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Research is a process of investigation, an examination of a subject from different points of view.
Its not just a trip to the library to pick up a stack of materials, or picking the
first five hits from a computer search. Research is a hunt for the truth. It is getting to know a subject by reading up on it, reflecting, playing with the ideas, choosing the areas that interest a person and following up on them. Research is the way a person educate himself. There are different types of research on the basis of investigation and analysis, such as, scientific, artistic, historical research, descriptive, explanatory research etc. Writing a research paper is the most important part of conducting a successful research. Every effort will be demolished if it could not be expressed in a good manner. Considering the importance of writing a research report here have the research proceedings pointed out and described understandably. The research proceedings: 1. Select a topic that interests you: Writing the paper itself is not difficult if the topic is already available. Researchers are not provided with the topics because that is the first step in the research that they have to do. Selecting a topic is possibly the most difficult part of doing research. Is it too big? Is it too narrow? Will I be able to find enough data on it? Start by choosing a topic that the researcher likes or is curious about. He or she is going to be working on it for quite a while, so should try and find one that's interesting and that he/ she can reasonably cover in the time and space available. Researchers are not provided with the topics because that is the first step in the research that they have to do. Here are some suggestions for the steps to choose a research topic:  Ask yourself what the research paper is all about. It should argue, not just narrate. The research topic should be clear on what it should do. Research the topic. The Internet is a good source. The topic must pose a challenge to you as the writer.
Hazra Sabbir Hossain
Introduction Start the report with a paragraph to present the investigated problem. This subsection creates a perspective for looking at the problem. money etc. energy. 2. 2. It is better to label this section. Think also about the things that interest you. and an overview of your research strategy. why the research is conducting by spending lots of time.3 Importance of the topic The topic of the research must be valid and important for a specific or an overall social or academic field. The levels position must be identified in the paper. 2.1 Basic Information Figure out the most basic things of the research. In this subsection it should be disclosed that.2 Background of the research It is important to know about the reason. If you are planning to explore a relatively new Hazra Sabbir Hossain 2 . List as many topics as you can and make a shortlist of the ones that interest you and those topics that are arguable. objectives. which are not the part of the research but is important to know for doing the research consecutively. It is usually quite long and primarily depends upon how much research has previously been done in the area you are planning to investigate. All you need to focus on your imagination. 2.4 Literature review It is important because it shows what previous researchers have discovered. 2. So in this subsection the clear background must be disclosed for the readers. They will provide you with research ideas. the importance of the study.How to write a research report? Visit some sites about research papers and books. the areas where the research is important and what are the significant effects of doing the research.
the literature review should cite similar areas of study or studies that lead up to the current research.6 Objectives Objectives refer to the purpose of the research. It usually begins with a few short introductory paragraphs that restate study material. data collection method. Define the population Draw a representative sample from the population Do the research on the sample Infer results from the sample back to the population The location where the study had been done. Social research etc.  2.5 Hypotheses After forecasting all the probable outcomes. and methods of analyzing data. and any equipment or supplies that are not commonly found in laboratories or in the field. The field of the study.Scientific research. Never say that your area is so new that no research exists. 3. biological materials. 2. Include specialized chemicals. It is one of the key elements that proposal readers look at when deciding whether or not to approve a proposal. The purpose is a single statement or paragraph that explains what the study intends to accomplish.How to write a research report? area. we have to write down those in this section. Hazra Sabbir Hossain 3 .6 Study Material Describe materials separately only if the study is so complicated that it saves space this way. Such as. 3 Research Method This section describes the basic research plan.
the entire population will be sufficiently small. The population is defined in keeping with the objectives of the study. the population is too large for the researcher to attempt to survey all of its members. it is often difficult or impossible to identify every member of the population. This type of research is called a census study because data is gathered on every member of the population. Stratified sampling is commonly used probability method that is superior to random sampling because it reduces sampling error. [4 Here have some popular techniques of sampling: Random sampling is the purest form of probability sampling. The researcher first identifies the relevant stratums and their actual representation in the population. There are no strict rules to follow. or managers and non-managers. and the researcher must rely on logic and judgment.2. Each member of the population has an equal and known chance of being selected.1 Techniques of selecting samples It is incumbent on the researcher to clearly define the target population. When there are very large populations. A stratum is a subset of the population that shares at least one common characteristic. Examples of stratums might be males and females. but carefully chosen sample can be used to represent the population. A small. Hazra Sabbir Hossain 4 . and pH of aqueous solutions. Systematic sampling is often used instead of random sampling. so the pool of available subjects becomes biased. solvent if non-aqueous.2 Methods of collecting data 3.  3. After the required sample size has been calculated. Sometimes. and the researcher can include the entire population in the study. every nth record is selected from a list of population members. including concentrations of all reagents. The sample reflects the characteristics of the population from which it is drawn.refer to them by name and describe completely. It is also called an nth name selection technique.How to write a research report? Materials may be reported in a separate paragraph or else they may be identified along with your procedures. Usually. In bio-sciences we frequently work with solutions .
There are many methods of collecting primary data and the main methods include: Questionnaires A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. As the name implies. 3. The key point here is that the data they collect is unique to them and their research and. researchers collect the data themselves using methods such as interviews and questionnaires.How to write a research report? Convenience sampling is used in exploratory research where the researcher is interested in getting an inexpensive approximation of the truth. assessment. but they restrict the responses. until they publish. For example. the researcher must be confident that the chosen sample is truly representative of the entire population. the sample is selected because they are convenient. a researcher may decide to draw the entire sample from one "representative" city. – For example. without incurring the cost or time required to select a random sample. tutorial support) and asked to indicate on a five point scale how satisfied or dissatisfied they are with the feature. no one else has access to it.g. Judgment sampling is a common non probability method. on many courses students are given a standard list of features (e. When using this method. There are two types of Questionnaires Closed questions can make analyzing the data relatively easy. This is usually and extension of convenience sampling. books. The researcher selects the sample based on judgment. These are highly structured closed questions. even though the population includes all cities.2 Methods of survey In primary data collection.2. The same form may have a space for the student to make any comments he or she Hazra Sabbir Hossain 5 . lectures. This non probability method is often used during preliminary research efforts to get a gross estimate of the results.
door-to-door visits etc. portfolios. Thus. idea. critical incidents. It is based on an in-depth investigation of a single individual. Observation Observation is an activity of a living being (such as a tribes). it allows subjects to respond freely and express shades of opinion rather than forcing them to have structured opinions. the research questions should be applied one at a Hazra Sabbir Hossain 6 . Interviews An interview is a conversation between two or more people (the interviewer and the interviewee) where questions are asked by the interviewer to obtain information from the interviewee. Focus group interviews A focus group is a form of qualitative research in which a group of people are asked about their perceptions.diaries.3 Methods of analyzing data The analysis plan should be described in detail. such as. beliefs and attitudes towards a product. Beside these there are various ways of collecting data for research. or event to explore causation in order to find underlying principles.  E-mail Email the Questionnaire to unclosed receivers along with the request of replying or responding. Case-studies A case study is a research methodology common in social science. or the recording of data using scientific instruments. concept. Although the open question produces data that is difficult to organize and code. opinions. or packaging. consisting of receiving knowledge of the outside world through the senses. This is an open question which will produce almost completely unstructured data. group. Each research question will usually require its individual analysis. advertisement. 3. service.How to write a research report? wishes to make on the course.
Primary data. Explain why you think you found what you did. organizational records and data collected through qualitative methodologies or qualitative research. Prospects of Secondary data sources Secondary data is data collected by someone other than the user or and the data is collected from the sources beyond primary source. analysts of social and economic change consider secondary data essential. followed by a description of the type of statistical tests that will be performed to answer that research question. Discussion and Findings Discuss the findings in this section that. Disclosing these may help the next researchers. 3. do the findings support existing theories. Present plausible reasons why the results might Hazra Sabbir Hossain 7 . Decision making criteria should also be stated.4 Limitations In this section we have to mention the limitations of the research which interrupt the research work. particularly in the case of quantitative data. surveys. In addition to that. Secondary data analysis saves time that would otherwise be spent collecting data and. are collected by the investigator conducting the research. provides larger and higher-quality databases than would be unfeasible for any individual researcher to collect on their own. 4. by contrast. Result. 5.  This section it must be disclosed that the micro perspective and macro perspective of secondary data sources. Common sources of secondary data for research include censuses.How to write a research report? time. as well as the computer software that will be used. since it is impossible to conduct a new survey that can adequately capture past change and/or developments. State what variables will be included in the analyses and identify the dependent and independent variables if such a relationship exists.
A. Example: For Published books or textbooks Author. Conclusion and Recommendation Present recommendations based on the findings.. volume number.com/full/url/  For Online Scholarly Journal ArticleAuthor. The first is recommendations to the study sponsor. References List references in a standard format. Title of Journal. 7.. B. Avoid the temptation to present recommendations based on your own beliefs or biases that are not specifically supported by your data. Title of article. volume number(issue number if available). (Date of publication).someaddress. Title of Book.How to write a research report? have turned out the way they did. If there has any cause and effect and graphs and charts. volume number(issue number if available). There are almost always ways that a study could be improved or refined. A. APA (American Psychological Association) is most commonly used format. Retrieved from http://www. Recommendations fall into two categories. & Author. What would you change if you were to do your study over again etc? These are the recommendations to other researchers. discuss separately as they give the individual significance and easiest way of recommendation. A. For Article from an Online Periodical Author.. (Date of publication). 6. B. The second is recommendations to other researchers. doi:0000000/000000000000  Hazra Sabbir Hossain 8 . A. Title of article. B. & Author. (Date of publication). Actions do you recommend they take based upon the data. & Author. B. A. B. B. Page number. A. Title of Online Periodical.
How to write a research report? 8. 9. but not always. containing information that is important to. we have to disclose it in this section by writing the full form of that like. a systematic list of books and other works. Appendix or Notes If there have any addition to a document. AIUB. Usually. but is not the main idea of the main text.Village government. Abbreviations Abbreviation is a shortened form of a word or phrase.American International University Bangladesh. For example. Example: “Gram Sarker”. Hazra Sabbir Hossain 9 . Glossary If there have any local term used in the paper. such as a book or legal contract. it consists of a letter or group of letters taken from the word or phrase. If there is any Abbreviation like AIUB in the research paper. 10. a list of words or phrases with pointers of related materials including questionnaire. in the section it should be disclosed. This is added to the end of a research paper or an article.
Sociology and You. (2009). Ohio: Glencoe McGraw-Hill. Shepard.wikipedia.usg.How to write a research report? References: 1. 7. http://www. http://www.english. Naomi R.rice. Vol.tvu. Greene (2003). http://en. A-22.htm#chapter-2 3. Managing Moderator Stress: Take a Deep Breath. 6. http://brent.uk/dissguide/hm1u3/hm1u3text3. Henderson. You Can Do This!. http://www.phtml Hazra Sabbir Hossain 10 . pp. http://www.howtodothings. p28-29. 21 Issue 1. ISBN 0078285763.com/surveys/index.edu/galileo/skills/unit01/infoage01_03. Marketing Research.statpac.edu/~bioslabs/tools/report/reportform.htm 9.htm#toc 5.edu/owl/resource/560/10/ 10.purdue.org/wiki/Secondary_data 8.com/education/how-to-choose-a-researchpaper-topic 2. http://owl. Robert W.html 4.ac.statpac. Jon.ruf.com/research-papers/research-proposal. http://www.
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