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7. Application Layer
NNTP · SIP · SSI · DNS · FTP · Gopher · HTTP · NFS · NTP · SMPP · SMTP ·SNMP · Telnet · DHCP · Netconf · RTP · SPDY · (mo re)
6. Presentation Layer
MIME · XDR · TLS · SSL
5. Session Layer
Named Pipes · NetBIOS · SAP · L2TP ·PPTP · SOCKS
4. Transport Layer
TCP · UDP · SCTP · DCCP · SPX
3. Network Layer
IP (IPv4, IPv6) · ICMP · IPsec · IGMP ·IPX · AppleTalk
2. Data Link Layer
ATM · SDLC · HDLC · ARP · CSLIP ·SLIP · GFP · PLIP · IEEE 802.3 ·Frame Relay · ITU-T G.hn DLL · PPP ·X.25 · Network Switch ·
1. Physical Layer
431 · POTS · PDH ·SONET/SDH · PON · OTN · DSL ·IEEE 802.3 Layer 3: Network Layer . a layer that provides error-free communications across a network provides the path needed by applications above it. Similar communication functions are grouped into logical layers. Communication in the OSI-Model (Example with layers 3 to 5) Contents 1 History 2 Description of OSI layers o o 2.2. while it calls the next lower layer to send and receive packets that make up the contents of that path.16 · IEEE 1394 · ITU-T G.2 IEEE 802 LAN architecture 2. Two instances at one layer are connected by a horizontal connection on that layer.2 Layer 2: Data Link Layer o 2.3 · IEEE 802.1 WAN Protocol architecture 2.430 · I.2.EIA/TIA-232 · EIA/TIA-449 · ITU-T VSeries · I. An instance of a layer provides services to its upper layer instances while receiving services from the layer below. It is a prescription of characterizing and standardizing the functions of a communications system in terms ofabstraction layers.15 · IEEE 802.hn PHY · USB · Bluetooth · Hubs This box: view · talk · edit The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a product of the Open Systems Interconnection effort at the International Organization for Standardization. For example.1 Layer 1: Physical Layer 2.11 · IEEE 802.
Each entity interacted directly only with the layer immediately beneath it. but only some of them without fees. EIN. a networking system was divided into layers. and provided facilities for use by the layer above it. where N was one of the seven layers of protocols operating in the local host.4 Layer 4: Transport Layer 2. The concept of a seven layer model was provided by the work ofCharles Bachman.1. and a set of specific protocols. . called the Basic Reference Model or seven-layer model.o o o o 2. The equivalent ISO and ISO/IEC standards for the OSI model were available from ISO. In this model.6 Layer 6: Presentation Layer 2.7 Layer 7: Application Layer 3 Cross-layer functions 4 Interfaces 5 Examples 6 Comparison with TCP/IP 7 See also 8 References 9 External links History Work on a layered model of network architecture was started and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) began to develop its OSI framework architecture. At each level. two entities (N-entity peers) interact by means of the N protocol by transmitting protocol data units (PDU). OSI had two major components: an abstract model of networking. one or more entities implement its functionality. Protocols enabled an entity in one host to interact with a corresponding entity at the same layer in another host. Within each layer. Service definitions abstractly described the functionality provided to an (N)-layer by an (N-1) layer.200-series of recommendations. CYCLADESnetwork and the work in IFIP WG6.5 Layer 5: Session Layer 2. Some of the protocol specifications were also available as part of the ITU-T X series.200. NPLNET. each generically known as an N layer. there are seven layers. The new design was documented in ISO 7498 and its various addenda. Honeywell Information Services. The OSI standards documents are available from the ITU-T as the X. the fledgling Internet. Description of OSI layers According to recommendation X. An N+1 entity requests services from the layer N entity. Various aspects of OSI design evolved from experiences with the ARPANET.
Physical Path determination andlogical addressing Physical addressing Media. hubs. encryption and decryption. layer N. cable specifications. the process of changing a SDU to a PDU. Network Media Frame layers Bit 2. OSI Model Data unit Layer 7. it defines the relationship between a device and atransmission medium. Appropriate choices for these are needed to protect against denial of service. The PDU at any given layer. convert machine dependent data to machine independent data Interhost communication End-to-end connections. to the SDU.confidentiality.A Service Data Unit (SDU) is a specific unit of data that has been passed down from an OSI layer to a lower layer. Data Link 1. such as management and security. transforming it into a PDU of layer N-1. performed by the lower layer. integrity. Transport Network process to application Function Data representation. such as a copper or optical cable. Actually the availability of communication service is determined by network design and/or network management protocols. and is transmitted semantically unchanged to a peer service user. voltages. That is. as defined by ITU-T X. Session Segments 4. is the SDU of the layer below. reliability and flow control Packet/Datagram 3. Layer 1: Physical Layer The Physical Layer defines electrical and physical specifications for devices. availability) of transmitted data. Security services are not related to a specific layer: they can be related by a number of layers. An SDU is a set of data that is sent by a user of the services of a given layer. and which the lower layer has not yet encapsulated into a protocol data unit (PDU). host bus adapters (HBA used in storage area networks) and more.e. layer N-1.network adapters. Application Data Host layers 6. signal and binary transmission Some orthogonal aspects. consists of an encapsulation process. The layer N-1 adds headers or footers. In particular. repeaters. All the data contained in the SDU becomes encapsulated within the PDU. . Presentation 5. involve every layer. or both. In effect the SDU is the 'payload' of a given PDU. These services are aimed to improve the CIA triad (i. This includes the layout of pins.800 Recommendation. The added headers or footers are part of the process used to make it possible to get data from a source to a destination.
FDDI. its flow control and acknowledgment mechanisms are rarely used. In modern practice. Layer 2: Data Link Layer The Data Link Layer provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities and to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the Physical Layer. Local area network architecture. They are also capable of controlling the rate of transmission. Various Physical Layer Ethernet standards are also in this layer. Originally. such as token ring. Sliding window flow control and acknowledgment is used at the Transport Layer by protocols such as TCP. detect and may correct errors. .hn and IEEE 802.The major functions and services performed by the Physical Layer are: Establishment and termination of a connection to a communications medium.4. was developed independently of the ISO work in IEEE Project 802. characteristic of wide area media in the telephone system. not flow control using sliding window. These are signals operating over the physical cabling (such as copper and optical fiber) or over a radio link. and. as well as personal area networks such as Bluetooth and IEEE 802. and on other local area networks. only error detection. Not all Physical Layer bits necessarily go into frames.25 offers performance advantages. the IEEE 802. which provides high-speed local area networking over existing wires (power lines.15.11. Parallel SCSI buses operate in this layer. IEEE work assumed sublayering and management functions not required for WAN use. contentionresolution and flow control. For example. A WAN Data Link Layer might implement a sliding window flow control and acknowledgment mechanism to provide reliable delivery of frames.hn standard. this layer was intended for point-to-point and point-tomultipoint media. Ethernet incorporates both this layer and the Data Link Layer. Both WAN and LAN service arrange bits. ITU-T G. into logical sequences called frames. includes a complete Data Link Layer which provides both error correction and flow control by means of a selective repeat Sliding Window Protocol. which included broadcast-capable multiaccess media. although it must be remembered that the logical SCSI protocol is a Transport Layer protocol that runs over this bus. that is the case for SDLC and HDLC. but is still used in niches where X. every fifth bit of the FDDI bit stream is not used by the Layer. is present in data link protocols such asPoint-to-Point Protocol (PPP). Modulation. on local area networks. and derivatives of HDLC such as LAPB and LAPD. phone lines and coaxial cables). from the Physical Layer. as some of these bits are purely intended for Physical Layer functions. WAN Protocol architecture Connection-oriented WAN data link protocols. in addition to framing. For example. or conversion between the representation of digital data in user equipment and the corresponding signals transmitted over a communications channel.2 LLC layer is not used for most protocols on the Ethernet. Participation in the process whereby the communication resources are effectively shared among multiple users. The ITU-T G. The same applies to other local-area networks.
multicast group management.25. Routers operate at this layer—sending data throughout the extended network and making the Internet possible. Layer 4: Transport Layer The Transport Layer provides transparent transfer of data between end users.3. It is the function of the payload that makes these belong to the Network Layer. a function defined in the Management Annex. 3. Subnetwork Dependent Convergence – when it is necessary to bring the level of a transit network up to the level of networks on either side. while maintaining the quality of service requested by the Transport Layer (in contrast to the data link layer which connects hosts within the same network).2 Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer. The MAC sublayer detects but does not correct errors.3 is the dominant wired LAN protocol and IEEE 802.11 the wireless LAN protocol. This layer manages the interaction of devices with a shared medium.25 as subnet access protocols because they carry interface addresses rather than node addresses. and . These include routing protocols. Above this MAC sublayer is the media-independent IEEE 802. In this scheme. segmentation/desegmentation. ISO 7498/4. and from egress router to destination end system. connectionless LANs began with the pre-IEEE Ethernet specification. but only for the detection of erroneous packets so they may be discarded. not the protocol that carries them. It manages the connectionless transfer of data one hop at a time. such as X. A number of layer management protocols. Careful analysis of the Network Layer indicated that the Network Layer could have at least three sublayers: 1. Network Layer information and error. The Transport Layer controls the reliability of a given link through flow control. This is a logical addressing scheme – values are chosen by the network engineer. The best example of this latter case is CLNP. Layer 3: Network Layer The Network Layer provides the functional and procedural means of transferring variable length data sequences from a source host on one network to a destination host on a different network. from end system to ingress router. and Network Layer address assignment. 2. or IPv7 ISO 8473. and might also perform fragmentation and reassembly. IPv4 and IPv6 would have to be classed with X. Subnetwork Access – that considers protocols that deal with the interface to networks.IEEE 802 LAN architecture Practical. While IEEE 802. which is the function of a Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer. belong to the Network Layer. The Network Layer performs network routing functions. and report delivery errors. which deals with addressing and multiplexing on multiaccess media. which is the ancestor of IEEE 802. providing reliable data transfer services to the upper layers. obsolescent MAC layers include Token Ring and FDDI. router to router. It is not responsible for reliable delivery to a next hop. Subnetwork Independent Convergence – which handles transfer across multiple networks. The addressing scheme is not hierarchical.
Some protocols are state. all OSI TP connection-mode protocol classes provide expedited data and preservation of record boundaries. Also. which OSI assigns to the Session Layer.and connection-oriented. similar to the Internet). Class 0 contains no error recovery. although TCP contains functions. Detailed characteristics of TP0-4 classes are shown in the following table: Feature Name TP0 TP1 TP2 TP3 TP4 Connection oriented network Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Connectionless network No No No No Yes Concatenation and separation No Yes Yes Yes Yes Segmentation and reassembly Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Error Recovery No Yes Yes Yes Yes Reinitiate connection (if an excessive number of PDUs are unacknowledged) No Yes No Yes No Multiplexing and demultiplexing over a single virtual circuit No No Yes Yes Yes Explicit flow control No No Yes Yes Yes Retransmission on timeout No No No No Yes Reliable Transport Service No Yes No Yes Yes . This means that the Transport Layer can keep track of the segments and retransmit those that fail. such as the graceful close. OSI defines five classes of connection-mode transport protocols ranging from class 0 (which is also known as TP0 and provides the least features) to class 4 (TP4. and was designed for use on network layers that provide error-free connections. Class 4 is closest to TCP. The Transport layer also provides the acknowledgement of the successful data transmission and sends the next data if no errors occurred. designed for less reliable networks.error control.
theTransmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) of the Internet Protocol Suite are commonly categorized as Layer 4 protocols within OSI. which means that both the OSI application layer and the user interact directly with the software application. It provides for full-duplex. If a mapping is available. if the encapsulation of the payload takes place only at endpoint. Do remember. Higher layers may have the equivalent of double envelopes. The OSI model made this layer responsible for graceful close of sessions. Layer 5: Session Layer The Session Layer controls the dialogues (connections) between computers.1). determining resource availability. Application layer functions typically include identifying communication partners. and synchronizing communication.g. tunneling protocols operate at the Transport Layer. manages and terminates the connections between the local and remote application. It establishes.Perhaps an easy way to visualize the Transport Layer is to compare it with a Post Office. or serialization of objects and other data structures from and to XML. termination. Layer 7: Application Layer The Application Layer is the OSI layer closest to the end user. presentation service data units are encapsulated into session protocol data units.. and also for session checkpointing and recovery. or end-to-end encryption with IPsec. adjournment. half-duplex. This layer formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network. The original presentation structure used the basic encoding rules of Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN. and passed down the stack. Although not developed under the OSI Reference Model and not strictly conforming to the OSI definition of the Transport Layer. which is a property of the Transmission Control Protocol. Layer 6: Presentation Layer The Presentation Layer establishes context between Application Layer entities. Roughly speaking. When identifying . While Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) might seem to be a Network Layer protocol. and establishes checkpointing. such as carrying non-IP protocols such as IBM's SNA or Novell's IPX over an IP network. that a post office manages the outer envelope of mail. This layer interacts with software applications that implement a communicating component. and restart procedures. which deals with the dispatch and classification of mail and parcels sent. however. or simplex operation. This layer provides independence from data representation (e. Such application programs fall outside the scope of the OSI model. with capabilities such as converting an EBCDIC-coded text file to an ASCII-coded file. It is sometimes called the syntax layer. encryption) by translating between application and network formats. The Session Layer is commonly implemented explicitly in application environments that use remote procedure calls. such as cryptographic presentation services that can be read by the addressee only. The presentation layer transforms data into the form that the application accepts. L2TP carries PPP frames inside transport packet. GRE becomes closer to a transport protocol that uses IP headers but contains complete frames or packets to deliver to an endpoint. in which the higher-layer entities may use different syntax and semantics if the presentation service provides a mapping between them. which is not usually used in the Internet Protocol Suite.
they need to interact with every layer in order to deal with their instances. all communication between applications requires cooperation that is managed by the application layer. MPLS operates at an OSI Model layer that is generally considered to lie between traditional definitions of Layer 2 (Data Link Layer) and Layer 3 (Network Layer). as well as native ATM. SONET. monitor. ARP is used to translate IPv4 addresses (OSI Layer 3) into Ethernet MAC addresses (OSI Layer 2) Interfaces . including IP packets.communication partners. It was designed to provide a unified data-carrying service for both circuit-based clients and packet-switching clients which provide a datagram service model. and thus is often referred to as a "Layer 2.5" protocol. i. functions that permit to configure. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). terminate the communications of two or more entities: there is a specific application layer protocol Common management information protocol (CMIP) and its corresponding service common management information service (CMIS). and Ethernet frames. the application layer determines the identity and availability of communication partners for an application with data to transmit. File Transfer Protocol (FTP).400 Mail Common management information protocol (CMIP) On TCP/IP stack: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). Some examples of application layer implementations also include: On OSI stack: FTAM File Transfer and Access Management Protocol X.800 Recommendation. In synchronizing communication. management functions. It can be used to carry many different kinds of traffic. but they can affect more than one layer. the application layer must decide whether sufficient network or the requested communication exist.e. Examples are security service (telecommunication) as defined by ITU-T X. Cross-layer functions There are some functions or services that are not tied to a given layer. When determining resource availability. instantiate.
RIP. SCCP.226. NDIS and ODI are interfaces between the media (Layer 2) and the network protocol (Layer 3).Gopher. INAP. OSPF wor (PLP).225. FTP. UDP. TP4 4 nsp (X.MIDI. but the software interfaces inside computers are implementation-specific. SCTP. Telnet. X.224). DAP. SSL.ROSE.236 MIME.PAP k C ? Named pipes. 6 enta ISO/IEC 9576-1. R PC ISO/IEC 8073.ACSECMIP MTP. full duplex.N P P ion E. X. except for the Physical Layer to media. S P. X. tion X.DNS. are interfaces between applications (Layer 5 and above) and the transport (Layer 4). IS-IS io .X. EBC DIC. BGP SUP. are approximate implementations of OSI Service Specifications.SMPP.SA P.X. TCP.I RTMP. MPEG ISO/IEC 8327.234 DDP.Neither the OSI Reference Model nor OSI protocols specify any programming interfaces. Protocol specifications precisely define the interfaces between different computers. ASCII.S PX NBF 3 Net ISO/IEC 8208. Ses X. Session establishment inTCP. SIP.DCCP ort ISO/IEC 8602. NetBIOS.MA AFP.931. ZIP. examples A App FTAM. IPsec. RIP. 5 sion ISO/IEC 9548-1.235 Sockets.SNMP. TP3. Interface standards. For example Microsoft Windows' Winsock.ADS NWLin L P. Q. NTP.MT ATP(Tok IPX enTalkor RRC (Rad NBF. SSI. and Unix's Berkeley sockets and System V Transport Layer Interface. Modbus ISO/IEC 8823.TCAP. RTS HTTP. TP2. TLS. half duplex. Pres X. RTP D ASP. Tra TP1. other than as deliberately abstract service specifications.25 IP.NFS. ICMP.XDR AFP TDI.50 NNTP. DHCP. Examples Laye r OSI protocols # Na me TCP/IP protocols Signaling AppleTal System k  7 IPX S N A UMTS Misc.400.IGMP. simplex.SA P 7 licat 0.TUP BP C HL7. TP0.
STP. Full duplex.hn DLL CRC. Bit stuffing. ISO/IEC 84731.703) RSMTP.hn PHY.EIA/ Phy TIA-232. Q. LocalTalk 802. SDH. Controller Area Network.SBTV SLIP.PPTP ISO/IEC 88022 LLC Type 1 and 2 802.1Q (VLAN). ITU-T G.Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) X.222. 10BASET. T1. Fibre Channel.k ISO/IEC 8878. Ring.430. Frame IEEE LLC (Log Relay.7 aming.921.21bis. PPP.22 3.3 (Ethernet). ITUT G. ARQ. Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) Comparison with TCP/IP . DSL.RS10 422.431. POTS. P EtherTalk ) Resource Control)P acket Data Converge nce Protocol ( PDCP) and BMC( Broadcast/ Multicast Control) Dat a 2 Lin k ISO/IEC 7666.HDLC.11 a/b/g/n PHY.7 232.X.P t II C dia Access to layer 2 PP framing Control) address).G.25 (X.802.233.HD P. V. E1. FDDI.Token Bus.Q. 100BASETX. CDP. I. X.X. ISL. CLNPX.Token .EIA/TIA1 sica 449.34.AppleTal MTP.I. V.Q.3fr S ical Link PPP. PhoneNet T wi na x UMTS Physical Layer or L1 RS-232. NDPA k Remote 10 Etherne L MAC(Me RP (maps layer 3 Access. D Control).SONET .25 (LAPB).EIAl 530.802.11a/ b/g/n MAC/LLC.35. ATM.RJ45.802.
 RFC 3439contains a section entitled "Layering considered harmful. and most of the Session Layer." However.g. namely the scope of the software application. 2010-07-30. ^ a b X.In the TCP/IP model of the Internet. protocols are deliberately not as rigidly designed into strict layers as in the OSI model. Presentation Layer.iso.25 protocol suite WAP protocol suite List of information technology acronyms References 1. or in the description of tunneling protocols. The internetworking layer (Internet Layer) is a subset of the OSI Network Layer (see above). Retrieved 2010-09-11. the internetworking range. TCP/IP does recognize four broad layers of functionality which are derived from the operating scope of their contained protocols.org. These comparisons are based on the original seven-layer protocol model as defined in ISO 7498.. Standards. ^ ITU-T X-Series Recommendations ^ "Publicly Available Standards".800 : Security architecture for Open Systems Interconnection for CCITT applications . rather than refinements in such things as the internal organization of the Network Layer document. although the tunnel host protocol may well be a Transport or even an Application Layer protocol in its own right. OSPF). Its end-to-end Transport Layer includes the graceful close function of the OSI Session Layer as well as the OSI Transport Layer. and lastly the scope of the direct links to other nodes on the local network. 2. as it is permissible that protocol usage does not follow the hierarchy implied in a layered model. Even though the concept is different from the OSI model. The presumably strict peer layering of the OSI model as it is usually described does not present contradictions in TCP/IP. Such examples exist in some routing protocols (e. as well as parts of OSI's Network Layer. See also Cognitive networks Hierarchical internetworking model Internet protocol suite Layer 8 OSI protocol suite Protocol stack Service layer TCP/IP model X. the end-to-end transport connection. which provide a Link Layer for an application. these layers are nevertheless often compared with the OSI layering scheme in the following way: The Internet Application Layer includes the OSI Application Layer. 3. while the Link Layer includes the OSI Data Link and Physical Layers.
1400 (03/1993). and ISO 9596 ^ a b CISCO Cisco Systems. 7.224 (11/1995) ISO/IEC 8073".227 (ISO 8650). 9.217 (ISO 8649) ^ X. Hubert Zimmermann. April 1980. IEEE Transactions on Communications. Inc. Beluga graph of data units and groups of layers OSI Reference Model — The ISO Model of Architecture for Open Systems InterconnectionPDF (776 KB). CMP.700 series of recommendations from the ITU-T (in particular X. Cisco Systems Internetworking Technology Handbook . 7. Architecture framework for the development of signaling and OA&M protocols using OSI concepts. no. 6. pp 4. Computer telephony encyclopedia.200 (the same contents as from ISO) The ISO OSI Reference Model . Richard (2000). 331. Internetworking Technology Handbook OSI Model Physical Layer 10. 4. ^ "ITU-T Recommendation X. 28. 8. X. 5. ^ ITU Rec. pp.711). X. ^ Grigonis.4. ^ ITU-T Recommendation Q. pp. vol. ^ RFC 3439 External links ISO/IEC standard 7498-1:1994 (PDF document inside ZIP archive) (requires HTTP cookies in order to accept licence agreement) ITU-T X. 425 – 432.