them than .
[A] ours [B] with us [C] for ours it had [D] it did for us
解析:D 为正确答案。
10) Sound travels air.
[A] faster through water than through [B] faster than through water and
[C] through water faster and[D] where it is faster through water than through
解析:A 为正确答案。
11) Gerbrand von den Feckhout , one of Rembrand’s pupils , followed [A ] the style of his
teacher so implicitly that [ B ] his paintings [ C ] are sometimes confused with his master
[D] .
解析:D 错。 改为 his master’s。
12) The more [ A ] fearsome of all the [ B ] animals in [ C ] the Western [ D ]
Hemisphere is the grizzly bear.
解析:A 错。 改为 most。
13) Of all economic [ A ] problems , inflation continues to be [ B ] a [ C ] most
significant in its daily impact on [D] people and business.
解析:C 错。改为 the, significant 是多音节形容词,在此处应用最高级形式 (在前面加 the
most),注意句中的“of all… ”。
14) ,the most familiar to general public is the criminal jurisdiction.
[A] All the activities [B] The activities
[C] Of all the activities [D] It is the activities
解析:C 为正确答案。本句空白处缺状语,A 和 B 全为名词短语,不符合条件;D 为句子,
和空白后面的句子没有任何联系,故亦应排除。只有 C 正确,和后面的最高级 the most
familiar 前后呼应。

lesson 7   形容词和副词(三)

形容词和副词的特殊表达法

一、形容词与副词的同级比较: 由“as(so)…as”引出,其否定式为“not so…”或“not as…


as”,此外还应注意下列含有“as”结构或短语的句子
1. as such:表示上文所指明的事或人
He is a child,and must be treated as such. 他是个孩子,必须被当作孩子对待。
2. as much:表示“与…同量”
Take as much as you like. 拿多少都行。
I would gladly have paid twice as much for it. 就是价格再贵一倍,我也会愿意把它买下的。
He as much as admitted the whole story. 他几乎全部承认了。
3. as many:表示“与…一样多”
I found six mistakes in as many lines. 我在六行中发现了六个错。
二、表示“几倍于”的比较级:用 twice (两倍),four times (四倍),ten times (十倍)加上 as
… as 结构
This one is four times as big as that one. 这个是那个的四倍大。 ( 这个比那个大三倍。 ) Our
campus is three times as large as yours. 我们的校园比你们的大两倍。
He has books twice as many as she does. 他的书比她多一倍。
三、“the same +名词+as”表示同等比较
四、比较级前可用 a little, a bit, slightly, a great deal, a lot,many, much 等词语表示不定量,far,
completely,still 表示程度或更进一步
五、与比较级有关的特殊词用法
1. no more than …表示“只不过”,“并不比…”(等于 not any more than)
Man cannot live without food any more than plants can grow without sunshine.
人没有食物不能生存,植物没有阳光也不能生长。
There is no difficulty with this task any more than with that one.
这项任务没有困难,那项任务也没有困难。
2. no less than 表示“不亚于”
There are no less than five hundred people present at the New Year party.
出席新年晚会的有五百人之多。(出席的人较多)
3. not less than 表示“不少于”
There are not less than five hundred people present at the New Year party.
出席新年晚会的只有五百人。(出席的人较不多)
4. more often than not 表示“多数情况下”
On Friday mornings, he comes late more often than not.
多数情况下,他星期五来得晚。
5. all the more 因而更加
We really admired him all the more for his frankness. 我们更加钦佩他的坦率。
6. (be) better off 较富裕,环境较好
7. had better 最好……
Come, you had much better have the thing out at once. 来,你最好把这东西弄出去。
8. less than 不到
The first steam locomotive could have a top speed of only thirteen mph(miles per hour) and the
great sailing ships of the time labored along at less than half that speed.第一列蒸汽火车最快每小
时只有 13 英里,那时的大船还不到这个速度的一半。
9. little more than 差不多
The grain in their barn is little more than that of ours.
他们仓的粮食跟我们仓的粮食差不多。

10. more than 超过,不止


I have waited for your for more than two hours. 我等了你两个多小时。
11. more or less 大体上,或多或少
The work is more or less finished. 工作大体算完成了。
Most of them came here to near money, more or less Mr.Wang worked for his cause. 他们大都来
挣钱的,但王先生有点像为事业而工作。
12. other than 除了
They imposed no pre conditions other than that the meeting should be held in their capital. 除了会
议要在他们的首都开之外,他们没有提出任何先决条件。
13. rather than 而不是,与其…宁愿(rather than 表示“与其…宁愿”时,如果位于句首引导
句子,有虚拟的成分,相当于“… would rathe than,”所以 rather than 后面跟动词原形)
Read what interests you; read what you have time for magazines and newspapers rather than
novels.
读你感兴趣的东西,读你有时间读的东西,如杂志和报纸而不是小说。
Rather than allow the potatoes to go bad, she sold them at half price.
她以半价把土豆给卖了,而没有让它们烂掉。
Rather than cause trouble, he left.
为了不惹事,他还是走了。
14. so much the better 就更好了
If she will help us, so much the better.
如果他能帮我们,那就更好了。
15. so much the worse 就更糟了
So much the worse for you if you still are absent from class.
如果你继续逃课的话,就对你更不利了。
16. the more…the more(less)“越是……,就越……”
六、比较中的省略
1. 在 as…as 中,as 从句可省略整个谓语部分,保留主语
She sings as well as her sister. 她跟她的姐姐唱得一样好(省去了 does)。
2. 可以省去谓语部分,保留主语和 be、have 等助动词
Susan has done as much housework as you have. (省去了 done。)
3. 可以省去主语和谓语,只剩下状语
It is not as cold in Beijing as in Datong. 北京的天气没有大同冷。
4. than 从句也可以省去整个谓语部分,保留主语
They say that blood is thicker than water, that our relatives are more important to us than others.
他们说血浓于水,亲属对我们来说比其他人更重要。
5. than 从句省去部分谓语,保留主语和 be,have 或助动词
The white collar workers earn more than the blue workers do.
白领工人比蓝领工人挣得多。
这时 我们可以进行倒装,即将 than 后从句中的 be,have 或助动词移到该从句的前边
After all, big changes are relatively easier to make than are small ones.
相对来说,大变动比小变动毕竟容易些。
The fact is that some drug addicts are much better able to cure addiction in each other than are
psychiatrists; some convicts can run better rehabilitation programs for convicts than do
correctional officers; some patients in mental hospitals are better for each other than is the staff.
事实上,有些吸毒成瘾者与吸毒成瘾者之间戒瘾比精神病医生的作用还好;有些罪犯在改
造其他罪犯方面比教改人员强;医院里的病人与病人之间的沟通比医务人员与病人间的沟
通还强。
6. than 从句可以省去主语和部分谓语,保留宾语
Grandma gives more candies to her grandson than her granddaughter. 奶奶给孙子的糖比给孙女
的多。(省去了 she gives candies to)
7. than 从句可以省去主语和谓语,保留状语
There are more books in this library than in that library. 这个图书馆的书比那个多。(省去了 there
are many books)
She is much better than yesterday. 她比昨天好多了。(省去了 she was)
Signs of dishonesty in school, business, and government seem much more numerous in recent
years than in the past. 近些年来在学校、商业和政府中欺诈的迹象比以前更多。
8. than 从句可以省去主语,保留谓语部分
His speed of doing the work was much faster than had expected. 他干此事的速度远比想象的快。
(省去了 he 或 we)
9. 有时可以省去整个 than 从句
He is much healthier and happier. 她比以往任何时侯都健康幸福。 ( 省去了 than he was ever
before)
10. 为了避免重复,我们经常用 that 代替不可数名词, those 代替复数名词,one 代替可数名词
单数
七、隐含比较级
有时比较级并不一定出现 than,这时通过上下文可喑示出,如:—Of the two oranges, which
do you choose? —I like the larger one. 这里的 larger one 是指前边提到的两个当中的较大的一
个。而且有些形容词在表示比较的时候,跟“to”而不用“than”
1. prior to 较早的,较重要的
The task is prior to all others. 这项任务比其他所有的任务都重要。
I called on him prior to my departure. 动身前我去看了他一趟。
2. superior to 优越,高于
In math he felt superior to John. 他觉得自己数学比约翰强。
They were resolved to rise superior to every obstacle. 他们决心战胜一切困难。
3. inferior to 下等的,次的
These apples are inferior in flavour to those. 这些苹果的味道不如那些。
4. senior to 年长的,地位高的;junior 年幼的,地位低的,迟的
He is two years senior to me. 他比我大两岁。
Her appointment is junior to mine by six weeks. 她的任命比我迟六星期。
5. preferable to 更好的
Health without riches is preferable to riches without health.
贫穷但健康要比富有却多病更可取。
6. prefer…to 更倾向于…
I prefer this to that. 我喜欢这个而不喜欢那个。
八、最高级在特殊短语中的使用:在有下列短语的句子中,往往使用最高级
1. one of…
3. in the world(或群体名词)
九、其他有关比较的习惯表达法
1. “as + 形 容 词 ( 副 词 ) + as possible” 结 构 , 表 示 “ 最 … , 尽 可 能 … ” : “ as quickly as
possible”(尽量快)
2. “ sooner or later”是成语,表示“迟早、早晚”
3. “would rather +动词原形+ than …” 是惯用句型,表示“宁愿…而不愿…”,由于连词
than 要求前后所比较的成分要一致

十、most 表示“非常”: 有时 most 并不表示“最……”,而是作副词表示“非常”之意。


其实它是 much 的最高级,作形容词用是“大多数”之意,前边不加 the。另外 much 与 to 构
成介词词组,表示“在很大程度上使……” that 也可以作副词用,表示“如此,那么”相
当于 so
十一、形容词与副词的修饰关系: 一般来说,形容词用来作表语 ( 与系动词连用,注意
taste, feel, become 等词作系动词用时,它们后的表示应该是形容词,包括 ed 分词)或作定
语修饰名词,而形容词不能修饰形容词包括 ED 分词;但副词可以修饰形容词 (包括 ED
分词),副词还可以修饰副词、动词或短语
十二、形容词与副词的位置
1. 当几个形容词共同修饰同一名词时,它们的先后顺序是:限定词→数词→描述性形容词
→大小、长短、形状的形容词→色彩形容词→类属形容词→表材料形容词+被修饰的名词;
或只记住限定词像 a, the, my, their 等词在最前边,其他词根据它们与被修饰名词关系的远
近进行安排
2. 一般来说,单个副词修饰形容词时,副词放在形容词前;但 enough 修饰形容词时要放在
形容词之后
good enough, mysterious enough
3. so 修饰的是副词,而 such 修饰的是名词
4. 形 容 词 修 饰 名 词 时 放 在 前 边 , 但 修 饰 复 合 不 定 代 词 (something, someone, somebody;
anything, anyone, anybody; nothing, no one, nobody)时,则放在这些词之后
something important, anything possible
十三、关于 hardly, rarely, scarcely 与 seldom 的用法
hardly“刚刚,不完全”,表示程度:I hardly know him. “我几乎认不出他了”,表示还是能
认出或者说“我刚刚能认出他”; hardly 与 any 连用表示“几乎没有”,与 ever 连用表示
“几乎从来不”; scarcely 的意思与 hardly 更接近。rarely“不经常”,表示事物发生的频率:
He rarely goes there. 他很少(不经常)去那里。seldom“很少,不经常”,它与 rarely 更接近。
同步练习
1) The five year deal obligates [ A ] the country to buy nine million tons [ B ] of grain a
year [C] , three million more as [D] the old pact’s minimum.
解析:D 错。 改为 than。
2) The lens of a camera performs the lens of the eye.
[A] in the same function [B] the same function as
[C] the function is the same as [D] and has the same function
解析:B 对。本句的汉语意思是“照相机的镜头和眼睛的水晶体所起的作用相同”。
3) The elimination of inflation would ensure that the amount of money used in repaying a loan
would
have as the amount of money borrowed.
[A] as the same value [B] the same value
[C] value as the same [D] the value is the same
解析:B 对。本句的汉语意思是“消除通货膨涨会保证还的钱与借时的钱同值”。
4) There are now methods for studying color vision in infants than there once were.
[A] more sophisticated than
[B] much more sophisticated
[C] much sophisticated
[D] sophisticated
解析:B 为正确答案。
5) The photographs of Mars taken by satellite are than those taken from the Earth.
[A] clearest
[B] the clearest
[C] much clearer
[D] more clearer
解析:C 为正确答案。
6) Common porpoises( 海豚 ) are usually not considered [ A ] migratory , although [ B ]
some do move [C] to more warmer [D] waters in winter.
解析:D 错。 改为 warmer。
7) During observations made over a fifty year period, the power output of the Sun has than a
few tenths of one percent.
[A] varied by no more [B] varied no more by
[C] not varied more by [D] more varied by not
解析:A 为正确答案。
8) Few of the people who live on the cooperatives than they were as laborers.
[A] is well off financial
[B] financially well off
[C] are better off finanically
[D] financial better off
解析:C 为正确答案。
9) He came all the way to China for promoting friendship for making money.
[A] other than [B] better than [C] more than [D] rather than
解析:D 为正确答案。
10) He preferred to write the letter by hand .
[A] to typing it
[B] than type it
[C] to type it
[D] rather than type it
解析: D 为正确答案。
11) The harder he tried , [ A ] the worst [ B ] he danced [ C ] before the large [ D ]
audience.
解析:B 错。 改为 worse。
12) The quicker a loan [A] is repaid [B] , the least [C] it will [D] cost.
解析: C 错。 改为 less。
13) Hot objects emit do cold objects.
[A] rays more than infrared(红外线) [B] rays are more infrared than
[C] more than infrared rays [D] more infrared rays than
解析:D 对。本句中的比较级为形容词 more (much 的比较级),被比较的两个事物为“hot
objects”和“cold objects”,在所释放(emit)的红外线(infrared rays)的量上,前者多于后者。其
中 more 修饰 infrared rays,它们不能被分开,故只有 D 在词序上正确。空白后面为倒装语序,
其中的 do 代替动词 emit,本句空白后也可用正常语序,即“cold objects do”。
14) Last year the country had [A] fewer imports as [B] did the year before last [C] due
to [D] the energy crisis.
解析: B 错。 改为 than。
15) Long Island , an [A] island that forms the [B] southeastern part of New York , has
a [C] greater population than which [D] of forty two of thefifty states.
解析: D 错。 改为 that,代替 population。
16) The grain of rye is longer [A] and slenderer [B] than [C] those of [D] wheat.
解析:D 错。 改为 that。这里比较的“The grain”不是复数,不能用复数代词 those。
17) The activities of the international marketing researcher are frequently much broader than .
[A] the domestic marketer has [B] the domestic marketer does
[C] those of the domestic marketer [D] that which has the domestic marketer
解析:C 为正确答案。比较句中,连词 than 前后,即所比较的成分要一致,应该在同种事物
间进行比较。本句所比较的是两种 activities ,故 C 正确,代词 those 代替“the activities”。
18) The grape is cultivated plants.
[A] one of the oldest [B] the oldest one
[C] one which the oldest [D] the one is the oldest of
解析:A 对。“one of the oldest…”表示“(历史)最长的栽种植物之一”,C 和 D 均不合语法,
而 B 选项中的 one 多余。
19) , William Shakespeare is the most widely known.
[A] With all writers in English
[B] All writers in English
[C] All of the writers in English
[D] Of all writers in English
解析:D 为正确答案。
20) The crane is of the wading birds.
[A] the tallest
[B] the tallest that is
[C] which is the tallest
[D] which the tallest is
解析:A 为正确答案。
21) The Appalachians Trail, extending [A] approximately 2,020 miles [B] from Maine
to Georgia, is the longer [C] continuous [D] marked footpath in the world.
解析:C 错。只有在两者相比较时才使用比较级,而本句出现了状语 in the world,明显表示
不止两者相比,故应改用最高级 (the) longest 。
22) La Paz , Bolivia is the higher [ A ] capital city in [ B ] the western hemisphere and
[C] the second highest [D] in the world.
解析:A 错。 改为 the highest。
23) The best way to control rats is by seeing that they have as .
[A] possibly little nourishment [B] nourishment possibly little
[C] little as possible nourishment [D] little nourishment as possible
解析:D 为正确答案,“as little nourishment as possible ”意为“尽可能少的养料”。
24) Earlier [ A ] or later , all lakes are influenced [ B ] by eutrophication , a process in
which lake sediment(沉积物) lowers the depth [C] of the water and drains(除去) oxygen from
it [D] .
解析: A 错。改为 sooner。
25) Alexander Graham Bell once told his family that he would rather be remembered as a teacher
of the deaf of the telephone.
[A] than inventing [B] than as the inventor
[C] the invention [D] as the inventor
解 析 : B 为 正 确 答 案 , 两 个 短 语 “ as a teacher of the deaf” 和 “ as the inventor of the
telephone”相比。
26) Wool is characteristic on which to classify breeds of sheep.
[A] most obviously
[B] obvious the most
[C] the most obvious
[D] the most obvious that is
解析:C 为正确答案。注意: 空档后的“ characteristic”是名词而不是形容词,所以不能填
A。
27) The Democratic party has controlled [ A ] the most [ B ] of the elected positions at
[C] state and local levels in South Carolina since [D] the Reconstruction.
解析:B 错。 改为 most。
28) During [ A ] the seventeenth century the most [ B ] colonists were primarily concerned
with [C] D)] economics [D] and defense.
解析:B 错。 改为 most。
29) Belgium, in the [ A ] 19th century, rapid [ B ] grew into [ C ] an industrial [ D ]
country.
解析:A 错。改为 rapidly。
30) The Lost Colony in North Carolina mysterious [A] disappeared between [B] 1587 and
1590, when its [C] founder returned from a visit [D] to England.
解析:A 错。改为 mysteriously。
31) Many flatworms have of eyes.
[A] more pairs than one
[B] more than one pair
[C] one more pair than
[D] one pair more than
解析:B 为正确答案。
32) Of the two houses the family prefers .
[A] the most isolated one
[B] the one isolated more
[C] the more isolated one
[D] the isolated one more
解析:C 为正确答案。
33) Freezing is at present one of the of preserving meats and vegatables.
[A] most methods are important
[B] methods most important
[C] most important methods
[D] most are important methods
解析:C 为正确答案。
34) The radio was of so [A] inferior quality that [B] I took it back [C] and asked for a
better one [D] .
解析: A 错。 改为 such。

lesson 8  代词(一)
内 容 提 要
代词分人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、不定代词、指示代词、关系代词和连接代词,它们在句
子中承担不同的功用。
人 称 代 词
一、主格人称代词有 I, we, you, he, she, they, it,主格人称代词就是在句中充当主语和表语的
代词
二、宾格人称代词有 me, us, you, him, her, them, it,宾格人称代词即在句中充当宾语(含介词
宾语)的代词
三、同步练习
1) Archibald Motley’s artistic talent [A] was apparent [B] by the time him [C] enrolled
[D] in high school.
2) Legends often contain an element [A ] of fact, but [B] sometimes it is [C] totally
[D] untrue.
3) Unlike [ A ] road vehicles , Hovercrafts have no physical [ B] contact with the surface
over which [C] them [D] travel.
4) Let you and I [ A ] promise that we shall always [ B ] dare to do [ C ] what is [ D ]
right.
5) Most of we [A] know that conductors direct their orchestras with a baton , but how many
[B] are aware that [C] they also direct with their faces, hands [D] , and shoulders?
四、例题解析
1) C 错。him 是宾格,而此处却需要作主语的人称代词,故应将 him 改为主格 he。
2) C 错。 改为 they are。C 处代替的是“Legends”而不是“an element”。
3) D 错。them 也是宾格,应改用主格 they,作定语从句中的主语,谓语为 travel。
4) A 错。 改为 me。
5) A 错。改为宾格 us,因为前面是介词 of,us 作其宾语,故用宾格。
物 主 代 词
一、表示人的物主代词用 my, our, your, his, her 和 their,指无生命的东西用 its(但指国家时一
般用 she 或 her),它们在句中作定语
二、名词型物主代词能作表语(It's theirs)、主语(Mine is there)、宾语(I don't like hers),与 of 连
用可以作定语(the food of theirs)。
三、同步练习
1) A scientist bases its [ A ] work on hypotheses that [ B ] have been checked [ C ]
through careful [D] experimentation.
2) Crude rubber is an [ A ] elastic( 有 弹 性 的 ) solid with a specific gravity of 0.911 and a
refractive index( 折 射 率 ) of 1.591 , though it [ B ] composition varies with different
latexes(橡浆) as well as [C] with the way it is prepared [D] at the plantation.
3) Manufacturers [ A ] of consumer goods [ B ] often change [ C ] the styles of them
[D] products.
四、例题解析
1) A 错。 改为 his。
2) B 错。 改为 its。
3) D 错。 改为 their。

lesson 9  代词(二)
内 容 提 要
代词分人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、不定代词、指示代词、关系代词和连接代词,它们在句
子中承担不同的功用。
反 身 代 词
一、反身代词有 myself, ourselves, yourselves, himself, herself, themselves, itself。主语与宾语为
同一人或物时,要用反身代词 (否则就不能用反身代词 ),反身代词也可放在名词或代词 (主
格)后面(也可放在句尾)起强调作用

1) All [ A ] the scouts( 童子军) got theirselves [ B] ready for the [ C] long camping trip
by spending their weekends living [D] in the open.
2) Various [A] animals have shells that keep themselves [B] from growing beyond [C]
a certain [D] size.
3) Benjamin Banneker’s aptitude [ A ] in mathematics [ B ] and knowledge of astronomy
enabled himself [C] to predict the solar [D] eclipse of 1789.
4) The president announced that he himself [ A ] would act upon [ B ] the evidence as
presented [C] to himself [D] by the congressional committee.
5) Garrett [A] Morgan died in Cleveland, Ohio, the city that [A] had awarded himself
[B] a gold medal for his devotion [C] to public [D] safety.
6) Plants rid them [ A ] of excess water through [ B ] transpiration , the evaporation of
extra [C] moisture from their [D] leaves.
7) When Jonathan went [A] to Spain with his [B] sister, he bought a [C] leather coat
for her and another for him [D] .
二、例题解析
1) B 错。 改为 themselves。
2) B 错。 B 处明显指代 animals ,而它前面的主语 that 却指代 shells ,也就是说“ that” 和
“themselves”指的不是同一事物。由于主语与宾语不是同一物,故不能用反身代词,应改为
宾格 them。
3) C 错。本句的主语为 aptitude,而非 Benjamin Banneker(在这里它作 aptitude 的定语),而 C
处的代词却指上文提到的人名“ Benjamin Banneker”,由于主语与宾语并非指同一人,故不
能用反身代词,应改用宾格 him。
4) D 错。 改为 to him。动词“presented”的(逻辑)主语是“evidence”,而不是 A 处的“he,”
所以 D“himself”处与 C 处“presented”的主语“evidence”不一致,所以不能用反身代词。
5) B 错。 改为 him。同上。
6) A 错。此处的 them 指主语 plants,rid 是及物动词,由于主语与宾语指同一物,故应使用
反身代词 themselves。
7) D 错。 改为 for himself。

lesson 10  代词(三)
内 容 提 要
代词分人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、不定代词、指示代词、关系代词和连接代词,它们在句
子中承担不同的功用。
不 定 代 词
一、“every”(每一个)只作为定语使用,即必须在其后加上单数可数名词构成名词短语,它
不可与 everyone(每一个)混淆。 everyone 相当于名词,它不可修饰其他名词,只作主语或宾

1) Every [A ] knows that hospitals are institutions where the sick are treated , but how many
[B] realize that they were once [C] homes for the indigent and the friendless [D] ?
2) Everyone [ A ] child in the United States must [ B ] receive [ C ] some form of
educational instruction [D] .
例题解析
1) A 错。every 不可单独充当句子成分,应在其后加上 person 或改为 everyone。
2) A 错。改为 Every,修饰 child。
二、“much”和“many”分别修饰不可数名词和可数名词,可作为代词(如 much of)和形容词
使用
3) Food seasoning plays an important [A] role in the cooking [B] customs of much [C]
cultures in [D] the world.
4) The general sales tax has been [A] a major source of income for state governments , much
[B] of which derive more than half [C] of their budgets from [D] it.
5) Data received from [ A ] two spacecraft indicate that there is many evidence [ B ] that
huge thunderstorms are now occurring [C] around the equator [D] of the planet Saturn.
例题解析
3) C 错。应改为 of many,因为被修饰词 cultures 为可数名词,故其修饰语应用 many ,而
much 要修饰不可数名词。
4) B 错。应改用 many,因此处所指代的是可数名词 governments(复数),many 在本句中为代
词,作非限定性定语从句的主语。
5) B 错。应改为 much evidence,因为 evidence(证据,迹象)为不可数名词,故应用 much 来
修饰。
三、 “some”和“any”是表示不定数量的代词,相当于汉语的“一些”,作定语可修饰可数
名词复数或不可数名词,其中 some( 包括它的合成词 something,someone, somebody) 多用于
肯定句,而 any(包括它的合成词 anything, anyone, anybody)则用于疑问句和否定句中,其中
any 在 否 定 句 中 相 当 于 汉 语 中 的 “ 任 何 ” ; 形 容 词 修 饰 something, someone, somebody,
anything, anyone, anybody, nothing, nobody 时,形容词要放在这些词的后边
6) Historians [ A ] have never reached some general [ B ] agreement about [ C ] the
precise causes of the [D] Civil War in the United States.
例题解析
6) B 错。应为 any general,因为本句为否定句(否定副词 never),应该用 any,此处表示“(没
有达成过) 任何共识”。
四、“another”和“other”分别表示“另外的一个”(an+other)和“另外的”“其余的”意思,
可以用作定语修饰名词或单独作主语与宾语,其中前者只用来修饰或指代单数可数名词,
后者修饰单复数名词和不可数名词,二者不能相互混淆
7) Lizards lack [ A ] the built in body temperature control [ B ] many another [ C ]
creatures possess [D] .
8) Some bacterium are extremely [ A ] harmful , but anothers [ B ] are regularly [ C ]
used in producing cheeses, crackers, and many other foods [D] .
9) Like [ A ] most another [ B ] art forms , the Greek tragedy had [ C ] its origins in
religious [D] observances.
例题解析
7) C 错。应改用 other 来修饰可数复数名词 creatures 。本句是一个省略了关系代词 that( 或
which)的定语从句,control 为名词作主句中及物动词(谓语)lack 的宾语,同时又受其后面定
语从句的修饰。
8) B 错。 改为 others。
9) B 错。 改为 other。
五、one 与 other “one”作为代词代替前面提到的人或物,它前边加 the; “other”作代词修饰
复数名词。 “one…another”表示“一个…另一个”的意思,或表示多个(三者以上)之中的
“另一个”,“又一个”; “one…the other”表示两者之中剩下的“另一个,又一个”
10) I’d like to [A] buy a coat similar [B] to one [C] you are wearing [D] .
11) Though [ A ] Art Tatum was totally blind in one eye and had only slight [ B ] vision in
another [C] , he became [D] an internationally renowned jazz musician.
例题解析
10) C 错。改为 to the one。
11) C 错。应用 the other,因为此处表示两者之中的另一个, Art Tatum 为人的名字,他只有
两只眼睛,故提到“另一只”时应用 the other。
六、 “few”和“little”两者分别为“many”和“much”的反义词,表示“少,很少”的意思,
有否定含义,即等于“几乎没有”,如若表示肯定的含义,则应在 little 和 few 前加不定冠
词“a”,即变为“a few”和“a little”
12) Because they are generally [ A ] taken simply to obtain a recognizable [ B ] and
relatively clear [ C ] image , most non prefessional photographs demand few [ D ]
equipment.
例题解析
12) D 错。应改用 little,因为 equipment 为不可数名词,故其修饰语应用 little,few 后面只接
可数复数名词。
七、 “a great deal (of)” (大量)只作为限定语修饰不可数名词或在句中指代不可数名词作主
语或宾语
13) of gift giving, barter, buying and selling goes on among the Narvjos.
[A] A great deal [B] A great many [C] Much greater [D] Many
例题解析
13) A 为正确答案。空白后为不可数名词“gift giving, barter, buying”,“[B] A great
amny” 和“[D ] Many”修饰可数名词,而“[C] Much greater” 本身是形容词,空档后
不应有“of”, 所以填“[A] A great deal of”。
八、“nothing but”表示“只不过,就是,只有”
He is nothing but a singer. 他只不过是个唱歌的。
Nothing but a miracle can save us. 只有奇迹才能救我们。
九、“anything but” 表示“根本不,并不”
She is anything but beautiful. 她并不美。
John is anything but a liar. 约翰决不是个骗子。
十、“something of” 表示“略有”
He has seen something of life. 他略有阅历。
I’m something of a cook. 我略懂烹饪。
(试比较)
He is not much of a scholar. 他算不上个很好(高明)的学者。
十一、“none other than”表示“就是”
The new arrival was none other than the President. 刚到的那人就是总统本人。
我们要注意 none other than 与 other than 的区别,后者表示“与……不同”
I do not wish him other than he is. 我不希望他改变现状。
The truth is quite other than what we think. 事实与我们所想的不一样。
十二、“none”有时可作副词,表示“一点也不”
We did the work none too well. 我们活干得一点也不好。
十三、 nowhere 可用以成语: be nowhere 一无所得,一事无成; get nowhere 一事无成,
nowhere near 离……很远。
十四、有些不定代词同时也是形容词,或有其他的含义
He is all attention, and she is all eyes. 他十分留意,她也注意力集中。
Everybody who is anybody (somebody) at all will be at the dance.
[句中的“anybody(somebody)”在此当“大人物,重要人物”讲。]

lesson 11  代词(四)
内 容 提 要
代词分人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、不定代词、指示代词、关系代词和连接代词,它们在句
子中承担不同的功用。
指 示 代 词
一、指示代词 this,that,these 和 those 用来代替上文已提到或指示眼前的人或物,在句中可
充当主语、宾语和定语。做定语的指示代词要与所修饰的词在数上一致
1) Today’s libraries differ greatly from .
[A] the past [B] those of the past [C] that are past [D] those past
2) The amount of money spent on cosmetics, according to some authorities, has exceeded spent on
public health.
[A] one
[B] those
[C] it
[D] that
3) The culture and customs of America are more like of England than of any other country.
[A] that
[B] what
[C] which
[D] those
例题解析
1) B 为正确答案。此题中的 differ from 意为“不同于”,相比较的对象为“现代的图书馆”
与“以往的图书馆”,故应选 B ,用 those 代替前面提到的 libraries(复数)。
2) D 为正确答案。“has exceeded”“超过,超越”,空档后“ spent on public health”作定语,
而空档处是代词代替“ The amount of monay” ,这是不可数名词,所以“[ A ] one” 和“
[B] those”均不符合条件。“[C] it”也不对,it 代词代“the amount of money spent on
cosmetics,”那么空档后的“spent on public health”显然与“spent on cosmetics”相矛盾。所以 C
也不对。
3) D 为正确答案。“what”和“which”为连接和关系代词,“that”指代单数,而空档处是代
前边的“The clture and customs of America”,所以应当用复数代词 those。
二、为了避免重复,that 或 those 来代替前边的名词或代词,that 表示事物,those 表示人。一
般来讲 that 表示单数或不可数,而 those 表示复数。但 those 可以和 who 连用,由 who 引导
一个定语从句,这时 those 就不是代替前边的某词
4) Numerous efforts have been made [ A ] to improve [ B ] the laws governing [ C ] air
pollution, but none have been as successful as them [D] devised by the state of Oregon.
5) An internationally famous ballerina [ A ] , Maria Tallchief demonstrated [ B ] that the
quality of ballet in the United States could equal those [C] of the ballet in Europe [D] .
6) Since the job was going to be [A] difficult, he asked only [B] them [C] he trusted
to assist him [D] .
7) Forest animals [ A ] utilize the sense [ B ] of smell less [ C ] than them [ D ] in the
countryside.
例题解析
4) D 错。 改为 those。这里“those”与“none”同指,都代“the laws”。
5) C 错。 改为 that,代“the quality。”
6) C 错。改为 those。C 处作“asked”的宾语,又作“he trusted to assist him”的先行词。
7) D 错。 改为 those。

三、such 修饰可数名词须与 a 连用,也可修饰可数名词复数和不可数名词


8) Let us take a serious, reasonable look at what the results might be if proposal were accepted.
[A] so many
[B] a so many
[C] a such
[D] such a
9) Although signs of dishonesty in school, business, and government seem much more numerous
in recent years than in the past, could it be that we are getting better at revealing dishonesty?
[A] so
[B] those
[C] such
[D] such a
例题解析
8) D 为正确答案。
9) C 为正确答案。

lesson 12  代词(五)
内 容 提 要
代词分人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、不定代词、指示代词、关系代词和连接代词,它们在句
子中承担不同的功用。
关 系 代 词
关系代词有 who, whom, whose, that, which,as。它们用来引导定语从句。它们既代表所修饰
词,又在从句中担任一定的成分。
一、who 和 whom 代表人,who 在从句作主语而 whom 在从句中作(动词或介词的)宾语
1) Human beings are social [ A ] animals whom [ B ] usually prefer not to live in physical
[C] or psychological isolation [D] .
二、whose 表示“某人的”,在从句中作定语
2) There was a teapot fashioned like a China duck out of open mouth the tea was supposed to
come.
[A] which [B] its[C] that[D] whose
三、that 既可代表事物也可代表人,which 代表事物或前边整个句子所表述的情况;that 在从
句中作主语、宾语和表语;which 在从句中作主语或宾语
3) The first doll say “mama” was invented in 1830.
[A] that it could [B] could [C] it could [D] that could
四、代表物时多用 which,但在带有下列词的句子中用 that 而不用 which,这些词包括 all,
anything, much 等
4) Probably he had come down in the world and this sampling was all was left him from the time
when he could afford to come and select his favorite pudding.
[A] what[B] that[C] which[D] who
5) Although Jefferson lived more than 200 years ago, there is much we can learn from him today.
[A] as[B] when[C] who[D] that
五、在非限定性定语从句中,不能用 that,而用 who, whom 代表人,用 which 代表事物
6) After a while I recognized him as "Big Jim," used to sit behind me in maths class in high
school.
[A] which[B] who[C] he[D] that
7) I have often wondered whether some people, had no intention of making a purchase, would take
advantage of this privilege of having a sample puddings without buying them.
[A] whom[B] who[C] which[D] what
8) This means we shall have to carry our own water, will add even greater weight to the saucer."
[A] that[B] although[C] why[D] which
六、which 引导非限定性定语从句来说明前面整个句子的情况或主句的某一部分,而不是一
个名词
9) One can suggest that students should spend two or three years in an English -speaking country,
amounts to washing one's hands of English complex structures.
[A] whom[B] which[C] when[D] that
七、在引导限定性定语从句时,that 有时相当于 in which, at which, for which 或 at which
Attitudes towards daydreaming are changing in much the same way that(in which) attitudes
towards night dreaming have changed. 人们对白日做梦的态度正在改变,这与人们对夜间做
梦的看法的变化有非常相似之处。
I like the music for the very reason that(for which) he dislikes it. 我出于某种原因喜欢这种音乐,
而他恰恰与我相反。
We arrived the day that(on which) they left. 刚好我们到的那天他们走了。
八、有时 as 也可用作关系代词
Sam set out to improve efficiency at the shirt factory but, as we find out later in this unit, his
turned out not quite as he had expected.
九、例题解析
1) B 错。改为 who。2) D 为正确答案。3) D 为正确答案。4) B 为正确答案。5) D 为正确答案。
6) B 为正确答案。7) B 为正确答案。8) D 为正确答案。9) B 为正确答案。

lesson 13  代词(六)
内 容 提 要
代词分人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、不定代词、指示代词、关系代词和连接代词,它们在句
子中承担不同的功用。
连 接 代 词 : 是 用 来 引 导 主 语 从 句 、 宾 语 从 句 和 表 语 从 句 , 连 接 代 词 有 what, who,
whom,whose, which。
一、 what 可引导名词性从句,作主语和表语。“ what” 兼具先行词和关系代词的性质,
what=the thing(things)that
1) Continue to be you are before you find an exercelent job!
[A] who[B] that[C] what[D] which
2) would be a fairly long speech in a play is often presented as a recitative(宣叙部) in opera.
[A] That[B] There[C] It[D] What
二、代词 who(m), which 和 what 可以和 ever 构成复合代词 (whoever, whomever, whichever,
whatever) ,它们起强调作用,都兼具先行词和关系词的作用。表示“所有,一切”意。
whoever 和 whomever 作为复合代词,前边有介词,如果单纯作介词的宾语用 whomever ;
如果介词后边的复合代词引导从句,则用 whoever
3) it is you have heard, you'd better ask him about it in person.
[A] Whatever [B] However[C] That[D] Although
4) The government will sell public houses to provides enough amount of money for the
government further investment.
[A] whoever [B] those[C] people[D] who

三、有时这些复合代词还可以引起状语
5) the size or nature of a business,its main goal is to earn a profit.
[A] Whatever[B] Of[C] Whereas[D] Because
四、例题解析
1) C 为正确答案。2) D 为正确答案。3) A 为正确答案。4) A 为正确答案。5) A 为正确答案。
lesson 14  情态动词(一)
内 容 提 要
情态动词有 can(能),may(可以),must(必须),have to( 不得不),ought to(应该),dare( 敢),used to( 过
去经常),had better(最好),would rather(宁愿)。在肯定句中它们后边都要接 动词原形 。在否定
句中, can,may,must 和 dare 后边加 not ; have to 和 ought to 分别在 have 和 ought 后加 not ;
used to 的否定式可用 used not to ,也可用 didn't use to ,但后者用得较多; had better 和
would rather 的否定式分别是 had better not 和 would rather not。这些情态动词与现在完成时连
用在某种意义上有一定的虚拟性。
肯定句和否定句中的情态动词
一、情态动词的现在式在肯定句中的比较
1. can 表示体力或脑力方面的“能力”、“技能”或根据客观条件能做某种动作的“可能性

1) Mild forms of execrise can some of the loss of flexibility that accompanies aging.
[A] stop[B] to stop[C] stopping[D] be stopped 但表示人体力或智力的具体动作
时须用 be able to
He was able to do that without any help.他不需要任何帮助就能完成这项工作。
2. may 表示“允许,可以”,相当于 be allowed to
2) If there is social or political change in a region [ A ] where a standard language [ B ] is
spoken, local varieties [C] of the language may developing [D] .
may 或 might 可和 as well 连用,表示“建议”,译为“还是……的为好”
You may as well keep a certain distance from that mad man. 你们还是离那疯子远点为好。
You might as well go home now.你还是现在回家为好。
3. must 表示“必须”或“应当”、“一定”
3) The formation of snow must be occurring [ A ] slowly [ B ] , in calm air , and at a
temperature near [C] the freezing point [D] .
4. have to 加动词原形,表示“不得不”,“必须”,它比 must 更强调客观
Tom had to work into the deep night everyday to earn a living. 汤姆为了生计每天都得工作到深
夜。
5. should 表示“劝告”,“建议”或“义务”时,译作“应当”,或表示“预测”和“可
能”
He should take care of his parents as they are old enough not to live on themselves. 由于父母亲老
了,不能自理,他应当照顾他们。
He should be there now. 他可能到了。
should have done 在虚拟语气中表示“责备或后悔”

6. ought ,只有一种形式,即 ought 后必须加 to,然后跟接动词原形表示“有义务”或“必


要”做某事,译为“应当,应该”
4) The traditional goal of science is to discover how things are,not how they ought .
[A] to[B] to be[C] be[D] have been
5) You are quite right;I am inferring in my comments [ A ] that McGraw had not ought to
[B] have broken [C] in the room without his permission [D] .
7. dare 可以用作情态动词,后面跟不带 to 的动词不定式,这主要用于否定句中,它本身可
有现在时第三人称单数,词尾加 s,它还可以有 ING 分词形式(daring)和过去式及 ED
分词形式(dared)
6) Although Oriental ideas of woman’s subordination to man prevailed in those days,she meet
with men on an equal basis.
[A] did not dared [B] dared not [C] dared not to [D] did dare not to

二、情态动词在一般时否定句中的用法
can't(can not, cannot) 表示“不可能”, may not 表示“不可以”, mustn't(must not) 表示
“一定不要”,“不许可”, needn't (need not) 表示“不必”,dare not +动词原形 表示“
不敢”
He can't finish his essay by this time. 现在他不可能写完论文。
He may not sleep now. 他或许现在没在睡觉。
You mustn't criticize her in that way. 你不应那样批评她。
You needn't come tomorrow. 你明天没必要来了。
He dared not meet his fiancée. 他不敢见女朋友。

三、例题解析
1) 正确答案为 A。由于情态动词 can 要求跟动词原形,所以 B 和 C 都不对,can 后虽然有被
动形式,但在意义上和语法上与横线后部分都无法衔接,所以 D 也错。
2) D 错。改为 develop。may 后要求跟动词原形,而 developing 是现在分词,显然不符合要求,
所以应改为 develop。
3) A 错。改用 must occur,此处叙说的是客观现象,而非强调正在发生的事,故用一般现在
时。
4) B 为正确答案。
5) B 错。改为 ought not to。
6) B 为正确答案。

lesson 15  情态动词(二)
内 容 提 要

情态动词有 can(能),may(可以),must(必须),have to( 不得不),ought to(应该),dare( 敢),used to( 过


去经常),had better(最好),would rather(宁愿)。在肯定句中它们后边都要接 动词原形 。在否定
句中, can,may,must 和 dare 后边加 not ; have to 和 ought to 分别在 have 和 ought 后加 not ;
used to 的否定式可用 used not to ,也可用 didn't use to ,但后者用得较多; had better 和
would rather 的否定式分别是 had better not 和 would rather not。这些情态动词与现在完成时连
用在某种意义上有一定的虚拟性。

情态动词与完成时的使用

一、must+have+ ED 分词:用于肯定句,表示对过去情况的一种肯定推测,表示“肯定,
一定”
1) It around nine o’clock when I drove back home because it was already dark.
[A] had to be [B] must have been [C] was to be [D] must be
2) John’s score on the test is the highest in the class;
[A] he should study last night
[B] he should have studied last night
[C] he must have studied last night
[D] he must had to study last night
3) After searching [ A ] for evidence in the house,the police concluded [ B ] that the thief
must have come in [ C ] through the window and stole [ D ] the silver while the family was
asleep.
二、may (might)+have+ ED 分词:用于肯定句和否定句,表示对已发生事情的不肯定的推
测,相当于“可能,大概,”其中 might 较 may 语气更弱,把握更小
She might have gone to see her doctor last week, but I am not sure.
上星期或许她去看医生了,但我不敢肯定。
Don’t worry, your husband may not have been hurt seriously.
别急,你丈夫也许伤得不厉害。
三、should(ought to)+have+ ED 分词:肯定句表示过去本应发生的事却没有发生;否定句
表示已发生了本不该发生的事。前者可译为“本应,”后者为“本不该”
You should have apologized to her for not soon replying to the letter. 你本应向她道歉,说明为
什么没能及时回信。(可你没这么做)
4) You yesterday if you were really serious about your work.
[ A ] ought to come [ B] ought to be coming [ C] ought to have come [D ] ought have
come
四、can(not) +have+ ED 分词
He is an hour late —— He can have been delayed by fog. Of course,that’s a possibility. 他迟到了
1 小时,可能因为大雾而耽搁了。当然这只是可能性问题。
The poem can not have been written by her since she was only five years old then. 这诗不可能是
她写的,因为她那时才 5 岁。
五、“could+have+ ED 分词”有时用于表示过去的时间,说明某事可能或不可能已发生;
有时可表示过去本来可以做某事,但却未做
I simply can’t understand how he could have made such a mistake. 我简直不明白他怎么会犯那
样的错误。
He walked there,but he could have taken a taxi. 他走着去了,可当时完全可以坐出租。
“couldn’t+have+ ED 分词”还表示无论如何也不可能或没有做到
I couldn’t have called you. I wasn’t near a telephone. 反正我也不可能给你打电话,我附近没有
电话。
5) “We didn’t see him at the lecture yesterday.”“He it.”
[ A ] mustn’t attended [ B ] couldn't have attended [ C ] would have not attended [ D ]
needn’t have attended
六、needn’t+have+ ED 分词:表示对过去不必做的事情却做了,可译为“其实不必”
6) You all these parcels yourself.The shop would have delivered them if you had asked a shop
assistant.
[ A ] didn’t need to carry [ B ] needn’t have carried [ C ] needn’t carry [ D ] didn’t need
carry
七、used to 表示过去的习惯动作或状态,现在已不存在,在否定陈述句中,一般用 didn't
use to,也可用 used not to;在疑问句中用“Did…use to”。used to 还可 never,often,always 等
连用。注意 used to 与 be used to 的不同,后者表示 be accustomed to “习惯于某种状态”,而
且跟接名词或 ING 形式,而 used to 后接动词原形,试比较
He used to drink. 表示“他过去经常喝酒”而现在不喝了。
He is used to wine (He is used to drinking wine) at each meal.
表示“他现在已养成习惯,每顿饭喝点葡萄酒。”
八、had better 表示“最好……”,后接动词原形,其否定式为 had better not+动词原形
You had better not follow his behavior. 你最好不要学他。
九、would rather 意思是“宁愿”,表示选择。它有两种用法,一是在肯定句中后边直接跟动
词原形,其否定句是在 would rather 后加 not,即 would rather not+动词原形;二是它后边可
以跟接从句,该从句的谓语动词用一般过去式表示虚拟语气。由于 would rather 表示选择,
它后边可跟接 than
She would rather sleep than talk rubbish. 她宁愿睡不愿闲聊。
7) “Did you criticize him for his mistakes?”——“Yes,but it.”
[ A ] I’d rather not do [ B ] I’d rather not doing [ C ] I’d rather not have done [ D ] I’d
rather not did
[注] would rather 和 had rather 都表示“宁愿”,在用法上也没有区别。但如果说 would
rather 与 had rather 完全一样(Longman Dictionary of Comtemporary English 如是说),这一说
法有争议。其实 had rather 在现代标准英语中几乎已经不用了。这对我们考试来说是比较重要
的,因为一般考题作为标准英语是不用 had rather 的。
十、例题解析
1) B 为正确答案。2) C 为正确答案。
3) D 错。改为 stolen。这里 C 处和 D 处是并列的谓语,D 处相当于 must have stolen。
4) C 为正确答案。5) B 为正确答案。6) B 为正确答案。7) C 为正确答案。

lesson 16 动词不定式(一)
内 容 提 要
动词不定式是一种非限定性动词,由 to+动词原形构成,但它还是属于动词,所以它本身
可以带宾语和状语。动词不定式在句中可以作主语、宾语、表语、定语和状语,还可用在复合
结构中,而且有完成式、进行式、完成进行式和否定形式。动词不定式的被动形式除了一般形
式外还有其完成式和进行式。动词不定式的特殊情况也要掌握。
第一节 动词不定式的构成与形式
一、动词不定式的概念:动词不定式指由 to 加上动词原形(而且只能是动词原形)所构成的一
种非限定性动词,但在有些情况下 to 可以省略。动词不定式在语法功能上可作主语 1) 、宾语
2)、表语 3)、定语 4) 和状语 5)
1) education is the principal way of gaining status in a culture that generally stresses
achievement,skillfulness,and upward mobility.
[A] To acquire[B] Acquire[C] Acquires[D] Have acquired
2) We are planning for the entrance examination for postgraduate.
[A] registering[B] register[C] to register [D] registered
3) The most urgent problem now we are facing is to learn the needed materials for the
matriculation of postgraduate.
[A] make our every effort[B] to make our every effort
[C] to our every effort[D] made our efforts
4) —Where should I send my application?
—The Personnel Office is the place it to.
[A] sends[B] be sended[C] to be sended [D] to send
5) from others, one should take his promise.
[A] To get confidence [B] To getting confidence
[C] To get confidences[D] Getting to the confidence
说明:以上五句中的斜体是其动词不定式的附属部分。
二、动词不定式的构成与形式: 动词不定式可以作以上各种成分,但它毕竟是动词,所以
有动词的属性
动词不定式及其短语还可以有自己的宾语[ 2]和 4]中的斜体部分]和状语[ 5]中的斜
体部分]。虽然动词不定式在语法上没有表面上的直接主语,但它表达的意义是动作,这一
动作一定由使动者发出。这一使动者我们称之为 逻辑主语 。考研题中,语法中所考动词不
定式部分包括检测考生是否掌握动词不定式与其逻辑主语之间的一致,其中主要包括它们
之间 主动和被动 的关系以及 它们在时间上的一致 ,同时动词不定式还有其否定形式。所
有这些涉及到动词不定式的各种形式。现以动词 make 为例,其形式如下:
  主动形式 被动形式
一般式 (not) to make (not) to be made
完成式 (not) to have made (not) to have been made
进行式 (not) to be making  
完成进行式 (not) to have been making    
6) Some [A] types of naphtha(石油脑) are employed to dissolving [B] rubber [C] and
to thin paints and [D] varnish.
7) The Statue of Liberty was originally [ A ] proposed [ B ] in 1865 to commemoration
[ C ] the alliance [ D ] of France with the American colonies during the American
Revolution.
8) The purpose [ A ] of inductive logic [ B ] is to inferring [ C ] general laws from
particular occurrences [D] .

三、例题解析
1) A 为正确答案。2) C 为正确答案。3) B 为正确答案。4) D 为正确答案。5) A 为正确答案。
6) B 错。改用动词原形“dissolve”,不定式符号“to”后只能出现动词原形。
7) C 错。改为“commemorate”。8) C 错。改为“to infer”,注意句子的主语为“purpose”(目的) 。

lesson 17 动词不定式(二)

第二节 动词不定式的用法
一、 不定式结构作主语
1. 不定式前置
1) Derive [ A ] mineral resources from [ B ] sedimentary rock [ C ] is a [ D ] major
modern industrial activity.
2) in the matriculation for postgraduate in a short time is realy a hard nut.
[A] To make high scores[B] To make low goal[C] To the high scores[D] Make the
low goals
2. 上述形式一般情况不多见,作为考试的规范英语,如果不定式较长,显得头重脚轻,则
可由代词“it”作形式主语(形式主语“it”不能由“that”或“this”等其他代词代替),而将不定
式放到后面
It is really a hard nut to get high scores in the matriculation for postgraduate in a short time.
3) John admitted that it's always difficult .
[A] for him being on time[B] being on time for him
[C] for him to be on time[D] on time for him
4) It is difficult for me [A] to be concentrating [B] while someone [C] is using [D]
a vacuum cleaner.
3. 不定式后置的情况不仅限于动词是系动词,也适用于其他动词
It took us a great deal of efforts to finish that task.
It made him extremely happy to get contact with his family in Taiwan since they separated more
than 40 years ago.
4. 不定式结构所表示的动作是谁做的,即不定式的逻辑主语,通常可以在特定的上下文中
能看出,也可以通过带“for +名词短语”辨出
It is quite important for us to read good books during the period of general review(总复习).
It is not difficult for those who study maths well to pass the exam.
5. 在某些形容词(如 careless,clever,considerate, foolish, good, impolite, kind, naughty, nice, silly,
stupid 等)作表语时,不定式后可以加 of 来引导出其逻辑主语
It is very kind of you to help me./It is stupid of him to do such a silly thing.
间或也可用 for + there to be 表示(而且 there 后面的不定式只能是 to be)。
It's a great pity for there to be much trouble in the company.
二、 不定式作宾语
不定式作宾语有两种:一种是及物动词后直接跟带 to 的不定式;另一种是“动词+疑问词
+带 to 的不定式”
1. 动词+带 to 的不定式结构
只能跟动词不定式的动词,常见的有: afford, agree, aim, appear, arrange, ask, believe, care,
claim, decide, decline( 拒 绝 ), demand, desire, determine, endeavor, expect, fail, hesitate, hope,
intend, learn, long, manage, mean(想要), offer( 表示愿意做…), pretend, promise, refuse, seek(试
图), swear, undertake, wish(想要)等。
5) We refuse that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults(银行保管库) of this nation.
[A] to believe [B] to be belived[C] beliving
[ D ] have belived6) The green turtle has been known over 2 , 000 miles to return to a nesting
site.
[A] in the navigating [B] the navigation [C] to navigate [D] navigation
7) For the [ A ] first time Venusian scientists managed landing [ B ] a satellite on the planet
Earth, and it has been sending [C] back signals as well as [D] photographs ever since.
8) The day is past when Chinese universities and colleges to give high school diplomas to all who
sit through four years of instruction, regardless of whether any visible results can be discerned.
[A] afforded[B] affording[C] to afford
[D] can afford 从上例我们可以看出 afford 一般与 can 和 can't 或 could 和 couldn't 连用。
2. 动词+疑问代(副)词+不定式
这 类 动 词 常 见 的 有 : advise,decide, discuss, find out, forget, inquire, know, learn, regard,
remember, see, settle, teach, tell, think(=consider), understand, wonder 等。这些疑问代 (副)词有
what, when, where, which, how, whether 等,但不包括 why,如:
He does not know how to go there
when to speak before strangers.
who(m) to visit.
which one to choose.

You can decide whether to go forward or stay here.


when to see a doctor.

I will show you what to do.


where to go.
how to deal with it.
其中,1)和 2)中不定式的逻辑主语仍是句子的主语,分别为 He 和 You;而 3)中不定式的逻
辑主语则不是句子的主语 I,而是宾语 you。
9) The director of this organization must know .
[A] to manage money, sell his product and beable to satisfy stockholders
[B] managing money, selling, and be able to satisfy the stockholders
[C] how to manage money, sell his product, and satisfy the stockholders
[D] money management, selling and being able to satisfy the stockholders
10) To tell you the truth, I really don’t know how deal with a man like him.
[A] can I[B] well[C] to[D] much
3. 有时,不定式跟作主语时一样,可由 it 来代替,而把不定式放到后面去
He makes it a rule to take a walk before breakfast.
I think it interesting to play football while it is snowing hard.
We find it difficult to get everything ready before the time you require.
She cosiders it important to make friends with them.
I don't think it necessary to argue with them on this problem.
4. 有时 THERE 和 TO BE 连用表示“有”或“存在(某情况)”等
It is impossible for there to be any more.
Would you like there to be a meeting to discuss the problem?
I expect there to be no argument about this?
有时在个别的介词后可用“疑问词+不定式结构”作其宾语
He has his own decision of how to do it.
三、 不定式作表语
1. 一种情况为主语是不定式(表示条件),表语也是不定式(表示结果)
To see is to believe/ To work means to earn a living.
2. 另一种情况主语是以 aim, duty, hope, idea, happiness, job, plan, problem, purpose, thing, wish
等为中心的名词,或以 what 引导的名词性从句,不定式表语对主语起补充说明作用
His wish is to buy a luxurious car in the near future. / The boss's plan is to start building the
skycraper immediately. / What I want to say is to get rid of the plan forever.
11) The function of Louis Sullivan’s architecture was providing [ A ] large uninterrupted floor
areas [B] and to allow ample light [C] into the interior [D] .
12) The most important [ A ] thing is negociate [ B ] with them about [ C ] the future of
[D] the plant.
四、 不定式作定语
1. 不定式作定语修饰名词或代词,它只能放在它所修饰的名词或代词后面。这时被修饰的名
词与不定式之间有逻辑上的主谓关系
13) The flexibility of film allows the artist unstrained imagination to the animation of cartoon
characters.
[A] to bring[B] bringing[C] is brought[D] brings
14) Billie Holiday’s reputation as a great jazz blues singer rests on her ability emotional depth to
her songs.
[A] be giving[B] are given[C] being given [D] to give 另外,有些词的不定式定
语有主谓关系,如除了上述例句以外,还有些词常跟不定式作定语。这些词主要有 decision
(to make), (a) need (to eat), opportunity (to speak),reason(to learn a foreing language), time (to
sth)等。
2. 动词不定式作定语往往有一层动宾关系,即所修饰的名词是不定式的宾语
15) Alice was having [A] trouble to control [B] the children because there were [C] so
many [D] of them.
16) There are so many reference books for matriculation of postgraduate and I haven't decided
which book .
[A] to buy[B] buy[C]to be buying[D] buying
17) Astronauts can be affected by loneliness for they have to sit in the spacecraft for weeks with
very little and no one .
[A] to do … to talk[B] doing … to talk to
[C] to do … to talk to[D] doing… to talk
3. 因为不定式所修饰的名词是不定式的宾语,所以如果不定式动词是不及物动词,那么就
要在动词后加上相应的介词
He has a lot of trifles to deal with./ I had got no place to live in./That girl has nothing to worry
about./the subject to concentrate on. / He has a strict teacher to listen to. / She has four children to
look after. / She had a sick mother to live with. / This is the very person to sell your ticket to.
18) Although the lecture had already been on for five minutes, I still was not able to find a chair .
[A] to sit[B] for to sit on[C] to sit on[D] for sitting
4. 一些表示企图、努力、倾向、目的、愿望、打算、能力、意向等意义的名词后面要求接不定式作
其定语,如:ability, attempt, effort 等
19) During [ A ] the 19th century scientists found [ B ] that when certain parts of the brain
were damaged [C] men lost the ability doing [D] certain things.
20) What is new, however, is the scientific attempt whether other planets beyond our own have
given birth to advanced civilizations.
[A] discover[B] discovers[C] discovering[D] to discover
21) Surely her daughter would make an even bigger effort her?
[A] please [B] pleased [C] to please [D] having pleased
五、不定式作状语
注意作状语的动词不定式要与其逻辑主语在意义上和数上的一致。
1. 表示目的
22) its plans to promote disarmaments , the party has decided to establish a campaign
headquarters with Benjamin Seaman as its leader.
[A]Although[B]To carry out[C]Except that[D] Make
23) pure lead,the lead ore is mined,then smelted,and finally refined.
[A] Obtaining[B] Being obtained[C] To obtain[D] It is obtained
24) When they met,Leonardo and his enemy were fighting .
[A]killed each other[B]killing each other[C]to be killed each other
[D]to kill each other
2. 表示结果,在这种情况下,不定式的逻辑主语也是全句的主语
He must be cripple not to walk by himself./It seems that the employee didn't sleep at all to be so
sleepy in the early morning. / What have I done for you to deserve such an amount of money?
还有固定搭配的不定式表示结果: so…as to; such(…) as to …; enough to…; too…to…; in
order to … 等
We have got so plenty of food as to treat our guests./ Is that room big enough to seat all of us?/ He
is too young to fit that job.
3. 表示原因
It's very kind of you to say so. / I am pretty pleased to hear the news that you are elected as the
president of the club. / I'm sorry to interrupt you. / They are quite surprised to see the great
changes taking place in the area.
4. 伴随状况
在下列表示能力、愿望、倾向等语义的形容词后边也要接不定式: able( 但其同义词“
capable” 后 面 要 接 “ of+ 动 名 词 ” ) , anxious, eager, glad, inclined( 倾 向 于 ) , liable, likely,
pleased, ready 等。
25) Certain [ A ] minerals are magnetic and are able to detected [ B ] by instruments that
measure [C] differences in the Earth’s magnetic fields [D] .
六、 在复合结构中的不定式
不定式的复合结构是指有些动词带宾语后再带上不定式,作宾语的补足语。前边已提到过,
在这种结构中宾语是不定式的逻辑主语。
1. 有很多这样的动词可以跟宾语及其 (或)补足语不定式,如:advise, allow, ask, enable, beg,
cause, drive, encourage, expect, forbid, force, hate, get , intend, invite, like, permit, persuade,
pretend, remind, say, teach, tell, trust, urge, want, warn 等表示“致使”等意义
26) The company manager may enable the men who tend the machines a large panorama( 全景) of
possibilites.
[A] to see[B] see[C] seeing[D] seen
27) Did you intend us the new method?
[A] to use [B] using [C] our having used [D] the using of
28) The teacher encouraged good compositions.
[A] us write[B] us writing[C] us to write[D] our wrting
2. 在某些成语动词如 arrange for, call on, care for, count on, count upon, depend upon, long for,
prepare for, prevail upon, rely on, vote for, wait for 等后面,也可以跟宾语加不定式的复合结

We are waiting for the bus to come./ They voted for Wang Gang to be the monitor. / Don't count
on me to do that.
3. 另外,表示感觉的动词 see, hear, feel, watch, notice, observe 和 have, let, make 后的宾语可
接不带 to 的不定式(help 后不定式可带 to 也可不带 to)
29) I often heard him that his family was well descended.
[A] said[B] say[C] to say[D] to be said
30) We must have a person them build the house.
[A] see[B] to see[C] will see[D] shall see
31) You would become irritated [ A ] if you watched [ B ] the correspondence to pile up
[C] on your desk day by day [D] .
4. 表 示 心 理 状 态 的 动 词 像 consider, declare, find, prove, think, know , believe, discover,
feel(=think), imagine, judge, pretend, suppose, understand 等词的宾语补足语不定式一般是 to
be(或动词的完成时态)
32) “You’ve been taking a lot of nice photographs.”“Thanks. I’m considering a professional
photographer.”
[A] becoming[B] about become[C] to become[D] over becoming
而且,在 consider, declare, find, prove, think 等动词后的 to be 是可以省去的。如: She
considered me a scholar. / They found him gulty.
七、不定式的完成式、进行式和完成进行式:这三类在考研题中出现的频率很高,要特别注
意不定式的这三种形式
1. 如果不定式所表示的动作与主要谓语所表示的动作(状态)同时(或几乎同时)发生或发生在
主要谓语之后,那么用不定式的一般形式
He received a warm welcome from the Australians and from his family who had flown there to
meet him.
In 1967, he arrived back in England, where a quarter of a million people were waiting to welcome
him.
After all, eighty was a special birthday, another decade lived or endured just as you chose to look
at it.
Now suddenly she began to sob, holding herself in as if weeping were a disgrace.
2. 如果不定式所表示的动作 (状态)发生在主要谓语动词或特定的某时间之前,那么不定式
就要用其完成式
She feels relaxed to have finished writing her thesis before the deadline.
33) The Vikings are believed America.
[ A ] to have discovered [ B ] in discovering [ C ] to discover [ D ] to have been
discovered
34) The students were to at the auditorium before 1:30 pm, but the lecture was cancelled at the last
minute.
[A] assembled [B] have assembled [C] assembling [D] be assembled
35) He was to the new ambassador, but he fell ill.
[A] having telephoned[B] have telephoned[C] has telephoned[D] telephoning
3. 不定式进行式表示主要谓语动词所表示的动作 (情况)发生时,不定式所表示的动作正在
发生
When he came in, I happened to be doing my experiment in the lab.
Why do you stand here? You are supposed to be working in the workshop.
4. 不定式完成进行式表示其动词所代表的动作,在主要谓语动词所代表的动作之前一直在
进行
The students from the Department of Sociology are said to have been investigating the possibility
of producing the new product.
They are quite happy to have been cooperating harmoniously with us till now.
八、不定式的被动形式
当不定式的逻辑主语是动作的承受者时,这个不定式要用被动式,包括它的一般式和完成

36) Here we found little snow, as most of it seemed blown off the mountain.
[A]to have been[B]to be[C]that it was[D]that it had been
37) For twelve years, Spanish censorship did not allow Lorca’s name or his works .
[A] to mention; to be published[B] to be mentioned; to publish
[C] being mentioned; being published[D] to be mentioned; to be published
38) There is,it seems [A ] , no [B] limit to the satisfaction to be finding [C] in the
pursuit of knowledge [D] .
九、不定式的否定形式:否定形式是在不定式的标志 to 前边加 not
39) that new information to anyone else but the sergeant.
[A] They asked him not to give[B] They asked him to don’t give
[C] They asked him no give[D] They asked him to no give
40) Please remember lights on in the future.
[A] don’t leave [B] not to leave [C] not leaving [D] don’t to leave
41) The teacher told [ A ] the students to don’t [ B ] discuss [ C ] the take home exam
with each other [D] .
十、介词 except 和 but(作“只有……,只能……”讲时 )跟不定式结构(but 与不带 to 的不定
式连用)
He seldom goes back home except to ask for money from his parents.
He did nothing there except watch TV for the whole night.(不带 to 的不定式)
I had no choice but to stay in bed.
Last night I did nothing but prepare my lessons.
42) Lots of empty bottles were found under the old man’s bed.He must have done nothing but .
[A] drink[B] to drink[C] drinking[D] drunk
43) When the streets are full of [A ] melting [B] snow, you cannot help but getting [C]
your shoes wet [D] .
十一、例题解析
1) A 错。 改为 To derive。
2) A 为正确答案。
3) C 为正确答案。
4) B 错。改为 to concentrate。
5) A 为正确答案。
6) C 为正确答案。“to be known”后通常接不定式,与此类似的尚有“to be said”等。
7) B 错。改为 to land。因为 manage 后只能跟带 to 的不定式作宾语。
8) D 为正确答案。
9) C 为正确答案。因为 know 须接带特殊疑问词的动词不定式。
10) C 为正确答案。
11) A 错。改为 to provide,根据平行原则,A 处和“to allow…”是并列的表语,故 A 处也应
用不定式。
12) B 错。改为 to negociate。
13) A 对。不定式短语“ to bring…characters” 充当宾语“ the artist” 的定语。“ allow sb.to do
sth.”是固定搭配,还有类似的其他动词。这句话的意思是:在动画片摄制过程中,影片的灵
活性能使艺术家充分施展其想象力。
14) D 为正确答案。名词“ability”(能力) 后要接不定式,表示哪一方面的能力。
15) B 错。改为“controlling”,此处的“to control”与“trouble”并没有这层关系。
16) A 为正确答案。17) C 为正确答案。18) C 为正确答案。19) D 错。改为 to do。20) D 为正确答
案。
21) C 为正确答案。22) B 为正确答案。23) C 为正确答案。24) D 为正确答案。25) B 错。改为
“be detected”。
26) A 为正确答案。27) A 为正确答案。28) C 为正确答案。29) B 为正确答案。30) A 为正确答案。
31) C 错。改为 pile up。32) C 为正确答案。33) A 为正确答案。34) B 为正确答案。35) B 为正确
答案。
36) A 为正确答案。37) D 为正确答案。
38) C 错。本句不定式所表示的动作“发现”(find) 逻辑上的主语为“满足”(satisfaction),
而“满足”只能被“发现”,故 C 应改为 ED 分词“found”,“to be found”为不定式被动
态。
39) A 为正确答案。
40) B 为正确答案。
41) B 错。改为 not to。
42) A 为正确答案。
43) C 错。改为 get 。如果去掉 C 前的“but”, 本句应为: When the streets are full of melting
snow, you cannot help getting your shoes wet.

lesson 18 --ING 分词
内 容 提 要
-ING 分词也是动词的非限定性形式,由动词原形+ -ING 构成,在句中可以直接作主语,
也可用形式主语 it 来代替,而把-ING 分词放到后边;可以作表语;作宾语时对动词有一定
的要求,有的动词只能跟接 -ING 分词,有的动词则既可以跟不定式也可以跟 -ING 分词,
而且-ING 分词还可作介词的宾语;在作宾语补足语时对动词也有一定的要求;作状语时, -
ING 分词要与其逻辑主语呼应,否则就要用独立结构; -ING 分词作定语时相当于一个定语
从句。跟动词不定式一样,-ING 分词也有它的完成时态、被动语态和否定形式;最后我们还
要了解-ING 分词的逻辑主语问题。
第一节 -ING 分词的形式
-ING 分词是指由动词原形+-ING 构成的、具有完成时态和被动语态的一种非谓语动词形式,
具体形式如下
  主动形式 被动形式
一般时 doing being done
完成时 having done having been done
就其语法功能而言,它可以作主语、表语、宾语、宾语补语、状语和定语。
第二节 -ING 分词的用法
一、 作主语
1. 一般形式
1) the matriculation for postgraduate is probably the turning point of my life.
[ A ] Taking the part of [ B ] Taking part in [ C ] To take the part of [ D ] To take the
notice in
2) a teacher is being present at the creation, when the clay begins to breathe.
[A] As[B] To be[C] Is[D] Being
3) by transforming the blame to others is often called scapegoating.
[ A ] Eliminate problems [ B ] The eliminated problems [ C ] Eliminating
problems[D]Problems are eliminated
2. 有时可以用 it 做形式主语
It's waste of time arguing with the gossip about it.
It's interesting having traveled to Beidaihe this year. [说明:从这句中我们可以看出,这种结
构通常适用于名词和形容词。但不适用于像 possible, important, essential, necessary 等表示性
质的形容词,这些词后面一般要跟动词不定式。我们不能说 It's quite necessary taking part in
the negociation.应改作 It's quite necessary to take part in the negociation.]
It's glorious getting involved in working out the plan.
4) It is [ A ] possible determining that [ B ] French explorers reached the jucture of [ C ]
the Kansas and Missouri rivers [D] in the seventeenth century.
二、作表语的-ING 分词
Seeing is believing.
His aims are learning two foreign languages and applying the theory he has learned to practice.
三、-ING 分词作动词宾语
1. 一类是动词或短语后边跟宾语的非限定性动词只能是 -ING 分词,如: acknowledge,
admit( 坦 白 , 承 认 ), advise, advocate, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, can't help, consider,
contemplate( 深思 ), delay, deny, dislike, enjoy, escape( 躲过,避开 ), excuse, fancy, finish, give
up, imagine, include, keep on, justify, mean( 意 味 着 , 等 于 ), mind( 在 乎 ), miss, postpone,
practise, prohibit, put off, quit, recall, regret, resist, resume, risk(冒险干…), suggest, threaten。
5) By taking the back way he escaped .
[A] to be seen [B] have been seen [C] seeing [D] being seen
6) I came late and missed Jack winning.
[A] to see[B] seeing[C] see[D] seen
7) “I see our boss coming down the hall.”
“Then we’d better quit and get down to business.”
[A] talking[B] to talk[C] from talking[D] having talk
8) The young doctor first [ A ] practised to use [ B] the needles on [C ] his own [ D ]
wrist.
9) Some experts have advocated to bring [A ] that country into [ B] the talks, to revive the
intermittent dialogue [C] that began [D] after the 1967 Middle East War.
2. 另一类动词后边作宾语的非限定性动词可以是-ING 分词的动名词,也可以是动词不定式,
如: attempt, begin, can't bear, cease, continue, deserve, endure, forget, go on, hate, intend, like,
love, need, neglect, omit, plan, prefer, propose, regret, remember, start , stop, try 等。(动词后接 -
ING 和不定式时在用法上的区别在下一章讲)
10) “What’s wrong with Henry?”“He needs .”
[A] cheer up[B] to be cheer up[C] cheering up[D] to cheered up
11) Any such news would start her .
[A] to worry[B] worrying[C] worry[D] worried
3. -ING 分词作宾语还有下一结构,即用 it 代表-ING 分词,而把-ING 分词短语放到句子的
后边去
I consider it worthwhile spending ten thousand yuan on the furniture. / Marry fount it marvellous
having a journey with him.
四、 -ING 结构作介词的宾语
几乎所有介词,不管是单个介词还是介词词组,不管它们是谓语动词的组成部分与否,都
能用-ING 分词的动名词作其宾语。所以,-ING 结构作介词宾语的时候很多。-ING 结构一般
作介词短语的宾语,主要有以下搭配关系
1. 动词+介词+ -ING
12) Scientists measure the hardness [A] of a material [B] by comparatively [C] with a
table of ten well-known [D] metals.
13) Her mother did not [ A ] approve of her to go [B ] to the party without dressing [ C]
formally [D] .
14) Although many women’s colleges [A] have been coeducational [B] , other universities
remain committed to keep [C] their facilities separate [D] .
15) We insist on you leave [ A ] the place before [B ] any further [C ] disturbances take
place [D] .
2. 名词(形容词,不及物动词)+介词 to(不要把它视为动词不定式的标志)。下面是大纲中所
列短语中的“to”为介词:(be) contrary to (与…相反),object(objection)to (反对), with a view to
( 为…起见 ) , (be) opposed to ( 反对 ) , in contrast to ( 与…成对比 ),be used to ( 习惯于 ), be
exposed to, be dedicated to (致力于),resort to (诉诸于), as to (关于), be accustomed to (习惯于),
be devoted to ( 献身于 ), be committed to ( 委身于 ), react to ( 对…反应 ), with regard to ( 关于 ),
look forward to (期待), contribute to (贡献),owe to 由于,归功于等
16) I have no objection the evening with them.
[A] to spend [B] to spending [C] to have spent [D] to have to spend
17) Why do you object to the direction?
[A] following [B] follow [C] have follow [D] have been followed
18) Mr. Brown often wore [A] a heavy coat [B] because he was not used to live [C] in
such a [D] cold climate.
19) Livy was the [A ] only great historian of the time [B] , and he devoted his attention to
give [C] the world splendid [D] pictures.
3. 动词+副词+介词+ -ING
I look forward to her coming soon.
4. 形容词(或具有形容词性质的-ED 分词)+介词+ -ING
I am proud of having such a son.
He is greatly honored of shaking hands with the President.
It's impossible for him finishing the task in such a short time.
He is interested in playing table tennis.
5. 表示征询意见的 “How about…?”, “What…about?”
How about going there?
What about having a concert?
20) How about to the movies tonight?
[A] going[B] if go[C] to go[D] if we go
6. 前面省略了介词 in 的-ING 惯用法
The two children are busy doing their homework.
Mr. Smith has difficulty fulfilling the task.
There is no use going over the lessons before the night of exam.
He has spent a lot of time preparing the exam for the postgraduate.
Xiao Li lost no time catching up with his classmates.
There is no point arguing with him.
五、 -ING 结构作宾语补足语
1. 表示感觉和心理状态的动词,如 hear, feel, find, give, listen to, look at, notice, observe, see,
smell, watch 等词的宾语可以用-ING 作宾语补语
21) “Where are the children?” “I saw in the yard.”
[A] them to play [B] them played [C] them playing [D] to them playing
22) I must say I don’t like to hear you like that.
[A] talking[B] to talk[C] have to talk[D] talked
2. 表示“致使”等意义的动词,如 catch, have, get, keep, leave, set
I am sorry to have kept you waiting for me so long.
What you have told left me thinking that you experienced much when you were young.
3. 其他动词宾语的补语
23) The average age [ A ] of the Mediterranean [ B ] olive trees grow [ C ] today is two
hundred years [D] .
六、 -ING 结构作状语
-ING 结构作状语表示主语在进行一动作的同时所进行的另一动作,它对谓语动词起修饰或
陪衬的作用。这时要注意-ING 与其逻辑主语在时态、意义上的统一
1. 表示时间和伴随 一般放在句首,有时可放在句中
Coming into the room, I found him sobbing. (=When I came into the room, I found him sobbing.)
在这里 coming 这一-ING 分词动作发生时,紧接着(几乎是同时)发生了谓语动作,有“一…
…就”的意思。
Pulling his body in the car, he drove away.(=After he pulled his body in the car, he drove away.)
24) Those naughty boys were caught flowers in the garden again.
[A]to steal[B]stealing[C] having stolen[D]stolen
25) Daniel walked up and down [ A ] as he listened, hands behind [ B ] his back, now and
then [C] asked [D] a question.
2. 表示方式
Being a clever girl, she was sent to college by her father.( 此例不可改成:Being a clever girl, her
father sent her to college.因为分词短语的逻辑主语不是“her father ”, 而只能是“she ”。)
如果 -ING 分词所表示的动作与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生, -ING 分词前可以加
when,while 等连词,可放在句首或句末: When arriving home, he found the door opened. / He
listened to the music radio while reading.
26) ,Tony jumped into the river and saved the drowning man.
[A] Good swimer as he is [B] He can swim very well
[C] Being that he was a good swimmer [D] Being a good swimmer
27) the kind of man he was, he did not pay much attention to it at first.
[A] To be[B] Being[C] Having been[D] Though to be
28) Was a dancer [A] and blues singer before [B] the age of eight [C] ,Florence Mills
made her [D] vaudeville debut(轻歌舞首演) in 1910.
3. 表示原因
Not having had any letter from Tom, Marry was worried.(=Marry was worried because she did not
have any letter from Tom.)
Having got a headache, I didn't come to the concert. (=Because I got a headache, I didn't come to
the concert.)
29) Most of the people, , could not go to sleep that night after the party.
being so excited
[A] being so excited [B] be so excited [C] being so exciting [D] be so exciting
30) Having the highest marks in his class, .
[A] the college offered him a scholarship [B] he was offered a scholarship by the college
[ C] a scholarship was offered him by the college [ D ] a college scholarship was offered to
him
4. 表示条件:一般放在句首
Knowing anything about it, I will tell you all. (=If I know anything about it, I will tell you all.)
Working diligently, you will pass the entrance exam. (=If you work diligently, you will pass the
entrance exam.)
5. 表示让步:表示让步的 -ING 分词常常由 although/though, even if/though, unless 等连词引
入,一般放在句首
Having great diffculties in the course of working, they finished the task ahead of time.
Buying a lot of reference books for the exam, he failed in it because of the learning method.
Although repeating his words many times, the teacher could not make his students understand the
concret concept of philosophy.
Even if coming by taxi, I will arrive in at least 45 minutes.
6. 表示结果:置于句末,前面要加 so, thereby, thus, hence 等表示结果的副词
He worked day and night, making himself near sighted.
Not making what he meant misunderstood, he adjusted his tones to underline his meaning.
The workers worked 14 hours a day, thus producing products three times as they did last month.
He wished to travel all over the world, thereby studying customs of other countries.
31) The bus was held up by the traffic jam, .
[A] thus causing the delay[B] so that caused the delay
[C] to cause the delay[D] caused the delay
七、-ING 分词作定语
-ING 分词可以单独作定语,也可以构成合成词作定语,但在更多情况下是分词短语作定语,
包括限定性和非限定性 (用逗号与其他部分分开 ),在意义上相当于一个定语从句 (包括限定
性定语从句和非限定性定语从句)
32) Jacob Lawrence executed many cycles of paintings significant social themes.
[A] expressed [B] expressing [C] express [D] expression of
33) The name Nebraska comes from the Oto Indian word “nebrathka”, flat water.
[A] to mean [B] meaning [C] it means [D] by meanig
34) The production of tin ore in the United States is relatively insignificant , less than one
hundred tons annually.
[A] amounting to [B] in the amount [C] amounts to it [D] to the amount of
八、-ING 的完成时、被动语态与否定形式
1. 如果-ING 分词表示的是一般性动作,(即不指明是现在、过去或将来)不表示动作的先后或
与谓语所表示的动作同时或几乎同时发生,这时要用-ING 的一般形式
35) Revolution means the productive forces.
[A] to liberate [B] to have liberated [C] liberating [D] having been liberated
36) It is a simple matter [ A ] to have found [ B ] the density of a gas [ C ] from its
formula [D] .
2. 但如果-ING 分词所表示的动作先于句子谓语发生,就要用“ (not)having+-ED 分词”表示
完成时
37) by the journey, he went to bed immediately after he came back home.
[ A ] Being exhausted [ B ] To have exhausted [ C ] Having exhausted [ D ] Having
been exhausted
38) with an accedent, he arrived at the station ten minutes late.
[A] Having met [B] To have met [C] Meeting [D] Having been met
3. 当非限定性动词 -ING 的逻辑主语是 -ING 所表示的动作对象时要用 -ING 的被动形式,包
括其一般形式“(not)being + -ED 分词和完成形式“(not)having been +-ED 分词”
39) Solids, liquids, and gases at rest all have a tendency to resist in motion.
[A] setting[B] to set[C] being set[D] to be set
40) Upon questioning [ A ] he denied having killed [ B ] the old woman with [ C ] the
home-made [D] gun.
4. -ING 的否定形式是把 not 加在-ING 的前边
41) of the change in the meeting time, Mike arrived late.
[ A ] Not having notified [ B ] Not notifying [ C ] Not to notify [ D ] Not having been
notified
42) I regret hard at school.
[A] not to have worked[B] not having worked [C] not have worked [D ] having not
worked
九、-ING 分词的逻辑主语
1. -ING 分 词 除 了 具 有 动 词 的 特 点 以 外 , 它 还 有 名 词 的 特 点 , 即 可 以 加 物 主 代 词 ( 如
my,your,his 等)和名词的属格(如 Wang Qing's 等)来表示其逻辑主语(这时-ING 的逻辑主语和
句子主语不一致)
43) I suggest on an excursion this Sunday.
[A] we are going [B] to go [C] us going [D] our going
44) on a clear day, far from the city crowds, the mountains give him a sense of infinite peace.
[A] If walking [B] While walking [C] Walking [D] When one is walking
45) Marta [ A ] being chosen [ B ] as the most outstanding [ C ] student on her campus
made her parents [D] very happy.
2. 还有一种-ING 分词的逻辑主语与句子主语不一致的情况,这时直接可用“ -ING 分词的
主语+-ING”来表示,这样的-ING 分词短语可由介词引导。这种结构叫独立结构
46) A new technique , the yields as a whole increased by 20 percent.
[A] to have been worked out [B] having worked out
[C] working out [D] having been worked out
47) Walter offered us a lift when he was leaving the office, but our work , we declined the offer.
[A] not being finished[B] not having finished[C] had not been finished[D] was not
finished
3. 如果逻辑主语已和句子主语一致,那么其逻辑主语就可省略(在使用这种用法时要注意:-
ING 分词所表示的动作 [ZZ(] 一定 [ZZ)] 是主语所发出的,也就是说 -ING 分词的逻辑主语
[ZZ(]一定[ZZ)]是主句的主语。试比较下列句子)
Getting into the room, I smelled a terrible smell.(getting 是 I 的动作)
Getting into the room, it give a terrible smell. (错误)
Walking through the forest, we found many strange animals. (walking 是 we 发出的)
Walking through the forest, a lot of animals are there. (错误)
Looking out of the window of our hotel room, we saw zigzag mountains. (Looking 的使动者是
we)
Looking out of the window of our hotel room, there were zigzag mountians.(错误)
48) Never attempting to be a literary stylist, in her novels.
[A] she considered the plot the most important element
[B] the most important element considered to be the plot
[C] considering the plot the most important element
[D] the plot was considered to be the most important element
49) with the new method, the material does not break up easily.
[A] To have treated [B] Having treated [C] Being treated [D] Having been treated
50) Attempting to reach his home before the storm, .
[A] the bicycle of John broke down[B] it happened that John’s bike broke down
[C] the storm caught John[D] John had an accident on his bicycle
4. -ING 分词的主语可以与做主语的名词或代词(即代词的主格)一致,放在-ING 前边,与
-ING 分词构成逻辑上的“主谓”关系。但是,-ING 分词(还有-ED 分词)短语作状语时,也
可以有自己独立的逻辑上的“主语”。这种结构与主句不发生句法上的联系,叫做独立结构。
在很多情况下它都相当于各种形式的状语,表示一种伴随的动作或情况
51) Weather , we’ll go sightseeing.
[A] permitted[B] is permitted[C] permitting[D] is permitting
52) There are four factories in our institute, .
[A] each to have over 100 workers[B] each having over 100 worders
[C] which there are over 100 workers[D] with each that has over 100 workers
53) We went to [ A ] the World Park, Xiao Wang act [ B ] as guide for [ C ] he had been
there several times [D].
十、习惯用法
1. There is no +-ING 分词,表示“不可能”
There is no getting along with him.(无法和他相处。)
2. It(There) is no use (good) +-ING 分词,表示“无用”= It is of no use (good) to +V:
There(It) is no use advising him to give up smoking.(劝他戒烟是徒劳的。)
3. be busy(worth)+-ING 分词 (忙于)
He is busy mapping out his plans for the next semester.
4. feel like+-ING 分词 (想)
I don’t feel like eating just now.(我现在不想吃。)
5. What do you say to+-ING 分词?(…怎么样?)
What do you say to joining us for dinner?(和我们一起进餐,你看怎么样?)
6. spend+时间+(in)+-ING 分词
Jane spent several days (in) preparing for the final exams.(简花了好几天时间准备期末考试。)7.
difficulty
trouble
have + a problem +(in)+ -ING 分词
a good(hard) time
fun (快乐)
54) The student had [A] difficulty to write [B] a short paragraph [C] correctly [D] .
55) I imagine that [A] I could go to the theater again and have just as good a time [B] not
try to [C] think of an opening sentence [D] .
十一、例题解析
1) B 为正确答案。2) D 为正确答案。3) C 为正确答案。
4) B 错。 改为 to determine,关于动词不定式与-ING 分词的区别请参见第七章“小结”。
5) D 为正确答案。6) B 为正确答案。7) A 为正确答案。8) B 错。改为 using。9) A 错。改为
bringing。
10) C 为正确答案。
11) B 为正确答案。“start+不定式”与“start+-ING”有所不同,前者表示具体动作,后者
表示一般性动作或状态。
12) C 错。改为 comparing。13) B 错。改为 her going。
14) C 错。改为 to keeping。be committed to+名词或-ING 分词,意为“同意承担,答应(干某
事或支持某事)。”
15) A 错。 改为 your leaving。16) B 为正确答案。17) A 为正确答案。18) C 错。改为 to living。
19) C 错。 改为 giving。20) A 为正确答案。21) C 为正确答案。22) A 为正确答案。
23) C 错。改成“growing”。本句中先后出现了两个动词,“grow”和“is”,这显然不合语法。
将“grow”变为“growing”后便构成了-ING 短语,修饰“trees”。[参见第六章]
24) B 为正确答案。 stealing 表示正在进行。 25) D 错。改为 asking。
26) D 为正确答案。27) B 为正
确答案。
28) A 错。改成“Being a dancer”。29) A 为正确答案。30) B 为正确答案。31) A 为正确答案。
32) B 为正确答案。本句空白处缺能起定语作用的词,用来修饰前面的名词 paintings。
33) B 为正确答案。本句空白后面的成分为-ING 短语,相当于“which means…”。C 表面上正
确,但英语中没有连接词连接的两个分句是不能成立的,但我们可以说“ which means” ,
用“which”指代“Nebrathka”。但这样就变成非限定性定语从句了。
34) A 为正确答案。本句相当于一个非限定性定语从句 (which amounts to…),amount(总计) -
不及物动词,故没有-ED 分词。 35) C 为正确答案。36) B 错。 改为 to find。37) D 为正确答案。
38) A 为正确答案。39) C 为正确答案。
40) A 错。Upon being questioned。41) D 为正确答案。42) B 为正确答案。43) D 为正确答案。44)
D 为正确答案。
45) A 错。改为 Marta’s。46) D 为正确答案。47) A 为正确答案。48) A 为正确答案。49) D 为正确
答案。
50) D 为正确答案。51) C 为正确答案。52) B 为正确答案。53) B 错。改为 acting。54) B 错。改为
writing。
55) C 错。改为 trying to。
lesson 19 --ed 分词(一)
 
内 容 提 要
-ED 分词即我们平常所说的动词过去分词。它有两种形式:规则动词形式和不规则动词形式。
规则动词形式由规则动词+-ED 构成;不规则动词有其特殊的-ED 分词。在语法功能上,它
在句子中所能承担的成分基本与-ING 分词相同,可以作表语,定语,状语,也可以用在复
合结构中,不管它作什么成分,其最基本的含义是“被动”的。-ED 分词在语法功能和意义
上与-ING 分词有一定的区别。
第一节 -ED 分词的用法
一、-ED 分词作表语
The glass is broken. / He was amused. / She seemed quite disappointed. / He is greatly
discouraged by her refusal of inviting her to the party. / The window remains locked.
已 经 形 容 词 化 了 的 -ED 分 词 大 都 作 表 语 , 常 见 的 有 : accomplished, amazed, amused,
astonished, broken, closed, completed, complicated, confused, crowded, deserted, devoted,
disappointed, discouraged, dressed, drunk, exhausted, excited, experienced, fadded, fascinated,
frightened, hurt, inexperienced, interested, known, learned, lost, married, pleased, puzzled,
qualified, satisfied, surprised, tired, unprepared, unqualified, unkown, upset, worried, wounded 等。
二、作定语的-ED 分词
-ED 分词可以作前置定语也可以作后置定语,作后置定语时相当于一个定语从句
1) Commercial banks make most of their income from interest on loans and investments in stocks
and bonds.
[A] earn [B] earned [C] to earn[D] was earned
2) On his return from his college, he found the house .
[A] deserting[B] deserted[C] desert[D] to be deserted
3) The age [A] of a geological sample can be estimated [B] from the ratio of radioactive to
nonradioactive carbon present [C] in the object is examined [D] .
三、用作状语的-ED 分词
这样的-ED 分词通常来自及物动词。-ED 分词用作状语时,跟-ING 分词作状语时一样,修饰
主句的谓语动词,意义上相当于状语从句,表示时间,条件,原因,伴随状况等。-ED 分词
结构作状语,前边往往可以加 when,while,if,as if,though。这时,我们可以把-ED 分词结构理
解为一个省略句,即省去了“主语和 be 的变化形式”。一般说来,这种结构的逻辑主语必
须与主句的主语一致。
1. 表示时间
4) Inaugurated a second time on March 4 , 1901 , focused on domestic rather than foreign
policies.
[A] William McKinley’s new term looked forward to and
[B] the new term looked forward to William McKinley and
[C] looking forward to a new term was William McKinley
[D] William McKinley looked forward to a new term
2. 表示条件
5) under a microscope,a fresh snowflake has a delicate sixpointed shape.
[A] Seen [B] Sees [C] Seeing[D] To see
6) to steel,chromium(铬) increases the metal’s hardness.
[A] Added [B] In addition [C] Adding[D] Adds
7) enough food and water, they could have beaten the enemy.
[A] Being given[B] Given[C] Give
[D] To give3. 表示原因
8) Encouraged by his mother, .
[A] art was studied in Florence by John Singer Sargent
[B] Florence was where John Singer Sargent studied art
[C] the study of art in Florence by John Singer Sargent
[D] John Singer Sargent studied art in Florence.
9) by the decision, the lawyer quickly left the court room.
[A] Angering [B] Having angered [C] Being angry [D] Angered
10) Written in great haste, .
[A] Jim made a lot of mistakes in the report [B] there are plenty of errors in the report
[C] we found several mistakes in his report [D] the books is full of errors.
4. 表示伴随状况:-ED 分词结构作状语表示伴随状况时,没有适当的分句可替换
11) was not incorporated as a city until almost two centuries later,in 1834.
[A] Settling Brooklyn,the Dutch [B] The Dutch settled Brooklyn
[C] Brooklyn was settled by the Dutch [D] Settled by the Dutch,Brooklyn
12) Anna was reading a piece of science fiction, completely to the outside world.
[A] being lost[B] having lost[C] losing[D] lost5. 表示让步
13) Francis Preston Blair,Jr., born in Kentucky,lived and practiced law in Missouri.
[A] was [B] he was [C] although [D] who he was 6. 表示结果
14) in all parts of the state, pines are the most common trees in Georgia.
[A] Found [B] Finding them [C] To find them [D] They are found
7. 表示目的
15) They should be kept here this matter.
[A] informing about
[B] be informed
[C] be informed of
[D] informed of8. 表示背景和衬托
16) Known for her caricatures(漫画) of the United States society, .
[A] Peggy Brown wrote and illustrated books for children
[B] the writing and illustrating of books for children by Peggy Brown
[C] children’s books were written and illustrated by Peggy Brown
[D] Peggy Brown’s writing and illustrating of children’s books
17) Well known as a splendid pianist in Boston, .
[A] we all are pleased to hear Mr. Anderson’s concerto(小协奏曲)
[B] a concerto was composed by Mr. Anderson
[C] Mr. Anderson composed a concerto
[D] Mr. Anderson’s concerto was composed
四、-ED 分词在复合结构中
Don’t get your schedule changed; stay with us in this class.
Peter had his gas and electricity turned on when he moved into his new apartment last month.
He kept his mouth shut and stayed where he was.(他闭口不言,呆在原地不动。)
They are talking about the experiment made in the new lab.
五、独立结构
如果-ED 分词短语与-ING 短语带有与句子主语不同的主语,即本短语自己本身带有主语,
这就构成了独立结构 (也叫独立主格结构或垂悬结构 ),这种结构也可作状语表示时间,原
因等。有时在独立结构前还可加介词 with 或 without。
Her eyes filled with tears, she did not notice his coming.
18) This , we went out to play.
[A] was done[B] did[C] was dong[D] done
19) all his followers dead, the commander was taken by his enemy.
[A] For[B] As[C] Because of[D] With
六、例题解析
1) B 为正确答案。空档前是一完整的句子,在没有连词的情况下,不能填充 A 和 D;根据题
意,“利息”是“通过…(被)挣来的”,有被动之意,所以选 B。
2) B 为正确答案。此句的意思是“房子”被“遗弃,没人住”,是被动的意义,而 A 和 C
都不符合这一点。D 是动词不定式,一般表示将来或具体动作,所以 D 也不对。
3) D 错。应去掉多余的“is”,使-ED 分词“examined”作后置定语修饰“object”。C 处并没有
错。“ present” 是形容词,它与后面的成分构成形容词短语修饰限定前面的“ the ratio…
carbon”。
4) D 为 正确 答案 。这 句话 前半 句的 -ED 分 词相 当于 一个 时间 状语 从句 “ When he was
inaugurated a second time …” ,主句的主语应当是人,所以 A 和 D 为可能选项,但 A 中的
look forward to 后应跟名词,那么只有 D 为正确选项。
5) A 为正确答案。本句的意思是“在显微镜下看,雪花……”,显然这里的看是“被观察”
之义。B、C、D 都表示主动,A 为正确选项。
6) A 为正确答案。(同上)
7) B 为正确答案。(同上)
8) D 为正确答案。四个选项中,只有 D 的主语为“John Singer Sargent”(人名) ,而只有人才
能被“encouraged”(鼓舞),也就是说,只有 D 中的主语能充当空白前 -ED 分词短语的逻辑
主语。
9) D 为正确答案。空白处只能用-ED 分词才可和后面的“by”短语发生联系,并且其逻辑主
语和主句主语一致。
10) D 为正确答案。本句的意思是“由于(被)写得急,……”,所以 A 和 C 不对。虽然 B 中的
主语“ plenty of errors” 与“ written” 逻辑上可以呼应,但与“ in the great haste” 不一致。
“Written in great haste”的逻辑主语还是“the books”。所以 D 正确。
11) D 为正确答案。从上下文看,空档处的主语应是表示要点的名词 (“as a city”),那么 A 不
对;B 和 C 都是一分句,而空档后是谓语部分,它们不作为正确选项。
12) D 为正确答案。
13) C 为正确答案。
14) A 对。本句的主语为 pines(松树) ,这样就排除了 B 选项,因为-ING 分词表主动,而“
松树”不可能是“找”(find)这个动作的逻辑主语,即动作发出者。故只有 A“found”(被发现
的逻辑主语与“pines”一致,应选 A。
15) D 为正确答案。
16) A 为正确答案。空档前是-ED 分词短语,空档处应是主谓俱全句,排除 B 和 D。从-ED 分
词短语中(Known for her …)可知,主句的主语是人而不是物,所以 C 也不对。
17) C 为正确答案。(同上)
18) D 为正确答案。A 是不对的,如果 we 前加上 and,才能选 A。
19) D 为正确答案。

lesson 20 --ed 分词(二)

不定式、-ING 分词和-ED 分词三者间的关系


一、动词不定式与-ING 分词的区别
1. 作宾语时,-ING 分词表示抽象的、一般性或习惯性的和连续性的动作,而不定式则表示
某次具体动作,特别是将来的动作
I like playing football. I would like to play football this afternoon.
1) The school cannot tolerate on exams.
[A] cheating [B] to cheat [C] be cheated [D] being cheated
2) News of success keeps in.
[A] pouring [B] to pour [C] poured [D] to be pouring
3) Long [A] before the dawn [B] of recorded [C] history, humans celebrated to harvest
[D] their crops.
2. 作定语时, -ING 表示正在进行的动作,用 -ING 的完成时表示动作的完成;不定式表示
未来发生
4) We were overjoyed at the news of China another man-made satellite.
[A] having launched [B] to have launched [C] to launch [D] launched
5) The applicants interviewing [ A ] are required to [ B ] bring all the necessary papers
[C] two days later [D] .
6) Sorghum( 高梁 ) leaves [ A ] occasionally contain [ B ] enough hydrocyanic acid killing
[C] livestock(牲畜) [D] .
3. 当谓语动词是进行时的时候,用不定式而不用-ING 分词作宾语
It's beginning to snow you. It starts raining.
I'm considering how to go(where to go, what to do). I considered emplying Mr.Wang but
decided that Mr.Chen was more suited
to the job.
4. 在 remember,forget 等词后,如果跟 -ING 分词,表示 -ING 分词的动作发生在主要谓语之
前;如果跟不定式则表示不定式的动作发生在主要谓语动作之后
I remember telling her that last night. (“告
诉”发生在“记得”之前) He remembered to tell her that when she
came back. (“记得”发生在“告诉”之前)
I'm sorry I forgot to give you the message. (主
语动词表示的动作“忘记”发生在不定式表
示的动作“给带口信”之前) Why! I have such a bad memory. I forgot
giving the message last night. (-ING 分词
表示的动作“给带口信”发生在谓语动词表
示的动作“忘记”之前)
5. stop, go on 和 leave off 之后跟接动词不定式和-ING 分词所表达的意义有所不同
They stopped (talking) to work. [停下(其他动作)来工作]
They stopped working. [停下工作(来干其他动作)]
Workers went on discussing the problem. [工人继续讨论这一问题]
Workers went on to discuss the problem.[工人们停下来其他事,继续讨论这一问题]
He left off writing.[他停下写作(去干其他事)]
He left off to write.[他停下(其他事)来写作]
6. … used to 后跟不定式和-ING 分词,后跟不定式有两种情况:一种是 used to 是固定用法
表示“过去经常干……”;另外一种情况是 use 的被动词态“ be used” 后跟不定式;后跟 -
ING 分词的情况有一种,那就是当 used to 中的 used 是形容词时,to 后跟名词或-ING 分词
7) When he was in the plastic plant, he together with the workers.
[A] has worked [B] had worked [C] had been worked [D] used to work
8) You will soon this climate and then the changes in temperature will not affect you.
[A] get used to[B] get to[C] get over[D] get on with
9) Mr. Anderson used to jogging [A] in the crisp morning [B] air during [C] the winter
months [D] , but now he has stopped.
7. 一般情况下,for 后边跟接 there to be,而 of 后边则跟接 there being
10) It is fairly common in Africa for there an ensemble of expert musicians surrounded by others
who join in by clapping, singing, or somehow adding to the totality of musical sound.
[A] to be [B] being [C] to have been [D] having been
8. be+形容词后面要跟动词不定式作状语,而不用-ING
It is very difficult to manage the company.
二、-ING 分词与-ED 分词的区别
虽然在语法功能上,-ED 分词在句子中所能承担的成分基本与-ING 分词相同,但在意义上
两者有差别:-ING 分词表示主动的意义,而-ED 分词则表示被动的意义;-ING 分词表示一
般性的或正在进行的动作,而-ED 分词则表示已经完成和被动的动作。在表现形式上,-ING
分词有“一般式”和“完成式”与“主动式”和“被动式”之分;而 -ED 分词只有一种形
式。下边我们分析-ING 分词与-ED 分词在语法功用上的区别。
1. 作表语时,-ING 分词表示主语所具有的特征而-ED 分词表示主语所处的状态
The book is quite interesting. I am insteredted in the book very much.
The play is more exciting than any I have
ever seen.That piece of land lay deserted.
2. 作状语时-ING 分词表示主语正在进行的另一动作而-ED 分词则表示主语发生动作的背景
或情况 11) In his movies,W. C. Fields was always at war with the world, .
[A] battling both people and objects
[B] both people and objects were battled
[C] he was battling both people and objects
[D] both people and objects that were battled
13) Having been served lunch, .
[A] the problem was discussed by the members of the committee
[B] the committee members discussed the problem
[C] it was discussed by the committee members the problem
[D] a discussion of the problem was made by the members of the committee
12) for her anthropological research , Margaret Mead also was involved with the World
Federation for Mental Health.
[A] She is noted primarily
[B] Noted primarily
[C] Primarily is noted
[D] She primarily noted
14) Considered one of the leading poets in America today, .
[A] a number of books and plays have also been written by Sonia Sanchez
[B] Sonia Sanchez has also written a number of books and plays
[C] a number of Sonia Sanchez’s books and plays have been written
[D] there have been a number of books and plays written by Sonia Sanchez
3. ① 作定语时,-ING 分词表示正在进行的动作,而-ED 分词表示动作发生在谓语动词之前
②-ING 分词表示它所修饰的词经常或当时的状态,而 -ED 分词则没有时间性;③-ING 分词
表示主动,而-ED 分词表示被动
15) The boiled [A] point of any liquid [B] is determined [C] by the pressure [D] of
the surrounding gases.
16) High-grade [ A ] written [ B ] paper is frequently [ C ] obtained [ D ] from cotton
rags.
17) Scientists [ A ] still cannot find [ B ] any convinced [ C ] link between intelligence
[D] and the quantity or quality of brain cells.
4. 但少数几个动词的-ED 分词,有两种形式而且在意义上有差别,如: bear 的-ED 分词有
born 和 borne 之分,前者只用于“出生”的意义,而后者用于“负担”,“负荷”,“承
担”和“传送”之意
I was born in 1966.
His borne responsibility to the whole workers of the factory is really great.
再如:hang 的-ED 分词也有两种,一是 hung,另一形式是 hanged, 前者表示“悬挂”,后者
表示“吊死,绞死”。strike 的-ED 分词也有两种:struck 和 striken, 前者有“打击”“冲击
”“感动”等义,而 striken 只用作形容词,表示“受折磨”之意。
来自及物动词的 -ED 分词所表示的是被动意义;来自不及物动词的 -ED 分词则可表示主动
和完成的意义:fallen leaves (落叶),a full-blown rose (盛开的玫瑰), escaped prinsoners(逃犯),
the exploded bomb, her deceased husband, the retired workers, the vanished jewels, the newly
arrived visitors, the returned students, the risen sun.
三、例题解析
1) A 为正确答案。(一般性的动作。) 2) A 为正确答案。(连续的动作。)
3) D 错。 改为 harvesting(抽象的动作)。 4) A 为正确答案。(已完成的动作。)
5) C 错。改为 to be interviewed(将要发生的动作)。 6) C 错。改为 to kill(不定或未来动作)。
7) D 为正确答案。(过去经常或总是干……) 8) A 为正确答案。(习惯于……used 是形容词)
9) A 错。改为 jog。(表示过去经常或总是干……) 10) A 为正确答案。 11) A 为正确答案。
12) B 为正确答案。本句是由-ED 分词“noted”引导的-ED 结构,在句中说明主句谓语的背景
13) B 为正确答案。 14) B 为正确答案。-ED 分词“considered”的逻辑主语应为人,除 B
外的其他选项都无法和空白前-ED 结构在逻辑主语上一致。
15) A 错。改为 boiling。-ED 分词含有完成和被动的意思,-ING 分词则表示主动、进行,也可
用作前置定语表示性状、用途。如:“boiling water(water which is boiling.)”意思是“开水”,
意即“正在开着的水”,而“ boiled water(water which has been boiled.)” 虽也可译为“开水
”,但表示“已开过了的水 (现在可能凉了)。”本句 A 处应改为 boiling,“boiling point”意
思是“沸点”。
16) B 错。改用“writing”,“writing paper”意为“写字的纸,信纸”,-ING 分词“writing”
表用途。与此类似的还有“swimming pool”(游泳池) ,“sleeping car”(卧铺) 。“written”含有
完成和被动意味,不合上下文。
17) C 错。改为“convincing”。“令人信服的联系”应为“convincing link”,“convincing”含
有主动的意味,即“联系” (link)本身具有这种性质,而“ convinced”则含有完成或被动的
含义, 修饰有生命的名词 。试比较:a surprising man (使人惊讶的人) ,a surprised man (被
惊吓了的人) 。

英语语法归纳与练习
编者按:从 2002 年起,研究生英语考试取消了语法、词汇等基础知识的考查,将此部分改
考为听力。但取消了此部分知识点的考查并不意味着英语语法等基础知识的不重要。根据以
往英语取得高分同学的经验和海文英语辅导名师的建议,他们都一致认为英语语法和词汇
是学好、考好英语的重要基础,其实完形填空是对语法、词汇的综合考查,但更关键的是学
好此部分有助于对英语句子结构的分析和理解,有助于学生掌握灵活多变的句式,这样不
仅有助于学生做好阅读理解,而且有助于学生做好英译汉,写好作文。因此,我们在此编写
了有关重点语法的知识点,并将陆续登出,同时将刊登一些试题。希望同学们认真掌握,切
不可因不靠它们而忽视了对英语基础知识的掌握。
(一)情态动词
一.情态动词的现在完成式的用法
情态动词现在完成式主要有两个功能:表示已经发生的情况和表示虚拟语气。在这两个方
面 must/mustn’t,;can/cann’t;need/needn’t;may/mayn’t;might/mightn’t;should/shouldn’t;
ougtht 等情态动词+完成式表示的意思是有一定区别的
1.表示已经发生的情况。
1)must have+过去分词,表示对已发生情况的肯定推测,译为“(昨天)一定……”。如:

My pain apparent the moment I walked into the room, for the first man I met asked
sympathetically:” Are you feeling all right?”
[A] must be [B] had been [C] must have been [D] had to be
(答案为 ) C
2)can’t / couldn’t have+过去分词,表示对已发生情况的否定推测,译为“(昨天)一定没
……”。如:
Mary my letter; otherwise she would have replied before now.
[A] couldn’t have received [B] ought to have received
[C] has received [D] shouldn’t have received
(答案为 A)
3)may / might have +过去分词,表示对已发生的事情做不肯定、可能性很小的推测,或事
实上根本没发生,译为“也许……”。如:
At Florida Power’s Crystal River plant, a potentially serious leakage of radioactive water may
have been unknowingly caused by an electrician.
2.表示虚拟语气。
1) needn’t have + 过去分词,表示做了不必做的事,相当于” didn’t need to do”, 译为“其实
没必要……”。如:
You needn’t have come over yourself.
As it turned out to be a small house party, we so formally.
[A] needn’t dress up [B]did not need have dressed up
[C] did not need dress up [D] needn’t have dressed up
(没有必要穿的那么正式,体现是说话者的建议,实际结果是否真的穿的很正式没有确定,
答案为 D)
2)should have +过去分词,表示应该做某事但实际上未做,译为“本应该……” should not
+ have 过去分词表示本不应该做某事但实际上做了,译为“本不应该……”。如:
I regret having left the work unfinished; I should have planned everything ahead carefully.
我本来应该事先认真地把每件事情规划的很好,但实际上作者还是没有规划好,以至工作
没有完成。
3) ought to have +过去分词,表示动作按理该发生了,但实际上未发生,译为“该……”,
与 should 的完成式含义类似。如:
T he porter ought to have called the fire-brigade as soon as he saw the fire in the stock, which
went up in smoke .
4) could have +过去分词,表示过去本来可以做但却未做,译为“完全可以……”。这点与
ought/should/ have +过去分词用法相似。如:
What you said is right, but you could have phrased it more tactfully.
5) may/ might have + 过去分词,表示过去可以做但实际未做,译为“(那样)也许会……
”。如:
It might have been better to include more punchy statistics and photos of equipment in the
introduction to further assist first-time office automation managers.
二.几个情态动词常考的句型:
1).may/might (just) as well “不妨,最好”,与 had better 相近;
Since the flight was cancelled, you might as well go by train.
既然航班已经取消了,你不妨乘火车吧。相当于 you had better go by train。
2) . cannot / can’t…too …“ 越……越好,怎么也不过分”。注意这个句型的变体 cannot…
over….如:
You cannot be too careful when you drive a car.驾车时候,越小心越好。
The final chapter covers organizational change and development. This subject cannot be over
emphasized .
3) .usedn’t 或 did’t use to 为 used to (do) 的否定式。
4).should 除了“应该”一层意思外,考研大纲还规定要掌握其“竟然”的意思。如: I
didn’t expect that he should have behaved like that. 我无法想象他竟然这样做。
三.情态动词被动关系的主动表达法
1. want, require, worth(形容词)后面接 doing 也可以表示被动意义。
Your hair wants cutting
The book is worth reading
The floor requires washing.
2.need 既可以用 need to be done 也可以使用 need doing ,两种形式都表达被动的意义
The house needs painting= the house needs to be painted.
The watch needed repairing= the watch needed to be repaired.
(二) 形容词、副词及比较级最高级
一.形容词的修饰与位置
一般来说,从构词法角度来看,后缀”ly”往往是副词,但有的以“ly’结尾的词是形容词
而不是副词,这点要注意;形容词一般可以在句子中做定语,表语等成份,但有些形容词
在句子中只能做表语和只能做前置定语;这些形容词在修饰时候有一定的特殊性要引起大
家的注意,下面做了一下归纳:
1 以-ly 结尾的是形容词而不是副词:
costly 昂贵的 lonely 孤独的
deadly 死一般的 lively 活泼的
friendly 友好的 silly 傻气的
kindly 热心肠的 likely 可能的
leisurely 悠闲的 ugly 长得丑的
brotherly 兄弟般的 monthly 每月的
earthly 尘世的
2 只作以“a”开头的很多形容词只能做表语:
afraid 害怕的 alike 相象的
awake 醒着的 alone 单独的,惟一的
alive 活着的 ashamed 羞愧的
asleep 睡着的 aware 意识到的、察觉到的
well 健康的 content 满意的
unable 无能的
3 只作前置定语的形容词
earthen 泥土做的,大地的 daily 每日的 latter 后面的
golden 金子般的 weekly 每周的 inner 里面的
silken 丝一般的 monthly 每月的 outer 外面的
wooden 木制的 yearly 每年的 elder 年长的
woolen 毛织的 former 前任的 mere 仅,只不过
only 惟一的 sheer 纯粹的 very 恰好的
little 小的 live 活的

4.下列动词既是实义动词又是系动词,注意用做系动词时,要求形容词做表语:
remain keep become, get, grow, go, come, turn, stay, stand, run, prove, seem, appear, look。
如 : All those left undone may sound great in theory, but even the truest believer has great
difficulty when it comes to specifics.
二.形容词与副词的比较级与最高级
1. 考比较级时,考生应把握:
1)形容词和副词比较级的形式是否和比较连词对应出现,即是否符合原级比较及比较级
的结构。如:
Do you enjoy listening to records? I find records are often , or better than an actual
performance.
[A]as good as [B]as good [C]good [D]good as
在这里 as good as 比较连词与 better than 比较连词同时出现时候,不能省略任何一个介词。
答案为 A
On the whole, ambitious students are more likely to succeed in their studies than are those with
little ambition.
2)比较的成分是否属于同类事物或同类概念,既是说比较要具有可比性。如:
The number of registered participants in this year’s marathon was half .
[A] of last year’s [B]those of last year’s
[C]of those of last year [D] that of last year’s
(前后相比的应该是今年和去年注册参加的人数“the number of”故代替它的应该是单数指
示代词“that”,而不能选择 B,those 是指代 participants,不是同类对比,答案为 D。
Young readers, more often than not, find the novels of dickens far more exciting than Thackeray’s.
3)比较级与倍数词关系及其位置
原级结构中可插入表达倍数的词,表示为“为….若干倍”,当与有表示倍数比较的词在一起
时候等,他们的位置是,倍数词+as…as…,或倍数词+more…than…,但 again 一般放在原级
词之后,即 “as+原级+again+as”.如:
Smoking is so harmful to personal health that it kills people each year than automobile
accidents.
[A] seven more times [B] seven times more
[C] over seven times [D] seven times
(答案为 B)
“Do you regret paying five hundred dollars for the painting?”“No, I would gladly have paid
for it.”
[A] twice so much [B] twice as much
[C] as much twice [D] so much twice
(答案为 B)
My uncle is as old again as I am
4)下列词和短语不用比较级形式却表示比较概念:
inferior, minor, senior, prior, prefer to, superior, major, junior, preferable, differ from, compared
with, in comparison with, different from, rather than. 如:
Their watch is to all the other watches on the market.
[A] superior [B] advantageous [C] super [D] beneficial
(答案为 A)
Prior to his departure, he addressed a letter to his daughter. (1986 年考研题)
5 )“比较级+ and + 比较级”或“ more and more/less and less + 原级”以及“ ever, steadily,
daily 等副词+比较级”结构表示“越来越……”的意思,与这类结构搭配的常用动词有
grow, get ,become 等。前面两种情况更多地出现在进行时态中,注意的是这三种情况引导的
比较级后面都不需要用 than.如:
Things are getting worse and worse.
As I spoke to him he became less and less angry.
Her health was becoming daily worse
The road got ever worse until there was no road at all = the road got worse and worse.
6) 比较级前面可以用 even, still, yet ,all the (more) 等修饰语用以加强语气,表示“更加”的
意思。如
Today it is even colder than yesterday
I have yet more exciting news for you
7) 有关比较级的特殊句型:
A): not so much…as…与其说……不如说……
The chief reason for the population growth isn’t so much a rise in birth rates a fall in death
rates as a result of improvements in medical care.
[A] and [B] as [C]but [D] or
人口增长的主要原因与其说是因为出生率的提高,还不如说是因为医疗的进步带来的死亡
率下降的结果。答案为 B
B) no/not any more…than…两者一样都不……
The heart is intelligent than the stomach, for they are both controlled by the brain.
[A] not so [B]not much [C]much more [D] no more
(心脏和胃两者都不具有智力,他们都受大脑控制。答案为 D)
There is no reason they should limit how much vitamin you take, they can limit how much
water you drink.
[A] much more than [B] no more than
[C] no less than [D] any more than
(答案为 D)
C)no/not any less…than…两者一样,都……注意基本上与 no/not any more…than 意思相反
She is no less beautiful than her sister.她和她姐姐一样漂亮
D)just as… so… 正如……, ……也……(用倒装结构)
Just as the soil is a part of the earth, the atmosphere.
[A] as it is [B] the same is [C] so is [D] and so is
(答案为 C)
2.最高级形式应注意的问题:
1)最高级比较范围用介词 in, over, of, among。
in, (all) over 用于在某一范围内的比较,如:in China, all over the world.
of, among 用于在同一群体内同类事物的比较,如:among the teachers, of the four dresses.
注意:among…相当于 one of …,不说 among all…。这一点考生应与汉语表达区别开来
如:
all visible lights, red light has the longest and violet the shortest wavelength.
[A] Among [B] Of [C]For [D]To 答案为[B]
2)比较级形式表示最高级意义时,比较对象的范围应用:
any other +单数名词
the other +复数名词
the others
anyone/anything else
上述词是用业将比较级结构转变成最高级意义的关键词语,切不可遗漏,尤其是 other,否
则会造成逻辑混乱的错误。如不能说:John runs faster than anyone.注意与汉语表达的不同。
3)most 可以用来修饰形容词或副词,意思相当于 very,用法区分单复数,但不能用定冠
词 the,如:a most interesting book, most expensive restaurants , 要注意与 “ the +形容词最
高级+of + 名词”的结构表示的最高级的区别,如:
He spoke in the warmest of voices
They have been most kind to me
Basketball is the most popular of sports in this country.
Chinese is the most difficult of language
Chinese is a most difficult language
三.不用比较级和最高级的形容词:
1)表示颜色的有:white, black
2)表示形态的有:round, square, oval, circular, triangular(三角形),level
3) 表示性质和特征的有: atomic, economic, scientific, sonic, golden, silvery, woolen, earthen,
silent, full, empty, sure, dead, deaf, blind, lame, rainy
4)表示状态作表语的有:afraid, asleep, alive, ashamed, alone, aware, alike
5) 表示时间、空间和方位的有: daily, weekly, monthly, annual, present, front, back, forward,
backward, east, west, south, north, left, right, final
6)表示极限、主次、等级的有:maximum, minimum, utmost, main, major, chief minor, superior,
inferior, senior, junior, super, favorite
7)含有绝对概念的有:absolute, entire, whole, total, perfect, excellent, thorough, complete.
四.平行结构与比较级
平行结构很多情况下是由形容词或副词的比较级或者暗含比较意味的连词引导的。如:
The ideal listener stays both inside and outside the music at the moment it is played and enjoys it
almost as much as the composer at the moment he composes.
大多数情况下平行结构都是具有一定的比较含义的,有的是递进对比 not only…but (also)
;prefer…to…;rather than 有 的 是 同 类 对 比 : and ;but ; or ; both… and… ; either…or…;
neither…nor…..
平行结构测试时候注意以下几点:
1.注意比较结构中相比较的内容在语法形式上是否相同。如:
It is better to die one’s feet than .
[A]living on one’s knees [B]live on one’s knees
[C]on one’s knees [D]to live on one’s knees
(答案为 D)
Despite the temporary difficulties, the manager prefers increasing the output to decreasing it.
2.其他具有并列或比较意义的短语也可引导平行结构。
1)rather than, let alone 虽不是并列连词,但在结构上连接两个语法形式相同的成分。如:
We are taught that a business letter should be written in a formal style in a personal style.
[A]rather than [B]other than [C]better than [D]less than
答案为 A
For the new country to survive, for its people to enjoy prosperity, new economic policies will
be required.
[A] to name a few [B]let alone [C]not to speak [D]let’s say
(答案为 B)
2)如果平行的两个成分在形式上是介词短语,而且介词相同,一般说来第二个介词不要省
略。如:
At times, more care goes into the composition of newspaper and magazine advertisements than
into the writing of the features and editorials.
(三)代词及其指代一致
一.代词的指代
1.that 的指代作用
that 指代不可数名词和单数可数名词(如是复数,用 those),后面通常跟有修饰语,如出
现在比较结构中的 that of。如
Conversation calls for a willingness to alternate the role of speaker with that of listener, and it
calls for occasional “digestive pauses” by both.这里 that 指代前面的 the role。
No bread eaten by men is so sweet as that earned by his own labor.
2.one 的指代作用
one 指代带不定冠词的单数可数名词,复数为 ones。the one 指代带定冠词的单数可数名词。
如:
A good writer is who can express the commonplace in an uncommon way.
[A] that [B]he [C]one [D]this
答案为[C]
3.do 的替代作用。
do 代替动词,注意数和时态的变化。如:
For him to be re-elected, what is essential is not that his policy works , but that the public believe
that it does.
二.代词指代一致问题
代词指代一致是指指代的名词在性、数、格上是否一致,或者所照应的名词词组在某些方面
保持一致。
Each cigarette a person smokes does some harm, and eventually he may get a serious disease form
its effect.
这里 he 指代前面的 person。
It was during the 1920’s that the friendship between the two American writers Hemingway and
Fitzgerald reached its highest point.
这里 its 指代前面的两人的 friendship。
Our department was monitored by two supervisors, Bill and me.
这里 me 必须用宾格形式。
代词指代一致必须注意以下几个原则和规律:
1.邻近和靠近原则
由 either … or, neither…nor, not only…but (also) 连接先行词时候,如果两个先行词在数和性
上保持一致,就用其相应的一直的人称代词;如果两个先行词在数或性上不一致,人称代
词一般与邻近的先行词在数和性上保持一致。
Neither Mary nor Alice has her key with her.
Neither the package nor the letters have reached their destination
If either David or Janet comes , he or she will want a drink
2 .当 each, everyone, everybody, no one ,none ,anybody, someone, somebody 用作主语或主语
的限定词时候,或者 anything, nothing, something everything 等不定代词作主语时候,其相应
的代词一般按照语法一致原则,采取单数形式。如:
Everybody talked at the top of his voice.
None of the boys can do it , can he?
Everything is ready, isn’t it”
3.当主语为复数形式,后跟 each 作同位语时,如果 each 位于动词之前,其后的代词或相
应的限定词用复数形式;如果 each 位于动词之后,其后的代词或相应的限定词用单数形式。
如:
They each have two coats
we are each responsible for his own family
4.由 and 连接两个先行词,代词用复数
如:the tourist and businessmen lost their luggage in the accident

(三) 主谓一致问题
主谓一致是指主语与谓语在数上要一致。把握主谓一致问题,考生主要解决的是对不同结构
的主语单复数的认定,进而选择适当的谓语。解决主谓一致主要遵循三个原则:
语法一致原则 意义一致原则 就近一致原则
很多情况下应该综合利用这三个原则来处理主谓一致,在不同情况下可能应用三个原则中
的不同原则,具体应用哪种原则应该视具体情况而定。总结如下:
一.谓语动词用单数的情况
1.动名词短语、不定式短语、名词性从句做主语,谓语用单数。如:
Buying clothes is often a time-consuming job because those clothes that a person likes are rarely
the cones that fit him or her.
(1987 年考研题)
To understand the situation completely requires more thought than has been given thus far.
2.表示时间、距离、金额、重量、面积、体积、容积等度量的名词短语做主语时,谓语用单数。
Two weeks was too long
Five times five makes twenty five
3.一般用 and 连接的两个单词或短语做主语时候,谓语用复数,但是下面用 and 连接的
主语表示一个概念,谓语用单数:
law and order 法制 soap and water 肥皂水
a cup and saucer 茶杯碟子 fork and knife 刀叉
the needle and thread 针线 trial and error 反复尝试,不断摸索
horse and carriage 马车 time and tide 岁月
bread and butter 奶油面包 the ebb and flow 盛衰,潮涨潮落
如: If law and order not preserved, neither the citizen nor his property is safe.
A. is B. are C. was d. were
答案:A。
4.表示学科和某些疾病名称的名词是复数形式,作主语时候谓语动词用单数形式
Linguistics is a branch of study on human language.
5.有些名词形式上是复数,意义上是单数,根据意义一致原则动词用单数
The chaos was stopped by the police
The news is a great encouragement to us
A series of debates between the lectures was scheduled for the next weekend.
6.用 and 连接的成份表示一个单一概念时候,动词谓语用单数形式
Bread and butter is our daily food
Time and tide waits for no man
二. 谓语用复数情况
1. 由 and, both …and, 连接的并列主语,和 both ,a few, many ,several 等修饰语后面谓语动
词通常用复数形式。
Few people know he and I were classmates when we were at college.
2.集体名词 police, public, militia, cattle ,class ,youth 后常用复数形式的动词
The Chinese people are brave and hardworking
The cattle are grazing in the sunshine
3.当表示民族的词与冠词合用当主语,谓语动词用复数形式
The Japanese were once very aggressive
4.某些形容词前面加定冠词表示一类人,做主语时候,谓语动词用复数
The rich are not always selfish
5.不可数名词作主语,其前有表示数量的复数名词修饰时,谓语动词用复数
Three million tons of coal were exported that year
三.谓语动词可用单数,也可以用复数的情况
1. 就近一致原则
这种情况下,谓语动词使用单数还是复数取决于最靠近该动词的主语的单复数,存在这种
情况的主要由以下几种可能:
1) 由连词 either…or…; neither…nor…; whether… or…;not only…but (also) ;or 等连接的并
列主语
Neither money nor fame has influence on me
Not only you but also he is wrong
2) 在倒装结构中,谓语动词与后面的第一个主语一致
Blocking the open-sided porch, framed by the enveloping fog, stands a tall grave-faced policeman.
Just outside the ruins is a magnificent building surrounded by tall trees.
Although a great number of houses in that area are still in need of repair, there has been
improvement in the facili
2 . 主 语 带 有 ( together/along ) with, such as, accompanied by, as well as, no less than,
except, besides, with, combined with, in addition to , including, together with 等等附加成分,
谓语的数不受附加成分的影响仍然与主语保持一致
Professor Taylor , with six of his students ,is attending a conference in Boston organized to
compare current practice in the United States with those of other nations.
The president of the college, together with the deans, is planning a conference for the purpose of
laying down certain regulations. (1981 年考研题)
3.关系代词做主语的定语从句中,谓语的数要与先行词一致。如:
Despite much research, there are still certain elements in the life cycle of the insect that are not
fully understood.
(1996 年考研题)
There are many valuable services which the public are willing to pay for, but which do not bring a
return in money to the community.
(1990 年考研题)
4.一些表示数量的短语与名词连用时候,谓语动词的数取决于名词的数,名词是复数,谓
语动词用复数,反之就用单数。这些短语包括: a lot of /lots of; plenty of/heaps of; half of;
two-third (three-fourth…) of; eighty(ten, twenty…) percent; part of; rest of ; none of 等等
Two-thirds of people present are women
Lots of damage was caused by the fire
5.集体名词作主语时,谓语动词的数取决于主语表示的意思和数,当表示整体时候,谓语
动词就用单数,当强调集体中的个体时候,谓语动词就用复数。这些集体名词如: army,
audience, band ,government ,group ,flock, police, public ,staff ,team ,troop. Crowd, firm, family
等等
The family is the basic unit of our society
The family were watching the TV
The audience was enormous
The audience were greatly moved at the words
6.某些固定结构中主语与谓语的数:
第一组:
a great many + 可数名词复数 谓语用复数
a number of + 可数名词复数 谓语用复数
the majority of + 可数名词复数 谓语用复数
第二组;
the number of + 可数名词复数 谓语用单数
each/every + 可数名词复数 谓语用单数
neither/either of + 可数名词复数 谓语用单数
one and a half + 可数名词复数 谓语用单数
第三组;
more than one + 可数名词单数 谓语用单数
many a + 可数名词单数 谓语用单数
第四组;
the greater part of
a large proportion of
50% of
one third of
plenty of
the rest of
谓语的数与 of 后面的名词一致
第五组;
(n)either…(n)or….
not only….. but also ……
not …..but ……
谓语的数与主语的第二部分(即(n)or/ but also/ but 引导的后面部分)一致.
注意比较:
More students than one have been referred to
More than one student is going to buy this book
(四)倒装结构
倒装是指句子成分不是按主语在前、谓语在后的正常语序排列,而是将谓语或谓语的一部分
移到主语之前。倒装是一种修辞手段,目的是为了强调。倒装分为部分倒装和全部倒装,考
试多为部分倒装。考生应掌握什么情况下需要倒装 ,并对倒装后的句子能够认出来,避免做
题时候的盲目和迷茫。
一. 用全部倒装的情况
全部倒装一般是存在以下列副词开头的句子中,全部倒装的方法是把句子的主谓语序颠倒
过来,把谓语移到主语前面:
1)出于修辞需要,表示方向的副词:out, down, in ,up, away, on。如:
Down jumped the burglar from the tenth floor when he heard someone shouted at him.
Up went the plane
2)出于习惯用法:here, there, now, thus, hence, then.如:
Now is your turn. There goes the bell.
Here is a ticket for you
There existed a certain doubt among the students as to the necessity of work
注意:here,there 用于倒装结构时主语一般为名词,如果是人称代词则不需要倒装
“ where is the cup?” “Here it is!”
Here you are.
There he comes.
3)有时主语较长,为了使句子平衡,避免头重脚轻,主谓要全部倒装。这种情况多出现在主
系表结构中。如:
Less important than ever is developing a meaningful philosophy of life.
In between these two extremes are those people who agree with the jury system as a whole, but
feel that some changes need to be implemented to improve its effectiveness.
二. 采用部分倒装情况
部分倒装一般是把句子谓语的一部分(主要是助动词或系动词)放到句子主语前,构成部
分倒装,而全部倒装则把句子的谓语(包括实义动词)都放在主语前
1.下列否定词及含有否定意义的词组修饰状语时,若置于句首,句子的主谓要部分倒装,:

never, no, neither, not only, hardly, scarcely, little, seldom, rarely, not until, nowhere, at no time,
on no account, in no respect, in no sense, by no means, in vain, still less。如:
Not only is its direct attack on their discipline, it bypasses the essence of what sociologists focus
on.
Under no circumstances should we do anything that will benefit ourselves but harm the interests
of the state.
(1985 年考研题)
注:1)如果谓语动词是单个实义动词,倒装时需根据人称和时态加助动词 do。如:
Little did we expect that he would fulfill his task so rapidly.
(1983 年考研题)
2)考生要广义理解“句首”的概念,注意从句的句首和并列分句的句首均为句首。如:
Suddenly, Gallup’s name was on everyone’s lips; not only was he the prophet of the moment, but
it was generally believed that he had founded a new and most important method of prediction.
2.以 only 修饰状语(副词,介词短语,状语从句)开头的句子,句子的主谓要部分倒装 :

only then, only at that time, only once, only in this way, only with, only through, only by, only
when, only after, only because。如:
Only when you have obtained sufficient data come to a sound conclusion.
[A]can you [B]would you [C]you will [D]you can
3.以下列副词或短语开头的句子,句子的主谓要部分倒装:
often, so, well, to such a degree, to such an extent, to such extremes, to such a point, many a time。
如:
So involved with their computers that leaders at summer computer camps often have to force
them to break for sports and games.
[A]became the children [B]become the children
[C]had the children become [D]do the children become
(2001 年考研题,答案为 D)
4.比较从句的倒装:
as, than 引导的比较从句中,如果主语是名词短语且较长,经常采用倒装结构(不倒装也可
以)。注意:这种结构主语一般为名词,如果是代词则不倒装。如:
Hydrogen burns much more cleanly than do other fuels and is easy to produce.
Today’s electuic cars cannot go as fast as gasoline-driven vehicles because the battery does not
offer the same amount of energy as does gasoline combustion.
Reading is to the mind as is exercise to the body.
5.用于前面所说的情况也适用于另一人(物)的肯定句或否定句中的倒装
1) 肯定重复倒装用:so
They have got up, and so has jack
2) 否定重复倒装用:nor, neither, no more
If you don’t agree to our plan, neither will they
6 .“not only..but also” 结构时,如果 not only 放在句首,则前半句 but (also) 句子后面不倒

Not only did we lose all our money, but we also came close to being broke.
三. 特殊的倒装结构
特殊形式的倒装结构是指句子虽然是倒装结构,但不是主谓倒装,而往往是出于强调的需
要,把强调部分移到句首,而其它部分顺序不需要改变,句子主谓不需要倒装。出现这样的
情况有以下几种可能:
1.让步从句的倒装。
1)as 引导让步状语从句,必须采用倒装结构,但不是主谓倒装,而是将被强调的内容置于
句首。如:
Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone to equal her, in thoroughness, whatever the job.
Brave as they are, they are afraid of fight
2).出现在句型 be+主语+其他,come what may 中。如:
While it’s true that we all need a career, preferably a profitable one, it is equally true that our
civilization has accumulated an incredible amount of knowledge—be it scientific or artistic.
The business of each day selling goods or shipping them, went quite smoothly.
[A] it being [B] be it [C] was it [D] it was (答案为 B)
3) no matter how(who…);however 引导的让步状语从句必须采用倒装结构,但不是主谓倒装 ,
而是将被强调的内容置于句首。如:
No matter how busy he is , he has to attend the meeting
However cold it is , he always goes swimming.
语法测试
1. She said that she __ much progress since she came here.
A. makes B. made C. have made D had made
2. “What’s the matter, Ali? You look sad."
“Oh, nothing much. As a matter of fact, I my friends back home."
A. just thought B. have just been thinking
C. was just thinking D. have just thought
3. She on this essay for twenty minutes but she has written only about a hundred words.
A. will be working B. worked
C. has been working D. will have worked
4. The committee will not make the decision until it the matter.
A. has investigated B.investigates
C. will have investigated D. investigated
5. Carey didn't go to the party last night because she the baby for her sister until 9:30.
A.must have looked after B. would have to look after
C. had to look after D. should have looked after
6. four years since John left school.
A. They have been B. It is C. It was D. Those are
7.The car at the present speed until it reaches the foot of the mountain at about 4 o' clock this
afternoon.
A. has gone B. has not gone C will be going D. has been going
8. By the time you arrive in London, we __ in Europe for two weeks.
A. shall stay B. have stayed C. will have stayed D. have been staying
9. Between 1897 and 1919 at least 29 motion pictures in which artificial beings were portrayed
.
A. had produced B. have been produced
C. would have produced D. had been produced
10. The president __ the delegation at the airport but he was taken ill last night, so the vice-
president is going to instead.
A. is to meet B. was to meet
C. has been to meet D. was to have met
语法测题答案与详解
1.(D) 根据时态一致的原则,间接引语(或宾语从句)的时态应与主句的时态一致。该句中
said 是过去时所以 that 引导的宾语从句中也要用过去的某一种时态,而从句中 since 引导的
时间状语从句表明其应为完 成时态,故应用过去完成时态。
2.(C) 通过上下文可以判定 Ali 看起来很难受很伤心,是因为刚才在进行的事情所导致
的,所以用过去进行时较好,故(C)是正确答案。
3,(C) 根据句意和时间状语 for twenty minutes,可以判断这里应填入现在完成时态,现
在完成进行时是现在完成时态的强调形式,并且选项中没有现在完成时态,所以 (C)是正确
答案。
4.(A) 句意表明委员会是在调查事件之后才会做出决定,调查应发生在决定之前,所以
应用将来完成时态,但是在英语中,时间条件状语从句中的将来完成时态是由现在完成时
来表示的,所以正确答案是(A)。
5.(C) 从上下文的逻辑意义看,(C)项是唯一的正确答案。Carey 没有参加晚会,原因是给
她姐姐照看小孩子。而(A)和(D)表示对过去发生的事情根据客观情况作出主观推断:(A)作
“准是看孩子了”讲; (D)作 “本应该看孩子”讲,都不对,而 (B)表示动作发生在过去的
将来,也不对,所以只有(C)正确。
6.(B) 这是一个固定结构(或句型)。本句也可说在"Four years have passed since John
left school.”或“has been four years sinceJohn left schoo1.’’
7,(C) until 引导的时间状语从句用了一般现在时表示将来的意思,主句因此必须用一般
将来时与之呼应,口语中常用将来进行时代替一般将来时表示预料即将发生或肯定发生的
事,也可表示某件事已经决定了。本句完全可以用 will go 因此,正确答案是(C)。 •
8.(C) by the time 引导的时间状语从句中若谓语动词用现在时,则主句要用将来完成时;
若谓语动词用过去时,则主句要用过去完成时,有时也可以用过去将来完成时。这样,本道
题目的正确答案是(C)。
9.(D) 有具体表示过去某一时间段内业已发生的事件的时间状语,句子应该用过去完成
时。
10.(B) 由第一个句子中的 but 引导的转折句中所用的过去时,可以判断总统本要在机场
接见代表团,表示计划要做某事在英语中可以用 be+动词不定式来表达,故正确答案是 B)。