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Example 6.4



Para este primer caso se tiene un circuito que representa una
linea de subtransmision con un voltaje de 34.5 KV.
Desarrollo y Coordinacion de sistemas de
Protecciones Electricas
(September 2011)
First A. Author, Second B. Author, Jr., and Third C. Author, Member, IEEE
T
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2

Para empezar se calcula el valor de la impedancia de la Iuente:

Scc3I 3 Scc1I 3VIn * Icc3I (1)

Scc3I 3
vII vII
V3 V3 zs
(2)

Scc3I
vII
2

zs
(3)

Zs
vII
2

S
cc3]
(4)

Scc3I 200 MVA

34.5 kV (line-to-line)

Zs 5, 9512
Ahora esta sera la impedancia de la Iuente para la corriente
maxima de Ialla.
Para una potencia de 100 MVA tenemos una impedancia de
Iuente
Zs 11.9025
Esta sera para el caso de calculo de la corriente minima de
Ialla

la impedancia de la linea es calculada en ohmios por milla y
en una condicion de operacion del conductor de 50 grados
centigrados.

Zl 0,294 j 0, 6464

Para realizar el montaje se tuvieron en cuenta algunas
condiciones y aproximaciones teniendo en cuenta la
conIiguracion del sistema.

1) La primera consideracion realizada es que no se van a
considerar las capacitancias de las lineas debido a que como
estamos trabajando con un voltaje bajo estos valores
anteriores pueden ser despreciado ademas no se tienen datos
de estas.

2) Lo segundo es que todas las impedancias mutuas entre las
lineas se van anular debido a que las lineas son totalmente
traspuestas, lo que quiere decir que cada linea puede ser
modelada con su impedancia propia sin tener en cuenta los
acoples.

3) Tambien existen las resistencias mutuas entre las lineas
pero en este caso se van a despreciar con el criterio de que no
existiran perdidas de ninguna clase en las lineas.

4) La Ialla triIasica a tierra la modelaremos por medio de una
impedancia muy pequea aterrizada en Y debido a que con
esto lograremos omitir el transitorio en la simulacion ya que
unicamente nos interesa el analisis en estado estable,

En las Fig. 1, 2,3 se muestra el comportamiento de la corriente
maxima de Ialla para cada una de las lineas.
Pero cada graIica corresponde a la Ialla triIasica vista por cada
uno de los reles G,H y R.

Ahora para el rele G obtenemos una corriente pico de Ialla
De 4732 A, pero como necesitamos es valor eIectivo o Rms
entonces:
4732V 3346.03 A

1

La siguiente graIica nos muestra la corriente maxima de Ialla
para el rele H, se observa que se acerca a un valor pico de
corriente de 2210 A
Ahora: 2210V 1562.7 A (valor Rms)

2

Notemos que a medida que la Ialla se aleja mas de la Iuente
del sistema la corriente de Ialla va disminuyendo, aqui
observamos un valor pico de :
1050/V 742.46 A

(f ile Sistema64.pl4; x-v ar t) c:NGA -N5A c:NGC -N5C c:NGB -N5B
0,12 0,13 0,14 0,15 0,16 0,17 0,18 0,19 0,20 [s]
4200
4300
4400
4500
4600
4700
4800
4900
[A]
(f ile Sist ema64.pl4; x-v ar t ) c:NHA -N43A c:NHB -N43B c:NHC -N43C
60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 [ms]
2000
2050
2100
2150
2200
2250
2300
2350
2400
[A]
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3

3

En las Fig. 4,5 y 6 se observara el comportamiento de la
corriente minima de Ialla, para este caso se simula con el valor
maximo de la impedancia de Iuente.
Para la Iigura 4 tenemos un valor pico de corriente en un
valor de:
2365V 1672,3 A (valor eIectivo)

4

No se debe olvidar que la corriente minima de Ialla se mide en
el punto mas lejano de la linea protegida por el rele.
Ahora tenemos que la corriente minima de Ialla a la que el rele
H debe de actuar es de:
1516V 1071.97 A (Rms)
Siendo el valor eIicaz el que nos interesa.



5

La corriente minima de Ialla en el rele R va ser la menor en
todo el sistema debido a que es el ultimo de la linea o se
encuentra mas aguas abajo como se observa en la Fig 6,
El valor pico de corriente es:
866V 612.3 A (Rms)


6
Example 6.5

En este ejemplo se realizara una extension ejemplo 6.4 para
coordinar los reles G, H y R. Los siguientes datos
adicionales se dan para el sistema de la Iigura6.16.

1. ,r,8. Las cargas conectdas en los barrajes G, H y
R son de 3 MVA y estan proyectas para alcanzar 5
MVA.

El transIormador asociado a cada carga contiene un
Iusible de 34.5 kV, que presenta la caracteristica I
que se muestra en la tabla 6.10.

(f ile Sist ema64.pl4; x-v ar t ) c:NRA -N21A c:NRB -N21B c:NRC -N21C
0,04 0,05 0,06 0,07 0,08 0,09 0,10 0,11 [s]
960
980
1000
1020
1040
1060
1080
1100
1120
[A]
(f ile Sist ema64.pl4; x-v ar t ) c:NGA -N5A c:NGB -N5B c:NGC -N5C
0,265 0,270 0,275 0,280 0,285 0,290 0,295 0,300 0,305 [s]
2260
2280
2300
2320
2340
2360
2380
2400
2420
[A]
(f ile Sist ema64.pl4; x-v ar t ) c:NHA -N43A c:NHB -N43B c:NHC -N43C
0,12 0,13 0,14 0,15 0,16 0,17 [s]
1380
1420
1460
1500
1540
1580
[A]
(f ile Sist ema64.pl4; x-v ar t ) c:NRA -N21A c:NRB -N21B c:NRC -N21C
0,06 0,07 0,08 0,09 0,10 0,11 [s]
820
830
840
850
860
870
880
890
900
[A]
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4

2. Rele8. Los reles utilizados tendran una caracteristica
I tipo IEEE moderadamente inverza, debido a que
los costos de este tipo de reles son mas economicos
qie la de otros tipos de reles.



Las corrientes maximas y minimas que utilizan en este
ejemplo, son las mismas corrientes ya calculadas en el
ejemplo 6.4.

Los primero que se realiza es coordinar el el rele R con el
Iusible. Apartir de la graIica del Iusible que obtiene de los
datos dados en la tabla 6.10, la cual se alla con la ayuda del
programa1.m de MATLAB.

El rele R secaracteriza con la siguiente ecuacion:

=
1
7
-
0,0515
I
r
0.02
-1
+. (5)

En una primera instancia se utilizo un DT1 para observar
como era su comportamiento con respecto a la graIica del
Iusible, los resultados se presentan acontinuacion en la Iigura
xx.


Figura xx.

Como se puede observar en la Iigura anterior las dos graIicas
se traslapan, esto quiere decir que para cierto rango de
corriente el rele actua primero que el Iusible por tanto la
coordinacion es incorrecta, por consiguiente se debe variar el
valor de DT hasta encontara un valor apropiado que garantice
un rango de olgura prudente entre el Iusible y el rele R,
despues de varias simulaciones se encontro que el valor
apropiado para el DT es 3 los resultados se muestran en la
siguiente Iigura xx.


Figura xx.

En la graIica anterior tambien se puede observar el punto que
representa el CTI el cual tiene un valor de 0.3 por encima del
tiempo maximo de duracion del rele, especiIicado por el
enunciado del ejemplo 6.5.

Vale la pena recalacar que debe cumplir la condicion de que
el 50 corriente maxima de Ialla sea mayor que el 200 de la
corriente maxima de carga, para asi poder realizar una
coordinacion adecuada de los reles. Dado de no cumplirse
esta condicion esta condicion no se estaria hablando de un
caso de Ialla en el circuito si no una caso de sobrecarga del
sistema.

%I
mux]uIIu
> %I
muxIoud


Los siguientes son los resultados obtenidos para los reles R,H
y T respectivamente.

. - ( |]) > - (8.|])
. > .

. - (. |]) > - (.|])
. >335.2

. - ( |]) > - (|])
8 > 9

Como se puede ver para los 3 reles se cumple con la condicion
anterior.


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5
Para coordinacion del rele R con el rele H se debe tener
encuenta que la caracteristica del rele H no este por debajo
del CTI del rele R en la corriente maxima de R. Para el rele H
se obtiene que el mejor DT es 2.

De iagual Iorma se realiza la coordicacion entre el rele H y el
rele G, para el rele g se obtuvo un DT de 2.

Los resultados de la coordinacion total de proctecciones de
nuestro sistema se muestra en la siguiente Iigura xx.

Figura xx.
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TABLE I
UNITS FOR MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
Symbol Quantity
Conversion Irom Gaussian and
CGS EMU to SI
a

1 magnetic Ilux 1 Mx 10
8
Wb 10
8
Vs
B magnetic Ilux density,
magnetic induction
1 G 10
4
T 10
4
Wb/m
2
H magnetic Iield strength 1 Oe 10
3
/(4x) A/m
m magnetic moment

1 erg/G 1 emu
10
3
Am
2
10
3
J/T
M magnetization 1 erg/(Gcm
3
) 1 emu/cm
3

10
3
A/m
4xM magnetization 1 G 10
3
/(4x) A/m
o speciIic magnetization 1 erg/(Gg) 1 emu/g 1 Am
2
/kg
f magnetic dipole
moment
1 erg/G 1 emu
4x - 10
10
Wbm
J magnetic polarization 1 erg/(Gcm
3
) 1 emu/cm
3

4x - 10
4
T
, susceptibility 1 4x
p
mass susceptibility 1 cm
3
/g 4x - 10
3
m
3
/kg
permeability 1 4x - 10
7
H/m
4x - 10
7
Wb/(Am)
r relative permeability r
w, W energy density 1 erg/cm
3
10
1
J/m
3
N, D demagnetizing Iactor 1 1/(4x)
No vertical lines in table. Statements that serve as captions Ior the entire
table do not need Iootnote letters.
a
Gaussian units are the same as cgs emu Ior magnetostatics; Mx
maxwell, G gauss, Oe oersted; Wb weber, V volt, s second, T
tesla, m meter, A ampere, J joule, kg kilogram, H henry.



Fig. 1. Magnetization as a Iunction oI applied Iield. Note that 'Fig. is
abbreviated. There is a period aIter the Iigure number, Iollowed by two
spaces. It is good practice to explain the signiIicance oI the Iigure in the
caption.

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7

III. MATH
II you are using Word, use either the MicrosoIt Equation
Editor or the M,t%5e add-on (http://www.mathtype.com)
Ior equations in your paper (Insert , Object , Create New ,
MicrosoIt Equation or MathType Equation). 'Float over text
should not be selected.

IV. UNITS
Use either SI (MKS) or CGS as primary units. (SI units are
strongly encouraged.) English units may be used as secondary
units (in parentheses). This applies to papers in data
storage. For example, write '15 Gb/cm
2
(100 Gb/in
2
). An
exception is when English units are used as identiIiers in trade,
such as '3 in disk drive. Avoid combining SI and CGS
units, such as current in amperes and magnetic Iield in
oersteds. This oIten leads to conIusion because equations do
not balance dimensionally. II you must use mixed units,
clearly state the units Ior each quantity in an equation.
The SI unit Ior magnetic Iield strength H is A/m. However,
iI you wish to use units oI T, either reIer to magnetic Ilux
density B or magnetic Iield strength symbolized as
0
H. Use
the center dot to separate compound units, e.g., 'Am
2
.

V. HELPFUL HINTS
A. ure8 ,nd %,ble8
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'Magnetization, or 'Magnetization M, not just 'M. Put
units in parentheses. Do not label axes only with units. As in
Fig. 1, Ior example, write 'Magnetization (A/m) or
'Magnetization (Ac m
1
), not just 'A/m. Do not label axes
with a ratio oI quantities and units. For example, write
'Temperature (K), not 'Temperature/K.
Multipliers can be especially conIusing. Write
'Magnetization (kA/m) or 'Magnetization (10
3
A/m). Do
not write 'Magnetization (A/m) - 1000 because the reader
would not know whether the top axis label in Fig. 1 meant
16000 A/m or 0.016 A/m. Figure labels should be legible,
approximately 8 to 12 point type.
B. Reference8
Number citations consecutively in square brackets |1|. The
sentence punctuation Iollows the brackets |2|. Multiple
reIerences |2|, |3| are each numbered with separate brackets
|1||3|. When citing a section in a book, please give the
relevant page numbers |2|. In sentences, reIer simply to the
reIerence number, as in |3|. Do not use 'ReI. |3| or
'reIerence |3| except at the beginning oI a sentence:
'ReIerence |3| shows ... . UnIortunately the IEEE document
translator cannot handle automatic endnotes in Word;
thereIore, type the reIerence list at the end oI the paper using
the 'ReIerences style.
Number Iootnotes separately in superscripts (Insert ,
Footnote).
1
Place the actual Iootnote at the bottom oI the
column in which it is cited; do not put Iootnotes in the
reIerence list (endnotes). Use letters Ior table Iootnotes (see
Table I).
Please note that the reIerences at the end oI this document
are in the preIerred reIerencing style. Give all authors` names;
do not use 'et ,l. unless there are six authors or more. Use a
space aIter authors' initials. Papers that have not been
published should be cited as 'unpublished |4|. Papers that
have been submitted Ior publication should be cited as
'submitted Ior publication |5|. Papers that have been
accepted Ior publication, but not yet speciIied Ior an issue
should be cited as 'to be published |6|. Please give
aIIiliations and addresses Ior private communications |7|.
Capitalize only the Iirst word in a paper title, except Ior
proper nouns and element symbols. For papers published in
translation journals, please give the English citation Iirst,
Iollowed by the original Ioreign-language citation |8|.
. Abbrev,ton8 ,nd Acronm8
DeIine abbreviations and acronyms the Iirst time they are
used in the text, even aIter they have already been deIined in
the abstract. Abbreviations such as IEEE, SI, ac, and dc do not
have to be deIined. Abbreviations that incorporate periods
should not have spaces: write 'C.N.R.S., not 'C. N. R. S.
Do not use abbreviations in the title unless they are
unavoidable (Ior example, 'IEEE in the title oI this article).
D. Equ,ton8
Number equations consecutively with equation numbers in

1
It is recommended that Iootnotes be avoided (except Ior the unnumbered
Iootnote with the receipt date on the Iirst page). Instead, try to integrate the
Iootnote inIormation into the text.
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8
parentheses Ilush with the right margin, as in (1). First use the
equation editor to create the equation. Then select the
'Equation markup style. Press the tab key and write the
equation number in parentheses. To make your equations more
compact, you may use the solidus ( / ), the exp Iunction, or
appropriate exponents. Use parentheses to avoid ambiguities
in denominators. Punctuate equations when they are part oI a
sentence, as in

. ) ( ) ( ) , , ( exp
)| 2 ( / | ) , (
0 2 1
1
0
0 2
0
2
2 2 2 2 2
o
d r J r J : :
r d dr r
f
r

(1)

Be sure that the symbols in your equation have been deIined
beIore the equation appears or immediately Iollowing.
Italicize symbols (% might reIer to temperature, but T is the
unit tesla). ReIer to '(1), not 'Eq. (1) or 'equation (1),
except at the beginning oI a sentence: 'Equation (1) is ... .
E. Oter Recommend,ton8
Use one space aIter periods and colons. Hyphenate complex
modiIiers: 'zero-Iield-cooled magnetization. Avoid dangling
participles, such as, 'Using (1), the potential was calculated.
|It is not clear who or what used (1).| Write instead, 'The
potential was calculated by using (1), or 'Using (1), we
calculated the potential.
Use a zero beIore decimal points: '0.25, not '.25. Use
'cm
3
, not 'cc. Indicate sample dimensions as '0.1 cm - 0.2
cm, not '0.1 - 0.2 cm
2
. The abbreviation Ior 'seconds is
's, not 'sec. Do not mix complete spellings and
abbreviations oI units: use 'Wb/m
2
or 'webers per square
meter, not 'webers/m
2
. When expressing a range oI values,
write '7 to 9 or '7-9, not '7~9.
A parenthetical statement at the end oI a sentence is
punctuated outside oI the closing parenthesis (like this). (A
parenthetical sentence is punctuated within the parentheses.)
In American English, periods and commas are within
quotation marks, like 'this period. Other punctuation is
'outside! Avoid contractions; Ior example, write 'do not
instead oI 'don`t. The serial comma is preIerred: 'A, B, and
C instead oI 'A, B and C.
II you wish, you may write in the Iirst person singular or
plural and use the active voice ('I observed that ... or 'We
observed that ... instead oI 'It was observed that ...).
Remember to check spelling. II your native language is not
English, please get a native English-speaking colleague to
prooIread your paper.

VI. SOME COMMON MISTAKES
The word 'data is plural, not singular. The subscript Ior
the permeability oI vacuum
0
is zero, not a lowercase letter
'o. The term Ior residual magnetization is 'remanence; the
adjective is 'remanent; do not write 'remnance or
'remnant. Use the word 'micrometer instead oI 'micron. A
graph within a graph is an 'inset, not an 'insert. The word
'alternatively is preIerred to the word 'alternately (unless
you really mean something that alternates). Use the word
'whereas instead oI 'while (unless you are reIerring to
simultaneous events). Do not use the word 'essentially to
mean 'approximately or 'eIIectively. Do not use the word
'issue as a euphemism Ior 'problem. When compositions
are not speciIied, separate chemical symbols by en-dashes; Ior
example, 'NiMn indicates the intermetallic compound
Ni
0.5
Mn
0.5
whereas 'NiMn indicates an alloy oI some
composition Ni
x
Mn
1-x
.
Be aware oI the diIIerent meanings oI the homophones
'aIIect (usually a verb) and 'eIIect (usually a noun),
'complement and 'compliment, 'discreet and 'discrete,
'principal (e.g., 'principal investigator) and 'principle
(e.g., 'principle oI measurement). Do not conIuse 'imply
and 'inIer.
PreIixes such as 'non, 'sub, 'micro, 'multi, and
'"ultra are not independent words; they should be joined to
the words they modiIy, usually without a hyphen. There is no
period aIter the 'et in the Latin abbreviation 'et ,l. (it is also
italicized). The abbreviation 'i.e., means 'that is, and the
abbreviation 'e.g., means 'Ior example (these abbreviations
are not italicized).
An excellent style manual and source oI inIormation Ior
science writers is |9|. A general IEEE style guide, Inform,ton
for Autor8, is available at
http://www.ieee.org/organizations/pubs/transactions/inIormati
on.htm

VII. EDITORIAL POLICY
Submission oI a manuscript is not required Ior participation
in a conIerence. Do not submit a reworked version oI a paper
you have submitted or published elsewhere. Do not publish
'preliminary data or results. The submitting author is
responsible Ior obtaining agreement oI all coauthors and any
consent required Irom sponsors beIore submitting a paper.
IEEE TRANSACTIONS and JOURNALS strongly discourage
courtesy authorship. It is the obligation oI the authors to cite
relevant prior work.
The Transactions and Journals Department does not publish
conIerence records or proceedings. The TRANSACTIONS does
publish papers related to conIerences that have been
recommended Ior publication on the basis oI peer review. As a
matter oI convenience and service to the technical community,
these topical papers are collected and published in one issue oI
the TRANSACTIONS.
At least two reviews are required Ior every paper submitted.
For conIerence-related papers, the decision to accept or reject
a paper is made by the conIerence editors and publications
committee; the recommendations oI the reIerees are advisory
only. Undecipherable English is a valid reason Ior rejection.
Authors oI rejected papers may revise and resubmit them to
the TRANSACTIONS as regular papers, whereupon they will be
reviewed by two new reIerees.

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9
VIII. PUBLICATION PRINCIPLES
The contents oI IEEE TRANSACTIONS and JOURNALS are
peer-reviewed and archival. The TRANSACTIONS publishes
scholarly articles oI archival value as well as tutorial
expositions and critical reviews oI classical subjects and topics
oI current interest.
Authors should consider the Iollowing points:
1) Technical papers submitted Ior publication must advance
the state oI knowledge and must cite relevant prior work.
2) The length oI a submitted paper should be commensurate
with the importance, or appropriate to the complexity, oI
the work. For example, an obvious extension oI
previously published work might not be appropriate Ior
publication or might be adequately treated in just a Iew
pages.
3) Authors must convince both peer reviewers and the
editors oI the scientiIic and technical merit oI a paper; the
standards oI prooI are higher when extraordinary or
unexpected results are reported.
4) Because replication is required Ior scientiIic progress,
papers submitted Ior publication must provide suIIicient
inIormation to allow readers to perIorm similar
experiments or calculations and use the reported results.
Although not everything need be disclosed, a paper must
contain new, useable, and Iully described inIormation. For
example, a specimen's chemical composition need not be
reported iI the main purpose oI a paper is to introduce a
new measurement technique. Authors should expect to be
challenged by reviewers iI the results are not supported by
adequate data and critical details.
5) Papers that describe ongoing work or announce the latest
technical achievement, which are suitable Ior presentation
at a proIessional conIerence, may not be appropriate Ior
publication in a TRANSACTIONS or JOURNAL.

IX. CONCLUSION
A conclusion section is not required. Although a conclusion
may review the main points oI the paper, do not replicate the
abstract as the conclusion. A conclusion might elaborate on
the importance oI the work or suggest applications and
extensions.
APPENDIX
Appendixes, iI needed, appear beIore the acknowledgment.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The preIerred spelling oI the word 'acknowledgment in
American English is without an 'e aIter the 'g. Use the
singular heading even iI you have many acknowledgments.
Avoid expressions such as 'One oI us (S.B.A.) would like to
thank ... . Instead, write 'F. A. Author thanks ... . Sponsor
and financial support acknowledgments are placed in the
unnumbered footnote on the first page.
REFERENCES
|1| G. O. Young, 'Synthetic structure oI industrial plastics (Book style with
paper title and editor), in Pl,8tc8, 2nd ed. vol. 3, J. Peters, Ed. New
York: McGraw-Hill, 1964, pp. 1564.
|2| W.-K. Chen, Lne,r Network8 ,nd S8tem8 (Book style). Belmont, CA:
Wadsworth, 1993, pp. 123135.
|3| H. Poor, An Introducton to Sn,l Detecton ,nd E8tm,ton. New
York: Springer-Verlag, 1985, ch. 4.
|4| B. Smith, 'An approach to graphs oI linear Iorms (Unpublished work
style), unpublished.
|5| E. H. Miller, 'A note on reIlector arrays (Periodical styleAccepted Ior
publication), IEEE %r,n8. Antenn,8 Pro5,,t., to be published.
|6| J. Wang, 'Fundamentals oI erbium-doped Iiber ampliIiers arrays
(Periodical styleSubmitted Ior publication), IEEE J. Qu,ntum
Electron., submitted Ior publication.
|7| C. J. KauIman, Rocky Mountain Research Lab., Boulder, CO, private
communication, May 1995.
|8| Y. Yorozu, M. Hirano, K. Oka, and Y. Tagawa, 'Electron spectroscopy
studies on magneto-optical media and plastic substrate
interIaces(Translation Journals style), IEEE %r,n8l. J. M,n.J5n., vol.
2, Aug. 1987, pp. 740741 |D. 9
t
Annu. onf. M,netc8 Japan, 1982,
p. 301|.
|9| M. Young, %e %ecnc,l Wrter8 H,ndbook. Mill Valley, CA:
University Science, 1989.
|10| J. U. Duncombe, 'InIrared navigationPart I: An assessment oI
Ieasibility (Periodical style), IEEE %r,n8. Electron Devce8, vol. ED-
11, pp. 3439, Jan. 1959.
|11| S. Chen, B. Mulgrew, and P. M. Grant, 'A clustering technique Ior
digital communications channel equalization using radial basis Iunction
networks, IEEE %r,n8. Neur,l Network8, vol. 4, pp. 570578, July
1993.
|12| R. W. Lucky, 'Automatic equalization Ior digital communication, Bell
S8t. %ec. J., vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 547588, Apr. 1965.
|13| S. P. Bingulac, 'On the compatibility oI adaptive controllers (Published
ConIerence Proceedings style), in Proc. 4t Annu. Allerton onf.
rcut8 ,nd S8tem8 %eor, New York, 1994, pp. 816.
|14| G. R. Faulhaber, 'Design oI service systems with priority reservation,
in onf. Rec. 1995 IEEE Int. onf. ommunc,ton8, pp. 38.
|15| W. D. Doyle, 'Magnetization reversal in Iilms with biaxial anisotropy,
in 1987 Proc. IN%ERMAG onf., pp. 2.2-12.2-6.
|16| G. W. Juette and L. E. ZeIIanella, 'Radio noise currents n short sections
on bundle conductors (Presented ConIerence Paper style), presented at
the IEEE Summer power Meeting, Dallas, TX, June 2227, 1990, Paper
90 SM 690-0 PWRS.
|17| J. G. KreiIeldt, 'An analysis oI surIace-detected EMG as an amplitude-
modulated noise, presented at the 1989 Int. ConI. Medicine and
Biological Engineering, Chicago, IL.
|18| J. Williams, 'Narrow-band analyzer (Thesis or Dissertation style),
Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Elect. Eng., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA,
1993.
|19| N. Kawasaki, 'Parametric study oI thermal and chemical nonequilibrium
nozzle Ilow, M.S. thesis, Dept. Electron. Eng., Osaka Univ., Osaka,
Japan, 1993.
|20| J. P. Wilkinson, 'Nonlinear resonant circuit devices (Patent style), U.S.
Patent 3 624 12, July 16, 1990.
|21| IEEE rter, for l,88 IE Electrc S8tem8 (Standards style), IEEE
Standard 308, 1969.
|22| Letter Smbol8 for Qu,ntte8, ANSI Standard Y10.5-1968.
|23| R. E. Haskell and C. T. Case, 'Transient signal propagation in lossless
isotropic plasmas (Report style), USAF Cambridge Res. Lab.,
Cambridge, MA Rep. ARCRL-66-234 (II), 1994, vol. 2.
|24| E. E. Reber, R. L. Michell, and C. J. Carter, 'Oxygen absorption in the
Earth`s atmosphere, Aerospace Corp., Los Angeles, CA, Tech. Rep.
TR-0200 (420-46)-3, Nov. 1988.
|25| (Handbook style) %r,n8m88on S8tem8 for ommunc,ton8, 3rd ed.,
Western Electric Co., Winston-Salem, NC, 1985, pp. 4460.
|26| Motorol, Semconductor D,t, M,nu,l, Motorola Semiconductor
Products Inc., Phoenix, AZ, 1989.
|27| (Basic Book/Monograph Online Sources) J. K. Author. (year, month,
day). %tle (edition) |Type oI medium|. Volume(issue). Available:
http://www.(URL)
|28| J. Jones. (1991, May 10). Networks (2nd ed.) |Online|. Available:
http://www.atm.com
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10
|29| (Journal Online Sources style) K. Author. (year, month). Title. Journ,l
|Type oI medium|. Volume(issue), paging iI given. Available:
http://www.(URL)
|30| R. J. Vidmar. (1992, August). On the use oI atmospheric plasmas as
electromagnetic reIlectors. IEEE %r,n8. Pl,8m, Sc. |Online|. 21(3). pp.
876880. Available: http://www.halcyon.com/pub/journals/21ps03-
vidmar





First A. Author (M`76SM`81F`87) and the other authors may include
biographies at the end oI regular papers. Biographies are oIten not included in
conIerence-related papers. This author became a Member (M) oI IEEE in
1976, a Senior Member (SM) in 1981, and a Fellow (F) in 1987. The Iirst
paragraph may contain a place and/or date oI birth (list place, then date). Next,
the author`s educational background is listed. The degrees should be listed
with type oI degree in what Iield, which institution, city, state or country, and
year degree was earned. The author`s major Iield oI study should be lower-
cased.
The second paragraph uses the pronoun oI the person (he or she) and not
the author`s last name. It lists military and work experience, including
summer and Iellowship jobs. Job titles are capitalized. The current job must
have a location; previous positions may be listed without one. InIormation
concerning previous publications may be included. Try not to list more than
three books or published articles. The Iormat Ior listing publishers oI a book
within the biography is: title oI book (city, state: publisher name, year) similar
to a reIerence. Current and previous research interests ends the paragraph.
The third paragraph begins with the author`s title and last name (e.g., Dr.
Smith, ProI. Jones, Mr. Kajor, Ms. Hunter). List any memberships in
proIessional societies other than the IEEE. Finally, list any awards and work
Ior IEEE committees and publications. II a photograph is provided, the
biography will be indented around it. The photograph is placed at the top leIt
oI the biography. Personal hobbies will be deleted Irom the biography.