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Report N o .

M-933-71
MISSION OPERATION REPORT
APOLLO SUPPLEMENT

JULY 1971
(. OFF ICE OF MANNED SPACE Fi l GHT
Prepored by: Apollo Program Office - MA0
FOREWORD

MISSION OPERATION REPORTS are published expressly for the use of NASA Senior
Management, as required by the Administrator i n NASA Management lnstruction HQMI
.
8610.1, effective 30 April 1971 The purpose of these reports i s to provide NASA
SeniorManagement with timely, complete, and definitive information on flight mission
plans, and to establish official Mission Objectives which provide the basis for assess-
ment of mission accomplishment.

Prelaunch reports are prepared and issued for each flight project just prior t o launch.
Fol lowing launch, updating (Post Launch) reports for each mission are issued to keep
General Management currently informed of definitive mission results as provided i n
NASA Management lnstruction HQMI 8610.1.

Primary distribution of these reports i s intended for personnel having program/project


management responsibilities which sometimes results i n a highly technical orientation.
The O f f i c e of Public Affairs ~ublishesa comprehensive series of reports on NASA flight
missions which are available for dissemination to the Press.

APOLLO MISSION OPERATION REPORTS are published i n two volumes: theMlSSlON


OPERATION REPORT ( M O R ) ; and the MISSION OPERATION REPORT, APOLLO
SUPPLEMENT. This format was designed to provide a mission-oriented document i n
the MOR, with supporting equipment and facility description i n the MOR, APOLLO
SUPPLEMENT. The MOR, APOLLO SUPPLEMENT i s a program-oriented reference
document with a broad technical description of the space vehicle and associated equip-
ment, the launch complex, and mission control and support facilities.

Published and Distributed by


PROGRAM and SPECIAL REPORTS DIVISION (XP)
-
EXECUTIVE SECRETARIAT NASA HEADQUARTERS

NASA-HQ
M-932-70
Apol l o Supplement

CONTE N T S

.
Page

Space Vehicle ................................ 1


........................
Saturn V Launch Vehicle 2
............................
S-IC Stageo 2
.............................
S-II Stage 6
............................
S-IVB Stage 10
..........................
Instrument Unit 16
...........................
A p o l l o Spacecraft 21
......................
Spacecraft-bM Adapter 21
..........................
Service Module 23
.........................
Command Module 28
....................
Common Spacecraft Systems 42
.......................
Launch Escape System 45
Lunar Module ........................... 48

Crew Provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Apparel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unsuited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Suited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Extravehicular. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ltem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Food and Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Couches und Restraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Command Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lunar Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hygiene Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operational Aids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emergency Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Launch Complex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LC-39A Facilities and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vehicle Assembly Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Launch Control Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
M o b i l e Launcher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Launch Pad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A p o l l o Emergency !ngress/Egress and Escape System . . . . . . . .
Fuel System Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
L O X System Facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Azimuth Alignment Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

April 1970
M-933-7 1
Apollo Supplement

.
Page

Photography Facilities ........................ 86


Pad Water System Facilities ..................... 86
M o b i l e Service Structure...................... 86
Craw ler-Transporter ......................... 87
Vehicle Assembly and Checkout ..................... 88

Mission Monitoring. Support. and Control ..................


General .................................
Vehicle Flight Control Capability ....................
Space V e h i c l e Tracking .......................
Command System ..........................
Display and Control System .....................
Contingency Planning and Execution ...................
M C C Role i n Aborts .........................
Vehicle Flight Control Parameters ....................
Parameters Monitored by Launch Control Center ..........
Parameters Monitored by Booster Systems Group ...........
Parameters Monitored by Flight Dynamics Group ..........
Parameters Monitored by Spacecraft Systems Group .........
Parameters Monitored by Life Systems Group ............
A p o l l o Launch Data System .......................
MSFC Support for Launch and Flight Operations .............
Manned Space Flight Network ......................
Ground Stations ...........................
M o b i l e Stiltions...........................
NASA Communications Network .....................
Recovery and Postflight Provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recovery Control Room . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prime Recovery Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primary Recovery Ship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Support Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Isolation Garments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lunar ~ e c e i v i n ~ ' L a b o r a t o .
r ~. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .

Design Concept and U t i l i t i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Administrative and Support Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crew Reception Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sample Operations Area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

July 1971
M-933-7 1
Apollo Supplement

Pase

Mission Data Acquisition ...............................


Photographic Equipment ..............................
l6mm Data Acquisition Camera .....................
16mm Lunar Surface Data Acquisition Camera ............
70mm Hasselblad Electric Camera ....................
70mm Hassel blad Electric Data Camera ................
......................................
Television
Lunar Surface Color TV Camera ....................
Lunar Elack and White TV Camera ...................
Three-Inch Lunar Mapping Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
O p t i c a l Bar Panoramic Camera ...................
35mm N i k o n Camera . . . . . . . ..................
Scientific Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Stowage ....................................... 118
Modularized Equipment Stowage Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
ALSEP Basic Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

Experiments ....................................... 122


Lunar Surface Experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Lmar Tri-Axis Magnetometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Solar Wind Spectrometer ......................... 125
Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
L v m r Heat Flow Experiment ....................... 129
Cold Cathode Gauge Experiment .................... 129
Dust Detector Subsystem ......................... 133
Lunar Geology Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Solar Wind Composition Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Cosmic Ray Detector ............................ 137
Portable Magnetometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Lunar G r a v i t y Traverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Soil Mechanics ............................... 140
Far UV Camera/Spectroscope ...................... 140
Lunar E jecta and Meteorites ....................... 141
Lunar Seismic Profiling .......................... 141
Lunar Surface Electrical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Lunar Atmospheric Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Lunar Surface Gravimeter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
In-Fl ight Experiments ............................. 143
Gamma Ray Spectrometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
X-Ray Fluorescence ............................ 145
Alpha-Particle Spectrometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Page

............................
5-Band Transponder
Mass Spectrometer............................
............................
Far UV Spectrometer
Bistatic Radar...............................
..........................
I R Scanning Radiometer
........................
A p o l l o Window Meteoroid
...................
UV Photography .Earth and M o o n
.....................
Gegenschein From Lunar O r b i t
Lunar Sounder................................
Subsatellite ....................................
.................
M i c r o b i a l Response To Space Environment
Other Experiments ................................
........................
Bone M i n e r a l Measurement
.....................
Total Body Gamma Spectrometry

General ......................................
Lunar Roving V e h i c l e Subsystem ........................
M o b i l it y Subsystem ................................
Electrical Power Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
N a v i g a t i o n Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crew Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thermal Control Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Space ;upport Equipment ...........................
Abbreviations and Acronyms ............................

J u l y 1971
M-93-71
Apol lo Supplement

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure -
Title -
Page

Apol lo/Saturn V Space Vehicle


S-IC Stage
S- l l Stage
S- IV B Stage
APS Functions
APS Control Module
Saturn Instrument U n i t
IU Equipment Locations
Spacecraft-LM Adapter
S LA Panel Jettisoning
Service Module
Command Module
CM/LM Docking Configuration
M a i n Display Console
Telecommunications System
CSM Communication Ranges
Location of Antennas
ELS Major Component Stowage
Guidance and Control Functional Flow
Launch Escape System
Lunar Module
LM Physical Characteristics
L M Ascent Stage
L M Descent Stage
L M Communications Links
PGA In-Flight EVA Configuration
PGA Lunar Surface Configuration
. L M Crewman a t Flight Station
L M Crewmen Sleep Positions
Launch Complex 39A
Vehicle Assembly Building
M o b i l e Launcher
~ d l d d o w nArmsflai l Service Mast
M o b i l e Launcher Service Arms
Launch Pad A, LC-39
Launch Structure Exploded View
Launch Pad Interface System
Elevatorflube Egress System
Slide Wire/Cab Egress System
M o b i l e Service Structure
Crawler Transporter

July 1971
M-933-71
A p o l l o Supplement

Basic Telemetry, Command, and Communication


Interfaces for Flight Control
MCC O r g a n i z a t i o n
Information Flow Mission Operations Control Room
M C C Functional Configuratiol I
Manned Space Flight N e t w o r k
Typical Mission Communications N e t w o r k
H e l i c o p t e r Pickup
Biological Isolation Garment
Lunar Receiving Laboratory
Maurer 16mm Data A c q u i s i t i o n Camera
16mm Lunar Surface Data Acquisition Camera
70mm HasseIblad Electric Data Camera
Lunar Surface Color N Camera
Lunar Black and W h i t e N Camera
Three-Inch Lunar Mapping Camera
O p t i c a l Bar Panoramic Camera
35mm Ni kon Camera
Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator
Data Subsystem and Central Station
Passive Seismic Experiment
A c t i v e Seismic Experiment Subsystem
Lunar Tri-Axis Magnetometer Experiment S~bsystem
Solar W i n d Spectrometer
Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment
Lunar Heat Flow Experiment
A p o l l o Lunar Surface D r i l l
C o l d Cathode Gauge Experiment
Dust Detector
Astronaut Placing Lunar Sample i n Sample
Return Container
A p o l l o Lunar Hand Tools
300-Cube Array
Solar W i n d Array
Cosmic Ray Detector
Portable Magnetometer
Lunar G r a v i t y Traverse Instrument
Self-Recording Penetrometer
Far UV Camera/Spec troscope
Lunar E jec ta and Meteorites
Lunar Seismic Profiling
Lunar Surface E l e c t r i c a l Properties
Lunar Atmospheric Composition
Lunar Surface Gravimeter

July 1971
M-933-7 1
A p o l l o Supplement

S c i e n t i f i c Instrument M o d u l e
G a m m a Ray Spectrometer
Alpha-Particle Spectrometer
Mass Spectrometer
Far UV Spectrometer
I R Scanning Radiometer
Subsatel l i t e w i t h Launching Mechanism
Lunar Roving V e h i c l e
Hand Control l e r
LRV Deployment Sequence

J u l y 1971
M-932-69
Apol l o Supplement

SPACE VEH IC LE

The primary flight hardware o f the Apollo Program consists of a Saturn V Launch Vehicle
and an Apollo Spacecraft. Collectively, they are designated the ApolloISaturn V Space
V e h i c l e (SV) (Figure 1).

APOLLO/SATURN V SPACE VEH ICLE

INSTRUMENT
UNIT

S-IVB

E S C A P E SYSTEM

INTER.
STAGE

PROTECTIVE COVER

(YYUND MODULE

INTER-
SERVICE M O W L E STAGE

SIC

SPACECRAFT SPACE V E H I C L E LAUNCH V E H I C L E

Fig. 1

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M-933-7 1
Apol l o Supplement

SATURN V LAUNCH VEHICLE

The Saturn V Launch V e h i c l e (LV) i s designed to boost up to 285,000 pounds i n t o a


105-nautical mile earth orbit and to provide for lunar payloads o f over 100,000 pounds.
The Saturn V LV consists o f three propulsive stages (S-IC, S - l l , S-IVB), two interstages,
and a n Instrument Unit (IU).

S-IC Staae

Genera I

The S-IC stage (Figure 2 ) i s a large cylindrical booster, 138 feet long and 33 feet
i n diameter, powered by f i v e liquid propellant F-1 rocket engines. These engines
develop a nominal sea level thrust total o f approximately 7/610,000 pounds. The
stage dry weight i s approximately 289,800 pounds and the total loaded stage weight
i s approximately 5,017,000 pounds. The S-IC stage interfaces structurally and
e l e c t r i c a l l y w i t h the S - l l stage. I t also interfaces structurally, electrically, and
pneumatically w i t h Ground Support Equipment (GSE) through two umbilical service
arms, three t a i l service masts, and certain electronic systems by antennas. The
S-IC stage i s instrumented for operational measurements or signals which are
transmitted by its independent telemetry system.

Structure

The S-IC structural design reflects the requirements o f F-1 engines, propellants,
contrcl , instrumentation, and interfacing systems. Aluminum a l l o y i s the primary
structural material. The major structural components are the forward skirt, oxidizer
tank, intertank section, fuel tank, and thrust structure. The forward skirt inter-
faces structurally w i t h the S-IC/S-ll interstage. The skirt also mounts vents,
antennas, and electrical and electronic equipment.

The 47,298-cubic foot oxidizer tank i s the structural l i n k between the forward skirt
and the intertank structure which provides structural continuity between the oxidizer
and fuel tanks. The 29,215-cubic foot fuel tank provides the load carrying structural
l i n k between the thrust and intertank structures. Five oxidizer ducts run from the
oxidizer tank, through the fuel tank, to the F-1 engines.

The thrust structure assembly redistributes the applied loads o f the five F-1 engines
i n t o nearly uniform loading about the periphery o f the fuel tank. Also, i t provides
support for the five F-1 engines, engine accessories, base heat shield, engine
fairings and fins, propellant lines, retrorockets, and environmental control ducts.
The lower thrust ring has four holddown points which support the f u l l y loaded
Saturn V Space V e h i c l e (approximately 6,495,000 pounds) and also, as necessary,
restrain the vehicle during controlled release.

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M-932-69
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S - I C STAGE
FLIGHT TERMINATION

F-i ENGINES/
(5)
HE
INSTRUMENTATION FLIGHT CONTROL
SERVO ACTUATOR
RETROROCKETS

Fig. 2

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Propulsion

The F- 1 engine i s a single-start, 1,522,000-pound fixed-thrust, calibrated, bi-


propellant engine which uses liquid oxygen (LOX) as the oxidizer and Rocket
Propel lant-1 (RP- 1) as the fuel. The thrust chamber i s cooled regeneratively b y
fuel, and the nozzle extension i s cooled by gas generator exhaust gases. O x i d i z e r
and fuel are supplied to the thrust chamber by a single turbopump powered by a
gas generator which uses the same propellant combination. RP-1 i s also used as
the turbopump lubricant and as the working f l u i d for the engine hydraulic control
system. The four outboard engines are capable of gimbaling and have provisions
for supply and return o f RP-1 as the working fluid for a thrust vector control system.
The engine contains a heat exchanger system to condition engine-supplied LOX
and externally supplied helium for stage propellant tank pressurization. A n
instrumentation system monitors engine performance and operation. External
thermal insulation provides an allowable engine environment during flight operation.

The normal i n f l i g h t engine cutoff sequence i s center engine first, followed by the
four outboard engines. Engine optical-type depletion sensors i n either the oxidizer
or fuel tank i n i t i a t e the engine cutoff sequence. In an emergency, the engine
can be cut o f f b y any of the following methods: GSE Command Cutoff, Emergency
Detection System, or Outboard Cutoff System.

Propellant Systems

The propellant systems include hardware for f i l l and drain, propellant conditioning,
tank precsurization prior to and during flight, and for delivery to the engines.
Fuel tank pressurization i s required during engine starting and flight to establish
and maintain a N e t Positive Suction Head (NPSH) at the fuel i n l e t to the engine
turbopumps. During flight, the source o f fuel tank pressurization i s helium from
storage bottles mounted inside the oxidizer tank. Fuel feed i s accomplished
through two 12-inch ducts which connect the fuel tank to each F-1 engine. The
ducts are equipped w i t h flex and sliding joints t o compensate for motions from
engine gimbaling and stage stresses.

Gaseous oxygen ( G O X ) i s used for oxidizer tank pressurization during f l i g h t . A


portion o f the LOX supplied to each engine i s diverted i n t o the engine heat
exchangers where i t i s transformed i n t o G O X and routed back to the tanks. LOX
i s delivered to the engines through five suction lines which are supplied w i t h flex
and sliding joints.

Flight Control

The S-IC thrust vector control consists of four outboard F-1 engines, gimbal blocks
to attach these engines to the thrust ring, engine hydraulic servoactuators (two
per engine), and an engine hydraulic power supply. Engine thrust i s transmitted

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M-933-71
Apol l o Supplement

t o the thrust structure through the engine gimbal block. There are two servo-
actuator attach points per engine, located 90 degrees from each other, through
which the gimbaling force i s applied. The gimbaling o f the four outboard engines
changes the direction of thrust and as a result corrects the attitude o f the vehicle
to achieve the desired trajectory. Each outboard engine may be gimbaled k5'
w i t h i n a square pattern a t a rate o f 5' per second.

Electrical

The e l e c t r i c a l power system o f the S-IC stage consists of two basic subsystems:
the operational power subsystem and the measurements power subsystem. Onboard
power i s supplied b y two 28-volt batteries. Battery number 1 i s identified as the
operational power system battery. I t supplies power to operational loads such as
valve controls, purge and venting systems, pressurization systems, and sequencing
and f l i g h t control. Battery number 2 i s identified as the measurement power system.
Batteries supply power to their loads through a common main power distributor, but
each system i s completely isolated from the other. The S-IC9stage switch selector
i s the interface between the Launch Vehicle Digital Computer (LVDC) i n the IU
and the S-IC stage electrical circuits. Its function i s to sequence and control
various f l i g h t activities such as telemetry calibration, retrofire initiation, and
pressurization.

Ordnance

The S-IC ordnance systems include propellant dispersion (flight termination)


and retrorocket systems. The S-IC Propellant Dispersion System (PDS) provides
the means o f terminating the flight of the Saturn V i f i t varies beyond the prescribed
limits o f its f l i g h t path or i f i t becomes a safety hazard during the S-IC boost phase.
A transmitted ground command shuts down a l l engines and a second command
detonates explosives which longitudinally open the fuel and oxidizer tanks. The
fuel opening i s 180' (opposite) to the oxidizer opening to minimize propellant
mixing.

Four retrorockets provide thrust after S-IC burnout to separate i t from the S - l l
stage. The S-IC retrorockets are mounted external to the thrust structure i n the
fairings o f the four outboard F- 1 engines. The firing command originates i n the
IU and activates redundant firing systems. At retrorocket ignition the forward
end o f the fairing i s burned and blown through by the exhausting gases.

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S - l l Stane

General

The S - l l stage (Figure 3) i s a large cylindrical booster, 81.5 feet long and 33 feet
i n diameter, powered by five liquid propellant J-2 rocket engines which develop
a nominal vacuum thrust of 232,000 pounds each for a total o f 1,150,000 pounds.
Dry weight o f the 5-11 stage i s approximately 78,050 pounds. The stage approximate
loaded gross weight i s 1,101,000 pounds. The S-IC/S-II interstage weighs 9,100
pounds. The S - l l stage i s instrumented for operational and research and development
measurements which are transmitted by its independent telemetry system. The S-l l
stage has structural and electrical interfaces w i t h the S-IC and S-IVB stages, and
electric, pneumatic, and f l u i d interfaces w i t h GSE through its umbilicals and antennas.

Structure

M a j o r 5-11 structural components are the forward skirt, the 37,737-cubic foot fuel
tank, the 12,745-cubic foot oxidizer tank (with the common bulkhead), the a f t
skirt/thrust structure, and the S-IC/S-ll interstage. Aluminum a l l o y i s the major
structural material. The forward and a f t skirts distribute and transmit structural
loads and interface structurally w i t h the interstages. The a f t skirt also distributes
the loads imposed on the thrust structure by the J-2 engines. The S-IC/S-II inter-
stage i s comparable to the a f t skirt i n capability and construction. The propellant
tank walls constitute the cylindrical structure between the skirts. The a f t bulkhead
of the fuel tank i s also the forward bulkhead of the oxidizer tank. This common bulk-
head i s fabricated o f aluminum w i t h a fiberglass/phenol i c honeycomb core. The
insulating characteristics o f the common bulkhead minimize the heating effect o f
the warmer LOX (-297OF) on the LH2 (-423OF).

Propulsion

The S - l l stage engine system consists o f five single-start, high-performance, high-


altitude J-2 rocket engines o f 232,000 pounds o f nominal vacuum thrust each.
Fuel i s l i q u i d hydrogen (LH2) and the oxidizer i s liquid oxygen (LOX). The four
outer J-2 engines are equally spaced on a 17.5-foot diameter c i r c l e and are
capable o f being gimbaled through +7 degrees square pattern to allow thrust vector
control. The fifth' engine i s fixed and i s mounted on the centerline o f the stage.
The S - l l J-2 engines are scheduled to operate a t a fuel/oxidizer mixture mass
r a t i o o f 5.5:l for the first 298 seconds and 4.8:l for the remainder o f the burn.
A capability to cut o f f the center engine before the outboard engines i s provided
by a pneumatic system powered by gaseous helium which i s stored i n a sphere
inside the start tank. An electrical control system that uses solid state logic
elements i s used to sequence the start and shutdown operations of the engine.

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S- l l STAGE

FORWARD SKIRT
/2 FEET

VEHICLE
STATID>{
251 9

I \
L I Q U I D HYDROGEN

.
.-
I
.
.
LH2/LOX COMMON
BULKHEAD
51-1/2
FEET

AFT S K I R T

I NTERSTAGE

33 FEET
i

Fig. 3

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M-933-7 1
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The J-2 engines may receive cutoff signals from several different sources. These
sources include engine interlock deviations, Emergency Detection System automatic
or manual abort cutoffs, and propellant depletion cutoff. Each o f these sources
signals the LVDC i n the IU. The LVDC sends the engine cutoff signal to the S-I1
switch selector, which i n turn signals the electrical control package, which controls
a l l local signals necessary for the cutoff sequence. Five discrete l i q u i d level
sensors per propellant tank provide i n i t i a t i o n o f engine cutoff upon detection o f
propellant depletion. The cutoff sensors w i l l i n i t i a t e a signal to shut down the
engines when two out of five engine cutoff signals from the same tank are received.

Propel lant Systems

The propellant systems supply fuel and oxidizer to the f i v e engines. This i s
accomplished b y the propellant management components and the servicing,
conditioning, and engine delivery subsystems. The propellant tanks are insulated
w i t h foam-filled honeycomb which contains passages through which helium i s forced
for purging and leak detection. The LH2 feed system includes five 8-inch vacuum-
jacketed feed ducts and five prevalves.

During powered flight, prior to S - l l ignition, gaseous hydrogen (GH2) for LH2
tank pressurization i s bled from the thrust chamber hydrogen injector manifold of
each o f the four outboard engines. After S-I1 engine ignition, LH2 i s preheated
i n the regenerative cooling tubes of the engine and tapped o f f from the thrust
chamber iniector manifold i n the form o f G H 2 t o serve as a pressurizing medium.
The L O X feed system includes four 8-inch, vacuum-jacketed feed ducts, one
u n i n s u l c t ~ dfeed duct, and five prevalves. L O X tank pressurization i s accom-
plished w i t h G O X obtained by heating LOX bled from the LOX turbopump outlet.

The propellant management system monitors propellant mass for control o f propellant
loading and depletion. Components of the system include continuous capacitance
probes, mixture ratio control valves, liquid level sensors, and electronic equipment.
During the propellant loading sequence the capacitance probes i n both the LH2 and
L O X tanks are used to indicate to the GSE the level o f propellants i n the tanks.
In case o f a capacitance probe failure, the point level sensors can also be used for
propellant loading. In flight, the level sensors provide signals to the LVDC i n
order to accomplish a smooth engine cutoff a t propellant depletion. The capacitance
probes provide outputs which are telemetered to ground stations so that propellant
consumption can be monitored and recorded. Propellant u t i l i z a t i o n by mixture
ratio control during f l i g h t i s accomplished by program commands to a two-position
mixture ratio control valve providing a LOX/Fuel ratio o f 4.8:l or 5.5:l.

J u l y 1971 Page 8
M-933-71
Apol l o Supplement

Fl i a h t Control

Each outboard engine i s equipped w i t h a separate, independent, closed-loop


hydraulic control system that includes two servoactuators mounted i n perpendicular
planes to provide vehicle control i n pitch, roll, and yaw. The servoactuators are
capable o f deflecting the engine +7 degrees i n the p i t c h and yaw planes (+I0
degrees diagonally) a t the rate o f 8 degrees per second.

Electrical

The electrical system i s comprised of the electrical power (four batteries) and
e l e c t r i c a l control subsystems. The electrical power subsystem provides the S-I I
stage w i t h the electrical power source and distribution. The electrical control
subsystem interfaces w i t h the IU to accomplish the mission requirements o f the
stage. The LVDC i n the IU controls i n f l i g h t sequencing of stage functions
through the stage switch selector. The stage switch selector outputs are routed
through the stage electrical sequence controller or the separation controller to
accomplish the directed operation. These units are basically a network o f low-
power transistorized switches that can be controlled individually and, upon
command from the switch selector, provide properly sequenced electrical signals
to control the stage functions.

Ordnance

The S - l l ordnance systems include separation, retrorocket, and propellant dis-


persion (flight termination) systems. For S-IC/S-II separation, a dual-plane
separation technique i s used wherein the structure between the two stages i s
severed at two different planes. The second-plane separation jettisons the inter-
stage after S - l l engine ignition. The S-II/S-IVB separation occurs a t a single
plane located near the a f t skirt of the S-IVB stage. The S-IVB interstage remains
as a n integral part of the S-I I stage. To separate and retard the 5-11 stage, a
deceleration i s provided by the four retrorockets located i n the S-II/S-IVB inter-
stage. Each rocket develops a nominal thrust of 34,810 pounds and fires for 1.52
seconds. A l l separations are i n i t i a t e d by the LVDC located i n the IU.

The S - l l Propellant Dispersion System (PDS) provides for termination of vehicle


f l i g h t during the S-ll boost phase i f the vehicle f l i g h t path varies beyond its
prescribed limits or i f continuation of vehicle f l i g h t creates a safety hazard. The
S - l l PDS may be safed after the Launch Escape Tower i s jettisoned. The fuel tank
l inear-shaped charge, when detonated, cuts a 30-foot vertical opening i n the
tank. The oxidizer tank destruct charges simul taneously cut 13-foot lateral
openings i n the oxidizer tank and the S - l l a f t skirt.

July 1971 Page 9


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S-IVB Stage

Genera I

The S-IVB stage (Figure 4) i s a large cylindrical booster 59 feet long and 21.6
feet i n diameter, powered b y one J-2 engine. The S-IVB stage i s capable o f
multiple engine starts. Engine thrust i s 199,800 pounds. This stage i s also
unique i n that i t has a n attitude control capability independent o f its main
engine. Dry weight o f the stage i s 25,000 pounds. The launch weight o f the
stage i s 263,800 pounds. The interstage weight o f 7800 pounds i s not included
i n the stated weights. The stage i s instrumented for functional measurements or
signals which are transmitted by i t s inaependent telemetry system.

Structure

The major structural components o f the S-IVB stage are the forward skirt, propellant
tanks, aft skirt, thrust structure, and a f t interstage. The forward skirt provides
structural continuity between the fuel tank wal I s and the IU. The propellant tank
walls transmit and distribute structural loads from the a f t skirt and the thrust
structure. The a f t skirt i s subjected to imposed loads from the S-IVB a f t interstage.
The thrust structure mounts the J-2 engine and distributes its structural loads to the
circumference o f the oxidizer tank. A common, insulated bulkhead separates the
2830-cubic foot oxidizer tank and the 10,418-cubic foot fuel tank and i s similar to
the common bulkhead discussed i n the S - l l description. The predominant structural
material p f the stage i s aluminum a l l o y . The stage interfaces structurally w i t h the
S - l l stage and the IU.

M a i n Propulsion

The high-performance J-2 engine as installed i n the S-IVB stage has a multiple
start capability. The S-IVB J-2 engine i s scheduled to produce a thrust o f
199,800 pounds during its first burn t o earth orbit and a thrust o f 179,600 pounds
(mixture mass ratio o f 4.5:l) during the first 53.5 seconds of translunar injection.
The remaining translunar injection acceleration i s provided a t a thrust level o f
199,700 pounds (mixture mass ratio o f 5.0:l). The engine valves are controlled
b y a pneumatic system powered by gaseous helium which i s store2 i n a sphere
inside a start bottle. A n electrical control system that uses solid stage logic
elements i s used to sequence the start and shutdown operations o f the engine.
Electrical power i s supplied from a f t battery N o . 1.

Page 10
- July 1969 Page 1 1
M-933-71
Apol l o Supplement

During engine operation, the oxidizer tank i s pressurized b y flowing c o l d helium


(from helium spheres mounted inside the fuel tank) through the heat exchanger i n
the oxidizer turbine exhaust duct. The heat exchanger heats the cold helium,
causing i t to expand. The fuel tank i s pressurized during engine operation b y G H 2
from the thrust chamber fuel manifold. Thrust vector control i n the p i t c h and yaw
planes during burn periods i s achieved b y gimbaling the entire engine.

The J-2 engines may receive cutoff signals from the following sources: Emergency
Detection System, range safety systems, "Thrust 0 K " pressure switches, propellant
depletion sensors, and an IU-programmed command (velocity or timed) v i a the
switch selector.

The restart of the J-2 engine i s identical to the i n i t i a l start. The start tank i s
f i l l e d w i t h LH2 and G H 2 during the first burn period by bleeding G H 2 from the
thrust chamber fuel injection manifold and LH2 from the Augmented Spark Igniter
(ASI) fuel l i n e t o r e f i l l the start tank for engine restart. (Approximately 50
seconds o f mainstage engine operation i s required to recharge the start tank.)

To insure that sufficient energy w i l l be available for spinning the fuel and oxidizer
pump turbines, a w a i t i n g period o f between approximately 80 minutes to 6 hours
i s required. The minimum time i s required to b u i l d sufficient pressure by warming
the start tank through natural means and to allow the hot gas turbine exhaust system
to cool. Prolonged heating w i l l cause a loss o f energy i n the start tank. This loss
occurs when the LH2 and G H 2 warm and raise the gas pressure to the r e l i e f valve
setting. I f this venting continues over a prolonged period the total stored energy
w i l l be depleted. This limits the waiting period prior to a restart attempt t o six
hours.

P r o ~ e l l a n Systems
t

L O X i s stored i n the a f t tank o f the propellant tank structure a t a temperature o f


-297OF. A six-inch, low-pressure supply duct supplies L O X from the tank to the
engine. During engine burn, LOX i s supplied a t a nominal flow rate o f 392 pounds
per second, and a t a transfer pressure above 25 psia. The supply duct i s equipped
w i t h bellows to provide compensating f l e x i b i l i t y for engine gimbaling, manufacturing
tolerances, and thermal movement o f structural connections. The tank i s prepres-
surized to between 38 and 41 psia and i s maintained a t that pressure during boost
and engine operation. Gaseous helium i s used as the pressurizing agent.

The LH2 i s stored i n an insulated tank at less than -423'F. LH2 from the tank i s
supplied to the J-2 engine turbopump by a vacuum-jacketed, low-pressure, 10-inch
duct. This duct i s capable o f flowing 80 pounds per second a t -423OF and a t a
transfer pressure o f 28 psia. The duct i s located i n the a f t tank side w a l l above the
common Lulkhead joint. Bellows i n this duct compensate for engine gimbaling,

July 1971 Page 12


M-933-71
A p o l l o Supplement

manufacturing tolerances, and thermal motion. The fuel tank i s prepressurized to


28 psia minimum and 31 psia maximum.

The propellant management system provides a means of monitoring and controlling


propellants during a l l phases o f stage ground operations. Components o f the system
include continuous capacitance probes, mixture ratio control valve, liquid level
sensors, and electronic equipment. During the propellant loading sequence, the
capacitance probes i n both the LH and L O X tanks are used to indicate to the
GSE the level o f propellants i n the tanks. In case of a capacitance probe failure,
the point level sensors can also be used for loading. In flight, the capacitance
probes provide outputs which are telemetered to ground stations so that propellant
consumption can be monitored and recorded. The first and second burn engine
cutoffs are velocity cutoffs initiated by the LVDC. Propellant u t i l i z a t i o n by
mixture ratio control during flight i s accomplished by program commands to a two-
position mixture ratio control value providing a LOX/Fuel ratio o f 4.5:l or 5.0: 1 .
Flight Control System

The Flight Control System incorporates two systems for flight and attitude control.
During powered flight, thrust vector steering i s accomplished by gimbaling the
J-2 engine for p i t c h and yaw control and b y operating the A u x i l i a r y Propulsion
System (APS) engines for r o l l control. The engine i s gimbaled i n a f 7 . 5 degree
square pattern b y a closed-loop hydraulic system. Mechanical feedback from the
actuator to the servovalve provides the closed engine position loop. Two actuators
are used to translate the steering signals i n t o vector forces to position the engine.
The deflection rates are proportional to the pitch and yaw steering signals from the
Flight Control Computer. Steering during coast flight i s by use o f the APS engine
alone.

A u x i l i a r y Propulsion System

The S-IVB APS provides three-axis stage attitude control (Figure 5) and main stage
propellant control during coast flight. The APS engines are located i n two modules
180' apart on the a f t skirt of the S-IVB stage (Figure 6). Each module contains
four engines: three 150-pound thrust control engines and one 70-pound thrust
ullage engine. Each module contains its own oxidizer, fuel, and pressurization
system. A positive expulsion propellant feed subsystem i s used to assure that
hypergolic propellants are supplied to the engines under "zero g " or random
gravity conditions. Nitrogen tetroxide (N204)i s the oxidizer and monomethyl
hydrazine (MMH) i s the fuel for these engines.

J u l y 1971 Page 13
M-932-69
Apol lo Supplement

APS FUNCTIONS

+X ULLAGE
)3
Fig. 5

July 1969 Page 14


M-932-69
A p o l l o Supplement

APS CONTROL MODULE


PC,\ Pi15
~ - - - y l l l

Fig. 6

Electrical

The e l e c t r i c a l system o f the S-IVB stage i s comprised o f two major subsystems:


the e l e c t r i c a l power subsystem w h i c h consists o f a l l the power sources on the stage;
and the e l e c t r i c a l control subsystem w h i c h distributes power and control signals t o
various loads throughout the stage. Onboard e l e c t r i c a l power i s supplied b y four
silver-zinc batteries. Two are located i n the forward equipment area and t w o i n
the a f t equipment area. These batteries are a c t i v a t e d and instal led i n the stage
d u r i n g the f i n a l prelaunch preparations. Heaters and instrumentation probes are
a n i n t e g r a l part o f each battery.

J u l y 1969 Page 15
M-932-69
A p o l l o Supplement

Ordnance

The S-IVB ordnance systems include the separation, ullage rocket, and Propellant
Dispersion System (PDS) systems. The separation plane for S-II/S-IVB staging i s
located a t the top o f the S-I I/S-IVB interstage. A t separation four retrorocket
motors mounted on the interstage structure below the separation plane fire to
decelerate the S - l l stage w i t h the interstage attached.

To provide propellant settling and thus ensure stable flow o f fuel and oxidizer
during J-2 engine start, the S-IVB stage requires a smal l acceleration. This
acceleration i s provided by two jettisonable ullage rockets for the first burn. The
APS provides ul lage for subsequent burns.

The S-IVB PDS provides for termination o f vehicle f l i g h t by cutting two parallel
20-foot openings i n the fuel tank and a 47-inch diameter hole i n the LOX tank.
The S-IVB PDS may be safed after the Launch Escape Tower i s jettisoned. Following
S-IVB engine cutoff a t orbit insertion, the PDS i s electrically safed b y ground
command.
lnstrument Unit

General

The lnstrument U n i t (IU) (Figures 7 and 8), i s a cylindrical structure 21.6 feet i n
diameter and 3 feet high installed on top of the S-IVB stage. The unit weighs 4310
pounds. The IU contains the guidance, navigation, and control equipment for the
launch vehicle. I n addition, i t contains measurements and telemetry, command
communications, tracking, and Emergency Detection System components along w i t h
supporting electrical power and the Environmental Control System.
SATURN INSTRUMENT U N I T

Fig. 7

July 1969 Page 16


M-93 2-69
Apol lo Supplement

IU E Q U I P M E N T L O C A T I O N S

CCS T E L E M E T F R ANTENNA

- P W E R DISTRIBUTOR

AIIXILIARY P W E R
DISTRIBUTOR

MEASURING RACK

56 V L X T P W E R
SUPPLYASSY
MOOULATING F L W
CONTROL V A L V E

ANTENNA

CONTROL DISTRIBUTOR

E L E M E T E R ANTENNA
SWITCH S E L E C T M

IRANSPONDER-
DOAS COMPUTER
I l T l U U E UUT

CCS T E L E M E T E R A Y T E W

T M CALIBRATOR

REMOTE D I G I T A L M U L T I P L E X E R

MEASURING DISTRISUTOR

CPI U U L T I P L E X E R
YLASURIYC RACK

VHF T M AUTENUA
F L I G H T CONTROL
COUPUTER
MEASURING RACK " A '

AUXILIARY P W E R
tu2 DlSTRlBUTOR

THERMAL PROBE THERMAL PROBE

TMRFCWPLER
ASURING RACK C - B A N D XPOR

L CONTROC E D S
R A T E GYRO P W E R AND MOD 2 7 0
CONTROL A S S Y Fig. 8

Page 17
M-932-69
Apol l o Supplement

Structure

The basic IU structure i s a short cylinder fabricated of an aluminum a l l o y honey-


comb sandwich material. Attached to the inner surface of the cylinder are "cold
plates" which serve both as mounting structure and thermal conditioning units for
the electrical/electronic equipment.

Navigation, Guidance, and Control

The Saturn V Launch Vehicle i s guided from its launch pad into earth orbit pri-
marily by navigation, guidance, and control equipment located i n the IU. A n
a l l - i n e r t i a l system utilizes a space-stabilized platform for acceleration and
attitude measurements. A Launch Vehicle Digital Computer (LVDC) i s used to
solve guidance equations and a Flight Control Computer (FCC) (analog) i s used
for the f l i g h t control functions.

The three-gimbaI, stabilized platform (ST- 124-M3) provides a space-fixed


coordinate reference frame for attitude control and for navigation (acceleration)
measurements. Three integrating accelerometers, mounted on the gyro-stabilized
inner gimbal o f the platform, measure the three components o f velocity resulting
from vehicle propuision. The accelerometer measurements are sent through the
Launch V e h i c l e Data Adapter (LVDA) to the LVDC. In the LVDC, the acceler-
ometer measurements are combined w i t h the computed gravitational acceleration
to obtain v e l o c i t y and position o f the vehicle. During orbital flight, the navi-
gational program continually computes the vehicle position, velocity, and
acceleration. Guidance information stored i n the LVDC (e.g., position, velocity)
can be updated through the I U command system by data transmission from ground
stations. The I U command system provides the general capability o f changing or
inserting information i n t o the LVDC .
i n the event of failure of the ST-124-M3, the crew may select the Command
Module Computer (CMC) and the Command Module Inertial Measurement Unit as
a guidance reference by placing the guidance switch to the "CMC" position.
Prior to S-IC/S-II staging, space vehicle attitude error signa I s are generated
automatically i n the backup mode. After first stage separation, attitude error
signals are generated by the crew u t i l i z i n g the Rotational Hand Controller and
spacecraft attitude and performance displays. These induced attitude error
signals are routed v i a the LVDC, LVDA, and FCC to the launch vehicle control
system. The backup guidance capability i s dependent upon a prior sensed failure
of the ST- 124-M3 platform except for S-IVB orbital coast phases.

The control subsystem i s designed to control and maintain vehicle attitude by


forming the steering commands to be used by the controlling engines of the a c t i v e
stage. The control system accepts guidance commands from the LVDC/LVDA
guidance system. These guidance commands, which are actually attitude error

July 1969 Page 18


M-932-70
Apol l o Supplement

signals, are then combined w i t h measured data from the various control sensors.
The resultant output i s the command signal to the various engine actuators and
APS nozzles. The final computations (analog) are performed w i t h i n the FCC.
The FCC i s also the central switching point for command signals. From this point,
the signals are routed to their associated active stages and to the appropriate
attitude control devices.

Measurements and Telemetry

The instrumentation w i t h i n the I U consists o f a measuring subsystem, a telemetry


subsystem, and an antenna subsystem. This instrumentation i s for the purpose o f
monitoring certain conditions and events which take place w i t h i n the IU and for
transmitting monitored signals to ground receiving stations.

Command Communications System

The Command Communications System (CCS) provides for d i g i t a l data transmission


from ground stations to the LVDC. This communications l i n k i s used to update
guidance information or command certain other functions through the LVDC.
Command data originates i n the Mission Control Center (MCC) and i s sent to
remote stations o f the Manned Space Flight Network (MSFN) for transmission
to the launch vehicle.

Saturri Tracking Instrumentation

The Satvrn V IU carries two C-band radar transponders for tracking. Tracking
capability i s also provided through the CCS. A combination of tracking data
from different tracking systems provides the best possible trajectory information
and increased r e l i a b i l i t y through redundant data. The tracking of the Saturn V
Launch Vehicle may be divided into four phases: powered flight i n t o earth orbit,
orbital flight, injection into mission trajectory, and coast flight after injection.
Continuous tracking i s required during powered flight i n t o earth orbit. During
orbital flight, tracking i s accomplished by S-band stations o f the MSFN and b y
C-band radar stations.

In order to support t.he detailed test objectives o f impacting the spent S-IVB/IU on the
lunar surface and determining its impact location to w i t h i n 5 km, tracking capability
has been extended, on vehicles AS508 and subsequent, to impact. This has been
accomplished through the addition o f a fourth battery i n the Instrument Unit and some
r e l a t i v e l y minor software and Electrical Support Equipment (ESE) changes.

A p r i l 1970 Page 19
M-932-70
A p o l l o Supplement

IU Emergency D e t e c t i o n System Components

The Emergency D e t e c t i o n System (EDS) i s one element o f several crew safety


systems. There are nine EDS rate gyros instal l e d i n the IU. Three gyros monitor
each o f the three axes (pitch, r o l l , and yaw) thus providing t r i p l e redundancy.
The control signal processor provides power to and receives inputs from the nine
EDS rate gyros. These inputs are processed and sent on to the EDS distributor and
t o the FCC. The EDS distributor serves as a junction box and switching d e v i c e t o
furnish the spacecraft display panels w i t h emergency signals i f emergency con-
ditions exist. I t also contains relay and diode logic for the automatic abort
sequence.

A n e l e c t r o n i c timer i n the I U allows m u l t i p l e engine shutdowns w i t h o u t automatic


abort a f t e r 30 seconds o f f l i g h t . I n h i b i t i n g o f automatic abort c i r c u i t r y i s
also provided b y the v e h i c l e f l i g h t sequencing circuits through the I U switch
selector. This i n h i b i t i n g i s required prior to normal S-IC engine c u t o f f and other
normal v e h i c l e sequencing. W h i l e the automatic abort i s inhibited, the f l i g h t
crew must i n i t i a t e a manual abort i f a n angular-overrate or two engine-out con-
d i t i o n arises.

E l e c t r i c a l Power Systems

Primary f l i g h t power for the IU equipment i s supplied b y silver-zinc batteries


a t a nominal voltage l e v e l o f 2 8 2 2 vdc. Where ac power i s required w i t h i n the
IU i t i s developed b y solid state dc to ac inverters. Power distribution w i t h i n the
IU i s
accomplished through power distributors w h i c h are essentially junction boxes
and switching circuits.

Environmental Control System

The Environmental Control System (ECS) maintains a n acceptable operating


environment for the IU equipment during preflight and f l i g h t operations. The
ECS i s composed o f the following:

1. The Thermal C o n d i t i o n i n g System (TCS) w h i c h maintains a c i r c u l a t i n g coolant


temperature. t o the electronic equipment o f 59' +lF.

2. Preflight purging system w h i c h maintains a supply o f temperature and pressure


regulated air/gaseous nitrogen i n the IU/S-IVB equipment area.

3. G a s bearing supply system w h i c h furnishes gaseous nitrogen to the ST-124-M3


i n e r t i a l platform gas bearings.

4. Hazardous gas d e t e c t i o n sampling equipment w h i c h monitors the IU/S-IVB


forward interstage area for the presence o f hazardous vapors.

A p r i l 1970 Page 20
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A p o l l o Supplement

APOLLO SPACECRAFT

The A p o l l o Spacecraft (S/C) i s designed t o support three men i n space for periods u p to
t w o weeks, docking i n space, landing on and returning from the lunar surface, and
safely entering the earth's atmosphere. The Apol l o S/C consists o f the Spacecraft-LM
Adapter (SLA), the Service M o d u l e (SM), the Command M o d u l e (CM), the Launch
Escape System (LES), and the Lunar M o d u l e (LM). The CM and SM as a u n i t are
referred t o as the Command/Service M o d u l e (CSM).

Spacecraft-LM Adapter

General

The SLA (Figure 9) i s a conical structure w h i c h provides a structural load path


between the LV and SM and also supports the LM. Aerodynamically, the SLA
smoothly encloses the irregularly shaped LM and transitions the space v e h i c l e
diameter from that o f the upper stage o f the LV to that o f the SM. The SLA also
encloses the n o z z l e o f the SM engine and the high g a i n antenna.

SPACECRAFT-LM ADAPTER
CIRCUMFERENTIAL
LINEAR-SHAPED CHARGE

LONGITUDINAL
UPPER (FORWARD)
21 ' JETTISONABLE LINEAR-SHAPED CHARGE

CIRCUMFERENTIAL
LINEAR-SHAPED CHARGE

Structure

The SLA i s constructed o f 1.7-inch t h i c k aluminum honeycomb panels. The four


upper jettisonable, or forward, panels are about 21 feet long, and the f i x e d lower,
or a f t , panels~about7 feet long. The e x t e r i o l surtace o f the SLA i s covered com-
p l e t e l y b y a layer o f cork. The cork helps insulate the LM from aerodynamic
heating during boost. The LM i s attached to the SLA a t four locations around the
lower panels.

J u l y 1969 Page 21
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Apol l o Supplement

S LA-SM Separation

The SLA and SM are bolted together through flanges on each o f the two structures.
Explosive trains are used to separate the SLA and SM as well as for separating the
four upper jettisonable SLA panels. Redundancy i s provided i n three areas to
assure separation-redundant i n i t i a t i n g signals, redundant detonators and cord
trains, and "sympathetic" detonation o f nearby charges.

Pyrotechnic-type and spring-type thrusters (Figure 10) are used i n deploying and
jettisoning the S L A upper panels. The four double-piston pyrotechnic thrusters
are located inside the SLA and start the panels swinging outward on their hinges.
The two pistons of the thruster push on the ends of adjacent panels thus providing
two separate thrusters operating each panel. The explosive train which separates
the panels i s routed through two pressure cartridges i n each thruster assembly. The
pyrotechnic thrusters rotate the panels 2 degrees establishing a constant angular
v e l o c i t y o f 33 to 60 degrees per second. When the panels have rotated about
45 degrees, the partial hinges disengage and free the panels from the a f t section
o f the S L A , subjecting them to the force of the spring thrusters.

SLA PANEL JEllISONING


I

LOWER H I N G E
S P R I N G THRUSTER AFTER PANEL S P R I N G THRUSTER BEFORE PANEL
DEPLOYMENT, A T START OF J E T T I S O N DEPLOYMENT
Fig. 10

J u l y 1969 Page 22
M-93269
A p o l l o Supplement

The spring thrusters are mounted on the outside o f the upper panels. When the
panel hinges disengage, the springs i n the thruster push against the f i x e d lower
panels t o propel the ~ a n e l saway from the v e h i c l e a t a n a n g l e o f 110 degrees t o
the center1 ine and a t a speed o f about 5- 1/2 miles per hour. The panels w i l l then
depart the area o f the spacecraft.

SLA-LM Separation

Spring thrusters are also used t o separate the LM from the SLA. A f t e r the CSM
has docked w i t h the LM, mi I d charges are fired t o release the four adapters w h i c h
secure the LM i n the SLA. Simultaneously, four spring thrusters mounted on the
lower ( f i x e d ) SLA panels push against the LM Landing G e a r Truss Assembly t o
separate the spacecraft from the launch v e h i c l e .

The separation i s controlled by two LM Separation Sequence Corltrollers located


inside the SLA near the attachment point to the Instrument U n i t (IU). The redundant
controllei-s send signals w h i c h f i r e the charges that sever the connections and also
f i r e a detonator to c u t the L M - I U u m b i l i c a l . The detonator impels a g u i l l o t i n e
blade w h i c h severs the u m b i l i c a l wires.

Service M o d u l e

General

The Service M o d u l e (SM) (Figure 1 1 ) provides the main spacecraft propulsion and
maneuvering c a p a b i l i t y during a mission. The SM provides most o f the spacecraft
consumables (oxygen, water, ~ r o p e l l a n t , and hydrogen) and supplements environ-
mental, e l e c t r i c a l power, and propulsion requirements o f the CM. The SM remains
attached t o the CM u n t i l i t i s jettisoned just before CM atmospheric entry.

Structure

The basic structural components are forward and a f t (upper and lower) bulkheads,
six radial beams, four sector honeycomb panels, four Reaction Control System honey-
comb panels, a f t heat shield, and a fairing. The forward and a f t bulkheads cover
the top and botton o f the SM. Radial beam trusses extending above the forward
bulkhead support and secure the CM. The radial beams are made o f solid aluminum
a l l o y w h i c h has been machined and chem-milled t o thicknesses varying between 2
inches and 0.018 i n c h . Three o f these beams have compression pads and the other
three have shear-compression pads and tension ties. Explosive charges i n the center
sections o f these tension ties are used t o separate the CM from the SM.

J u l y 1969 Page 23
M-933-71
Apol lo Supplement

SE RV ICE MODULE

SECTOR

SECTOR
SECTOR
SECTOR
SECTOR
SECTOR ,65

CENTER S E C T I O N -
S E R V I C E PROPULSION SUBSYSTEM
FUEL TANKS

S E R V I C E P R O P U L S I O l i E N G I N E AND
S E R V I C E PROPULSION ENGINE 4\
H E L I U M TANKS
Fig. 1 1

July 1971 Page 24


M-933-7 1
A p o l l o Supplement

A n a f t heat shield surrounds the service propulsion engine to protect the SM from
the engine's heat during thrusting. The gap between the CM and the forward
bulkhead o f the SM i s closed o f f w i t h a f a i r i n g w h i c h i s composed o f eight Elec-
t r i c a l Power System radiators alternated w i t h e i g h t aluminum honeycomb ~ a n e l s .
The sector and Reaction Control System ~ a n e l sare one i n c h t h i c k and are made o f
aluminum honeycomb core between two aluminum face sheets. The sector panels
are b o l t e d t o the r a d i a l beams. Radiators used to dissipate heat from the environ-
mental control subsystem are bonded t o the sector panels on opposite sides o f the
SM. These radiators are each about 30 square feet i n area.

The SM i n t e r i o r i s d i v i d e d i n t o six sectors and a center section. Sector one con-


tains one cryogenic oxygen tank, one cryogenic hydrogen tank, and the S c i e n t i f i c
lnstrument M o d u l e (SIM). The supply l i n e from the oxygen tank i s routed through
ttie SM bulkhead and around t o a n isolation v a l v e above sector four. The isolation
v a l v e ensures a n adequate supply o f oxygen for the environmental control system
(ECS). Sector t w o has a section o f the ECS space radiator and a Reaction Control
System (RCS) engine quad (module) on its exterior panel and contains the Service
Propulsion System (SPS) o x i d i z e r sump tank. This tank i s the larger o f the two
tanks that h o l d the o x i d i z e r for the SPS engine. Sector three also has more o f the
space radiator and another RCS engine quad on its exterior panel and contains the
o x i d i z e r storage tank w h i c h i s connected to the sump tank. Sector four contains
most o f the e l e c t r i c a l power generating equipment. I t contains three fuel cells,
two cryogenic oxygen and two cryogenic hydrogen tanks, an a u x i l i a r y battery,
and a power contl-ol relay box. The cryogenic tanks supply oxygen t o the environ-
mental control subsystem and oxygen and hydrogen to the fuel cells. Sector f i v e
has part o f the environmental control radiator and an RCS engine quad on the
exterior panel and contains the SPS engine fuel sump tank. This tank feeds the
engine and i s also connected by feed lines t o the storage tank i n sector six.
Sector six has the rest o f the environmental control radiator and a n RCS engine
quad on its exterior and contains the SPS engine fuel storage tank. The center
section contains two helium tanks and the SPS engine. The tanks are used t o
provide he1ium pressurant for the S PS propel lant tanks.

S c i e n t i f i c Instrument M o d u l e

The S c i e n t i f i c lnstrument M o d u l e (SIM) i s a separate structural module made i n


two sections for launch-pad removal and designed to be installed i n sector one o f
the SM. I t i s designed to o b t a i n maximum use o f space for scientific experiments.
Standard fabrication techniques such as aluminum sheet and stringers and honey-
comb sandwich shelves have been used. The SIM door i s b o l t e d i n place t o pro-
vide structural c o n t i n u i t y for the SM structure and includes a pyrotechnic ordnance
t r a i n around the periphery t o separate the door for experiment operations.

July 1971 Page 25


M-933-71
A p o l l o Supplement

Cameras mounted i n the SIM for lunar orbital photography o f the lunar surface
and time correlated stellar photography for position reference require retrieval o f
the f i l m containers by a crewman. To support the extravehicular a c t i v i t y (EVA)
hand rails have been added to the extlerior o f the SM along the edges o f the SIM.
EVA foot restraints and hand holds have been provided inside the SIM.

Scientific Data System

The J-Mission scientific experiment data requirements were established on a


complementary grouping o f experiments from an overall master list. The scientific
data system (SDS) provides essentially complete data coverage during lunar orbit
a t lunar distances without compromise to the Block II data and communication
system. Analog and d i g i t a l data from eight scientific experiments are recorded,
formatted, and mu1tiplexed i n t o the communications frequency-modulated radio-
frequency l i n k . The SDS installation provides a data modulator and a tape recorder
data conditioner i n the CM. A data processor, consisting of two units and a
buffer amplifier, i s installed i n the SIM.

All CSM and SDS data are multiplexed by the data modulator, which also pro-
vides for real-time data transmission simultaneously w i t h tape recorder playback,
providing scientific data simultaneously w i t h taped playback,

Propu I sion

M a i n soacecraft oropu lsion i s orovided by the 20,500-pound thrust Service Pro-


pulsion System (SPS) . The SPS engine i s a restartable, non-throttleable engine
which uses nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4)as an oxidizer and a 50-50 mixture o f
hydrazine and unsymmetrical-dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH) as fuel. (These propel-
lants are hypergolic, i .e., they burn spontaneously when combined without need
for an igniter.) This engine i s used for major v e l o c i t y changes during the mission
such as midcourse corrections, lunar orbit insertion, transearth iniection, and CSM
aborts. The SPS engine responds to automatic firing commands from the guidance
and navigation system or to commands from manual controls. The engine assembly
i s gimbal-mounted to allow engine thrust-vector alignment w i t h the spacecraft
center o f mass to preclude tumbling. Thrust vector alignment control i s maintained
by the crew. The Service Module Reaction Control System (SM RCS) provides for
maneuvering about and along three axes. (See Page 44 for more comprehensive
description .)

July 1971 Page 26


M-932-70
Apol l o Supplement

Additional SM Systems

In addition to the systems already described the SM has communication antennas,


umbilical connections, and several exterior mounted lights. The four antennas on
the outside o f the SM are the steerable S-band high-gain antenna, mounted on the
a f t bulkhead; two VHF omnidirectional antennas, mounted on opposite sides o f the
module near the top; and the rendezvous radar transponder antenna, mounted i n
the SM fairing.

The umbilicals consist o f the main plumbing and w i r i n g connections between the
C M and SM enclosed i n a fairing (aluminum covering), and a "flyaway1' umbilical
which i s connected to the Launch Escape Tower. The latter supplies oxygen and
nitrogen for cabin pressure, ~ a t e r - ~ l ~ c o
electrical
l, power from ground equipment,
and purge gas.

Seven lights are mounted i n the aluminum panels of the fairing. Four lights (one
red, one green, and two amber) are used to a i d the astronauts i n docking, one i s
a floodlight which can be turned on to give astronauts v i s i b i l i t y during extra-
vehicular activities, one i s a flashing beacon used to a i d i n rendezvous, and one
i s a spotlight used i n rendezvous from 500 feet to docking w i t h the LM.

SM/CM Separation

Separation o f the SM from the C M occurs shortly before entry. The sequence o f
events during separation i s controlled automatically b y two redundant Service
Module jettison Controllers (SMJC) located on the forward bulkhead o f the SM.
Physical separation requires severing o f a l l the connections between the modules,
transfer o f electrical control, and f i r i n g of the SM RCS to increase the distance between
the C M and SM. A tenth o f a second after electrical connections are deadfaced,
the SMJC's send signals which fire ordnance devices to sever the three tension ties
and the umbilical. The tension ties are straps which hold the C M on three o f the
compression pads on the SM. Linear-shaped charges i n each tension t i e assembly
sever the tension ties to separate the C M from the SM. A t the same time, explosive
charges drive guillotines through the wiring and tubing i n the umbilical. Simul-
taneously w i t h the firing o f the ordnance devices, the SMJC's send signals w h i c h
fire the SM RCS'. Roll engines are fired for five seconds to alter the SM's course
from that o f the CM, and the translation (thrust) engines are fired continuously
u n t i l the propellant i s depleted or fuel c e l l power i s expended. These maneuvers
carry the SM w e l l away from the entry path of the C M .

A p r i l 1970 Page 2 7
M-93269
Apol l o Supplement

Command Module

General

The Command Module (CM) (Figure 12) serves as the command, control, and
communications center for most of the mission. Supplemented b y the SM, i t pro-
vides a l l l i f e support elements for three crewmen i n the mission environments and
for their safe return to earth's surface. I t i s capable o f attitude control about
three axes and some lateral l i f t translation a t high velocities i n earth atmosphere.
I t also permits L M attachment, CM/LM ingress and egress, and serves as a buoyant
vessel i n open ocean.

Structure

The C M consists of two basic structures ioined together: the inner structure
(pressure shell) and the outer structure (heat shield). The inner structure, the
pressurized crew compartment, i s made o f aluminum sandwich construction con-
sisting o f a welded aluminum inner skin, bonded aluminum honeycomb core and
outer face sheet. The outer structure i s basically a heat shield and i s made o f
stainless steel-brazed honeycomb brazed between steel a l l o y face sheets. Parts
o f the area between the inner and outer sheets are f i l l e d w i t h a layer o f fibrous
insulation as additional heat protection.

Thermal Protection (Heat Shields)

The interior o f the CM must be protected from the extremes o f environment that
w i l l be encountered during a mission. The heat o f launch i s absorbed p r i n c i p a l l y
through the Boost Protective Cover (BPC), a fiberglass structure covered w i t h cork
which encloses the C M . The cork i s covered w i t h a white reflective coating.
The BPC i s permanently attached to the Launch Escape Tower and i s jettisoned
with i t .

The insulation between the inner and outer shells, plus temperature control pro-
vided by the environmental control subsystem, protects the crew and sensitive
equipment i n space. The principal task o f the heat shield that forms the outer
structure i s to protect the crew during entry. This protection i s provided b y
ablative heat shields o f varying thicknesses covering the CM. The a b l a t i v e
material i s a phenolic epoxy resin. This material turns white hot, chars, and then
melts away, conducting relatively l i t t l e heat to the inner structure. The heat
shield has several outer coverings: a pore seal, a moisture barrier (white r e f l e c t i v e
coating), and a silver my la^. thermal coating.

J u l y 1969 Page 28
M-932-69
Apollo Supplement

COMMAND MODULE

-Y -X
COMRINED i b l r l r d I L H A T C H

,L A l J r l C H FSCAPE TOWFR
ATTACHMEPIT ( T Y P I W L I

SIDF W I N D O W
N E G A T I V E PITCH
(TYPICAL 2 PLACES)

I PF\YCOMPARTMENT FORWARD VIFV<ING


t4tATSHIELD (REPIDEZVOIJS) W I N D O W S

CREW ACCEq5

t\[!
t i i AT5HIELD
SLA A N C H O P
ATTACH PClrJT

'YAW E N G I N E
POSITIVF PITCH E N G I N E S
RArll) ANTENNA
ilRlNi 0 1 M P

5 B A N D Ah4TFNNA iTYPlCALi

-y -x
COMBINED TUNrlFl tlATCtl
FORWARD COMPARTMENT, /
RIGHT H A N D
CRF'N
<:,MPAPTMEblT

FT EQUIPMENT STORAGE PAY


\
'\ L l F l H A N D EQUIPMENT PAY RIGHT H A N D EQUIPMENT BAY

\ A F T CCMPARTMENT AFT COMPARTMENT

Fig. 12

Page 29
M-933-71
A p o l l o Supplement

Forward Compartment

The forward compartment i s the area around the forward (docking) tunnel. I t i s
separated from the crew compartment b y a bulkhead and covered b y the forward
heat shield. The compartment i s d i v i d e d i n t o four 90-degree segments w h i c h con-
t a i n earth landing equipment ( a l l the parachutes, recovery antennas and beacon
light, and sea recovery sling, etc.), two RCS engines, and the forward heat shield
release mechanism.

The forward heat shield contains four recessed fittings i n t o w h i c h the legs o f the
Launch Escape Tower are attached. The tower legs are connected t o the C M
structure b y frangible nuts containing small explosive charges, w h i c h separate
the tower from the C M when the Launch Escape System i s jettisoned. The forward
heat shield i s jettisoned a t about 25,000 feet during return to permit deployment
o f the parachutes.

A f t Compartment

The a f t compartment i s located around the periphery o f the CM a t its widest part,
near the a f t heat shield. The a f t compartment bays c o n t a i n 10 RCS engines; the
fuel, o x i d i z e r , and helium tanks for the C M RCS; water tanks; the crushable ribs
o f the impact attenuation system; and a number o f instruments. The CM-SM
u m b i l i c a l i s also located i n the a f t compartment.

The a f t heat shield, w h i c h encloses the large end o f the CM, i s a shallow,
s p h e r i i c ! l y contoured assembly. The a b l a t i v e material on this heat shield has a
greater thickness than the crew or forward compartment heat shield for the
dissipation o f heat dul-ing entry. Provisions are made on this heat shield for
connecting the C M to the SM.

Crew Compartment

The crew compartment has a habitable volume o f approximately 210 cubic feet.
Pressurization and temperature are maintained by the Environmental Control
System (ECS). The crew compartment contains the controls and displays for
operation o f the spacecraft, crew couches, and other equipment needed b y the
crew. I t contains two hatches, f i v e windows, and several equipment bays.

The crew compartment ECS for the J missions includes the a d d i t i o n o f a t h i r d


oxygen flow restrictor, a n EVA control panel, and a check v a l v e between the
oxygen surge tank and the new EVA panel. An EVA umbilical/suit control u n i t
(SCU) has been provided to satisfy the oxygen requirements for breathing and for
c o o l i n g the EVA crewman and the e l e c t r i c a l requirements for communications,
bioinstrumentation, warning tone, and suit grounding. The u m b i l i c a l also provides

J u l y 1971 Page 30
M-933-71
Apol l o Supplement

a tether for strain r e l i e f . A n e l e c t r i c a l panel has been provided to generate and


a m p l i f y suit low-flow and pressure warnings t o the EVA crewman.

Crew equipment also includes a n oxygen purge system (OPS) as a backup t o the
umbilical/SCU primary EVA l i f e support system, a wrist tether for transfer o f f i l m
containers t o the hatch, a restraint tether t o be used b y the assisting crewman
during EVA, guard rails for the main display console (MDC), and stowage pro-
visions for the EVA equipment items and for the return payload f i l m containers.

To monitor and document the EVA i n the v i c i n i t y o f the SIM bay, a hatch-mounted
EVA monitoring system (EVAMS) has been provided. Both television monitoring
and 16mm motion picture monitoring are provided.

Equipment Bays

The equipment bays contain items needed b y the crew for u p t o 14 days, as w e l l
as much o f the electronics and other equipment needed for operation o f the space-
c r a f t . The bays are named according to their position w i t h reference t o the couches.
The lower equipment bay i s the largest and contains most o f the guidance and
n a v i g a t i o n electronics, as w e l l as the sextant and telescope, the Command M o d u l e
Computer (CMC), and a computer keyboard. Most o f the telecommunications sub-
system electronics are i n this bay, i n c l u d i n g the f i v e batteries, inverters, and
battery charger o f the e l e c t r i c a l power subsystem. Stowage areas i n the bay con-
t a i n food supplies, scientific instruments, and other astronaut equipment.

The left-hand equipment bay contains key elements o f the ECS. Space i s provided
i n this bay for stowing the forward hatch when the C M and LM are docked and the
tunnel between the modules i s open. The left-hand forward equipment bay also
contains ECS equipment, as we1 l as the water d e l i v e r y u n i t and c l o t h i n g storage.

The right-hand equipment bay contains Waste Management System controls and
equipment, e l e c t r i c a l power equipment, and a v a r i e t y o f electronics, i n c l u d i n g
sequence controllers and signal conditioners. Food also i s stored i n a compartment
i n this b a y . The right-hand forward equipment bay i s used p r i n c i p a l l y for stowage
and contains such i tems as survival kits, medical supplies, o p t i c a l equipment, the
L M d o c k i n g target, and bioinstrurnentation harness equipment.

The a f t equipment bay i s used for storing space suits and helmets, l i f e vests, the
fecal canister, POI-tableLife Suppol-t Systems (backpacks), and other equipment,
and includes space for stowing the probe and drogue assembly.

J u l y 1971 Page 31
M-933-7 1
A p o l l o Supplement

Hatches

The t w o C M hatches are the side hatch, used for g e t t i n g i n and out o f the CM,
and the forward hatch, used to transfer t o and from the LM when the C M and LM
are docked. The side hatch i s a single integrated assembly w h i c h opens outward
and has primary and secondary thermal seals. The hatch normally contains a small
window, but has provisions for installation o f a n a i r l o c k . The latches for the side
hatch are so designed that pressure exerted against the hatch serves o n l y to increase
the l o c k i n g pressure o f the latches. The hatch handle mechanism also operates a
mechanism w h i c h opens the access hatch i n the BPC. A counterbalance assembly
w h i c h consists o f two nitrogen bottles and a piston assembly enables the hatch and
BPC hatch t o be opened easily. I n space, the crew can operate the hatch easily
w i t h o u t the counter balance, and the piston c y l i n d e r and nitrogen b o t t l e can be
vented a f t e r launch. A second nitrogen b o t t l e can be used to open the hatch after
landing. The side hatch can r e a d i l y be opened from the outside. I n case some
deformation or other malfunction prevented the latches from engaging, three iack-
screws are PI-ovided i n the crew's tool set to h o l d the door closed.

The forward (docking) hatch i s a combined pressure and a b l a t i v e hatch mounted a t


the top o f the docking tunnel. The exterior or upper side o f the hatch i s covered
w i t h a h a l f - i n c h o f insulation and a layer o f aluminum f o i l . T h i s hatch has a six-
point l a t c h i n g arrangement operated by a pump handle similar to that on the side
hatch and can also be opened from the outside. I t has a pressure e q u a l i z a t i o n
v a l v e so that the pressure i n the tunnel and that i n the LM can be equalized before
the hatch i s removed. There are also provisions for opening the latches manually
i f the handle gear mechanism should f a i l .

Windows

The CSM has f i v e windows: t w o side (numbers 1 and 5 ) , two rendezvous


(numbers 2 and 4), and a hatch window (number 3 or center). The hatch
window i s over the center couch. The windows each consist o f inner and outer
panes. For numbers I through 4 the inner- windows are made o f tempered
s i l i c a glass w i t h quarter-inch t h i c k double panes, separated by a tenth o f an
i n c h and the outer windows are made c ~ amorphous-fused
f s i l i c o n w i t h a single
pane seven-ten'ths o f an i n c h t h i c k . Each pane has a n a n t i - r e f l e c t i n g c o a t i n g
on the external surface and a blue-red r e f l e c t i v e coating on the inner surface to
f i l t e r out most infrared and a l l u l t r a v i o l e t rays. The right hand window (number 5)
i s constructed i d e n t i c a l t o the other windows, but i s made o f quartz panes for high
transmission o f u l t r a v i o l e t l i g h t for orbital photographic experiments. A lexan
transparent shade i s provided as an u l t r a v i o l e t f i l t e r when not performing the
photography. Aluminum shades are provided for a l I windows.

J u l y 1971 Page 32
M-933-71
Apollo Supplement

Impact A t t e n u a t i o n

During a water impact the CM deceleration force w i l l vary considerably depend-


i n g on the shape o f the waves and the dynamics o f the CM's descent. A major
p o r t i o n o f the energy (75 to 90 percent) i s absorbed by the water and by deformation
o f the CM structure. The impact attenuation system reduces the forces a c t i n g on
the crew to a tolerable l e v e l . The impact attenuation system i s part internal and
part external. The external part consists o f four crushable ribs (each about 4 inches
t h i c k and a foot i n length) installed i n the a f t compartment. The ribs are made o f
bonded laminations o f corrugated aluminum w h i c h absorb energy by collapsing
upon impact. The main parachutes suspend the CM a t such a n angle that the ribs
are the first point o f the module that h i t the water. The internal portion o f the
system consists o f eight struts w h i c h connect the crew couches t o the CM structure.
These struts absorb energy a t a predetermined rate through c y c l i c struts. Each
c y c l i c strut u t i l i z e s a material deformation concept o f energy absorbtion by r o l l i n g
d u c t i l e metal torus elements i n f r i c t i o n between a concentric rod and c y l i n d e r .

Doc k i n a

A docking c a p a b i l i t y i s provided u t i l i z i n g design interfaces o f the CM tunnel and


the L M tunnel (Figure 13). The CM components i n c l u d e a CM docking r i n g w i t h
12 automatic docking latches and provision for mounting the retractable, extend-
able, and collapsible probe, and e l e c t r i c a l u m b i l i c a l cables for supplying CSM
power to the L M during translunar mission phases. The CM has provision for con-
trol l i n g tunnel pressure independent o f hatch-mounted pressure e q u a l i z a t i o n and
dump vul.;es. The CM forward hatch i s completely removable. The LM tunnel
contains a removable drogue, a circumferential l i p to engage the 12 CM auto-
matic docking latches and an upper, hinged hatch. When the CM and LM contact,
capture latches on the probe engage the drogue and the docking latches secure the
i n t e r f a c e . The probe and drogue may be removed for tunnel transit and reinstal l e d
after transit. Manned LM separations rely upon the capture latches o f the probe t o
maintain docking contact as the docking latches are manually released. V e h i c l e
separgtion occur-s as the ;]robe capture latches and extension latches are renlotely
unlocked d u i l n g probe extension. Final sepal-ation o f fhe unmanned LM i s accom-
olished by explosively severing :he docking ring from the CM at the CM,'docking
ring inter-face. ' The jettisoned LM car-I-ies away the docking ring and probe ( i f
instal l e d ) .

J u l y 1971 Page 33
M-932-69
A p o l l o Supplement

CM/LM DOCKING C O N F I G U R A T I O N

L M TUNNEL

SEPARATIOI\I
CIRCUMFERENCE
-
(DOCKING R I N G )

I FORWARD
A
CM TUNNEL HATCH

I N S T A L L E D PROBE FOLDED PROBE-CM REMOVAL

FOLDED PROBE-LM REMOVAL HANDLE EXTENDED FOR RATCHETING

Fig. 13

Page 34
M-932-69
A p o l l o Supplement

Display a n d Controls

The M a i n Display Console ( M D C ) MAIN D I S P L A Y CONSOLE


(Figure 14) has been arranged to p r o -
v i d e for t h e e x o e c t e d duties o f crew CRYOGEtilCS
I SERVICE
members. These duties f a l l i n t o the PROPULSION

categories o f Commander, CM P i l o t ,
and LM P i l o t , o c c u p y i n g the l e f t ,
center, and r i g h t couches respectively.
The CM P i l o t also acts as the lorincioal
n a v i g a t o r . A l l controls h a v e been
designed so they can be ~ p e r a t e dby
astroncuts w e a r i n g g l o v e s . The con- SCS POWER PANEL E N V I R O N M C N T A LC O N T R O L

;rols are o r e d o m i n u n t l y o f four b a j i c


types: toggle switches, I-otary swi tclles
w i t h click-stops, thumb-wlleels, ai!d
push buttons. C r i t i c a l sv.~itcl~es
are
guarded so that they cannot be thrown
inadvertently. In additign, som:
c r i i i c a l controls h a v e locks thut rnust a LAUNCH VEHICLE EMEHGEPILY OETECllON PHOPELLANT GAUGING
be ~relecsedbefore they c a n be opel-- F L l i t i T ATTITUIIE LNVISONMENT CJNTROL
MISSION SEQUtNCE COMMUNICATIONS CONTRCL
ated.
VELOCITY CH4NGE MONITOR ?ONER OlSTRlBUTlON
ENTRY M i l N I T O i l CAUTION S W.2RNING
F i i 3 h t controls ar? l o c a t e d o n th6 l e f t -
c e n t e r arid l e f t side o f the M V C , 02-
po:i te the L n m a n d e r . These i n c l u d e
c o n t r c l s for s1~cC1 subsystems as s t a b i l -
i z a t i o n and conti-ol, pr-opulsion, crew
safety, ~ a r t l landing,
i und e ~ n e r g e n c y
detec;lon. O n e o f t w o guidancc and
r a v i g a t i o n computer panels ulso i s l o - COMMAW~ER CM PILOT LM P I L O T
c a i e d here; as UI-e v e l o c i t y , a t t i t u d e ,
a 72 a l t i t u d e i n d i c a t o r s . Fig. 1 4

The CM P i l o t f a c e i the center 9f tl;e cor,mle a n d thus c o n reach ,r;clfiy o f the f l i g h t


controls, as w e l l as the sysrem c o r ~ t i o l so n the r i g h t side o r the console. Displays
a n d c o n t r o l s d i r e c t l y opposite klim i n c l u d e r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l , p ~ - o p e l l a n tmanagement,
c a u t i o n a n d w a r n i n g , environmental ~ o n t r o l , and CI-yogenic storage systems.

J u l y 1969 Page 35
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The LM Pilot couch faces the right-center and right side o f the console. Com-
munications, electrical control, data storage, and fuel c e l l system components
are located here, as we1 l as service propulsion subsystem propellant management.

Other displays and controls are placed throughout the cabin i n the various equipment
bays and on the crew couches. Most o f the guidance and navigation equipment i s
i n the lower equipment bay, at the foot of the center couch. This equipment,
including the sextant and telescope, i s operated by an astronaut standing and using
a simple restraint system. The non-time-critical controls o f the Environmental
Control System are located i n the left-hand equipment bay, while a l l the controls
o f the Waste Management System are on a panel i n the right-hand equipment bay.
The rotation and translation controllers used for attitude, thrust vector, and trans-
lation maneuvers are located on the arms of two crew couches. In addition, a
rotation controller can be mounted at the navigation position i n the lower equipment
bay.

C r i t i c a l conditions o f most spacecraft systems are monitored by a Caution And


Warning System. A malfunction or out-of-tolerance condition results i n illum-
ination o f a status light that identifies the abnormality. I t also activates the
master alarm circuit, which illuminates two master alarm lights on the MDC and
one i n the lower equipment bay and sends an alarm tone to the astronauts' head-
sets. The master alarm lights and tone continue until a crewman resets the master
alarm c i r c u i t . This can be done before the crewmen deal w i t h the problem
indicated. The Caution And Warning System also contains equipment to sense
its own ma1functions.

Two switches on the M D C affect the launch vehicle. They are the S-II/S-IVB
LV stage switch and the guidance switch. The S-11,'s-IVB LV stage switch allows
the crew to i n i t i a t e early staging o f the S - l l from the S-IVB i f an incipient failure
o f the S - I l i s observed. This switch may also be used to i n i t i a t e manual cutoff of
the S-IVB engine during third-stage flight. The guidance switch has two positions,
" I U " and "CMC," which select one o f two guidance reference systems for the
launch vehicle. The " I U " position selects the primary system which uses the
Launch Vehicle D i g i t a l Computer (LVDC) and the ST-124-M3 Inertial Platform
i n the IU for the generation of launch vehicle attitude error signals. The "CMC"
position utilizes the CMC and the CM Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) to
generate LV attitude error signals via the LVDC. During S-IC stage flight, the
vehicle automatically follows a stored program i n the CMC. During S-II and
S-IVB stage flight, attitude error signals are generated by the crew by deflecting
the Rotational Hand Controller i n response to attitude and performance displays.
Except for S-IVB orbital coast phases, the "CMC" capability i s dependent and
interlocked w i t h a sensed failure of the ST-124-M3 Inertial Platform.

July 1969 Page 36


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Telecommunications

The telecommunications system (Figure 15) provides voice, television, telemetry,


tracking, and ranging communications between the spacecraft and earth, between
the C M and LM, and between the spacecraft and astronauts wearing the Portable
L i f e Support System (PLSS). I t also provides communications among the astronauts
i n the spacecraft and includes the central t i m i n g equipment for synchronization o f
other equipment and c o r r e l a t i o n o f te!emetry equipment. For convenience, the
telecommunications subsystem can be d i v i d e d i n t o four areas: intercommunications
(voice), data, radio frequency equipment, and antennas.

TELECOMMUN ICAT IONS SYSTEM

KEY +(
I
REAL-TIME ANALOG DATA.
5 l C l i l D DATA 6 VOlCZ

VlDCO
1
/
TV VIDEO
CAMlRA
*
VOICE t t 4l l t t t

Fig. 15

The astronauts' headsets are used for a l l v o i c e communications. Each astronaut


has a n audio control panel on the M a i n Display Console w h i c h enables him to
control what comes i n t o his headset and where he w i l l send his v o i c e . The three
headsets and audio control panels are connected t o three i d e n t i c a l a u d i o center
modules. The a u d i o center i s the assimilation and distribution p o i n t for a l l
spacecraft v o i c e signals. The audio signals can be routed from the center to the

Page 37
M -932-69
Apollo Supplement

appropriate transmitter or receiver, the Launch Control Center (for prelaunch


checkout), the recovery f o r m s intercom, or voice tape recorders.

Two methods of voice transmission and reception are possible: the VHF/AM
transmitter-receiver and the S-band transmitter and receiver. The VHF/AM
equipment i s used for voice communications w i t h the Manned Space Flight
Network during launch, ascent, and near-earth phases of a mission. The
S-band equipment i s used during both near-earth and deep-space phases o f
a mission. When communications w i t h earth are not possible, a limited
number of audio signals can be stored on tape for later transmission. The
CSM communication capability w i t h regard to range i s depicted i n Figure 16.

CSM COMMUNICATION RANGES


I ' '

2KMHZ OMNl
3Wh VOIC!

UP-DATA
3ACK';P VJlCi 6
FWERGEHC' K l Y

TH I L W 01: RATE

'M I H l G h B I ' R A T t

2KMHZ HIGH-GAIN
UP-DATA U P - V O I C L
DN VOICE. W TM PRN
Yv l D i BLAN : MEDIUM B E M I
- 1
NAliiiCW B
W

W WF-
EAR% b LUNAR OPERATIONE
M'""
LEES-SPAC: VYi VOICE LM-LN
SENDCVCHil RADAR
"HIGH-GAlh ANTENNA,
OPERATIOMA1 t2500,
,

-
TRAkSPONDiF: CM-LN

Fig. 16

A capability exists for using the CSM/LM VHF transceivers to generate


LM-CSM range iriformation i n the CSM as a backup to the LM rendezvous
radar. I t has an accuracy o f 250 feet at 200 miles.

-
Data

The spacecraft structure and subsystems contain sensors which gather data on
their status and performance. Biomedical, TV, and timing data also are
gathered. These various forms of data are assimilated into the data system,
processed, and then transmitted to the ground. Some data from the operational

J u l y 1969 Page 38
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Apol l o Supplement

systems, and some voice communications, may be stored for later transmission
or for recovery after landing. Stored data can be transmitted to the ground
simul taneously w i t h voice or real time data.

Radio Frequency Equipment

The radio frequency equipment i s the means by which voice information,


telemetry data, and ranging and tracking information are transmitted and
received. The equipment consists o f two VHF/AM transceivers i n one unit,
the unified S-band equipment (primary and secondary transponders and an
FM transmitter), primary and secondary S-band power amplifiers ( i n one unit),
a VHF beacon, an X-band transponder (for rendezvous radar), and the
premodulation processor.

The equipment provides for voice transfer between the C M and the ground,
between the C M and LM, between the C M and extravehicular astronauts,
and between the C M and recovery forces. Telemetry can be transferred
between the C M and the ground, from the LM to the C M and then to the
ground, and from extravehicular astronauts to the C M and then to the ground.
Ranging information consists o f pseudo-random noise and double-Doppler
ranging signals from the ground to the CM and back to the ground, and o f
X-band radar signals from the LM to the C M and back to the LM. The VHF
beacon equipment emits a 2-second signal every 5 seconds for line-of-sight
direction finding to a i d recovery forces i n locating the C M after landing.

LOCATION OF ANTENNAS
There are nine antennas (Figure T W U S C I M I T A R VHF FOUR S-BAN0 OMNlOlRECTlONAL
OMNlOlfiECTlONAL ANTENNAS ANTENNAS
7 , on the CSMl ,180 O,,R,E,A,ART,,,
the I-endezvous radar antenna
which i s an integral part o f the ----
rendezvous radar transponder .
These antennas can be divided
into four groups: VHF, S-band,
recovery, and beacon. The two
VH F antennas (called scimitars
because of their'shape) are ornni-
directional and are mounted 180
degrees apart on the SM. There
are five S-band antennas, one
D\I Cp I
RENDEZVOUS RADAR
TRANSPONDER ANTENNA

>TWO VHF BLADE


R E C O V E R Y ANTENNAS

STEERABLE S-BAND
mounted at the bottornof the SM HIGH.GAIN ANTENNA
and four located 90 degrees apart
Fig. 17
around t h e C M . The steerable
S-band high-gain antenna on the SM, used for deep-space communications,
i s composed o f four 31 -inch diameter reflectors surrounding an 1 1 -inch square

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M-933-71
Apol l o Supplement

r e f l e c t o r . A t launch i t i s folded down p a r a l l e l to the SPS engine n o z z l e so


that i t fits w i t h i n the Spacecraft-LM Adapter (SLA). A f t e r the CSM separates
from the SLA the antenna i s deployed a t a right angle t o the SM center l i n e .
The four smal ler, surface-mounted S-band antennas are used a t near-earth
ranges and for deep-space backup. The high-gain antenna i s deployable after
CSM/SLA separation. I t can be steered through a gimbal system and i s the
p r i n c i p a l antenna for d e e p j p a c e communications. The four S-band antennas
on the CM are mounted flush w i t h the surface o f the C M and are used for
S-band communications during near-earth phases o f the mission, as w e l l as
for a backup i n deep space. The t w o VHF recovery antennas are located i n
the forward compartment o f the CM, and are deployed automatically shortly
a f t e r the main parachutes d e p l o y . O n e o f these antennas i s also connected
to the V H F recovery beacon.

Environmental Control System

The Environmental Control System (ECS) provides a controlled environment for


three astronauts for up to 14 days. For normal conditions, this environment
includes a pressurized cabin (5 pounds per square inch), a 100 percent oxygen
atmosphere, and a cabin t e m p e r a t ~ ~ roef 70 to 7 5 ' ~ . The system provides for
pressurized suit use during c r i t i c a l mission phases and for emergencies. A n EVA
umbilical/SCU provides oxygen for breathing and c o o l i n g t o the EVA crewman
during retrieval o f f i l m containers fl-om the SIM.

The ECS provides oxygen and hot and c o l d water, removes carbon d i o x i d e and
odors from the CM cabin, provides for venting o f waste, and dissipates excessive
heat from the c a b i n a n d from operating electronic equipment. It i s designed so
that a minimum amount o f crew time i s needed for its normal operation. The main
u n i t contains the coolant control panel, water chi1 ler, two water-glycol evapor-
ators, carbon d i o x i d e odor-absorber canisters, suit heat exchanger, water separator,
and compressors. The oxygen surge tank, water-glycol pump package and reservoir,
and control panels for oxygen and water are adjacent t o the unit.

The system i s concerned w i t h three major elements: oxygen, water, and coolant
(water-glycol). A l l three are interrelated and intermingled w i t h other systems.
These three elements provide the maior functions o f spacecraft atmosphere, thermal
control, a n d water management through four major subsystems: oxygen, pressure
suit c i r c u i t , water, and water-glycol. A f i f t h subsystem, post-landing ventilation,
also i s part o f the ECS, providing outside a i r for breathing and c o o l i n g after earth
landing, prior t o hatch opening.

The C M c a b i n atmosphere i s 60 percent oxygen and 40 percent nitrogen on the


launch pad t o reduce f i r e hazard. The mixed atmosphere supplied by ground
equipment w i l l gradually be changed to pure oxygen after launch as the ECS
maintains pressure and replenishes the c a b i n atmosphere.

J u l y 1971 Page 40
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During prelaunch and i n i t i a l orbital operation, the suit c i r c u i t supplies pure


0xyge.n a t a flow rate slightly more than i s needed for breathing and suit leakage.
This results i n the suit being pressurized slightly above cabin pressure, which pre-
vents cabin gases from entering and contaminating the suit circuit. The excess
oxygen i n the suit c i r c u i t i s vented i n t o the cabin.

Spacecraft heating and cooling i s performed through two water-gl ycol coolant
loops. The water-glycol , i n i t i a l l y cooled through ground equipment, i s pumped
through the primary loop to cool operating electric and electronic equipment,
the space suits, and the cabin heat exchangers. The water-glycol also i s circu-
lated through a reservoir i n the C M to provide a heat sink during ascent.

Earth Landina System

The Earth Landing System (ELS) (Figure 18) provides a safe landing for the astro-
nauts and the C M . Several recovery aids which are activated after landing are
part of the system. Operation normally i s automatic, timed, and activated by the
Sequential Control System. A l l automatic functions can be backed up manually .

ELS M A J O R COMPONENT STOWAGE,

Fig. 18

J u l y 1969 Page 41
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Apol l o Supplement

For normal entry, about 1 .5 seconds after forward heat shield jettison, the two
drogue parachutes are deployed to orient the CM properly and to provide i n i t i a l
deceleration. A t about 10,000 feet, the drogue parachutes are released and the
three p i l o t parachutes are deployed; these p u l l the main parachutes from the
forward section of the C M . The main parachutes i n i t i a l l y open p a r t i a l l y (reefed)
for 10 seconds to l i m i t deceleration prior to full-diameter deployment. The main
parachutes hang the CM at an angle o f 27.5 degrees to decrease impact loads at
landing. After landing the crew releases the main parachutes.

The recovery aids consist o f an uprighting system, swimmer's umbilical cable, a


sea dye marker, a flashing beacon, and a VHF beacon transmitter. The two VHF
recovery antennas are located i n the forward compartment w i t h the parachutes.
They are deployed automatically 8 seconds after the main parachutes. One of
them i s connected to the beacon transmitter which emits a 2-second signal every
5 seconds to a i d recovery forces i n locating the C M . The other i s connected to
the V H F/AM transmitter and receiver to provide voice communications between
the crew and recovery forces.

A sea recovery sling of steel cable i s provided to l i f t the CM aboard a recovery


ship. Three inflatable uprighting bags, stowed under the main parachutes, are
available for uprighting the CM should i t stabilize i n an inverted floating position
after landing.

Common Spacecraft Systems

Guidance and Control

The Apol l o Spacecraft i s guided and control led by two interrelated systems
(Figure 19). One i s the Guidance, Navigation, and Control System (GNCS);
the other i s the Stabilization and Control System (SCS). The two systems pro-
vide rotational, l ine-of-flight, and rate-of-speed information. They integrate
and interpret this information and convert i t into commands for the spacecraft
propulsion systems.

Guidance, Navigation, and Control System

Guidance and navigation i s accomplished through three major elements: the inertial,
optical, and computer subsystems. The inertial subsystem senses any changes i n the
v e l o c i t y and angle of the spacecraft and relays this information to the computer
which transmits any necessary signals to the spacecraft engines. The optical sub-
system i s used to obtain navigation sighting5 o f celestial bodies and landmarks on
the earth and moon. I t paszes this information along to the computer for guidance
and control purposes. The computer subsystem uses information from a number o f
sources to determine the spacecraft position and speed and, i n automatic operation,
to give commands for guidance and control.

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GU I DANCE AND CONTROL FUNCTI ONAL FLOW

S t ~ b i l i z a t i o nand Control System

The Stabilization and Control System (SCS) operates i n three ways: i t determines
the spulscraft's attitude (angular position); maintains the spacecraft's attitude;
and controls the direction of thrust of the service propulsion engine. Both the
GNCS and SCS are used by the computer i n the CM to provide automatic control
of the Spacecraft. Manual control o f the spacecraft attitude and thrust i s provided
mainly through the SCS equipment.

The Flight Director Attitude Indicators (FDAI) on the main console show the total
angular position, attitude errors, and their rates o f change. One of the sources
o f total attitude information i s the stable platform o f the Inertial Measurement
Unit (IMU). The second source i s a G y r o Display Coupler (GDC) which gives a
reading of the spacecraft's actual attitudes as compared w i t h an attitude selected
b y the crew. Inforrilation about attitude error also i s obtained by comparison o f
the I M U gimbal angles w i t h computer reference angles. Another source o f this
information i s gyro assembly N o . 1, which senses any spacecraft rotation about
any o f the tnlee axes. Total attitude information goe; to the CMC as w e l l as to
the FDAl's on the console. I f a specific attitude or orientation i s desired, attitude
error signals are sent to the reaction jet engine control assembly. Then the proper
reaction jet automatically fires i n the direction necessary to return the spacecraft
to the desired position.

July 1969 Page 43


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The CMC provides primary control of thrust. The f l i g h t crew presets thrusting
and spacecraft data i n t o the computer by means o f the display keyboard. The
forthcoming commands include time and duration o f thrust. Accelerometers sense
the amount o f change i n velocity obtained by the thrust. Thrust direction control
i s required because o f center o f gravity shifts caused by depletion o f propellants
i n service propulsion tanks. This control i s accompl ished through electromechanical
actuators which position the gimbaled SPS engine. Automatic control commands
may originate i n either the guidance and navigation subsystem or the SCS. There
i s also provision for manual controls.

Reaction Control Systems

Both the Command Module and the Service Module have their own independent
Reaction Control System (RCS) - the C M RCS and the SM RCS, respectively. The
SM RCS has four identical "quads" mounted around the SM 9 0 degrees apart.
Each quad has four 100-pound thrust engines, two fuel and two oxidizer tanks,
and a helium pressurization sphere. The SM RCS provides redundant spacecraft
attitude control through cross-coupling logic inputs from the stabilization and
guidance systems. Small velocity change maneuvers can also be made w i t h the
SM RCS. The CM RCS consists of two independent subsystems of six 94-pound
thrust engines each. Both subsystems are activated after separation from the SM;
one i s used for spacecraft attitude control during entry, the other serves i n
standby as a backup. Hypergolic propellants for both C M and SM RCS are
monomethyl hydrazine fuel (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide ( N 2 0 4 )oxidizer w i t h
he1ium pressurization.

Electrical Power System

The Electrical Power System (EPS) provides electrical energy sources, power
generation and control, power conversion and conditioning, and power distribution
to the spacecraft throughout the mission. The EPS also furnishes drinking water to
the astronauts as a by-product o f the fuel cells. The primary source o f electrical
power i s the fuel cells mounted i n the SM. Each c e l l consists o f a hydrogen
compartment, an oxygen compartment, and two electrodes. The cryogenic gas
storage system, also located i n the SM, supplies the hydrogen and oxygen used
i n the fuel c e l l power plants, as well as the oxygen used i n the ECS.

Three silver-zinc storage batteries supply power to the C M during entry and
after landing, provide power for sequence controllers, and supplement the fuel
cells during periods o f peak power demand. These batteries are located i n the
C M lower equipment bay. A battery charger i s located i n the same bay to assure
a f u l l charge prior to entry.

April 1970 Page 44


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Two other silver-zinc batteries, independent o f and completely isolated


from the rest o f the dc power system, are used to supply power for explosive
devices for CM/SM separation, parachute deployment and separation, third-stage
separation, Launch Escape Tower separation, and other pyrotechnic uses.

Emergency Detection System

The Emergency Detection System (EDS) monitors c r i t i c a l conditions of launch


vehicle-powered f l i g h t . Emergency conditions are displayed to the crew on the
M a i n Display Console to indicate a necessity for abort. The system includes
provisions for a crew-initiated abort w i t h the use o f the Launch Escape System or
w i t h the SPS after tower jettison. The crew can i n i t i a t e an abort separation from
the LV from prior to l i f t o f f until the planned separation time. A capability also
exists for commanding early staging o f the S-IVB from the S-II stage when necessary.
Also included i n the system are provisions for an automatic abort i n case o f the
following time-critical conditions:

1. Loss of thrust on two or more engines on the first stage of the L V .

2. Excessive vehicle angular rates in any of the pitch, yaw, or r o l l planes.

3. Loss of "hotwire" continuityfrom SM to IU.

The EDS w i l l automatically i n i t i a t e an abort signal when two or more first-stage


engines are out or when LV excessive rates are sensed b y gyros i n the IU The .
aborl signals are sent to the master events sequence controller, which initiates
the abort sequence. At T+2 minutes the crew deactivates the automatic abort
c a p a b i l i t y . The engine lights on the M a i n Display Console provide the following
information to the crew: ignition, cutoff, engine below prespecified thrust level,
and physical stage separation. A yellow "S-II Sep" l i g h t w i l l illuminate a t second-
stage first-plane separation and w i l l extinguish at second-plane separation. A high-
intensity, red "ABORT" light i s illuminated i f an abort i s requested by the Launch
Control Center for a pad abort or an abort during l i f t o f f via updata l i n k . The "ABORT"
l i g h t can also be illuminated after l i f t o f f by the Range Safety O f f i c e r or by the Mission
Control Center via the updata l i n k from the Manned Space Flight Network.

Launch Escape System'


General

The Launch Escape System (LES) (Figure 20) includes the LES structure, canards,
rocket motors, and ordnance. The LES provides an immediate means of separating
the C M from the L V during pad or suborbital aborts up through completion of second-
stage ignition. During an abort, the LES must provide a satisfactory earth return
trajectory and C M orientation before jettisoning from the C M . The jettison or
abort can be i n i t i a t e d manually or automatically.

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LAUNCH ESCAPE SYSTEM


NOSE CONE 6 P BALL

PITCH CONTROL MOTOR


TOWER.JETTICON MOTOR

LAUNCH I C A E MOTOR

STRUCTURAL SKIRT
CANARD
U U N C ~ ESCAPE YOTOR ACTUATOR
T n n u n ALIGNMENT FITTING

FRANGIBLE NU YSTEUS6 IN~IIUMEMTATIONWlRE HARNES

LAUNCH ESCAPE TOWER

ELECTRICAL OISCONNECT FITTINGS

\BOOST PROTECTIVE COVER (APEX SECTlOWl

Fig. 20

Assemb l v

The forward or rocket section of the system i s cylindrical and houses three solid-
propellant rocket motors and a ballast compartment topped b y a nose cone and
" Q - b a l l " which measures attitude and f l i g h t dynamics of the space vehicle. The
500-pound tower i s made of titanium tubes attached a t the top to a structural skirt
that covers the rocket exhaust nozzles and a t the bottom to the CM b y means of
explosive bolts . A Boost Protective Cover (BPC) i s attached to the tower and com-
p l e t e l y covers the CM. I t has 12 "blowout" ports for the CM reaction control engines,
vents, and an 8-inch window. This cover protects the C M from the rocket exhaust
and also from the heat generated during launch vehicle boost. I t remains attached
to the tower and i s carried away when the assembly i s jettisoned. Two canards
mounted near the forward end o f the assembly aerodynamically tumble the CM i n
the p i t c h plane during an abort so that the heat shield i s forward. The assembly
i s commonly referred to as the LET (Launch Escape Tower) or simply "tower."

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Propulsion

Three sol i d propellant motors are used on the LES . They are:

1. The launch escape motor which provides thrust for C M abort. I t weighs
4700 pounds andprovides 147,000 pounds of thrust a t sea level for
approximately eight seconds.

2. The p i t c h control motor which provides an i n i t i a l pitch maneuver toward


the Atlantic Ocean during pad or low-altitude abort. I t weighs 50
pounds and provides 2400 pounds of thrust for half a second.

3. The tower jettison motor, which i s used to jettison the LET, provides
3 1,500 pounds of thrust for one second.

System Operation

The Launch Escape System i s activated automatically by the EDS i n the first 100
seconds or manually by the astronauts at any time from the pad to jettison altitude.
The assembly i s jettisoned at about 295,000 feet, or about 30 seconds after
i g n i t i o n o f the second stage. After receiving an abort signal, the booster i s cut
o f f (after 30 seconds o f flight), the CM-SM separation charges are fired, and the
launch escape motor i s ignited. The launch escape motor lifts the CM and the
p i t c h control motor (used only a t low altitudes) directs the flight path o f f t o the
side. Two canards are deployed 1 1 seconds after an abort i s initiated. Three
seconds !rlter on extreme low-altitude aborts, the tower separation devices are
fired and the jettison motor i s started. These actions carry the LET, BPC, docking
ring, and probe away from the CM's landing trajectory. Four-tenths o f a second
after tower jettisoning, the CM's Earth Landing System i s activated and begins its
sequence o f operations to bring the C M down safely. A l l preceeding automatic
sequences can be prevented, interrupted, or replaced by crew action.

During a successful launch the LET w i t h attached BPC i s jettisoned by the astronauts,
using the d i g i t a l events timer and the "S-II Sep" light as cues. The jettisoning o f
the LET disables the EDS automatic abort circuits. In the event o f tower jettison
motor failure, the launch escape motor may jettison the LET.

J u l y 1969 Page 47
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Lunar M o d u l e

General

The Lunar M o d u l e (LM) (Figure 21) i s designed t o transport two men safely from the
CSM, i n lunar orbit, t o the lunar surface and return them t o the o r b i t i n g CSM.
The LM provides operational c a p a b i l i t i e s such as communications, telemetry,
environmental support, transportation o f scientific equipment t o the lunar surface,
and returning surface samples w i t h the crew to the CSM. Physical characteristics
are shown i n Figure 22.

Fig.

J u l y 1969 Page 48
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Apol lo Supplement

L M PHY S I CAL CHARACTER I ST I CS

TOTAL (APPROXIMATE)
WEIGHT (PROPBLLANT b CREW) 3 6 , 3 0 0 LB.
WEIGHT ( L E S S PROP) 1 1 , 6 0 0 LB.

ASCENT STAGE
WEIGHT ( L E S S PROP) 5 , 4 0 0 LB.
USABLE PROPELLANT ( U S ) 5 . 0 6 6 LB.
USABLE PROPELLANT ( R C S ) 5 9 0 LB.

JESCENT STAGE
WEIGHT ( L E S S PROP) 6 , 1 9 0 LB.
USABLE PROPELLANT IDPSI 1 9 , 2 5 0 LB.

Fig. 22

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The Lunar Module consists of two stages; the Ascent Stage, and the Descent
Stage. The stages are attached at four fittings b y explosive bolts. Separable
umbilicals and hardline connections provide subsystem continuity to operate both
stages as a single u n i t until separate Ascent Stage operation i s desired. The L M
i s designed to operate for 48 hours after separation from the CSM, w i t h a maximum
lunar stay time of 44 hours.

Ascent Stage

The Ascent Stage (Figure 2 3 ) accommodates two astronauts and i s the control
center o f the LM. An electrical umbilical, i n the LM portion o f the tunnel, i s
connected by a n astronaut to the CM. The stage structure provides three main
sections consisting of a crew compartment and hid-section, which comprises the
pressurized cabins and the unpressurized a f t equipment bay. Other component
parts o f the structure consist o f the Thrust Chamber Assembly (TCA) cluster supports
and antenna supports. The cylindrical crew compartment i s o f semi-monocoque,
aluminum a l l o y construction. Large structural beams extend up the front face and
across the top o f the crew compartment to distribute loads applied to the cabin
structure. The structural concept utilizes beams, bulkheads, and trusses to "cradle"
the cabin assembly. The cabin volume i s approximately 235 cubic feet.

The entire Ascent Stage structure i s enveloped by a vented blanket shield suspended
a t least two inches from the main structure. The thermal and micrometeoroid shield
consists of multiple-layer aluminized mylar, nicke! f o i l , inconel mesh, inconel
sheet, and, i n certain areas, H - f i l m . The shield nominally provides thermal in-
sulation against t350 F temperatures; w i t h H-film, provides protection up to
+I 000'~.

The f l i g h t station area has two front windows, a docking window, window shades,
supports and restraints, a n Alignment O p t i c a l Telescope (AOT), Crewman O p t i c a l
Alignment Sight (COAS), data files, and control and display panels. Two hatches
are provided for ingress and egress. The inward-opening forward hatch i s used for
extravehicular a c t i v i t y e x i t and entry. The overhead hatch seals the docking
tunnel which i s used for the transfer o f crew and equipment internally between
the docked CSM and LM.

The Ascent Stage i s the nucleus of a l l LM systems. Two Portable Life Support
Systems are stowed i n the LM and provisions have been made for their replenishment.
Stowage i s provided for docking equipment, extravehicular visors, extravehicular
gloves, lunar boots, and crew provisions i n general.

The Ascent Stage also provides external mounting for a CSM-active docking
target, tracking and orientation lights, two VHF antennas, two S-band i n f l i g h t
antennas, an S-band steerable antenna, and a rendezvous radar antenna.

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LM ASCENT STAGE

KEY
1. Abort sensor assombly
Signal-conditioning and oloetronic roplacoablo
2. Alignment optical telescope
assembly No. 2
3. Inortial measurement unit
Pulse-code-modulation and timing oquipmont arrombly
4. Pulw torque assembly
Signal-conditioning and electronic raplacoabh assombly No. 1
5. Cabin dump and relief valve (upper hatch)
6. CSM/LM electrical umbilical fairing RCS quadrant 2
Gaseous oxygen tank
7. Aft equipment bay bulkhead
Helium tank
8. Water tank
RCS fuel tank
9. Rendozvous radar electronics assembly
APS fuel tank
10. Propollant quantity gaging system conlrol unit
RCS helium tank
11. Caution and warning electronics assembly
RCS tank module
12. Electrical control assembly
Helium pressurization modulo
13. Attitude and translation control assembly
Oxidizer service panel
14. S-band power amplifier and diplexer
RCS oxidizer tank
15. S-band transceiver
RCS quadrant 1
16. Abort electronic assembly
Lighting control assembly
17. Signal processor assembly
Auxiliary switching relay box
18. VHF transceiver and diplexer
Cabin dump and relief valve (forward hatch)
19. Invortor
20. Batteries RCS quadrant 4
Fig. 23

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The Ascent Propulsion System provides for major +X axis translations when
separated from the Descent Stage and a Reaction Control System (RCS) provides
attitude and translational control about and along three axes.

Descent Stage

The Descent Stage (Figure 24) is the unmanned portion of the LM. I t provides
for major v e l o c i t y changes of the LM to deorbit and land on the lunar surface.
The basic structure consists of four main crossed-beams whose ends define the
octagon shape of the stage. The major structural material i s aluminum a l l o y .
Thermal and micrometeoroid shielding i s similar to that used on the Ascent Stage
but w i t h additional base heat shielding of nickel f o i l , H-film, Fibrocel, and
Fiberfrax protecting the stage base from engine heat radiation.

LM DESCENT STAGE

Fig. 24

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The Descent Stage has a landing gear system t o absorb landing shock and to support
the Descent Stage w h i c h must serve as a launch pad for the Ascent Stage. The
Descent Stage engine nozzle extension i s designed t o collapse u p t o 28 inches and
w i l l n o t have any influence on L M lunar surface s t a b i l i t y . Impact attenuation i s
achieved by compression o f the four main struts against crushable aluminum honey-
comb. The landing gear trusses also provide the structural attachment points for
securing the L M t o the lower (fixed) portion o f the Spacecraft-LM Adapter (SLA).
A ladder, integral t o a primary landing gear strut, provides access to and from the
lunar surface from the 10-foot high forward hatch platform.

The Descent Stage contains the Descent Propulsion System, f i v e batteries for
e l e c t r i c a l power, t w o Environmental Control System water tanks and t w o gaseous
oxygen tanks, the A p o l l o Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP), the Cosmic
Ray Experiment package, the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG),
supercritical helium and ambient helium tanks, and the Lunar Roving V e h i c l e
(LRV). The descent engine m o d i f i c a t i o n consists o f a quartz combustion chamber,
l i g h t w e i g h t e x i t cone, and a 10-inch n o z z l e extension.

Guidance, N a v i g a t i o n , and Control System

The Guidance, N a v i g a t i o n , and Control System ( G N & C S ) provides v e h i c l e


guidance, navigation, and control required for a manned lunar landing mission.
The GNdCS u t i l i z e s a Rendezvous Radar and a Landing Radar t o a i d i n navigation.
The major subsystems o f the G N & C S are designated Primary G u i d a n c e and N a v i -
g a t i o n Subsystem, Abort Guidance Subsystem, and the Control Electronics
Subsystem.

The G N & C S has a primary and alternate system path. The primary guidance path
comprises the Primary G u i d a n c e and N a v i g a t i o n Subsystem, Control Electronics
Subsystem, Landing Radar, Rendezvous Radar, and the selected propulsion system.
The alternate system path comprises the Abort G u i d a n c e Subsystem, Control
Electronics Subsystem, and the selected propulsion system. The term Primary
Guidance, N a v i g a t i o n , and Control System (PGNCS) appears i n c e r t a i n t e c h n i c a l
mission documentation and connotes use o f systems i n the primary path o f the LM
Guidance, N a v i g a t i o n , and Control System.

Primary G u i d a n c e and N a v i g a t i o n Subsystem- The Primary G u i d a n c e and N a v i -


g a t i o n Subsystem (PGNS) establishes a n i n e r t i a l reference for guidance w i t h a n
Inertial Measurement Unit, uses optics and radar for navigation, and a d i g i t a l
L M G u i d a n c e Computer ( L G C ) for data processing and generation o f f l i g h t control
signals. The i n e r t i a l l y stabilized accelerometers sense incremental changes o f
v e l o c i t y and a t t i t u d e . Comparison o f sensed instantaneous conditions against
software programs generates corrections used to control the v e h i c l e . The reference
for the i n e r t i a l system i s a l i g n e d using the Alignment O p t i c a l Telescope, stars,

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horizons, and the computer. The PGNS, i n conjunction w i t h the CES, controls
LM attitude, ascent or descent engine firing, descent engine thrust, and thrust
vector. Control under the PG NS mode ranges from f u l l y automatic to manual.

Abort Guidance Subsystem - The Abort Guidance Subsystem (AGS) provides an


independent backup for the PGNS. The section i s - not u t i l i z e d during aborts
unless the PGNS has failed. The AGS i s capable o f determining trajectories
required for a coel l i p t i c rendezvous sequence to automatically place the vehicle
i n a safe parking/rendezvous orbit w i t h the CSM or can display conditions to be
acted upon by the astronauts to accomplish rendezvous. The activated AGS per-
forms L M navigation, guidance, and control i n conjunction w i t h the Control
Electronics Subsystem. The AGS differs from the PG NS i n that its inertial sensors
are r i g i d l y mounted with respect to the vehicle rather than on a stabilized platform.
In this mode, the Abort Sensor Assembly (ASA) measures attitude and acceleration
and supplies data to the Abort Electronics Assembly (AEA) which i s a high-speed
d i g i t a l computer.

-
Control Electronics Subsystem The Control Electronics Subsystem (CES) controls
LM attitude and translation about and along three axes by processing commands
from the PG NS or AGS and routing on/off commands to 16 reaction control
engines, ascent engine, or descent engine. Descent engine thrust vector i s also
controlled b y the CES.

Rendezvol~sRadar - The Rendezvous Radar (RR) tracks the CSM to provide relative
line-of-sight, range and range rate data for rendezvous and docking.
- The trans-
ponder i n the CSM augments the transmitted energy of the RR thus increasing
radar capabilities and minimizing power requirements. Radar data i s automatically
entered i n t o the L G C i n the PGNS mode. During AGS operation, data inputs are
entered i n t o the Abort Electronics Assembly through the Data Entry and Display
Assembly (DEDA) by the crew from cabin displays. Radar data i s telemetered to
the Manned Space Flight Network and monitored for gross inaccuracies.

Landing Radar - The Landing Radar (LR) provides the LGC w i t h slant range and
v e l o c i t y data for cdntrol o f the descent to the lunar surface. Slant range data i s
available below lunar altitudes of approximately 35,000 feet and velocity data i s
available below approximately 18,000 feet.

M a i n Propulsion

M a i n Propulsion i s provided by the Descent Propulsion System (DPS) and the Ascent
Propulsion System (APS). Each sytem i s wholly independent of the other. The
DPS provides the thrust to control descent to the lunar surface. The APS can

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provide the thrust for ascent from the lunar surface. I n case of mission abort, the
APS and/or DPS can place the LM i n t o a rendezvous trajectory with the CSM from
any point i n the descent trajectory. The choice of engine to be used depends on
the cause for abort, on how long the descent engine has been operating, and on
the quantity of propellant remaining i n the Descent Stage. Both propulsion systems
use identical hypergolic propellants. The fuel i s a 50-50 mixture of hydrazine and
unsymetrical-dirnethylhydrazine and the oxidizer i s nitrogen tetroxide. Gaseous
helium pressurizes the ~ r o p e l l a n tfeed systems. Helium storage i n the DPS i s at
cryogenic temperatures i n the super-critical state and i n the APS i t i s gaseous a t
ambient temperatures.

Ullage for propellant settling i s required prior to descent engine start and i s pro-
vided by the +X axis reaction engines. The descent engine i s gimbaled, throttle-
able and restartable. The engine can be throttled from 1050 pounds of thrust to
6300 pounds. Throttle positions above this value automatically produce f u l l thrust
t o reduce combustion chamber erosion. Nominal f u l l thrust i s 9870 pounds. Gimbal
trim of the engine compensates for a changing center of gravity of the vehicle and
i s automatically accomplished by either the PGNS or AGS. Automatic throttle
and on/off control i s available i n the PGNS mode of operation. The.4GS commands
on/off operation but has no automatic throttle control capability. Manual control
capability of engine firing functions has been provided. Manual thrust control over-
ride may, a t any time, command more thrust than the level commanded by the LGC.

The ascent engine i s a fixed, non-throttleable engine. The engine develops 3500
pounds of thrust, sufficient to abort the lunar descent or to launch the Ascent Stage
from the l ~ n a surface
r and place i t i n the desired lunar orbit. Control modes are
similar to those described for the descent engine. The APS propellant i s contained
i n two spherical titanium tanks, one for oxidizer and the other for fuel. Each
tank has a volume o f 36 cubic feet. Total fuel weight i s 2008 pounds o f which
71 pounds are unusable. O x i d i z e r weight i s 3170 pounds o f which 92 pounds
are unusable. The APS has a l i m i t of 35 starts, must have a propellant bulk
temperature between 50F and 90F prior to start, must not exceed 460 seconds
o f burn time, and has a system l i f e o f 24 hours after pressurization.

I n general, the main propulsion systems use pyrotechnic isolation valves i n pres-
surization and propellant lines to prevent corrosive deterioration of components.
O n c e the APS or DPS i s activated, its reliable operating time i s limited but
adequate for its designed use.

Reaction Control System

The Reaction Control System (RCS) stabilizes the LM, provides ullage thrust for the
DPS or APS, helps to maintain the desired trajectory during descent, and controls
L M attitude and translation about or along three axes during hover. Sixteen engines

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termed TI~I-ustChamber Assemblies (TCA's) of 100 pounds thrust each are mounted
symmetrically around the L M Ascent Stage i n clusters of four. The RCS contains
two independent, parallel systems (A&B) controlling two TCA1s i n each cluster.
Each system, operating a lone, can perform a l l required u t t i tude control require-
ments, tiowever translational performance i s slightly degraded under single system
o p e r a t i o ~ i . T l ~ cindependent propellant systerris have u crossfeed capability for
increased operational dependabi Ii ty. During APS thrusting, APS propellant can
supplement tlie RCS system. The propellunt tanks u t i l i z e bladders to achieve
positive expulsion feed under zero-g gruvity conditions. Malfunctioning TCA
pairs can be deactivated by manual swi tcl~es.

Tlic RCS TCA f i r i n g i s accomplished by the CES of the G N d C S i n response to


manual commands or signals generated i n the PGNS or AGS modes. The RCS
modes o f operation are automatic, attitude hold (semi-outonlatic), and manual
override. The TCA1s firing time ranges from a pulse of less than one second up
to steady state operation.

Thirty-two heaters are used to heat the 16 TCA1s. TCA temperature requirements
ranging from 1 3 2 ' ~ to 1 5 4 ' ~are importunt to safe and proper TCA operation.
Propellant capacity o f each system of the RCS i s : oxidizer (nitrogen tetroxidej-
207.5 pounds, 194.9 pounds usable; fuel (50-50 mixture of monomethyl hydrazine
and unsymet~.icaI-dimethylhydrazi ne)-106.5 pounds, 99.1 pounds usable.

I n order to ensure reliable RCS operation, firing time for each TCA must not exceed
500 seconds with f i r i n g times exceeding one second, and 1000 seconds of pulses with
less than one second. RCS operation requires propellant tank tempera-
f i r i n g ti1115s
tures between 40F and 1 0 0 ~ ~ .
Firing time of vertically mounted thrusters i s limited
to prevent damage to Descent Stage insulation or the Ascent Stage antennas.

Electrical Power System

The Electrical Power System (EPS) contains seven batteries which supply the electrical
power requirements of the L M during undocked mission phases. Five batteries are
located i n the Descent Stage and two i n the Ascent Stage. Batteries for the
Explosive Devices System are not included i n this system description. Postlaunch
LM power i s supplied by two Descent Stage batteries until the LM and CSM are
docked. W h i l e docked, the CSM supplies electrical power to the LM up to 296
watts (peak). During the lunar descent phase, the two Ascent Stage batteries are
paralleled w i t h the Descent Stage batteries for additional power assurance. The
Descent Stage batteries are u t i l i z e d for LM lunar surface operations and checkout.
The Ascent Stage batteries are brought on the line just before ascent phase staging.
A l l batteries and busses may be individually monitored for load, voltage, and
failure. Several isolation and combination modes are provided.

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Two Inverters, each capable of supplying f u l l load, convert the dc to ac for


1 15-v'olt, 400-hertz supply. Electrical power i s distributed by the following
buses: L M Pilot's dc bus, Commander's dc bus, and ac buses A & B.

The four Descent Stage silver-zinc batteries are identical and have a 400 ampere-
hour capacity a t 28 volts. Because the batteries do not have a constant voltage
a t various states o f charge/load levels, "high" and " l o w " voltage taps are provided
for selection. The "low voltage" tap i s selected to i n i t i a t e use o f a f u l l y charged
battery. Cross-tie circuits i n the busses facilitate an even discharge of the
batteries regardless o f distribution combinations. The two silver-zinc Ascent Stage
batteries are identical to each other and have a 296 ampere-hour capacity at 28
volts. The Ascent Stage batteries are normally connected i n parallel for even
discharge. Because o f design load characteristics, the Ascent Stage batteries do
not have and do not require high and low voltage taps,

N ~ m i n a voltage
l for Ascent Stage and Descent Stage batteries i s 30.0 volts.
Reverse current relays for battery failure are one o f many components designed
i n t o the EPS t o enhance EPS r e l i a b i l i t y . Cooling o f the b2tferieS i s provided by
the Environmental Control System cold rail heat sinks. Available ascent electrical
energy i s 17.8 kilowatt hours a t a maximum drain of 50 amps per battery and descent
energy i s 56.5 k i l o w a t t hours a t a maximum drain of 25 amps per battery.

Environmental Control System

The Environmental Control System (ECS) provides a habitable environment for two
astronaut: for a maximum of 48 hours while the LM i s separated from the CSM.
Included i n this capabi Ii ty are four cabin decompression/repressurization cycles.
The ECS also controls the temperature of electrical and electronic equipment, and
stores and provides water for drinking, cool ing, fire e ~ t i n ~ u s i h i n gand
, food
preparation. Two oxygen and two water tanks are located i n the Ascent Stage
and two tanks o f each are located i n the Descent Stage.

The ECS i s comprised of an Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem (ARS), an Oxygen


Supply and Cabin Pressure Control Subsystem (OSCPCS), a Water Management
Subsystem (WMS), a Heat Transport Subsystem (HTS), and a n oxygen and water
supply to the Portable Life Support System (PLSS). The ARS cools and ventilates
the Pressure Garment Assemblies, controls oxygen temperature and the level of
carbon dioxide i n the atmosphere, removes odors, particles, noxious gases, and
excess moisture.

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Oxygen Supply and Cabin Pressure Control Subsystem

The Oxygen Supply and Cabin Pressure Control S ubsystem (OSCPCS) stores
gaseous oxygen and maintains cabin and suit pressure by supplying oxygen to
the ARS. This replenishes losses due to crew metabolic consumption and cabin
or suit leakage. The oxygen tank i n the Descent Stage provides oxygen during
the descent and lunar-stay phases of the mission, and the two i n the Ascent
Stage are used during the ascent and rendezvous phases o f the mission.

Water Management Subsystem

The Water Management Subsystem (WMS) supplies water for drinking, cooling,
f i r e extinguishing, and food preparation; for r e f i l l i n g the PLSS cooling water
tank; and for pressurization of the secondary coolant loop of the HTS. I t
also provides for delivery of water from ARS water separators to HTS sublimators
and from the water tanks to ARS and HTS sublimators. The water tanks are
pressurized before launch to maintain the required pumping pressure i n the
tanks. The Descent Stage tank supplies most of the water required u n t i l staging
occurs. After staging, water i s supplied by the two Ascent Stage storage tanks.
A self-sealing "PLSS DRINK" valve delivers water for drinking and food
preparation.

Heat Transport Subsystem

The Heat Transport Subsystem (HTS) consists of a primary coolant loop and a
secondary coolant loop. The secondary loop serves as a backup loop and
functions i n the event the primary loop fails. A water-glycol solution circu-
lates through each loop. The primary loop provides temperature control for
batteries, electronic equipments that require active thermal control, and for
the oxygen that circulates through the cabin and pressure suits. The batteries
and electronic equipments are mounted on cold plates and rails through which
coolant i s routed to remove excess heat.

The cold plates used for equipment required for mission abort contain two
separate coolant passages, one for the primary loop and one for the secondary
loop. The secondary coolant loop serves only abort equipment cold plates.

I n flight, excess heat rejection from both coolant loops i s achieved by the
primary and secondary sublimators which are vented overboard. A coolant
pump recirculation assembly contains a l l the HTS coolant pumps and associated
check and relief valves. Coolant flow from the assembly i s directed through
parallel circuits to the cold plates for the electronic equipment and the oxygen-
to-glycol heat exchanger i n the ARS.

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Communications System

The Communications System (CS) provides the links between the L M and the Manned
Space Flight Network (MSFN), between the L M and the CSM, and between the L M
and any extravehicular astronaut. The following information i s handled by the CS:
tracking and ranging, voice, PCM telemetry (LM status), biomedical data, computer
updates, Morse code, television, EVA/LM EMU data, and LM/CSM telemetry
retransmission. The communications links and their functions are listed i n Figure 25.
The CS includes a l l S-band, VH F, and signal processing equipment necessary to
transmit and receive voice, tracking, and ranging data, and to transmit telemetry
and emergency keying.

L M COMMUNICATIONSLINKS

Illxl:itr II;C o r v o i c e
111~ckup f o r in-flight
comr~~unic:~tionn

Tr:lrw m i s s i o n of I)lorne<l
;~nrlv e h i c l e ~ t i t t t l sdata

Confc.rt.r~ce(with earth
as rc1:lv)

Confcrcvlce (with I.hl :IS


rulny)

Fig. 25

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The CS antenna equipment consists o f two S-band i n f l i g h t antennas, an S-band


steerable antenna, two VHF i n f l i g h t antennas and diplexer, and RF selector
switches for S-band and VHF. The "line-of-sight" range of the VHF transmitter
i s limited to 740 nautical miles. The L M S-band capability covers earth-lunar
distances.

Explosive Devices System

The Explosive Devices System (EDS) uses explosives to activate or enable various
L M equipment. The system deploys the landing gear, enables pressurization of
the descent, ascent, and RCS propellant tanks, venting of descent propellant tanks,
and separation of the Ascent and Descent Stages. There are two separate systems
i n the EDS. The systems are parallel and provide completely redundant circuitry.
Each system has a 37. 1-volt (no load) battery, relays, time delay circuits, fuse
resistors, busses, and explosive cartridges.

Two separate cartridges are provided for each EDS function. Each cartridge i s
sufficient to perform the function without the other. The EDS supports the main
propulsion systems by clearing the valves isolating pressurants and propellants.
O t h e r pyrotechnic devices guillotine interstage umbi licals i n addition to the
structural connections. System performance i s indicated to the crew by instru-
mentation and to the MSFN by telemetry. The two EDS batteries use silver-zinc
plates and are rated at a. 75 ampere-hour. Battery output/vol tage status i s displayed
'
t o the crew. One battery i s located i n the Descent Stage and one i s i n the Ascent
Stage.

l nstrumentation System

The Instrumentation System (IS) monitors the LM subsystems, performs i n f l ight


checkout, prepares L M status data for transmission to the MSFN, provides timing
frequencies and correlated data for LM subsystems, and stores voice and time
correlation data. During the lunar mission, the IS performs lunar surface L M
checkout and provides scientific instrumentation for lunar experiments.

The I S consists of system sensors, a Signal Conditioning Electronics Assembly


(SCEA), Pulse-Code-Modulation and Timing Electronics Assembly (PCMTEA),
Caution and Warning Electronics Assembly (CWEA), and a Data Storage Elec-
tronics Assembly (DSEA). The CWEA provides the astronauts and MSFN with a
continuous rapid check of data supplied by the SCEA for malfunction detection.
The CWEA provides signals to caution lights, warning lights, component
caution lights, and "Master-Alarm" pushbutton lights.

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Lighting

Interior lighting i s designed to enhance crew performance by reducing crew fatigue


i n a n environment of interior-exterior glare effects. Exterior lighting includes a
radioluminescent docking target, five docking lights, and a high intensity tracking
light. The five docking lights are automatically turned on prior to the first CSM
docking and are turned o f f after docking. They indicate gross relative attitude of
the vehicle and are color discernible to a distance of 1000 feet. The flashing,
high-intensity, tracking light on the L M facilitates CSM tracking of the LM. I t
has a beam spread of 60 degrees and flashes 60 times per minute.
M-933-7 1
Apol l o Supplement

CREW PROVISIONS

APPAREL

The combination o f items a crewman wears varies during a mission. There are three
basic configurations o f dress: unsuited, suited, and extravehicular and these are
described below. A b r i e f description o f each item making u p these configurations
i s contained i n the latter part o f this section.

Unsuited

This mode o f dress i s worn by a crewman i n the Command M o d u l e (CM) under conditions
termed "shirt-sleeve environment. " The crewman wears a bioinstrumentation harness,
a communications carrier, the Constant Wear Garment (CWG), the l n f l i g h t Coverall
Garment (ICG), and booties. This unsuited mode i s the most comfortable, convenient,
a n d least f a t i g u i n g o f the dress modes. When unsuited, the crewman relies on the CM
Environmental Control System to maintain the proper cabin envi ronment o f pressure,
temperature and oxygen.

Suited

This mode (Figures 26A and 0) enables a crewman t o operate i n an unpressurized c a b i n


and permi ts extravehicular a c t i v i t i e s . The suited configuration includes: the Pressure
Garment Assembly (PGA) w i t h ar! Integral Thermal Meteoroid Gcrment (ITMG), made
up o f a torso-limb suit, prcssure helmet, and pressure gloves; the Fecal Containment
System (FCS); C'WG; bioinstrumentation harness; communications carrier; and a U r i n e
C o l l e c t i o n and Transfer Assembly (UCTA). Various suit fittings and hardware required
for lunar extravehicular operations are omitted from the CM Pilot's suit.

Lunar Extravehicular

I n the lunar surface extravehicular configuration, the C W G i s replaced b y a L i q u i d


C o o l i n g Garment ( L C G ) and three items are added t o the PGA: Lunar Extravehicular
Visor Assembly (LEVA), extravehicular gloves and lunar boots. The a d d i t i o n o f the
Portable L i f e Support System (PLSS) and O x y g e n Purge System (OPS) backpack com-
pletes the configuration termed the Extravehicular M o b i l i t y U n i t (EMU). I n a d d i t i o n
t o p r o v i d i n g a l i f e supporting pressul-ized atmosphere, the EMU protects the astronaut
from radiation, micrometeoroid impact, and lunar surface temperatures ranging from
+250F t o -2500F. Potable water i s provided i n the EMU i n a bag w i t h a suck tube and
mouthpiece extending i n t o the pressure helmet. By turning his head and b i t i n g the
mouthpiece, the astronaut can obtain a drink o f water w h i l e i n the pressurized space-
suit. A f r u i t bar i s also provided w h i c h can be attached inside the helmet, and provides
several bites o f food. The bar i s grasped i n the teeth, pulled up, and a b i t e taken.

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Fig. 26A

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Fig. 268

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I n - f l i g h t Extravehicular

The C M Pilot's suit i s used for extravehicular retrieval o f f i l m containers from the SIM
d u r i n g transearth coast. O x y g e n for breathing and suit c o o l i n g i s supplied through a n
u m b i l i c a l from the spacecraft system. This EVA u m b i l i c a l contains w i r i n g for communi-
cations and biomedical data and an integral tether. A n OPS worn b y the CMP, as a
backpack, i s connected to the suit for contingency breathing and cooling.

Item Description

Torso-Limb Suit

The Torso-Limb Suit Assembly (TLSA) provides a n anthropomorphic pressure vessel


(when mated w i t h the helmet and gloves) w i t h f l e x i b l e joints a t the waist, shoulders,
e l bows, neck, and knees to accommodate m o b i l i t y requirements. The TLSA i s
sized t o f i t i n d i v i d u a l crewmen.

Pressure Helmet

The pressure helmet provides visibi l i t y and continues the environmental envelope.
I t i s b a s i c a l l y a polycarbonate plastic shell. I t contains a vent manifold and a n
a i r - t i g h t feed port for eating, drinking, and purging, and a valsalva device. The
astronaut c a n turn his head w i t h i n the fixed helmet.

Pressure Glove

The pressure glove provides for required d i g i t a l dexterity and continues the
environmental envelope. I t i s basically made o f n y l o n t r i c o t dipped i n neoprene.
A fingerless glove, inner and outer covers, and a restraint system complete the
assembly. The extravehicular glove i s a modified pressure glove w i t h additional
layers o f thermal and protective material.

Thermal M e t e o r o i d Garment

The Integral TMG provides external thermal and micrometeoroid protection for the
astronaut. This garment i s sewn over the torso-limb suit. Construction u t i l i z e s
t e f l o n fabric, multilayered combinations o f Beta cloth, aluminized Kapton film,
Beta Marquisette, non-woven dacron, and neoprene-coated Ripstop. Snap
secured covers are located for inner access to some P G A areas and pockets are
provided for specified items. Boots are attached over the PGS w i t h slide
fasteners and loop tape.

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Lunar Boot

The lunar boot i s worn over the PGA boot and meets the extensive, additional,
thermal, and protective requirements for a lunar excursion. Materials used i n its
construction are teflon-coated Beta cloth, Kapton film, Beta Marquisette, Beta
felt, silicon rubber, and Chromel-R.

Lunar Extravehicular Visor Assembly

The LEVA i s a light- and heat-attenuating assembly which fits over and clamps
around the base o f the pressure helmet assembly. I t i s designed to provide heat
insulation and added protection from micrometeoroids, solar radiation and
accidental impact damage to the pressure helmet assembly. M a j o r components o f
the LEVA include external eye shades, a gold-coated sun visor, a protective
visor affording impact and ultraviolet ray protection, the main polycarbonate shell
assembly w i t h mounting latches and hinges, and a hood-like shell cover assembly
consisting of teflon-coated Beta yarn over 13 alternating layers o f aluminized mylar
and non-woven dacron.

Liquid Cool ing Garment

The LCG consists o f a network o f Tygon tubing interwoven i n nylon Spandex


material. Water from the PLSS circulates through the tubing to maintain the
desired skin temperature. An inner liner i s fabricated from nylon chiffon. The
integral socks do not contain cooling tubes.

Constant Wear Garment

The C W G i s an undergarment for the flight coveralls and the intravehicular space
suit configuration. I t i s fabricated i n one piece, encloses the feet, and has short
sleeves, a waist-to-neck zipper, and lower torso openings front and rear.

Inflight Coverall Garment

The I C G i s the outer garment for unsuited operation. I t i s o f two-piece Beta cloth
construction w i t h zipper and pockets.

Booties

Booties are worn w i t h the I C G and have Velcro hooks that engage Velcro p i l e
patches attached to the floor to hold the crewman i n place during weightlessness.
They are made o f Beta cloth and have the Velcro hook material bonded to the soles.

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Communications Carrier and Bioinstrumentation Harness

The communicatisns carrier i s a polyurethane foam headpiece which positions two


independent earphones and microphones. The bioinstrumentation harness carries
signal conditioners and converters to transmit heart beat and respiration r a t e o f the
astronauts. The w i r i n g o f the bioinstrumentation harness and communications
carrier join a common electrical connector which interfaces w i t h the PGA or an
adapter when unsuited.

Urine Collection and Transfer Assembly

The UCTA i s a truss-l ike garment which functions by use o f a urinal cuff, storage
compartment, and tube which connects to the external collection system. It i s
worn over the C W G or LCG.

Fecal Containment System

The FCS i s an elastic underwear w i t h an absorbent liner around the buttock area.
This system i s worn under the LCG or CWG to allow emergency defecation when
the PGA i s pressurized. Protective ointment i s used on the buttocks and perineal
area to lessen skin irritation.

Portable Life Support System

The PLSS i s a portable, self-powered, rechargeable environmental control system


w i t h a comrnunications capability. It i s carried as a backpack i n the lunar extra-
vehicular suited mode and weighs about 108 earth pounds. The PLSS supplies
pressurized oxygen to the PGA, cleans and cools the suit atmosphere, cools and
circulates water through the LCG, and provides radio communications w i t h a dual
VHF transceiver. The PLSS can operate for up to 8 hours i n a space environment
before replenishment of water, oxygen, C 0 2 absorbant and battery i s required.
The 17-volt PLSS battery can supply 420 watt-hours o f electrical power to meet
a nominal usage rate of 50 watts per hour.

Oxygen Purge System

The OPS i s 3 detachable, non-rechargeable emergency oxygen system which


attaches to the top of the PLSS. The OPS contains two interconnected spherical
high-pressure bottles which can supply oxygen for 30 minutes a t 100% purge flow
rate or 1 hour a t 50% flow rate. The 100% flow rate provides breathing and
cooling of the PGA i f no PLSS water coolant i s available. The 50% flow rate i s
used when contingency cooling i s available w i t h the Buddy Secondary Life Support
System (BSLSS) .

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Buddy Secondary Life Support System

The BSLSS i s a lunar surface EVA contingency umbilical consisting o f two %foot
water hoses, appropriate connectors, and an integral tether which permits an
effective length o f 5 feet. In the event o f a failure o f one astronaut's PLSS water
or oxygen flow, the BSLSS i s connected to circulate water coolant from the other
astronaut's PLSS. Use of the BSLSS i n conjunction w i t h the OPS provides an EVA
contingency walk-back capability of up to 3 kilometers.

F O O D A N D WATER

Food supplies i n the LM and C M are designed to supply each astronaut w i t h a balanced
d i e t of approximately 2800 calories per day. Most o f the food i s either freeze-dried or
concentrated and i s carried i n vacuum-packaged plastic bags. Each bag o f freeze-dried
food has a one-way valve through which water i s inserted and a second valve through
which food passes. Concentrated food i s packaged i n bite-size units and needs no
reconstitution. Several bags are packaged together to make one meal bag. The meal
bags have red, white, and blue dots to identify them for each crewman, as w e l l as
labels to identify them by day and meal.

The food i s reconstituted by adding hot or cold water through the one-way valve. The
astronaut kneads the bag and then cuts the neck of the bag and squeezes the food i n t o
his mouth. A "feed port'' i n the pressure helmet allows partaking o f l i q u i d f w d and
water w h i l e suited. Food preparation water i s dispensed from a unit which supplies
150F and 50F water i n the CM and 90F and 5 0 ' ~water i n the LM.

Drinking water comes from the water c h i l l e r to two outlets: the water meter dispenser
and the food preparation unit. The dispenser has an aluminum mounting bracket, a
72-inch coiled hose, and a dispensing valve unit i n the form of a button-actuated
pistol. The pistol barrel i s placed i n the mouth and the button i s pushed for each h a l f -
ounce o f water. The meter records the amount o f water drunk. A valve i s provided to
shut o f f the system i n case the dispenser develops a leak or malfunction. Drinking
water for use during depressurized or lunar surface activities i s provided i n the EMU
as described i n the previous section.

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COUCHES . A N D RESTRAINTS

Command Module

The astronaut couches are individually adjustable units made o f hollow steel tubing
and covered w i t h a heavy, fireproof, fiberglass cloth. The couches rest on a head
beam and two side-stabilizer beams supported by eight cyclic-type attenuator struts
(two each for the Y and Z axes and four for the X axis) which absorb the impact of
landing. These couches support the crewmen during acceleration and deceleration,
position the crewmen at their duty stations, and provide support for translation and
rotation hand controls, lights, and other equipment.

The couches can be folded or adjusted i n t o a number o f seat positions. The one used
most i s the 85-degree position assumed for launch, orbit entry, and landing. The
170-degree (flat-out) position i s used primarily for the center couch, so that crewmen
can move i n t o the lower equipment bay. The armrests on either side o f the center
couch can be folded footward so the astronauts from the two outside couches can slide
over easily. The h i p pan of the center couch can be disconnected and the couch can
be pivoted around the head beam and l a i d on the aft bulkhead floor o f the CM. This
provides room for the astronauts to stand and easier access to the side hatch for extra-
vehicular a c t i v i t y .

Two armrests are attached to the back pan o f the l e f t couch and two armrests are
attached to the right couch. The center couch has no armrests. The translation and
rotation controls can be mounted to any of the four armrests. A support at the end of
each armrest rotates 100 degrees to provide proper t i l t for the controls. The couch
seat pan and leg pan are formed o f framing and cloth, and the foot pan i s a l l steel.
The foot pan contains a restraint device which holds the foot i n place.

The couch restraint harness consists of a lap belt and two shoulder straps which connect
to the lap be1t at the buckle. The shoulder straps connect to the shoulder beam of the
couch. Other restraints i n the CM include handholds, a hand bar, hand straps, and
patches o f Velcro which hold the crewmen when they wear booties.

The astronauts may sleep i n bags under the l e f t and right couches w i t h heads toward
the hatch or i n their couches. The three sleeping bags are made o f lightweight Beta
fabric 64 inches long, w i t h zipper openings for the torso and a -/-inch diameter
opening for the neck. They are supported by two longitudinal straps that attach to
storage boxes i n the lower equipment bay and to the CM inner structure. The astro-
nauts sleep i n the bags when unsuited and are restrained on top o f the bags when suited.

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Lunar Module LM CREWMAN AT FLIGHT STATION

The crew support and restraint equipment i n


the LM includes armrests, hand holds, Velcro
on the floor to interface w i t h the PGA Boots,
and a restraint assembly operated by a rope-
-
and pul l y arrangement that holds the LM
crewmen i n a standing position. The restraint
assembly attaches to "D ' I rings located at the
hips o f the astronaut's suit and holds him to
the cabin floor w i th a force o f about 30 pounds
(Figure 2 7 ) . The armrests restrain the crew-
men laterally. Sleep facilities are provided
by two hammocks fabricated from teflon-
coated beta cloth (Figure 28). These ham-
mocks are stored when not i n use.
Fig. 27

LM CREWMEN SLEEP POSITIONS

-7

i=____I_Jk
Fig. 28

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HYGIENE EQUIPMENT

Hygiene equipment includes wet and dry cloths for cleaning, towels, toothbrushes,
ingestible toothpaste, and the Waste Management System (WMS). The WMS controls
and disposes o f waste solids, liquids, and gases. The major portion of the system i s
i n the right-hand equipment bay. The system stores feces, removes odors, dumps
urine overboard, and removes urine from the space suit. In the CM, urine i s dumped
overboard, whereas i n the LM, i t i s stored.

OPERATIONAL AIDS

Operational aids include external tracking and orientation lights, floodlights, u t i l i t y


lights, flashlights, the Crewman O p t i c a l Alignment Sight (COAS), a monocular, data
files, tools, window shades, calibrated window reference marks, sto~.ggebags, straps,
tape, space suit repair kit, and labels. Also included are provisions for using the
urine system hose for vacuuming l i q u i d and a brush head for the vacuum hose connected
to the cabin a i r i n l e t of the Environmental Control System for general housekeeping as
part o f the decontamination procedure.

EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT
-
Emergency equipment includes fire extinguishers, oxygen masks, medical supplies, and
survival equipment. The CM has one fire extinguisher located adjacent to the left-hand
and lower equipment bays. The extinguisher weighs about 8 pounds. The extinguishing
agent i s an aquaeous gel expelled i n 2 cubic feet o f foam for approximately 30 seconds
a t high pressure. Fire ports are located at various panels so that the extinguisher nozzle
can be inserted to put out a fire behind the panel.

Oxygen masks are provided for each astronaut i n case o f smoke, toxic gas, or other
hostile atmosphere i n the cabin while the astronauts are out o f their suits i n the CM.
Oxygen i s supplied through a flexible hose from the emergency oxygen/repressurization
unit i n the upper equipment bay.

Medical supplies are contained i n an emergency medical kit, about 8 x 5 x 5 inches,


which i s stored near the LA4 Pilot. I t contains oral drugs and pills (pain capsules,
stimulant, antibiotic,'motion sickness, diarrhea, decongestant, sleeping, and aspirin),
injectable drugs (for pain and motion sickness), bandages, topical agents (first-aid
cream, sun cream, and an antibiotic ointment), and eye drops. Also included are an
oral thermometer and four spare bioinstrumentation harnesses. The small medical k i t i n
the LM data f i l e contains pain pills, aspirin, eye drops, diarrhea pills, stimulants, and
sleeping pi1 Is.

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Survival equipment, intended for use i n an emergency after landing, i s stowed i n two
rucksacks i n the right-hand forward equipment bay. One o f the rucksacks contains a
three-man rubber l i f e raft w i t h an i n f l a t i o n assembly, a carbon dioxide cylinder, a sea
anchor, dye marker, and a sunbonnet for each crewman. The other rucksack contains
a beacon transceiver, survival lights, desalter kits, a machete, sun glasses, water cans,
and a medical k i t . The survival medical k i t contains the same type o f supplies as the
emergency medical k i t : six bandages, six injectors, 30 tablets, and one tube o f a l I-
purpose ointment.

MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT

Each crewman i s provided a 64-cubic inch container for personal items, and a two-
compartment temporary storage bag. A special tool k i t i s provided which also contains
three i a c k screws for contingency hatch closure.

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LAUNCH COMPLEX

GENERAL

Launch Complex 39A (LC-39A), located at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, i s the f a c i l i t y
provided for the assembly, checkout, and launch of the Apollo/Saturn V Space Vehicle.
Assembly and checkout of the vehicle i s accomplished on a M o b i l e Launcher i n the
controlled environment of the Vehicle Assembly Building. The space vehicle and the
M o b i l e Launcher are then moved as a unit by the Crawler-Transporter to the launch
site. The major elements of the launch complex shown i n Figure 29 are the Vehicle
Assembly Building (VAB), the Launch Control Center (LCC), the M o b i l e Launcher (ML),
the Crawler-Transporter (CA), the crawlerway, the M o b i l e Service Structure (MSS),
and the launch pad.

LC-39A FACILITIES A N D EQUIPMENT

Vehicle Assembly Building

The VAB provides a protected environment for receipt and checkout of the propulsion
stages and IU, erection of the vehicle stages and spacecraft i n a vertical position on
the ML, and integrated checkout of the assembled space vehicle. The VAB, as shown
i n Figure 30, i s a t o t a l l y enclosed structure covering eight acres o f ground. I t i s a
structural steel building approximately 525 feet high, 518 feet wide, and 716 feet
long. The principal operational elements of the VAB are the low bay and high bay
areas. A 92-foot wide transfer aisle extends through the length of the VAB and divides
the low and high bay areas into equal segments. The low bay area provides the facilities
for receiving, uncrating, checkout, and preparation of the S - l l stage, S-IVB stage, and
the IU. The high bay area provides the facilities for erection and checkout of the S-IC
stage; mating and erection operations of the S - l l stage, S-IVB stage, IU, and spacecraft;
and integrated checkout of the assembled space vehicle. The high bay area contains
four checkout bays, each capable of accommodating a f u l l y assembled Apollo/Saturn V
Space Vehicle.

Launch Control Center

The LCC, Figure 30, .serves as the focal point for overall direction, control, and
monitoring of space vehicle checkout and launch. The LCC i s located adjacent to
the VAB and a t a sufficient distance from the launch pad (three miles) to permit the
safe viewing of l i f t o f f without requiring site hardening.

The LCC i s a four-story structure. The ground floor i s devoted to service and support
functions. The second floor houses telemetry and tracking equipment, i n addition to
instrumentation and data reduction facilities. The third floor i s divided i n t o four
separate but similar control areas, each containing a f i r i n g room, a computer room,

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LAUNCH COMPLEX 39 A

LAUNCH AREA B

LAUNCH AREA A

CRAWLERWAY

MOBILE SERVICE
STRUCTURE PARK

ORDNANCE

MOBILE LAUNCHER
REFURBISH AREA

TURNING B A S I N

LAUNCH CONTROL CENTER


Fig. 29

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VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING

VEHICLE
ASSEMBLY
BUILDING,----

LAUNCH
CONTROL
CENTER

Fig. 30

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a mission control room, a test conductor platform area, a visitor gallery, and offices.
The four f i r i n g rooms, one for each high bay i n the VAB, contain control, monitoring,
and display equipment for automatic vehicle checkout and launch. The display rooms,
offices, Launch Information Exchange Facility (LIEF) rooms, and mechanical equipment
are located on the fourth floor.

The power demands i n this area are large and are supplied by two separate systems,
industrial and instrumentation. This division between power systems i s designed to
protect the instrumentation power system from the adverse effects of switching transients,
large c y c l i n g loads, and intermittent motor starting loads. Communication and signal
cable troughs extend from the LCC via the enclosed bridge to each M L location i n the
VAB high bay area. Cableways also connect to the M L refurbishing area and to the
Pad Terminal Connection Room (PTCR) a t the launch pad. Antennas on the roof provide
an RF l i n k to the launch pads and other facilities at KSC.

M o b i l e Launcher

The ML (Figure 31) i s a transportable steel structure which, with the Cfl, provides the
capability to move the erected vehicle to the launch pad. The M L i s divided i n t o two
functional areas, the launcher base and the umbilical tower. The launcher base i s the
platform on which a Saturn V Vehicle i s assembled i n the vertical position, transported
to a launch site, and launched. The umbilical tower provides access to a l l important
levels o f the vehicle during assembly, checkout, and servicing. The equipment used i n
the servicing, checkout, and launch i s installed throughout both the base and tower
sections of the ML.

The launcher base i s a steel structure 25 feet high, 160 feet long, and 135 feet wide.
The upper deck, designated level 0, contains, i n addition to the umbilical tower, the
four hold-down arms and the three t a i l service masts. There i s a 45-foot square opening
through the M L base for first stage exhaust.

The base has provisions for attachment to the C / T , six launcher-to-ground mount
mechanisms, and four extendible support columns. A1 I eIectricaI/mechanicaI inter-
faces between vehicle systems and the VAB or the launch site are located through or
adjacent to the base structure. The base houses such items as the computer systems
test sets, d i g i t a l propel lant loading equipment, hydraulic test sets, propellant and
pneumatic lines, air-conditioning and ventilating systems, electrical power systems,
and water systems. Fueling operations at the launch area require that the compart-
ments w i t h i n the structure be pressurized with a supply of uncontaminated a i r .

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MOBILE LAUNCHER

S - I C FWD U M B I L I C A L
S - I 1 PNEUMATIC CONSOLE S7-41B SERVICE CONSOLE S - I 1 PNEUMATIC CONSOLE S7-41C
Fig. 31
Page 77
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The primary electrical power supplied to the ML i s divided into four separate services:
instrumentation, industria I, in-transi t, and emergency. Emergency power i s supplied
by a diesel-driven generator located i n the ground facilities. I t i s used for obstruction
lights, emergency lighting, and for one tower elevator. Water i s supplied to the M L
for fire, industrial, and domestic purposes.

The umbilical tower i s a 380-foot high,open steel structure which provides support
for eight umbilical service arms; Apollo Spacecraft access arm; 18 work and access
platforms; distribution equipment for the propellant, pneumatic, electrical, and
instrumentation subsystems, and other ground support equipment. Two high-speed
elevators service 18 landings from level A of the base to the 340-foot tower level.
The structure i s topped by a 25-ton hammerhead crane. Remote control of the crane
i s possible from numerous locations on the M L .

The four holddown arms (Figure 32) are mounted on the M L deck, 90apart around the
vehicle base. They position and hold the vehicle on the M L during the VAB checkout,
movement to the pad, and pad checkout. The vehicle base i s held with a preloaded
force of 700,000 pounds a t each arm. A t engine ignition, the vehicle i s restrained
u n t i l proper engine thrust i s achieved. The unlatching interval for the four arms should
not exceed 0.050 second. I f any o f the separators fai I to operate i n 0.180 second,
release i s effected by detonating an explosive nut l i n k . A t launch, the holddown arms
q u i c k l y release, but the vehicle i s prevented from accelerating too rapidly by the
control led-release mechanisms (Figure 32). Each control led-release mechanism basically
consists of a tapered p i n inserted i n a die which i s coupled to the vehicle. Upon vehicle
release, the tapered p i n i s drawn through the die during the first six inches of vehicle
travel. There ure provisions for as many as 16 mechanisms per vehicle. The precise
number i s determined on a mission basis.

The three T a i l Service Mast (TSM) assemblies (Figure 32) support service lines to the
S-IC stage and provide a means for rapid retraction a t vehicle l i f t o f f . The TSM
assemblies are located on level 0 of the M L base. Each TSM i s a counterbalanced
structure which i s p n e u m a t i c a l l y / e l e c t r i c a l l y controlled and hydraulically operated.
Retraction of the umbilical carrier and vertical rotation of the mast i s accomplished
simultaneously to ensure no physical contact between the vehicle and mast. The
carrier i s protected by a hood which i s closed by a separate hydraulic system after
the mast rotates.

The nine service arms provide access to the space vehicle and support the service lines
that are required to sustain the vehicle, as described i n Figure 33. The service arms are
designated as either preflight or i n f l i g h t arms. The preflight arms are retracted and
locked against the umbilical tower prior to l i f t o f f . The i n f l i g h t arms retract a t vehicle
l i f t o f f . Carrier withdrawal and arm retraction i s accomplished by pneumatic and/or
hydraulic systems.

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Fig. 32

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MOBILE LAUNCHER SERVICE A R M S


S-IC Intertank ( p r e f l i g h t ) .
Provides lox Command Module Access A r m ( p r e f l i g h t ) .
Provides access to spacecraft through en-
f i l l and drain interfaces. Umbilical
withdrawal by pneumati cal ly driven com- vi ronmental chamber. Arm may be retrac-
pound para1 l e l 1inkage device. Arm may be ted o r extended from L C C . Retracted 12"
reconnected t o vehicle from LCC. Retract park position until T-4 minutes. Extend
time i s 8 seconds. Reconnect time i s ap- time i s 12 seconds from t h i s position.
proximately 5 minutes.
S-IC Forward ( p r e f l i g h t ) . Provides pneu-
mati c , e l e c t r i c a l , and air-conditioning
interfaces. Umbi 1i cal withdrawal by pneu-
matic disconnect in conjunction with pneu-
mati cal ly driven block and tackle/lanyard
device. Secondary mechanical system. Re-
tracted a t T-20 seconds. Retract time i s
8 seconds.
S-I1 Aft ( p r e f l i g h t ) . Provides access t o
vehicle. Arm retracted prior to l i f t o f f
as required.
S-I1 Intermediate ( i n f l i g h t ) . Provides
LH2 and lox t r a n s f e r , vent l i n e , pneu-
matic, instrument cooling, e l e c t r i c a l , and
air-conditioning interfaces. Umbilical
withdrawal systems same as S-IVB Forward
with addition of a pneumatic cylinder ac-
tuated lanyard system. This system oper-
ates i f primary withdrawal system f a i l s .
Retract time i s 6.4 seconds (max) .
S-I1 Forward ( i n f l i g h t ) . Provides GH2
vent, e l e c t r i c a l , and pneumatic i n t e r -
faces. Umbilical withdrawal systems same
as S-IVB Forward. Retract time i s 7.4
seconds (max).
S-IVB Aft ( i n f l i g h t ) . Provides LH2 and
lox t r a n s f e r , e l e c t r i c a l , pneumatic, and
air-conditioning interfaces. Umbilical
withdrawal systems same as S-IVB Forward.
Also equipped with l i n e handling device.
Retract time i s 7.7 seconds (max).
S-IVB Forward ( i n f l i g h t ) . Provides fuel
tank vent, e l e c t r i c a l , pneumatic, ai r-con-
di tioning, and p r e f l i g h t conditioning in-
terfaces. Umbi 1i cal withdrawal by pneu-
mati c disconnect in 'conjunction with pneu-
mati c/hydraul i c redundant dual cylinder
system. Secondary mechanical system. A r m
a l s o equipped with l i n e handling device to
protect 1i nes duri n withdrawal . Retract
time i s 8.4 seconds Tmax).
Servi,ce Module ( i nfl i g h t ) . Provides a i r -
conditioning, vent l i n e , coolant, e l e c t r i -
cal , and pneumatic interfaces. Umbi 1i cal
withdrawal by pneumati c/mechani cal 1anyard
system wi t h secondary mechanical system. Fig. 33
Retract time i s 9 . 0 seconds (max).
M-93249
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Launch Pad

The launch pad (Figure 34) provides a stable foundation for the M L during Apollo/
Saturn V launch and prelaunch operations and an interface to the ML for M L and
vehicle systems. There are presently two pads a t LC-39 located approximately three
miles from the VAB area. Each launch site i s approximately 3000 feet across.

Fig. 34

The launch pad i s a cellular, reinforced concrete structure with a top elevation of
42 feet above grade elevation. Located within the fill under the west side o f the
structure (Figure 35) i s a two-story concrete building to house environmental control
and pad terminal connection equipment. O n the east side of the structure within the
fill, i s a one-story concrete building to house the high-pressure gas storage battery.
O n the pad surface are elevators, staircases, and interface structures to provide service
t o the M L and the MSS. A ramp with a five percent grade provides access from the
crawlerway. This i s used by the c/T to position the ML/Saturn V and the MSS on the
support pedestals. The azimuth alignment building i s located on the approach ramp i n
the crawlerway median strip. A flame trench 58 feet wide by 450 feet long bisects the
pad. This trench opens to grade a t the north end. The 700,000 pound, mobile, wedge-
type flame deflector i s mounted on rails i n the trench.

J u l y 1969 Page 81
M-93249
A p o l l o Supplement

Fig. 35

The Pad Terminal Connection Room (PTCR) (Figure 35) provides the terminals for com-
niunication and data l i n k transmission connections between the ML or MSS and the
launch area f a c i l i t i e s and between the ML or MSS and the LCC. This f a c i l i t y also
accommodates the e l e c t r o n i c equipment that simulates functions for checkout o f the
f a c i l i t i e s during the absence o f the launcher and v e h i c l e .

The Environmental Control System (ECS) room, located i n the pad f i l l west o f the pad
structure a n d north of the PTCR (Figure 35), houses the equipment which furnishes
tempei-ature and/oi humidity-contl-olled ail- 0 1 nitl-ogen for space v e h i c l e conditioning
(heating or c o o l i n g ) a t the pad. The ECS I-oom i s 96 feet wide by 112 feet long and
houses a i r and nitrogen handling units, l i q u i a chi1 lers, air compresso~-s, a 3000-gal Ion
watei--glycol storage tank, and o t h e i auxilial-y e l e c t r i c a l and mechanical equipment.
The high-plessul-e gas stol-age f a c i l i t y a t the pad pro.,ides the launch vehicle w i t h
high-PI-essure helium and nitl-ogen.

The launch pad i n t e i f a c e system (Figure 36) provides mounting support pedestals f o r
the ML and MSS, an engine access platform, and support structures for fueling,
pneumatic, e l e c t r i c power, and environmental control interfaces.

Page 82
DD 1-
ENGINE
SERVICIbIG -
LAUNCH PAD INTERFACE SYSTEM

\
r ;;;Kb, I
(6 PLACES)

S T A I R'.!AY

LOY
F i g . 36

A p o l l o Emergency I nqress/~qress and Escape System

The A p o l l o emergency ingress/egress and escape system provides access t o a n d from


the Command M o d u l e (CM) plus a n escape route and safe quarters for the astronauts
a n d service per-sonnel i n the event of a serious malfunction prior to launch. The
system includes the CM Access Arm, two 600-feet per minute elevators from the 340-
foot l e v e l t o level A o f the M L , pad elevator N o . 2, personnel carriers located
adjacent t o the e x i t of pad elevator N o . 2, the escape tube, and the blast room.

The C M Access Arm provides a passage for the astrorluuts and service personnel from
the spacecraft t o the 320-foot l e v e l of the tower. Egressing personnel take the high-
speed elevators t o l e v e l A of the ML, proceed through the elevator vestibule and
corridor to pad elevator N o . 2, move down this elevator t o the bottom o f the pad, and
enter armored personnel carriers which remove them from the pad area.

'Nhen the state o f the emergency allows no time for retreat by motor vehicle, egressing
personnel, upon reaching l e v e l A o f the ML, slide down the escape tube i n t o the blast
room vestibule, commonly cal led the "rubber room" (Figure 37). Entrance t o the blast
room i s gained through blast-proof doors controllable from either side. The blast room
f l o o r i s mounted on c o i l springs t o reduce outside acceleration forces t o between 3 and
5 g ' s . Twenty people may be accommodated for 24 hours. Communication f a c i l i t i e s

Page 83
Apol l o Supplement

ELEVATOR /TUBE EGRESS SYSTEM

EGRESS TUNNEL

~ ~ ~-* i ~ -3
11 fr 3 0 ~

Fig. 37

are provided i n the room, including an emergency RF l i n k . A n underground a i r duct


from the v i c i n i t y o f the blast room to the remote a i r intake f a c i l i t y permits egress from
the pad structure to the pad perimeter. Provision i s made to decrease a i r v e l o c i t y i n
the duct to a l l o w personnel movement through the duct.

A n alternate emergency egress system (Figure 38) i s referred to as the "Slide Wire. "
The system consists of a winch-tensioned cable extending from above the 320-foot
level o f the M L to a 30-foot t a i l tower on the ground approximately 2200 feet (horizontal
~ r o j e c t i o n )from the launcher. A nine-man, tubular-frame cab i s suspended from the cable
by two brake-equipped trolleys. The unmanned weight o f the cab i s 1200 pounds and i t
traverses the distance to the "landing area" i n 40 seconds. The cab i s decelerated by
the increasing drag of a chain attached to a picked-up arresting cable. The occupants
o f the cab then take refuge i n a bunker constructed adjacent to the landing area. The
cable has a minimum breaking strength of 53.2 tons and i s varied i n tension between
18,000 and 32,000 pounds by the winch located beyond the t a i l tower. The lateral
force exerted by the tensioned cable on the M L i s negligible relative to the mass of
the launcher and the r i g i d i t y of the M L tower precludes uny effect on tolerances or
reliabi I i t y of tower mechanisms.

J u l y 1969 Page 84
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A p o l l o Supplement

SLIDE W I REICAB EGRESS SYSTEM


EGRESS S T A T I O N

( 4 4 3 ' ABOVE GROUND L E V E L )

- -. -%

Fig. 38
Fuel System F a c i l i t i e s

The RP-1 f a c i l i t y cons;sts o f three 86, OOO-gallon steel storage tanks, a pump house, a
c i r c u l a t i n g pump, a transfer pump, two filter-separators, an 8-inch stainless steel
transfer line, RP-1 foam generating building, and necessary valvej, piping, and con-
trols. Two RP-1 h o l d i n g ponds (Figure 32), 150 feet by 250 feet, w i t h a water depth
o f two feet, are located north o f the launch pad, one on each side of the north-south
axis. The ponds retain spilled R P - 1 and discharge water t o drainage ditches.

The LH2 f a c i l i t y (Figure 34) consists of one 850,000-gallon spherical storage tank, a
vaporizer/'heat exchanger which i s used to pressurize the starage tank t o 65 psi, a
vacuum-jacketed, 10-inch invar trcnsfer l i n e and a burn pond venting system. Internal
tank pressure provides the proper f l o w o f LH2 from the storage tank to the v e h i c l e w i t h -
out using a transfer pump. L i q u i d hydrogen b o i l - o f f from the storage and M L areas i s
d i r e c t e d through vent-piping t o bubble-capped headers submerged i n the burn pond
where a hot wire i g n i t i o n system maintains the burning process.

J u l y 1969 Page 85
L O X System F a c i l i t y

The LOX ( l i q u i d oxygen) f a c i l i t y (Figure 34) consists o f one 900, OOO-gallon spherical
storage tank, a L O X vaporizer t o pressurize the storage tank, main f i l l and replenish
pumps, a drain basin for venting and dumping o f LOX, and two transfer lines.

A z i m u t h A l ignrnent B u i l d i n g

The azimuth alignment b u i l d i n g (Figure 34) houses the auto-collimator theodolite which
senses, b y a l i g h t source, the rotational output o f the stable platform i n the Instrument
U n i t of the launch v e h i c l e . T h i s instrument monitors the c r i t i c a l i n e r t i a l reference
system p r i o r t o launch.

Photography F a c i l i t i e s

These f a c i l i t i e s support photographic camera and closed c i r c u i t television equipment t o


provide real-time v i e w i n g and photographic documentation coverage. There are six
camera sites i n the launch pad area. These sites cover prelaunch a c t i v i t i e s and launch
operations from six d i f f e r e n t angles a t a radial distance o f approximately 1300 feet from
the launch v e h i c l e . Each site has four engineering, sequential cameras and one fixed,
high-speed metric camera.

Pad Water System F a c i l i t i e s

The pad water system f a c i l i t i e s furnish water t o the launch pad area for f i r e protection,
cooling, and ~ r ~ e n c h i n g S . p e c i f i c a l l y , the system furnishes water for the industrial
water system, flame d e f l e c t o r cooling and quench, ML deck c o o l i n g and quench, M L
tower fogging and service arm quench, sewage treatment plant, Firex water system,
l i q u i d propellant f a c i l i t i e s , M L and MSS f i r e protection, and a l l f i r e hydrants i n the
pad area.

M o b i l e Service Structure

The MSS (Figure 39) provides access t o those portions 3f the space v e h i c l e which
cannot be serviced from the M L w h i l e a t the launch pad. The MSS i s transported t o
the launch site b y the C/T where i t i s used during launch pad operations. I t i s removed
from the pad a few holjrs prior to launch and returned t o its parking area 7000 feet from
the nearest launch pad. The MSS i s approximately 402 feet high and weighs 12 m i l l i o n
pounds. The tower structure rests on a base 135 feet by 135 feet. A t the top, the
tower i s 87 feet b y 113 feet.

Page 86
M-932-69
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The structure contains f i v e work platforms MOB ILE SERV ICE STRUCTURE
which provide access to the space vehicle.
The outboard sections of the platforms open
to accept the vehicle and close around i t
to provide access to the launch vehicle and
spacecraft. The lower two platforms are
v e r t i c a l l y adiustable to serve different
parts of the launch vehicle. The upper
three platforms are f i x e d but can be dis-
connected from the tower and relocated as
a unit t o serve different vehicle config-
urations. The second and third platforms
from the top are enclosed and provide
environmental control for the spacecraft.

The MSS i s equipped with the following


systems: air-conditioning, electrical
power, various communication networks,
f i r e protection, compressed air, nitrogen
pressurization, hydraulic pressure,
potable water, and spacecraft fueling.

Crawler-Transporter

The ~ / (Figure
f 40) i s used to transport
the ML, including the space vehicle, and
the MSS to and from the launch pad. The Fig. 39
C / T i s capable o f lifting, transporting,
and lowering the M L or the MSS, as
required, without the a i d of auxiliary
CRAWLER TRANSPORTER
equipment. The C/T supplies limited
electric power to the M L and the MSS
during transit.

The C/f consists of a rectangular chassis


which i s supported through a suspension
system by four dual-tread, crawler-trucks.
The overall length i s 131 feet and the
overall width i s 114 feet. The unit weighs
approximately six m i l l i o n pounds. The
c/T i s powered b y self-contained, diesel- Fig. 40
electric generator units. Electric motor-
driven pumps provide hydraulic power for steering and suspension control. Air-
conditioning and ventilation are provided where required.

J u l y 1969 Page 87
M-932-69
Apol l o Supplement

The ~ / can f be operated w i t h equal f a c i l i t y i n either direction. Control cabs are


located a t each end. The leading cab, i n the d i r e c t i o n o f travel, has complete control
o f the v e h i c l e . The rear cab, however, has override controls for the rear trucks o n l y .
M a x i m u m C/f speed i s 2 mph unloaded, 1 mph w i t h f u l l load on level grade, a n d 0 . 5
mph w i t h f u l l load on a f i v e percent grade. I t has a 500-foot minimum turning radius
a n d can position the M L or the MSS on the f a c i l i t y support pedestals w i t h i n k 2 inches.

VEHICLE ASSEMBLY A N D CHECKOUT

The Saturn V Launch V e h i c l e propulsive stages and the I U are, upon a r r i v a l a t KSC,
transported to the VAB by special carriers. The S-IC stage i s erected on a n ML i n
one o f the checkout bays i n the high bay area. The S - l l and S-IVB stages a n d the IU
are d e l i v e r e d t o preparation and checkout cells i n the low bay area f o r inspection,
checkout, and pre-erection preparations. A l l components of the space vehicle,
i n c l u d i n g the A p o l l o Spacecraft and Launch Escape System, are then assembled v e r t i c a l l y
on the M L i n the high bay area. F o l l o w i n g assembly, the space v e h i c l e i s connected t o
the LCC v i a a high-speed data l i n k for integrated checkout and a simulated f l i g h t test.
When checkout i s completed, the C/T picks up the M L w i t h the assembled space v e h i c l e
a n d moves i t to the launch site v i a the crawlerway.

A t the launch site, the IAL i s emplaced and connected to system interfaces for f i n a l
v e h i c l e checkout and launch monitoring. The MSS i s transported from its parking area
b y the C A and positioned on the side o f the v e h i c l e opposite the ML. A flame de-
f l e c t o r i s moved on its track t o its position beneath the blast opening o f the ML to
d e f l e c t the blast from the S-IC stage engines. During the prelaunch checkout, the
f i n a l svstem checks are completed, the MSS i s removed t o the parking area, propellants
are loaded, various items o f support equipment are removed from the M L , and the v e h i c l e
i s readied for launch. A f t e r v e h i c l e launch, the C/f tmnsports the M L t o the parking
area near the VAB for refurbishment.

Page 88
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MISSION MONITORING, SUPPORT. A N D C O N T R O L

GENERAL

Mission execution involves the f o l l o w i n g functions: prelaunch checkout and launch


operations; tracking the space v e h i c l e t o determine its present and future positions;
securing information on the status of the f l i g h t crew and space v e h i c l e systems (via
te lemetry); evaluation o f telemetry information; commanding the space v e h i c l e by
transmitting real-time and updata commands t o the onboard computer; and voice
communication between f l i g h t and ground crews.

These functions require the use o f a f a c i l i t y t o assemble and launch the space v e h i c l e
(see Launch Complex), a central f l i g h t control f a c i l i t y , a network o f remote stations
located strategically around the world, a method o f rapidly transmitting and r e c e i v i n g
information between the space v e h i c l e and the central f l i g h t control f a c i l i t y , and a
realtime data display system i n w h i c h the data i s made a v a i l a b l e and presented i n
osable form a t essentially the same time that the data event occurred.

The f l i g h t crew and the f o l l o w i n g organizations and f a c i l i t i e s p a r t i c i p a t e i n mission


control operations:

1. Mission Control Center (MCC), Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), Houston,


Texas. The M C C contains the communication, computer, display, and
command systems to enable the f l i g h t controllers to e f f e c t i v e l y monitor and
c o n t l u l the space vehicle.

2. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Cape Kennedy, Florida. The space v e h i c l e


i s launched from KSC and controlled from the Launch Control Center (LCC),
as described PI-elaunch, launch, and powered f l i g h t data are
c o l l e c t e d a t the Central Instrumentation F a c i l i t y (CIF) a t KSC from the launch
pads, CIF receivers, M e r r i t t Island Launch Area (MILA), and the downranye
A i r Force Eastern Test Range (AFETR) stations. This data i s transmitted t o
M C C v i a the A p o l l o Launch Data System (ALDS). Also located a t KSC (AFETR)
i s the Impact Predictor (IP), for range safety purposes.

3. Goddard Spate F l i g h t Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, M a r y l a n d . GSFC manages


and operates the Manned Space Flight N e t w o r k (MSFN) and the N A S A com-
munications ( N A S C O M ) network. During flight, the MSFN is under opera-
t i o n a l control of the M C C .

4. George C . Marshall Space F l i g h t Center (MSFC), Huntsville, Alaba~ncr.


MSFC, by means of the Launch Information Exchange F a c i l i t y
(LIEF) and the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) provides

J u l y 1969 Page 89
M-932-69
A p o l l o Supplement

launch v e h i c l e systems real-time support t o KSC and MCC f o r preflight,


launch, and f l i g h t operations.

A b l o c k diagram o f the basic f l i g h t control interfaces i s shown i n Figure 41.

B A S I C TELEMETRY, COMMAND, AND COMMUN l CAT1 ON INTERFACES


FOR FLIGHT CONTROL

HOUSTON
LIEF
GZUDARD IGRSYALL

AL DS C

KEFINEDY AFLTR

\ r
'\

+ I
,111
.L-

Fig. 41

VEHICLE FLIGHT C O N T R O L CAPABILITY

F l i g h t operations are controlled from the MCC. The M C C has two f l i g h t control rooms.
Each control room, c a l led a Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR), i s used inde-
pendently o f the other and i s capable o f control l i n g i n d i v i d u a l Staff Support Rooms
(SSR's) located adjacent t o the MOCR. The S S R ' s are manned b y f l i g h t control specialists
who provide d e t a i l e d support t o the MOCR. Figure 42 outlines the organization o f the
M C C for f l i g h t control and b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e s key responsibilities. Information f l o w
w i t h i n the M O C R i s shown i n Figure 43.

Page 90
M-932-69
Apol l o Supplement

MCC ORGAN I ZATI ON

I OVERAL L C O N D l l C T ( I t
MlSSlON

PLl8LlC A l &All<!;

MlSSlLlN STATUS HL(:OVERY A N U O T t i k H

- ---. -- - -

UECISIONS/AC.TIONS ON SPACE
V E t i l C L E SYSTEMSIDYNAMICS

MlSSlUN COMMANU
A N D C O N T H O L GROUP
-
OPEHATIONS A PI1OCEOURES l O & P I
I SYSTEMS OPERATIONS
GROUP

BOOSTE R SYSTEMS ENGINEERS IBSE


FLIGHT OYNAMICS
GROUP

F L I G H T D Y N A M I C S OFFICER l F D O l
MCCIMSFN MISSION CON
T H O L PROCEDURFS. F L I G H T
-CONTROL SCHE W L l N t i M A N N I N G .
C O N T R O L F O R M A T UISPLAYS.
-
-
M O N I T O R STATUS OF
S-IC. S - l l S I V B FL I G H T
SYSTEMS
I
- - MONITORS PRELAUNCH CHECKOlll'
POWERED F L I G H T E V E N T S A N U
TRAJECTORIES. R E E N T R Y EVEPJTS
A N D TRAJECTORIES
-
TELETYPE T R A F F I C A N A L Y S I S
HUNTSVIL1.E OPE)?ATIONS
-
NETWORKCONTROL
-
SUPPORT CENTER IHOSCl

-
-
RETROFIRE OFFICER I R E T R D I
MAINTAINS UPDATED ABORT
MSFN CONTROL R A U 4 R A N D
A N D R E E N T R Y P L A N . UPDATES
C O M M A N D H A N U O V E HS E M U ENGINEERS
- IMPACT POINT ESTIMATES
COMPUTE R UPDATE OF
CONSUMABLES U A T A ;
-
SPACECRAFT C O M M U N I C A l OH E V A DECISIONS G U I D A N C E OFFICER I G U I D O I

- C O M M U N I C A T I O N S IVOICE A N 0
- M O N I T O R S GUIDANCE
-
ASSIGNED C O M M A N O S ) W I T H
SPACECRAFT
SPACECRAFT SYSTEMS ENGINEERS - FUNCTIONS D U R I N G POWERED
FLlG I T AND PREMANEUVEn
M O N I T O R STATUS OF PREPARATION
E L E C T R I C A L . COMMUNICATION.

-
FLIGHT ACTIVITIES I F A O l
--
FLIGHTPLAN OtTAILED
I N S T R U M E N T A T I O N . SEOUENTIAL.
L I F E SUPPORT. S T A B I L I Z A T I O N
A N D CONTROL, PROPULSION. A N D
-
IMPLEMENTATION GUIDANCE A N D N A V I G A T I O N

L l F E SYSTEMS ISURGEON)
MONITORS PHYSIOLOGICAL A N D
E N V I R O N M E N T A L STATUS OF
FLIGHTCREW

EXPERIMENT ACTIVITIES I E A D l
-
INF L I G H T E X P E R I M E N T
IMPLEMENTATION

FLIGHT kXPtRIMENTS LIFE VEHICLE FLIGHT


DIRECTOR SSR SYSTL MS SYSTEMS DYNAMICS
SSR SSR SS R SSR

P
I
A P O L L O SC MISSION REAL-TIME
KSC LALJNCH AUXILIARY
PROGhAM
OFFICE ROOM OPERATIONS COMPUTING
FACILITY

Fig. 42

Page 91
M-933-7 1
Apol l o Supplement

INFORMAT ION FLOW M ISS ION OPERAT I ONS CONTROL ROOM


p G q
DIRECTOR
LAUNCH
VEHICLE
STAGE STATUS
1
--
v
LC EQUIPMENT STATUS M AND 0
SUPERVISOR
-J
3
STAGES o t
n z t--
Z U
0
*

VEHICLE
E L
m u
m m
r ( -
-*
z
O
FLIGHT
INFORMATION
FLIGHT
DY N A M I CS
GROUP
SYSTEMS E D
2 7 7 E 7 -

ASSISTANT
SYSTEMS STATUS

MCCIMSFN
+/IDIRECTOR
f
NETWORK
STATUS
L
NETWORK
CONTROLLER

FL IGHT
DIRECTOR STATUS VOICE I

VO!CE AN13
M I S S I O N PROCEDURE STATUS
FLIGHT CREI.1 SPACECRAFT

Fig. 43

The consoles w i t h i n the MOCR and S S R ' s permit the necessary interface between the
f l i g h t controllers and the spacecraft. The displays and controls on these consoles and
other group displays provide the c a p a b i l i t y t o monitor and evaluate data concerning
the mission and, based on these evaluations, t o recommend or take appropriate a c t i o n
on matters concerning the f l i g h t crew and spacecraft.

Problems concerning crew safety and mission success are i d e n t i f i e d t o f l i g h t control


personnel i n the f o l l o w i n g ways:

1. F l i g h t crew observations
2. F l i g h t controller real-time observations
3. Review o f telemetry data received from tape recorder playback
4. Trend analysis'of actual and predicted values
5. Review o f c o l l e c t e d data by systems specialists
6. C o r r e l a t i o n and comparison w i t h previous mission data
7. Analysis o f recorded data from launch complex testing

Page 92
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A p o l l o Supplement

The f a c i l i t i e s a t the MCC i n c l u d e a n input/output processor designated as the Command,


Communications, and Telemetry System (CCATS) and a computational f a c i l i t y , the Real-
Time Computer Complex (RTCC). Figure 44 shows the MCC functional configuration.

M C C FUNCTIONAL CONFI GURATI ON

W C R - SSR
RTCC - RECOVFRY - C C A T S
CM(S(KE8 AND D I S P L A Y 5

F i g . 44

The CCATS consists o f three Univac 494 general purpose computers. Two of the com-
puters are configured so that either may handle a l l of the input/output communications
f o r t w o complete missions. O n e o f the computers acts as a dynamic standby. The
t h i r d computer i s used'for nonmission a c t i v i t i e s .

The RTCC i s a group o f f i v e IBM 360 large-scale, general purpose computers. A n y o f


the f i v e computers may be designated as the Mission Operations Computer ( M O C ) . The
M O C performs a l l the required computations and display formatting for a mission. O n e
o f the remaining computers w i l l be a dynamic standby. Another p a i r o f computers may
be used for a second mission or simulation.

J u l y 1969 Page 93
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ApoI Io Supplement

Space V e l i i c l e Trackino

Frorn l i f t o f f o f tlic l a u ~ i c vl ~e l ~ i c l ct o insertion i n t o orbit, accurate position data are


required t o a l l o w tlie Impact Predictor (IP) to function e f f e c t i v e l y as a Range Safety
device, and the RTCC t o cornpute a trajectory and a n orbit. These computations are
1.ec1uir-edby tile f l i g h t controllers to evaluate the trajectory, the orbit, and/or any
ab~io~.rnaI
situations to ensure safe recovery o f the astronauts. The launch tracking
data are tl-ansmitted from tlie AFETR site t o the I P and thence to the RTCC v i a high-
spced data communications circuits. The I P also generates spacecraft i n e r t i a l positions
and i n e r t i a l rates of motion i n real-time.

D u r i n g boost the t ~ a j e c t o r - yi s c a l c u l a t e d and displayed on consoles and plotboards i n


tllc M O C R and S S R 1 s . Also displayed are telemetry data concerning status o f launch
\,t.llicle and spacecraft systems. I f the space v e h i c l e deviates excessively from the
rioniinal f l i g l i t patli, or i f any c r i t i c a l v e h i c l e condition exceeds tolerance limits, or
i f tlie safety o f tlie astronauts or range personnel i s endangered, a decision i s made to
abort tlie mission.

Duvirig the o r b i t o f a mission, a l l stations that are a c t i v e l y tracking the space-


c r a f t w i l l trarismit the tracking data through GSFC to the RTCC by teletype. I f a
tlirusting maneuver i s performed by tlie spacecraft, high-speed tracking data i s also
t~ansmitted.

Command System

The A p o l l o ground command systems have been designed t o work closely w i t h the
telemetry and trajectory systems to provide f l i g h t controllers with a method o f "closed-
loop" command. The astronauts and f l i g h t controllers a c t as links i n this operation.

To prevent spurious commands from reaching thc space vehicle, switches on the Command
M o d u l e console b l o c k u p l i n k data it-om the onboard computers. A t the appropriate times,
the f l i g h t crew w i l l move the switches from the "BLOCK" to the "ACCEPT" positions
arid thus permit the f l o w o f u p l i n k data.

I V i t l i a few exceptions, commands to the space v e h i c l e f a l l i n t o two categories: real-


time commai.lds, and command loads (also c a l l e d computer loads, computer update,
loads, or update).

Real-time commands are used to control space vehicle systems or subsystems from the
ground. The execution of a real-time command results i n immediate reaction b y the
a f f e c t e d system. Real-time comrlands are stored prior to the mission i n the Command
Data Processor (CDP) a t the a p p l i c a b l e command site. The CDP, a U n i v a c 642B,
gene~-al-purposed i g i t a l computer, i s programmed to format, encode, and output
commands when a request for uplink i s generated.

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Command loads are generated by the real-time computer complex on request o f f l i g h t


controllers. Command loads are based on the latest a v a i l a b l e telemetry and/or tra-
jectory data. F l i g h t controllers t y p i c a l l y required to generate a command load i n c l u d e
the Booster Systems Engineer (BSE), the F l i g h t Dynamics O f f i c e r (FDO), the G u i d a n c e
O f f i c e r (GUIDO), and the Retrofire O f f i c e r (RETRO).

Display and Control System

TheMCC i s equipped w i t h f a c i l i t i e s which provide for the input of data from the
MSFN and KSC over a combination of high-speed data, low-speed data, wide-band
data, teletype, and television channels. These data are computer processed for dis-
p l a y t o the f l i g h t controllers.

Several methods o f displaying data are used i n c l u d i n g television (projection TV, group
displays, closed c i r c u i t TV, and T V monitors), console d i g i t a l readouts, and event
lights. The display and control system interfaces w i t h the RTCC and includes computer
I-equest, encoder multiplexer, p l o t t i n g display, slide f i l e , d i g i t a l - t o - T V converter,
a n d telemetry event d r i v e r equipments.

A control system i s provided for f l i g h t controllers t o exercise their respective functions


f o r mission control and technical management. T h i s system i s comprised o f d i f f e r e n t
groups o f consoles w i t h television monitors, request keyboards, communications equip-
ment, and assorted modules added as required to provide each operational position i n
the M O C R w i t h the control and display capabilities required for the p a r t i c u l a r mission.

C O N T I N G E N C Y PLANNING A N D EXECUTION

Planning for a mission begins w i t h the receipt of mission requirements and objectives.
The p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t y results i n specific plans for prelaunch and launch operations,
p r e f l i g h t t r a i n i n g and simulation, f l i g h t control procedures, f l i g h t crew activities,
MSFN and M C C support, recovery operations, data acquisition and f l o w , and other
mission-related operations. Numerous simulations are planned and performed t o test
procedures a n d t r a i n f l i g h t control and f l i g h t crew teams i n normal and contingency
operations.

M C C Role i n Aborts

A f t e r launch and from the time the space v e h i c l e clears the ML, the d e t e c t i o n o f
slowly deteriorating conditions which c o u l d result i n a n abort i s the prime responsibility
o f MCC; p r i o r to this time, i t i s the prime responsibility o f LCC. I n the event such
conditions are discovered, M C C requests abort o f the mission or, circumstances per-
m i t t i n g , sends corrective commands t o the v e h i c l e or requests corrective f l i g h t crew
actions. I n the event o f a noncatastrophic contingency, M C C recommends alternate
f l i g h t procedures, and mission events are rescheduled t o derive maximum benefit from
the m o d i f i e d mission.
M-932-69
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VEHICLE FLIGHT CONTROL PARAMETERS

I n order t o perform f l i g h t control monitoring functions, essential data must be collected,


transmitted, processed, displayed, and evaluated t o determine the space v e h i c l e ' s
c a p a b i l i t y t o start or continue the mission.

Parameters M o n i t o r e d by Launch Control Center

The launch v e h i c l e checkout and relaunch


operations monitored by the Launch Control
Center (LCC) determine the state o f readiness of the launch vehicle, ground support,
telemetry, range safety, and other operational support systems. During the f i n a l count-
down, hundreds o f parameters are monitored t o ascertain vehicle, system, a n d component
performance capabilities. Among these parameters are the " redlines. " The r e d l i n e values
must be w i t h i n the predetermined limits or the countdown w i l l be halted. I n a d d i t i o n
t o the redlines, there are a number of operational support elements such as ALDS, range
instrumentation, ground tracking and telemetry stations, and ground support f a c i l i t i e s
w h i c h must be operational a t specified times i n the countdown.

Parameters M o n i t o r e d b y Booster Systems G r o u p

The Booster Systems G r o u p (BSG) monitors launch v e h i c l e systems (S-IC, S-ll, S-IVB,
a n d IU) and advises the f l i g h t director and f l i g h t crew of any system anomalies. I t i s
responsible for confirming i n f l i g h t power, stage ignition, holddown I-elease, a l l
engines go, engine cutoffs, etc. BSG also monitors a t t i t u d e control, stage separations,
a n d d i g i t a l commanding of L V systems.

Parameters M o n i t o r e d b y F l i s h t Dynamics G r o u p

The F l i g h t Dynamics G r o u p monitors and evaluates the powered f l i g h t trajectory and


makes the abort decisions based on trajectory violations. I t i s responsible for abort
planning, entry time and o r b i t a l maneuver determinations, rendezvous planning,
i n e r t i a l alignment correlation, landing p o i n t prediction, and d i g i t a l commanding o f
the guidance systems.

The M O C R positions o f the Flight Dynamics G r o u p include the Flight Dynamics O f f i c e r


(FDO), the G u i d a n c e O f f i c e r ( G U I D O ) , and the Retrofire O f f i c e r (RETRO). The
MOCR positions are given detailed, specialized support b y the F l i g h t Dynamics SSR.

The surveil lance parameters measured b y the ground tracking stations and transmitted
t o the M C C are computer processed i n t o plotboard and d i g i t a l displays. The F l i g h t
Dynamics G r o u p compares the a c t u a l data w i t h premission, calculated, nominal data
a n d i s a b l e to determine mission status.

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Parameters M o n i t o r e d b y Spacecraft Systems G r o u p

The Spacecraft Systems G r o u p monitors and evaluates the performance o f spacecraft


e l e c t r i c a l , optical, mechanical, and l i f e support systems; maintains and analyzes
consumables status; prepares the mission log; coordinates telemetry playback; deter-
mines spacecraft weight and center o f gravity; and executes d i g i t a l commanding of
spacecraft systems.

The M O C R positions of this group include the Command/Service M o d u l e Electrical,


Environmental, and Communications Engineer (CSM EECOM), the CSM Guidance,
N a v i g a t i o n , and Control Engineer (CSM GNC), the Lunar M o d u l e Electrical, Entliron-
mental, and Communications Engineer (LM EECOM), and the LM Guidance, N a v i g a t i o n ,
a n d Control Engineer (LM GNC). These positions are backed up w i t h d e t a i l e d support
from the V e h i c l e Systems SSR.

Parametel-s M o n i t o r e d by Life Systems G r o u p

The L i f e Systems G r o u p i s responsible f o r the w e l l - b e i n g o f the f l i g h t crew. The group


i s headed by the F l i g h t Surgeon i n the MOCR. Aeromedical and environmental control
specialists i n the L i f e Systems SSR provide d e t a i l e d support to the F l i g h t Surgeon. The
group monitors the f l i g h t crew health status and environmentaI/biomedical parameters.

A P O L L O L A U N C H D A T A SYSTEM

The A p o l l o Launch Data System (ALDS) between KSC and MSC i s controlled b y MSC
and i s not routed through GSFC. The ALDS consists o f wide-band telemetry, v o i c e
coordination circuits, and a high-speed c i r c u i t for the Countdown and Status Trans-
mission System (CASTS). I n addition, other circuits are provided for launch coordination,
tracking data, simulations, p u b l i c information, television, and recovery.

MSFC SUPPORT FOR L A U N C H A N D FLIGHT OPERATIONS

The Mal-sha l l Space Flight Centel- (MS FC), by means o f the Launch Information Exchange
F a c i l i t y (LIEF) and the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC), provides real-time
support o f launch v e h i c l e launch, and f l i g h t operations. The MSFC also pro-
vides support, v i a LIEF, fol- postflight data d e l i v e r y and evaluation.

In-depth, real-time suppol-t i s provided for prelaunch, launch, and f l i g h t operations


from H O S C consoles manned by engineers who perform detailed system data monitoring
and analysis.

PI-elaunch f l i g h t w i n d monitoring analysis and trajectory simulations are j o i n t l y per-


formed by MSFC and MSC personnel located a t MSFC during the terminal countdown.
Beginning a t T-24 hours, actual w i n d data i s transmitted p e r i o d i c a l l y from KSC to the

J u l y 1969 Page 97
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HOSC. These measurements are used by the MSFC/MSC wind monitoring team i n
vehicle f l i g h t d i g i t a l simulations to verify the capability o f the vehicle w i t h these
winds. I n the event of marginal wind conditions, contingency data are provided MSFC
i n real-time v i a the Central lnstrumentation Facility (CIF). DATA-CORE and trajectory
simulations are performed on-line to expedite reporting to KSC.

During the prelaunch period, primary support i s directed to KSC. A t l i f t o f f primary


support transfers from KSC to the MCC. The HOSC engineering consoles provide
support as required to the Booster Systems Group for S-IVB/IU orbital operations by
monitoring detailed instrumentation for the evaluation of system i n f l i g h t and dynamic
trends, assisting i n the defection and isolation of vehicle malfunctions, and providing
advisory contact w i t h vehicle design specialists.

MANNED SPACE FLIGHT NETWORK

The Manned Space Flight Network (MSFN) (Figure 45) i s a global network of ground
stations, ships, and aircraft designed to support manned and unmanned space flights.
The network provides tracking, telemetry, voice and teletype communications, command,
recording, and television capabilities. The network i s specifically configured to meet
the requirements of each mission.

Ground Stations

MSFN stations are categorized as lunar support stations (deep-space tracking i n excess
of 15,000 miles), near-space support stations w i t h Unified S-band (USB) equipment,
and near-space support stations without USB equipment. The deep-space S-band capa-
b i l i t y i s attained w i t h 85-foot antennas located at: Honeysuckle Creek, Australia;
Goldstone, California; and Madrid, Spain, and supplemented by 2 10-foot antennas a t
Parkes, Australia, and Goldstone. MSFN stations include facilities operated by NASA,
the United States Department of Defense (DOD), and the Australian Department of
Supply (DOS). The D O D facilities include the Eastern Test Range (ETR), Western Test
Range (WTR), Range lnstrumentation Ship (RIS), and Apollo Range lnstrumentation
Aircraft (ARIA).

M o b i l e Stations

The MSFN coverage by ground stations i s supplemented by mobile stations. Those


consists of one RIS and four ARIA. The USNS Vanguard supports earth-orbital insertion
and translunar injection phases of a mission and operates as an integral station o f the
MSFN, meeting target acquisition, tracking, telemetl-y, communications, and command
and control requirements.

Page 98
MANNED SPACEFLIGHT NETWORK

STATION SUPPORT STAT1ON SUPPORT STATION SUPPORT STATION SUPPORT

1. CAPE AREA A.6,C.D 7. MAD/MADX A 11. GWM A,C,D 15. INS SHIP A,B,C,D
2. G61 GBM B 8. ACN A, C,D 12. HAW A,B,C,D 16. ARIA A9C.D
3. GTK B 9 . CRO 13. GDS/GDSX A
A,B*C,D
4. BDA A.B,C.D l o . HSK/HSKX A 14. TEX A , C,p
5. ANT ANG B
-. 6. C Y A, C.0
b
-
CODE: A-USB ( I n c l u d e s Tracking, TLM, CMD. Voice, and TV NOTE: ARIA USB i s f o r TLM and v o i c e only.
B-C-Band Tracking
C-VHF TLM
D-VYF A / G Voice
M-932-70
Apol l o Supplement

Four modified C-135 ARlA a i r c r a f t supplement the ground stations and instrumentation
ship as h i g h l y mobile "gap fillers." The ARlA support other space and missile projects
when not engaged i n t h e i r primary mission o f A p o l l o support. The AlRA provide two-way
relay o f v o i c e communications between the spacecraft and surface stations and reception,
recording, and retransmission o f telemetry signals from the spacecraft t o the ground
(postpass). The a i r c r a f t are used: shortly before, during, and shortly after i n j e c t i o n
burn; from i n i t i a l communications blackout t o final landing; for coverage o f a selected
abort area i n the event o f a "no-go" decision after injection; or for any irregular entry.
The ARlA have a n endurance o f about 10 hours and a cruise airspeed o f about 450 knots.

NASA C O M M U N I C A T I O N S NETWORK

The N A S A Communications (NASCOM) network (Figure 46) i s a point-to-point


communications system connecting the MSFN stations t o the MCC. N A S C O M i s
managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center, where the primary communications
s w i t c h i n g center i s located. Three smaller NASCOM switching centers a r e located
a t London, Honolulu, and Canberra. Patrick AFB, Florida and Wheeler AFB, H a w a i i
serve as switching centers for the D O D Eastern and Western Test Ranges, respectively.
The MSFN stations throughout the world are interconnected b y landline, undersea
cable, radio, and comrnunications s a t e l l i t e circuits. These circuits carry teletype,
voice, and data i n real-time support of the missions.

Each MSFN US0 land station has a minimum o f f i v e voice/data circuits and t w o tele-
type c i r c u i t s . The A p o l l o insertion and i n j e c t i o n ships have a similar c a p a b i l i t y
through the communications satellites.

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TYPICAL M I S S ION COMMUN ICAT1 ONS NETWORK

WE'
vlD.volc./mu
Hsn-n@sp.d mu
WBBW- nu
TTY-T.l.t)m
TV-T.I.rlllm
UIT-Lluocb bfo1p.110. E-Mq. hcUII,
~wa-~ol~ l o w c adm apt-
Cbw-CLbh s d WI",!.
1-nt- c.-r
a-i"!., IULlm

Note 1
Comsat will h e the Prime link

ACN ASCENSION IS. (NASA STATION) HAW HAWAI I


ACSW CANBERRA S W I T C H I N G STA. HS K HONEYSUCKLE CR. AUST.
AN G ANTIGUA ISLAND LLDN LONDON S W I T C H I N G CENTER
AOCC A I R C R A F T OPERATIONS CONTROL CENTER LROB MADRID, S P A I N SWITCHING CENTER
ARIA APOLLO RANGE INSTRUMENTATION A I R C R A F T MAD MADRID, S P A I N
B DA BERMUDA MCC M I S S I O N CONTROL CENTER
CDSC COMMUNICATION D I S T R I B U T I O N MIL M E R R I T T I S L A N D , FLA.
S W I T C H I N G CENTER MS FC MARSHALL SPACE F L I G H T CENTER
C RO CARNARVON , A U S T R A L I A PGSW GUAM SWITCHING CENTER
CYI GRAND CANARY I S L A N D PHON HONOLULU S W I T C H I N G STA.
ETR EASTERN TEST RANGE TEX .CORPUS C H R I S T I , TEXAS
GDS GOLDSTONE, C A L I F O R N I A VAN USNS VANGUARD
GSFC GODDARD SPACE F L I G H T CENTER WTR WESTERN TEST RANGE
GWM GUAM

Fig. 46

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RECOVERY A N D POSTFLIGHT PROVISIONS

GENERAL

The recovery o f A p o l l o f l i g h t crews and Command Modules w i t h their contained lunar


materials and mission equipment from the lunar landing missions requires rapid retrieval,
maintenance o f b i o l o g i c a l isolation during postflight operations, and special handling
equipment for- the preservation and preliminary examination o f lunar samples prior t o
their distribution t o p r i n c i p a l investigators. The f o l l o w i n g i s a description o f the prime
recovery equipment and facilities, and the Lunar Receiving Laboratory.

RECOVERY C O N T R O L ROOM

The Recovery Control Room (RCR) a t the Mission Control Center i s the command and
contl-ol center for a l l recovery operations. Department o f Defense ( D O D ) personnel
command and control the recovery forces and N A S A personnel interchange recovery
infol-mation for mission support requirements. Primary command and control functions
are exercised through two major Recovery Control Centers (RCC's) - a t Kunai, H a w a i i
(Task FOI-ce 130) and a t N o r f o l k , V i r g i n i a (Task Force 140).

PRIME RECOVERY EQUIPMENT

Primary Recovery Ship

The primary recovery ship (PRS) i s a n a i r c r a f t carrier-type ship. Its primary purpose i s
r e t r i e v a l o f the Command M o d u l e ( C M ) and recovery o f the astronauts w i t h i n a l l o w a b l e
l i m i t s o f access/retrieval times i n the primary landing area. The PRS i s also u t i l i z e d
t o support the secondary landing areas on the mid-Pacific recovery l i n e during the
translunar coast phase o f the lunar landing mission. I t i s provided w i t h specialized
equipment i n accot-dance w i t h the requirements o f each mission. The specialized
equipment and f a c i l i t i e s may include search and rescue helicopters w i t h swimmer
pel-sonnel, medical personnel and facilities, a corriplefe bioastronautic recovery set,
fil-efighting equipment capable o f containing hypergolic fuel fires, and communications
c i r c u i t s t o coordinate recovery, medical, and p u b l i c affail-s a c t i v i t i e s . The recovery
ship uses existing equipment t o hoist the CM onto the spacecl-aft d o l l y .

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Support A i r c r a f t

A i I-borne elements i n the primary landing area during recovery operations w i l l include:

. SARAH-equipped helicopters, each carrying a three-man swimmer team, to


conduct electronic search. A t least one o f the swimmers on each team w i l l be
equipped w i t h a n underwater (Calypso) 35mm camera.

. A h e l i c o p t e r t o carry photographers, as designated b y the N A S A Recovery Team


Leader assigned to the PRS, i n the v i c i n i t y o f the target p o i n t .

. A i r c r a f t t o function as communications relay, stationed overhead a t the scene of


action.

. HC-130 a i r c r a f t w i t h operational A N / A R D - ~(Cook


~ Tracker), three-man para-
I-escue team, and complete Apol l o I-ecovery equipment upl-ange and one downrange.

Prior to CM entry, a n A p o l l o Range Instrumentation A i r c r a f t i s on station near the


primary landing area for- network support. I t i s used to support the entry phase and
recovery operations i f required.

The I-ecovery helicopters are equipped w i t h " B i l l y Pugh" Rescue Nets (BIPURN)
(Figure 47) and transport specially trained underwater demolition team swimmers.
Recovery units are equipped w i t h f l o t a t i o n collars for the spacecraft, an a u x i l i a r y
recovery loop (nylon) t o supplement the integral recovery loop attached to the space-
craft for h o i s t i r ~ g(Figure 18), an A p o l l o liferaft, isolation gal-ments, disinfectant, and
appropriate communication and d i r e c t i o n finding equipment. The C M may be i n the
Stable I position (apex up), or i n the Stable II position (apex down).

Isolation Gal-ments

Normal I-ecovery procedu~-esu t i l i z e c l e a n f l i g h t coveral I s fat- the crew. The


covet-alI s are passed i n to the crew by the swimmers a d are donned i n the C M .
Should any i n d i c a t i o n o f questionable crew medical status occur, b i o l o g i c a l
isolation procedures can be implemented,

The Biological lsolation Garment (BIG) (Figure 48) may be used, i f requit-ed by
unexplained CI-ew illness, to provide b i o l o g i c a l isolation o f the wearer from his
environment. The garment i s a loose-fitting, one-piece garment w i t h a n integral hood,
face mask, boots, and gloves w h i c h completely cover the weal-er. The gal-ment i s con-
structed o f BARBAC material. Inhalation and exhalation i s accomplished through check
valves and filtel-s. The face mask portion o f the hood i s designed to per-mit i t to be torn
away i n a n emergency. Breathing v a l v e flow i s arranged so that i n h a l a t i o n by suppol-t
~ e r s o n n e land exhalation b y crew members are b i o l o g i c a l l y f i l t e r e d .

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HELICOPTER PICKUP

WINCH
OPERATOR

'""id HELICOPTER

VHF ANTENNAS
BEACON

UPRIGHTING
BAGS ( 3 ) ,./\
/f+"T'Rx-,,
.. ,,a p, .__..'

DYE MARKER --
& <- .-----.
SEA ANCHOR . 1 /
(NOT SHOWN) \--
-I==- ---

Fig. 47

July 1971 Page 1 0 4


The BIG package contains foul- gal-ments BIOLOGICAL ISOLATION
sealed i n plastic bags. The garments i f re- GARMENT
quil-ed, al-e worn b y the crew, the assisting
swimmer, and the he1icopter w i n c h opel-ator.
The BIGS are donned i n the l i f e r a f t b y the
swimmer and i n the CM by the CI-ew.

LUNAR RECElVl NG LABORATORY

The Lunar Receiving Laboratol-y (LRL) (Fig-


ure 4 9 ) i s a f a c i l i t y designed, constl-ucted,
and equipped t o suppol-t the post-recovery
phase o f a lunar landing mission undel- quai--
antine conditions.

Fig. 48
LUNAR RECEIVING LABORATORY

The basic objectives o f the LRL al-e to ensure protection o f the public's health,
agl-iculture, and othel- l i v i n g earth resources and to presel-ve the scientific i n t e g r i t y
o f the samples and provide for their distl-ibution to approved scientific investigators

The LRL i s located a t MSC, Houston, Texas. The f a c i l i t y i s d i v i d e d i n t o three


d i s t i n c t areas: the Crew Reception Area, i n c l u d i n g spacecl-aft storage a]-ea;
a Sample Operations At-ea (laboratories); and an Administrative and Support Area.
The LRL objectives may be expanded i n t o five basic functions: t o preserve, store,

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and account for the lunar samples; t o provide for quarantine operations and tests; t o
examine samples t o support distribution decisions; t o perform t i m e - c r i t i c a l experiments;
t o c o l l e c t i n c i d e n t a l information gathered from preliminary testing; and t o serve as a
central data center for lunar sample information.

Design Concept and U t i l i t i e s

A primary and secondary b i o l o g i c a l barrier system has been implemented i n the LRL.
The primary barrier i s established w i t h cabinets operated a t less than laboratory
pressure. The secondary barrier i s formed b y the c a r e f u l l y sealed b u i l d i n g structure
separately enclosing the Sample Operations Area and the CRA. The secondary barrier
p r i m a r i l y depends upon the reduced i n t e r i o r pressure for b i o l o g i c a l isolation. The
secondary barrier i n t e g r i t y has been tested w i t h fluorescent particles. U l t r a v i o l e t
l i g h t airlocks are b u i l t i n t o the CRA and Sample Operations Area for the introduction
o f samples. Showers, change rooms, controlled access t o the LRL Sample Operations
Area, and complete quarantine o f the CRA minimizes compromise o f the secondary barrier.

A l l a i r exhausted from the primary barrier i s piped t o one o f f i v e microbe incinerators


i n the mechanical equipment room o f the LRL, where i t i s heated to 500F and i s forced
through a n absolute b i o l o g i c a l f i l t e r to the outside. A i r f i l t r a t i o n and pressure d i f -
ferential for the secondary barrier i s accomplished by the a i r - c o n d i t i o n i n g system.
The Radiation Counting Laboratory and the Administration and Support Areas are not
i n c l u d e d i n the b i o l o g i c a l barriers.

A l l l i q u i d e f f l u e n t from the CRA or Sample Laboratory i s routed t o the LRL tank farm
where i t i s beat-sterilized prior t o transfer t o the MSC sewage treatment plant. The
tank farm i s classed as part o f the secondary b i o l o g i c a l barrier. All system elements
w i t h i n the primary and secondary b i o l o g i c a l barriers may be sterilized t o permit
replacement or repair should a f a i l u r e occur.

There are three e l e c t r i c a l power supply systems - normal, continuous, and emergency.
The normal system i s supplied by two 1000-KVA transformers. If this i s interrupted,
the 30-KW continuous generator automatically supplies the most c r i t i c a l loads u n t i l
the 350-KW emergency generator can be brought on the l i n e as a prime power system.
The LRL i s i d e n t i f i e d as a c r i t i c a l f a c i l i t y a t MSC and i n a n emergency has p r i o r i t y
for the supply o f power, steam, and water.

Administrative and Support Area

Coordination o f quarantine and sample processing a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the LRL i s conducted


from the Central Status Station (CSS) o f the Administrative and Support Area. The CSS
i s manned on a 24-hour basis b y a Quarantine Control O f f i c e r and a Facilities and Support
Engineer. The CSS contains instrumentation, alarms, and audio-video communication
systems t o monitor a l l a c t i v i t i e s and areas i n the LRL. Change room doors may be remotely
l o c k e d from the CSS.

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Crew Reception Area

The Crew Reception Area (CRA) provides l i v i n g accommodations, o f f i c e space, and


equipment for the crew, medical team, and other support personnel. The CRA w i l l
normally be occupied b y approximately 12 personnel for about 14 days. I f a b i o l o g i c a l
spill or break occurs i n the primary biobarrier, the CRA can accommodate u p t o 120
people for a considerable duration o f quarantine.

The astronauts and medical team are assigned bedrooms and offices. Support personnel
have dormitory accommodations. The CRA also includes medical examination rooms,
a minor surgery room, a n X-ray room, laboratories, closed-circui t and commercial
television, a lounge, communication systems, a library, a n exercise room, a d i n i n g
room, a kitchen, a storage room, and bioisolated debriefing and i n t e r v i e w rooms w i t h
a glass interface. A computer room contains a data acquisition system capable o f
handling data from major instrumentation located i n the biomedical laboratory. Data
tape contents may be e l e c t r o n i c a l l y transferred t o the Administrative and Support
Area.

The transitional areas o f the CRA are: the storage area for the spacecraft and its
related decontamination equipment; the change room sealed door and a two-door
s t e r i l i z e r and dunk tank; and a double-door sterilizer and a i r l o c k t o the service area
and loading dock.

Sample Operations Area

Vacuum Lnboratory

Samples are introduced, weighed, sterilized, and opened i n a glove chamber where
contained residual gas i s analyzed. A f t e r preliminary microscopic examination,
the samples are photographed and repackaged for transfer under vacuum to the gas
anal ysis, biologics l preparation, physics I-chemical tests, and radiation counting
laboratories. Samples are vacuum transferred i n cold-welded a l uminum and copper
cans. I n a n a i r environment, they are transferred i n polyethylene vials or heat-
sealed t e f l o n bags. Most o f the sample remains i n - t h e vacuum lab where monopole,
magnetics,, and reflectance experiments are performed. Test a c t i v i t i e s are monitored
on closed-circuit television by observers not physically present i n the lab. The
vacuum laboratory.cabinet u t i l i z e s gloves to enable vacuum handling o f the sample
i n a vacuum o f lo-' Torr. A n ultra-high vacuum chamber i s rated a t 10-" Torr
and uses mechanical manipulators t o process the special lunar samples. Transfer o f
materials i s accomplished through vacuum locks. Samples are stored i n vacuum
carousels for extended periods. This laboratory prepares the lunar Sample Return
Containers prior t o f l i g h t to assure a minimum o f terrestr-ial influence on the sealed
i n t e r i o r w h i c h i s o n l y opened to the lunar environment after preparation.

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Physics I-Chemi c a l Test Laboratory

Samples are tested for t h e i r reactions t o atmospheric gases and water vapor.
D e t a i l e d studies o f the mineralogic, petrologic, geochemical, and physical
properties o f the sample w i l l be performed. Among the techniques o f analysis
u t i l i z e d are X-ray fluorescence and diffraction, and o p t i c a l emission spectrographs.
The lab contains a darkroom for processing photographic f i l m and spectrographic
plates. Sub-laboratories are termed the Thin-Section Lab w h i c h mechanically
prepares samples for analysis and the M i n e r a l Separation F a c i l i t y w h i c h extracts
i d e n t i f i e d minerals for analysis b y specialists. Both sub-labs work w i t h samples
a f t e r quarantine release.

Bioloaica l Test Laboratory

Lunar samples undergo tests t o determine i f there i s l i f e present that may r e p ! i c a t e .


This laboratory analyzes a selected sample o f lunar material designated "Bio-Prime"
for the specific purpose o f establishing the quarantine clearance recommendation.

Germ-free animals (mice) and plants w i l l be exposed to the lunar material. The
b i o l o g i c a l test lab i s subdivided i n t o smaller labs -- bioprep, bioanalysis, germ-
free, histology, normal animals (amphibia and invertebrates), incubation, anaerobic
and tissue culture, crew microbiology, and botanical laboratories. Possibly
pathogenic material i s transferred across the secondary b i o l o g i c a l barrier t o
"Class I l l " cabinets through autoclaves. The Class I l l cabinets are designed t o
permit pi-scessing o f the most h i g h l y pathogenic material known w i t h o u t exposure
to operating personnel .
Gas Analysis Laboratory

The gas analysis lab w i l l measure amounts and types o f gases produced b y lunar
samples. A survey w i l l be made o f any rare, inorganic, or lightly-bound gases
or v o l a t i l e organic compounds possibly contained i n the samples.

Radiation Countinq Laboratory

The Radiation Counting Lab (RCL) extends t o 50 feet below the LRL ground floor.
This lab conducts low-background radioactive assays o f lunar samples, using gamma
ray spectrometry techniques. The lab tests for short-lived, cosmic ray-induced
radioactivities, senses the natural a c t i v i t i e s o f potassium, uranium, and thorium
i n the sample, and provides for whole-body radiation counts o f the astronauts.
The RCL i s the most advanced l o w - l e v e l radiation counting f a c i l i t y known i n the
world. The primary task o f the RCL i s t o investigate for the rapidly-decaying,
cosmic ray-induced radionuclides i n the lunar material.

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MISSION DATA ACQUISITION

Each A p o l l o mission contributes to the data base which advances knowledge i n many
engineering and scientific disciplines. "State o f the a r t " systems, materials, and
dynamic calculations mature under environmental conditions which are d i f f i c u l t to
simulate on earth. Information acquisition that i s unique to the space or lunar environ-
ment i s acquired through instrumentation and telemetry, " l i v e " television, photography,
crew observation, and sample acquisition and analysis.

PHOTOGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT

16mm Data Acquisition Camera


*

The primary use o f the Maurer 16mm Data Acquisition Camera (Figure 50) i s to obtain
interior or exterior sequential photographic data during manned flights. The camera i s
e l e c t r i c a l l y powered from the spacecraft 28-vdc u t i l i t y receptacles through a 108-inch
power cable. The camera features an externally mounted film magazine containing
130 feet o f film, permitting a maximum run time of 87 minutes a t 1 frame per second.
Other rate selections available are 6, 12, and 24 frames per second. Shutter speed
selections are 1/60, 1/125, 1/250, 1/500, and 1/1000 o f a second. The camera may

MAURER 16mm DATA ACQUISITION CAMERA

Fig. 50

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be operated hand-held or boresight-mounted t o record through the Command Module


(CM) rendezvous windows or the right Lunar Module (LM) window. The camera i s
designed for gloved hand operation. Five interchangeable lenses may be substituted:
5mm f/2 for extreme wide angle, close range data; lomm T/1.8 medium wide angle for
internal detail data; 18mm T/2 for intra- and extravehicular general use; 75mm f/2.5
for~mediumtelephoto use on distant objects and ground terrain; and 200mm f/5.5 for
extreme telephoto requirements o f recording detail a t long ranges. A right-angle
mirror i s provided to a l i g n the optical axis properly out the rendezvous window when
75mm and 18mm lens are installed.

16mm Lunar Surface Data Acquisition Camera

The 16mm lunar surface movie camera (Figure 51) i s used to obtain sequential photo-
graphic data from the lunar surface during astronaut extravehicular activities. This

lbmm LUNAR SURFACE DATA ACQUISITION CAMERA

'ER PACK

Fig, 51
July 1971 Page 1 10
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Apol l o Supplement

camera i s similar t o the 16mm Maurer Data Acquisition Camera described above except
that i t operates from a power pack attached t o the camera itself. I t may be hand h e l d
or bracket mounted t o the astronaut extravehicular m o b i l i t y u n i t . N o r m a l l y the 10mm
focal length lens i s f i t t e d .

70mm Hasselblad E l e c t r i c Camera

The 70mm Hasselblad E l e c t r i c Camera i s p r i m a r i l y used for h i g h resolution s t i l l photog-


raphy and may be operated hand-held or bracket-mounted. Internal batteries power
a motor that advances f i l m and cocks the shutter after a n exposure. A n intervalometer,
also powered b y the camera batteries, may be e x t e r n a l l y mounted to a c t i v a t e the camera
-
a u t o m a t i c a l l y every 20 seconds. Two types o f magazines are used one for thin-base
f i l m and the other for standard-base film. Each f i l m magazine has a c a p a c i t y for 200
frames o f thin-base b l a c k and w h i t e f i l m or 160 frames o f thin-base color f i l m . Three
lenses are interchangeable - a n 80mm f/2.8 i s usually installed but a 250mm f/4 or a
500mm f/8 telephoto lens may be selected for h i g h resolution photography o f distant
subjects. Shutter speed selection ranges from 1 second to 1/500 second. Filters are
provided t o I-educe or enhance o p t i c a l effects on certain f i l m types. A red f i l t e r i s
used for terrain photography when using b l a c k and w h i t e panchromatic f i l m t o reduce
haze effects. A p o l a r i z i n g f i l t e r i s used for lunar mapping photography under h i g h
l i g h t i n g conditions to reduce glare effects. The Photar 2 A f i l t e r i s used for color
photography o f earth. I t products ,cmd color rendition and improves color contrasts.

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70mm Hassel blad Electric Data Camera

The 70mm Hasselblad Electric '(EL) Data Camera (Figure 52) i s intended for extravehicular
use on the lunar surface. I t w i l l also be used for Standup EVA photography. The E l
Data Camera i s operationally the same as the Hasselblad Electric Camera but has a
Reseau grid installed i n front o f the focal plane to provide photogrammetric information.
The camera may be quipped w i t h a 60mm lens, an 80mm lens, or a 500mm lens, and
has an aperture range from f/5.6 to f/45.

70mm HASSELBLAD ELECTRIC DATA CAMERA

Fig. 52
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TELEVISION

Color and black and white television cameras are carried on Apollo Missions. The
color units provide the primary TV system w i t h a black and white backup unit carried
i n the L M for lunar surface use should the L M color camera develop problems.

Color TV cameras, equipped w i t h 6 : l ratio zoom lenses, are carried both i n the C M
and i n the Modularized Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA) o f the LM. The C M
camera has a black and white monitor w i t h a 3-inch screen, a 12-foot cable, and i t
can be hand-held or bracket-mounted. The camera contains a secondary electron
conduction imaging tube and utilizes a field sequential technique which consists o f
rotating a color wheel a t 600 rpm i n front of the imaging tube and producing a series
o f red, blue, and green pictures. The color images are then combined and converted
i n t o a signal compatible w i t h commercial TV. The color camera i s synchronized to the
standard 30-frame-per-second, 525-line-per frame scan rate.

The L M color TV camera (Figure 53) i s i n i t i a l l y mounted i n the MESA and i s deployed
and activated by the Commander during his descent down the L M ladder to the lunar
surface. The camera can be hand-held or tripod-mounted. I t can transmit throuah
either the LM S-band antenna or the high gain S-band antenna mounted on the LRV.
After deployment o f the LRV, the camera w i l l be mounted on the LRV, and camera
operations w i l l be remotely-controlled from the earth.

LUNAR SURFACE COLOR TV CAMERA

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Apollo Supplement

The black and white backup unit (Figure 54) has two fixed-focus lenses and a secondary
electron conduction imaging tube that allows operation under both low and high light
levels. If required, this camera would be used i n place o f the LM color unit.

LUNAR BLACK AND WHITE TV CAMERA

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Three-Inch Lunar M a p p i n q Camera (SIM Bay)

The Three-Inch Lunar M a p p i n g Camera (Figure 55) i s a n e l e c t r i c a l l y operated camera


system, powered by 1 15Vf 400Hz AC and 28v DC spacecraft power. I t i s operated
remotely through a control panel i n the command module. The system includes a
metric camera (f4.5) to provide the cartographic function and a stellar camera ( f 2 . 8 )
to p ~ o v i d espacecraft a t t i t u d e information.
The o b j e c t i v e i s to obtain high q u a l i t y
metric photographs of the lunar surface from o r b i t . Desirable operation i s concurrent
w i t h the 24-inch O p t i c a l Bar Panoramic Camel-a and the Laser A l t i m e t e r .
I t i s packaged
integt-ally w i t h the Laser Altimeter, and f i l m cassettes at-e to be retr-ieved during i n -
flight EVA.

3 " M A P P I N G CAMERA
LASER A L T I M E T E R

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O p t i c a l Bar Panoramic Camera (SIM Bay)

f i l e O p t i c a l Bar Panoramic Camera (Figure 56) i s an eleLiricuIIy operated camera


system, powered by 1 15v, 400Hz AC and 28v DC spacecraft power. I t i s >i)eratmd
iemotely through a control panel i n the command module. The lens has 7 :'4--1rlr.+-i
tocal length. The bb j e t t f v e i s to obtain high resolution stereoscopic photography
o f broad areas o f the lunar surface for detailed study and analyses. Panoramic scan-
ning i s accomplished by rotating the lens c e l l about a horizontal axis. Desirable
operation i s concurrent w i t h the 3-inch Mapping Camera and the Laser Altimeter.
Film cassettes w i l l be retrieved during i n f l i g h t EVA. Operation i s limited to 30
minutes per pass on the lighted side.

Fig, 56

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35mm N i k o n Camera

The 35mm N i k o n camera (Figure 57) i s used to obtain photographs of diffuse low
brightness astronomical sources such as lunar libration regions, solar corona, zodiacal
light, and gegenschein. The camera i s a standard Nikon 35mm camera modified and
qualified for use i n the spacecraft environment. Although the standard automatic
features remain on the camera, use i s not made of them i n this application. The
camera uses a 55mm focal length lens with a setting of f1.2. A l l exposures are
time exposures. The film type i s EK2485. The camera i s bracket mounted.

Fig. 57

July 1971 Page 1 17


SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT

S c i e n t i f i c equipment includes sampling implements and containers, experimental


equipment packages, and related special tools.

S towage

The Descent Stage quadrants o f the LM provide a n adequate volume for the stowage o f
equipment intended for use on the lunar surface. Cuadrant 1 provides stowuge space tor
tl-,e folded Lunar Roving V e h i c l e (LRV). Quadrant 2 houses the A p o l l o Lunar Surface
Experiments Package (ALSEP. Cuadl-ant 2 also provides an external mounting for a fuel
cilsk c o n t a i ; i i n g the fuel element t o power a radioisotope thermoelectric generator, w h i c h
PI-ovides a longterm electl-ical power soul-ce for ALSEP. Quadrant 4 houses the M o d v -
I,lri:ed Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA).

M o d u l a r i z e d E ~ u i p m e n Stowaqe
t Assembly

The M o d u l a r i z e d Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA) p a l l e t i s located i n Quadrant 4


o f the Descent Stage. The MESA i s deployed by the extl-avehicular astronaut when the
LM i s on the lunar surface. The p a l l e t contains spare Portable Life Support System
(PLSS) batteries and l i t h i u m hydroxide cartridges, a colol- television camera, tripod,
cable, tools fol- o b t a i n i n g lunar geological samples, containers i n w h i c h to store the
samples, and othel- s c i e n t i f i c devices. A work table folds out and also sel-ves as a
hangel- for the equipment transfer bag and a support for Sample Return Containers.
The transfer bag i s used to transfer the PLSS batteries and l i t h i u m hydroxide cartridges
t o the c a b i n .

ALSEP Basic Equipment

Radioisotope Thermoelectl-ic Genel-atol- (RTG)

The Radioisotope Thermoelectl-ic Genel-ator (RTG) i s an integl-ated power-


u n i t w h i c h p~.ovideslong-term electl-ic powel- for operation o f the ALSEP
system on the lunar surface. The RTC (Figure 5 8 ) i s a fixed thermopile sandwiched
between c y l i n d l - i c a l hot and c o l d junction fr-ames. The hot junction frame
sul-I-oundsa centl-al c a v i t y w h i c h contains the fuel cask assembly. The c o l d
junction frame butts against a finned c y l i n d r i c a l berylium radiator w h i c h i s
closed a t one end and p ~ - o p e ~ -sized
ly to reject uriconve~.tedther-ma1 enel-gy
i n t o the environment.

Data Subsystem (Centr-ul Station)

The data subsystem (Figul-e 59) receives, decodes, and applies d i s c ~ e t elogic
commands fl-om the Manned Space Flight Netwol-k (MSFN) to the deployed
units o f ALSEP. These commands are used to perform power switching, thelmal

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Fig. 59

April 1970 Page 120


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ApoI l o Supplement

.
contl-01, operating i!loc'c changes, and experirl~enti o n t r o l The data subsystem
accepts and processes scientific data from the experiments, engineering status
data from i t s e l f and a l l the subsystems,and transmits the data to the MSFN
r e c e i v i n g stations. The data subsystem also performs the function o f switching
and distributing operating power t o the experiment and support subsystems.

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EXPERIMENTS

The following experiments have been approved for use on Apollo 15 or subsequent
missions.

LUNAR SURFACE EXPERIMENTS

Lunar surface experiments are deployed and activated or conducted by the LM crew-
men during extravehicular a c t i v i t y (EVA periods.

Apol l o Lunar Surface Experiments Package

The purpose o f the A p o l l o Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) i s to facilitate


the determination o f the structure and state o f the lunar interior, the composition and
structure o f the lunar surface and modifying processes, and the evolutionary sequence
o f events leading to the present lunar configuration. To accomplish this purpose the
ALSEP has been designed to perform scien%ficexperirnents to measure the geophysical
characteristics o f the moon. Individual ALSEP arrays w i l l contain various combinations
o f these experiments. The resulting experiments and subsystems are as follows:

Passive Seismic E x ~ e r i m e n t(S-031)

The Passive Seismic Experiment (PSE) (Figure 60) w i l l measure seismic a c t i v i t y o f


the moon to obtain information regarding the physical properties o f the lunar crust

Page 122
July 1971
M-933-71
Apol l o Supplement

and i n t e r i o r . I t w i l l do this by determining the seismic energy produced b y


meteoroic! impacts anc! by moon quakes, by determining the form and character-
istics o f the seismic waves produced and by measuring the d i r e c t i o n and dis-
tance t o the seismic epicenter.

Physically, the PSE consists o f t w o parts, both included i n one package. The
long-period instrument, w h i c h contains three seismometers (one v e r t i c a l and
t w o horizontal, laced
orthogonally to each other), measures long-period, low--
frequency seismic energy w i t h a period up to 15 seconds. This instrument
measures the distance and d i r e c t i o n t o a seismic quake, as w e l l as the long-term
t i d a l deformations o f the moon. The short-period instrument functions as a
v e l o c i t y transducer w h i c h measures short-period (0.5 t o 1 .O seconds), high-
frequency (up t o 12 cycles per second) seismic energy w i t h very h i g h sensitivity.
The instrument consists o f a moving-magnet b u i l t so that a transdcrcer can measure
the v e l o c i t y o f the magnet. The displacements and the v e l o c i t y o f these instru-
ments are measured, amplified, and f i l t e r e d i n a series o f electronic c i r c u i t s
w h i c h produce an output signal t o the central station data processor.

A c t i v e Seismic Experiment (5-033)

The A c t i v e Seismic Experiment (ASE) w i l l provide data pertaining t o the physical


PI-operties, structure, elasticity, and bearing strength o f lunar surface and near
surface materials to depths of 2000 feet by measuring v e l o c i t y o f propagation,
frequency spectra, and attenuation o f seismic compression waves through the
lunar sul-face. The ASE provides for a controlled seismic energy o f known dis-
tances, chal-ge sizes, and timing. I t also provides a means o f seismic exploration
i n the event the moon should be naturally seismically inert and seismic a c t i v i t y
cannot be registered b y passive seismometers.

The ASE consists o f t w o energy sources, a thumper- and a grenade launcher w i t h


four grenades, three geophone detectors, and associated central electronics
(Figure 61). Known, nearby, low energy inputs are provided b y the thumper and
variable distance, higher energy sources at-e ~ r o v i d e dby the explosive grenades.
Use o f the mortar or grenade mode i s scheduled for near the end o f the ALSEP
mission and PI-ovides known seismic soul-ces from 1/8 to 1 pound a t ranges up to
5000 feet. I n d i v i d u a l grenades are launched known distances by ground command.

In a d d i t i o n to the a c t i v e modes, the geophones w i l l be used i n a passive, listening


mode t o o b t a i n seismic data and to provide information t o a i d i n selecting the
optimum time for the mortar mode.

J u l y 1971 Page 123


SMIIC EXPERIMENT SUBSYSTEM
XMTR ANTENNA 14. 5 IN. FOLDED COMPONENTS
AND RANGE LINE GRENP n C a 44.5 IN. DEPLOYED,
,nrmnvrn\
\ Y L I
I L"
. L",
\ Accrh & FUNCTION
INITIATOR DEPLOYMENT
SELECTOR COMMANDS & DATA
RECE l V 1 l
ANTENNA

GEOPHONE
P1
DETECTORS ( 3 )
n$!b
GRENADE
4.80 IN. H E I G H T ( I N C SPIKE)
LAUNCH
1 66 IN. D l A M

GEOPHObE FLAG

CENTRAL ELECTRONICS
THUMPER
6 . 7 7 X 6. 18 X 2.75 IN.
M-933-71
Apol l o Supplement

Lunar Tri-Axis Magnetometer 5-034

The Lunar Tri-Axis Magnetometer (Figure 62) w i l l provide data pertaining to the
magnetic f i e l d vector and its temporal variations a t selected points on the lunar
surface. Electromagnetic disturbances originating i n the solar wind, plasma current
information, and subsurface magnetic f i e l d w i l l also be detected and measured.

The Lunal- Tri-Axis Magnetometer consists o f three magnetic sensors, each mounted
i n a sensor head and located a t the end o f a 3-foot-long suppcrt arm. The magnetic
sensors measure the magnitude and temporal variations o f the lunar surface magnetic
f i e l d . These measurements are used t o derive information on the e l e c t i c a l properties
and the t e m p e r a t u r e o f the lunar i n t e r i o r . The support arms (X, Y, and Z) extend
from a base structure w h i c h houses the experiment electronics and the gimbal/flip
mechanism. The magnetometer i s connected to the central station for receipt o f
commands and data transmittal to earth. The sensors may be remotely repositioned
and one o f three sensor dynamic ranges can be selected by telemetry command.
Solar W i n d Spectrometer (5-035)

The Solar W i n d Spectrometer (Figure 63) w i l l measure the energies, densities,


incidence angles, and temporal variations o f the electron and proton components
o f the solar w i n d plasma striking the surface o f the moon. These measurements
w i l l be u t i l i z e d to expand knowledge o f the nature o f the solar w i n d plasma on
the moon, the history und properties o f the lunar surface and interior, the general
solar w i n d properties, and the magnetospheric t a i l o f the earth.

The solar w i n d spectrometer consists o f four major assemblies: ( 1 ) sensors, (2) leg
assemblies, (3) electronics, and (4) thermal control. The measurement o f the solar
w i n d plasma i s performed by seven Faraday cup sensors w h i c h c o l l e c t and detect
the solar w i n d electrons and protons. The cups are arranged i n a hexagonal cupola
configuration on the upper portion o f the experiment package. The cups open
toward different but s l i g h t l y overlapping portions o f the lunar sky. Data from a l l
seven cups are processed and fed t o the ALSEP data subsystem for moon-to-earth
transmission. W i t h a knowledge o f the positioning o f the solar w i n d spectrometer
on the lunar surface, the d i r e c t i o n o f the b u l k o f charged p a r t i c l e motion can be
deduced. Voltages on modulation grids o f the cups at-e changed i n sign and varied
so that the cups w i l l d i f f e r e n t i a t e between electrons, protons, and between
particles having d i f f e r e n t energies.

Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (S-036)

The Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) (Figure 64) w i l l provide data on
the flux, number density, velocity, and energy per u n i t charge o f positive ions i n
the v i c i n i t y o f the lunar surface. I t i s designed to detect ions resulting from the
u l t r a v i o l e t i o n i z a t i o n o f the lunar atmosphere and the(-ma1 solar w i n d .

Page 125
LUNAR TR I- A X I S MAGNETOMETER EX PER IMENT SUBSYSTEM

a COMPONENTS & FUNCTION


a COMMANDS & DATA
e DEPLOYMENT

DEPLOYED

19.4 LB WIO CABLE FOLDED


CARRY l NG
SENSOR

@ COMPONENTS
& FUNCTION

PUSHBUTON FOR

(HELD DOWN WHEN


LEGS ARE RETRACTED)
M-933-7 1
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Fig. 64

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Two curved plate analyzers are used to detect and count ions. The low energy
analyzer has a velocity f i l t e r o f crossed electric and magnetic fields. This f i l t e r
passes ions w i t h discrete velocities and the curved plate analyzer passes ions w i t h
discrete energy, permitting determination o f mass as w e l l as number density. The
second curved plate analyzer, without a velocity filter, detects higher energy
particles. The experiment i s emplaced on a wire mesh ground screen and a
voltage i s applied between the electronics and the ground plane to overcome any
electric f i e l d effects.

Lunar Heat Flow Experiment (S-037)

The Heat Flow Experiment (HFE) (Figure 65) w i l l measure the net outward flux of
heat from the moon's interior. Measurement o f lunar flux w i l l provide a compari-
son o f the radioactive content o f the moon's interior and the earth's mantle, a
thermal history o f the moon, a lunar temperature-versus-depth profile, and the
value o f thermal parameters i n the first three meters o f the moon's crust. When
compared w i t h seismic measurements, data from the HFE experiment w i l l provide
information on the composition and physical state o f the moon's interior.

The major components o f the HFE are two sensor probes and an electronics package.
The probes consist o f epoxy-fiberglass tubular structures which support and house
temperature sensors, heaters, and the associated electrical wiring. Each probe
has two sections, each 50 cm (20.0 inches) long, spaced 2 cm (0.8 inches) apart
and mechanical l y connected by a flexible spring. The flexible spring allows the
probe assembly to be bent i n t o a U-shape t o facilitate packing, stowage, and
carrying.

The HFE i s deployed w i t h the two sensor probes emplanted i n the lunar surface i n
3-meter (10-foot) boreholes which are d r i l l e d b y the astronaut w i t h the Apollo
.
Lunar Surface D r i l l (ALSD) The two probes are connected by two mu1tiple-lead
cables to the HFE electronics package which i s deployed separately from the
ALSEP central station. Use o f the heaters t o create a known quantity o f heat a t
a known distance from a sensor establishes the heat-conductivity o f the lunar
subsurface material by sensing and measuring the amount o f heat that travels the
known distance per unit o f time. Operation o f the Apollo Lunar Surface B r i l l
i s illustrated i n Figure 66.

Cold Cathode Gauge Experiment (CCGE) (5-058)

The Cold Cathode Gauge Experiment ((Figure 67) w i l l measure the density o f the
lunar atmosphere, including the density of lunar ambient atmosphere and temporal
variations either o f a random character or associated w i t h lunar local time or solar
a c t i v i t y . I n addition, the gauge w i l l measure the rate o f loss of contaiminants
l e f t i n the landing area by the astronauts and the lunar module.

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Fig. 65

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APOLLO LUNAR SURFACE DRILL

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The CCGE detects densities corresponding to pressure o f lo-'* loB6 to torr.


Charged particles injected i n t o the gauge aperture c o l l i d e w i t h neutral atoms
entering the sensor from the qmbient atmosphere. Ions produced by these col-
lisions and free ions are collected by the cathode o f a pair o f sensor electrodes
(maintained a t 4500 volts potential). The ions resulting from collisions greatly
outnumber the free ions and result i n a minute current flow to an electrometer. The
electrometer amplifies the current and generates an equivalent analog voltage as
the output signal.

C O L D CATHODE GAUGE EXPERIMENT

Fig. 67

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Dust Detector Subsystem (M-515)

The objectives o f the dust detector are t o obtain data for assessment o f dust
a c c r e t i o n on the ALSEP and t o provide a measure o f thermal degradation o f
thermal surfaces.

Dust accumulation on the surfaces o f the three solar cells (Figure 6 8 ) w i l l reduce
the amount o f solar i l l u m i n a t i o n detected by the cells. The outputs o f the three
solar cells are a p p l i e d t o three amplifiers w h i c h c o n d i t i o n the signals and a p p l y
them to three subcommutated analog data channels o f the data subsystem.

DUST DETECTOR

S o l a r cell 2
(vertical)

Solar cell 1
(nominally west)

Fig. 68

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Lunar Geoloav lnvestiaation 6-059)

The purpose o f this experiment i s to determine the composition and origin o f materials
underlying the maria floors and other lunar plains; and to determine the nature and rates
of processes that have taken place on the lunar surface. Data are gclthered by sampling
the lunar soil, photography, and crew observation.
ASTRONAUT PLACING
Lunar samples w i l l be returned i n sealed box-like Sample LUNAR SAMPLE I N
Return Containers (Figure 69) and extra sample col lection SAMPLE RETURN CONTAINER
bags. Certain samples are specifically identified relative
to the nature and location o f the acquired sample, photo-
graphed, separately bagged, identified, and referred to
as Documented Samples. Other samples w i l l be taken and
stored i n core tubes and a gas analysis container. Tools
used i n acquisition or observation o f samples are shown i n
Figure 70. A Contingency Sample Container i s stored i n
the Ascent Stage to provide for collecting an immediate
sample o f about one l i t e r i n the event o f an extremely
short duration o f extravehicular a c t i v i t y . Samples w i l l
be returned to earth for analysis.

Fig. 69

Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector Experiment

The scientific objectives o f the Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector (LRRR) Experiment in-
clude precise measurements of: lunar orbital motion; lunar librations, the lunar radius;
fluctuation i n earth rotation rate; Chandler Wobble of the earth's axis; intercontinental
d r i f t rate; and secular change o f the gravitational constant w i t h time.

The retro-reflector array (Figure 71) consists o f 300 retro-reflector corner cubes held
i n an aluminum panel . The reflectors are made o f highly homogeneous fused silica
3.8 cm (1.5") i n diameter. The reflectors are undercoated and use total internal
reflection. Control of the temperature gradient i s achieved hy recessing each reflector
by one-half its diameter i n t o a circular socket. Each reflector i s mounted w i t h a teflon
ring to provide thermal isolation. The reflectors w i l l perform under essentially isother-
mal conditions throughout lunar nights and most o f lunar days. A t no time during a
lunar day are temperature gradients expected to degrade the optical performance to less
than 40% o f the maximum value. The package has been designed to provide a useful
l i f e o f 10 years or more. A n astronaut w i l I orient the array toward the center o f the
earth's libration pattern to a n accuracy of 5' or better.

For nominal pointing accuracy achieved by the astronaut, obscuration o f off-axis per-
formance produced by the recessed mounting and the libration pattern w i l l allow

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Fig. 70
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40% or more o f maximum return t o be available for 60% o f the time and 25% or more
to be expected 90% o f the time.

The deployment o f this array completes a grid o f three widely spaced LRRR on the lunar
surface. The first (100 coners) i s located at the Apollo 1 1 site; the second (100 coners)
a t the A p o l l o 14 site. Laser ranging from the McDonald observatory i n west Texas
has reduced the uncertaintity i n the earth-moon distance to -t -
- 30cm (+ 6 inches). .
The ultimate goal i s less then 3 cm or about 1.0 inches.

300 - CUBE ARRAY

Fig. 71

Solar Wind Ccvposition Experiment

The scientific objective o f the Solar Wind Composition (SWC) experiment i s t o deter-
mine the elemental and isotopic composition o f the noble (inert) gases i n the solar
wind.

The solar wind composition detector consists o f an aluminum f o i l 4 square feet i n area
and about 0.5 m i l thick, rimmed by teflon for resistance to tear during deployment.
A staff and yard arrangement i s used to deploy the foil and to maintain the f o i l approxi-
mately perpendicular to the solar wind flux. The deployed configuration i s shown i n
Figure 72. (The instrument i n stowed configuration i s shown i n the astronaut's l e f t
hand.) Solar wind p r t i c l e s w i l l penetrate i n t o the f o i l and get firmly trapped a t a
depth o f several hundred atomic layers. After exposure on the surface, the f o i l i s
rolled and returned to earth.

The exposed f o i l w i l l be analyzed w i t h mass spectrometers i n an ultra-high vacuum


environment a t the University o f Berne, Switzerland. The procedure consists o f
vaporizing the foil i n an ultra-high vacuum system and then removing a l l the reactive
gases before mass spectrometric analysis. The SWC equipment i s stowed i n the MESA.

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SOLAR WIND ARRAY

"0 Fig. 72

Cosmic Ray Detector (Sheets) (5-152)

The objectives o f this experiment are to measure the flux, energy spectrum, and
isotopic composition o f cosmic rays heavier than helium i n the energy range up to
100 mev per nucleon. Separate portions o f the experiment w i l l measure neutron
flux and solar wind Argon 40 a t the lunar surface. The instrument (Figure 73) con-
sists o f a foldable array of stacked sheets o f various types of material (foil, plastics,
minerals,and boron covered tungsten). The array w i l l be carried on the exterior o f
the LM, exposed on the lunar surface, then folded for earth return by the astronauts.

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COSMIC RAY DETECTOR

DETECTOR RAIL

Fig. 73

Portable Magnetometer (5- 198)

The objectives o f the portable magnetometer experiment (Figure 74) are to measure
the vector magnetic f i e l d a t several points along a traverse and to determine the loca-
tion, strength, and dimensions o f the source. These measurements would provide a rough
map o f the surface f i e l d over a n area large compared t o local surface features.

Portal Magnetometer

Fig. 74
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Lunar G r a v i t y Traverse (S- 199)

The purpose o f this experiment i s to measure gravity of the area traversed by the LRV.
Data can provide subsurface information to correlate w i t h surface observations, and
w i t h other experiment data. The gravity map should reveal anomalies as small as 0.1
to 1 .O rnilligal w i t h a scale of 0.1 to 10 kilometers. The instrument (Figure 75) uses
a vibrating string type accelerometer.

11 INCHES SPHERICAL
DIAMETER

TRANSPORT CASE

Fig. 75

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Soil Mechanics (S-200)

The o b j e c t i v e o f the soil mechanics experiment i s


t o determine the mechanical properties t o depths o f
tens o f centimeters. Data are derived from lunar
module landing dynamics, f l i g h t crew observations
and debriefings, examination o f photographs, analvsis
o f lunar samples, and astronaut a c t i v i t i e s using the
Apol l o hand tools. The sel f-recording penetometer SELF-RECORDING
shown i n Figure 7 6 ' w i l l be used on A p o l l o 15 to
determine the compactness o f the lunar soil.

Fig. 76

Far U V Camera/Spectroscope (5-201)

The o b j e c t i ~ e : ,n f the far UV camera/spectroscope (Figure 77) are to obtain d i r e c t


image photographs i n Lyman-Alpha l i g h t (1216A wavelength) o f the geocorona, the
sky background, the Milky Way star clouds, nearby galaxies and the Coma Cluster
o f galaxies; and obtain spectrographs o f the u l t r a v i o l e t continuum i n the wavelength
range o f 300 t o 16OOA.

BALL

Fig. 77

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Lunar Ejecta and Meteorites (5-202)

The objectives o f the lunar e i e c t a and meteorites experiment (Figure 78) are to measure
l o n g term variations i n the cosmic dust i n f l u x rates on the lunar surface; determine the
e x t e n t a n d nature o f lunar e j e c t a produced b y meteorites impact; determine radiant
flux density, and speed o f particles i n meteor streams.

Fig. 78

Lunar Seismic Profiling (5-203)

The o b i e c t i v e o f the lunar seismic p r o f i l i n g experiments (Figure 79) i s to obtain data


on physical properties o f the lunar interior to depths o f up to 5 kilometers using a r t i -
f i c a l l y induced seismic energy. Lunar surface physical properties to be analyzed are:
degree o f duration and bearing strength; thickness and fine structure o f surface layer;
type and character o f surface and near surface rocks. Four geophones connected to
the central station monitor the reactivated explosive devices implaced by the astl-onaut.

R E C E I V I N G ANTENNA
I N G PULL P I N S
RECEIVER/SIGNAL PROCESSING
ARMING L F U Z I N G ASSYS
H I G H EXPLOSIVE
BLOCK ASSY
Fig. 79
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Lunar Surface Electrical Properties 6-204)

The objectives o f this experiment are to determine layering i n the lunar subsurface;
search for presence o f water i n lunar interior; measure surface electrical properties
i n situ; and obtain an independent estimate o f surface thermal flux. A transmitter
(Figure 80) i s deployed about 200m from the LM, and a receiver and tape recorder
are carried by the astronaut or LRV out to ranges o f 1 km to 10 km from the trans-
mitter. The data tape i s returned to earth for analysis.

TRANSMITTER
LOCATED O)(
THE LUNAR
SURFACE

Lunar Atmospheric Composition (5-205)

The objectives of this experiment are to obtain data on: composition o f the lunar
atmosphere i n mass ranges from 1 to 60 AMU at the lunar surface, including global
distribution and diurnal variations; origin information such as solar wind accretion,
neon distribution, and volcanism; and transient phenomena and residual contamination.
The instrument used i s a magnetic sector-field mass spectrometer (Figure 81).

Fig. 81
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Lunar Surface Gravimeter (5-207)

The objectives o f the lunar surface


gravimeter (Figure 82) are to study
lunar gravitational fields; observe
lunar tides; establish lunar/earth
ratio to 1 part i n lo5; search for
free oscillations; and use the moon
as a detector o f gravitational waves

IN -FLIGHT EXPERIMENTS

The i n - f l i g h t experiments are conduced during earth orbit, translunar coast, lunar
orbit, and transearth coast mission phases. They are performed w i t h i n the command
module,from the scientific instrument module (SIM) located i n sector I of the service
module, and w i t h a subsatellite launched i n lunar orbit. An illustration o f the SIM
and its experiments i s shown i n Figure 83.

Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (5- 160) (SIM)

The objectives o f the gamma-ray spectrometer experiment (Figure 84) are to determine
the lunar surface concentration o f naturally occurring radioactive elements and rock
forming elements. This w i l l be accomplished by the measurement of the lunar surface
natural and induced gamma radiation while i n orbit and by the monitoring o f galactic
gamma-ray flux during transearth coast.

The spectrometer detects gamma-rays and discriminates against charged particles i n


the energy spectrum from 1.0 to 10 mev. The instrument i s encased i n a cylindrical
thermal shield which i s deployed on a boom from the SIM for experiment operation.

July 1971
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Fig. 83
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GAMMA RAY SPECTROMETER

Fig. 84

X-Ray Fluorescence (8- 161) (8 I M )

The o b j e c t i v e o f the x-ray spectrometer experiment i s t o deter~minethe concentration


o f major rock-for-ming elements i n the lunar- sul-face. This i s accomplished by monitoring
the fluorescent x-I-ay f l u x produced by the intel-action o f solar x-I-ays w i t h surface
material and the lunar SUI-facex-ray albedo. The x-I-ay spectrometel-, w h i c h i s integral-
l y packaged w i t h the alpha-particle spectrometer, uses three sealed propol-tional counter

detectors w i t h d i f f e r e n t absol-ption filters. The direct solal- x-ray flux i s detected by


the solar monitor, w h i c h i s located 180' fl-om the SIM i n SM sector I V . A n x-ray
background count i s per-formed on the lunar- darkside.

Alpha-Pal-ticle Specti-ometer- (8- 162) (SIM)

The o b j e c t i v e o f this experiment i s t o locate radon soul-ces and establish gross radon
e v o l u t i o n rates, w h i c h are functions o f the natural and isotopic radioactive matel-iaI
concentrations i n the lunar surface. This w i l l be accomplished by measuring the lunar
surface alpha-particle emissions i n the energy spectrum flom 4 to 9 mev.
J u l y 1971 k g e 145
The instrument employ; ten surface barrier detectors. The spectrometer i s mounted i n
a n integral package w i t h x-ray spectrometer, as shown i n Figure 85.

DElECTOR PROCES SOR PROCESSOR

Fig. 85

S- Band Transponder (CSM/LM) (S- 164)

The o f the S-Sand transponder experiment i s t o detect variations i n the lunar


g r a v i t y f i e l d caused by mass concentrations and deficiencies and to establish gravaita-
t i o n a l profiles o f the ground tracks o f the spacecraft.

The experiment data are obtained by analysis o f the S-band Doppler tracking data
for the C S M and LM i n lunar orbit. M i n u t e perturbations o f the spacecraft motion
are cot-related to mass anomalies i n the lunar structure.

Mass Spectrometer (5- 165) (S IM)

The o b j e c t i v e o f the mass spectrometel- experiment (Figure 86) i s t o obtain data on the
composition and dis.tribution o f the lunar atmosphere constituents i n the mass range
from 12 to 66 A M U . The experiment w i l l also be operated during transearth coast t o
o b t a i n background data on spacecraft contamination.

The instrument employs i o n i z a t i o n o f constituent molecules


and subsequent c o l l e c t i o n
and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n b y mass u n i t analysis. The spectrometer i s deployed on a boom from
the SIM during experiment operation.

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Mass Spectrometer

Fig. 86

Far U V Spectrometer (S- 169)

The o b j e c t i v e o f the far UV spectrometer (Figure 87) i s to determine the composition


o f the lunar atmosphere by detection o f resonance re-radiation o f enet-gy i n the u i t r a -
v i o l e t region. Spectral range o f interest i s i n the lOOOA t o 1800A region.

Bistatic Radar (5- 170)

The objectives o f the bistatic radar experiment are t o determine the Brewstet- angle o f
lunar crust i n the S-band; measure spectt-al properties o f bistatic radar echoes from low
a l t i t u d e lunar orbit; and g a i n operational experience w i t h A p o l l o systems and operations
as a n a i d to design o f future bistatic radar experiments. This experiment uses existing
CSM S-band equipment and V H F equipment.

The o b j e c t i v e o f the I R scanning radiometer experiment i s to measure lunar surface thermal


emissions along the track o f the spacecraft. Data w i l l lead to characterization o f lunar
physical parameters o f thermal conductivity, b u l k density, and the specific heat. The
radiometer i s shown i n Figure 88.

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Far UV Spectrometer

Fig. 87
MIRROR

IR Scanning Radiornetel-

ELECTRON l C S b
SIGNAL CONDITIONER

162" TOTAL SCAN ANGLE

CIRCULAR RAY BUNDLE

SECONDARY
MIRROR M l RROR
SCAN DR I# I R LENS

I=---

I
-----*----*=
I
---
I I
INCOMING
are l * r
lo*
'
t
CASSCGRAIN
r a o l N rruscopr
1 I
I C 7

SIGNAL
f

TM
PW R
ELECTRONICS . * CONDITIONER 'OUTPUT
SCHEMATIC INPUT-> A

Fig. 88
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Apollo Window Meteoroid (S- 176) (CM)

The objective of the Apollo window meteoroid experiment i s to obtain data on the cis-
lunar meteoroid flux of mass range 10-l2 grams. The returned CM windows w i l l be
analyzed for meteoroid impacts by comparison with a preflight photomicroscopic window
map.

The photomicroscopic analysis w i l l be compared with laboratory calibration velocity


data to define the mass of impacting meteoroids.

UV Photography - Earth and Moon (5-1 77) (CM)

The objective of this experiment i s to photograph the moon and the earth i n one visual
and three ultraviolet regions of the spectrum. The earth photographs w i l l define cor-
relations between UV radiation and known planetary conditions. These analyses w i l l
form analogs for use with UV photography of other planets. The lunar photographs
w i l l provide additional data on lunar surface color boundaries and fluorescent materials.

Photographs w i l l be taken from the C M with a 70mm Hasselblad camera equipped with
four interchangeable filters with different spectral response. Photographs w i l l be taken
i n earth orbit, translunar coast, and lunar orbit.

Gegenschein From Lunar Orbit (5-178) (CM)

The objective of the Gegenschein experiment i s to photograph the Moulton point region,
an analytically defined null gravity point onthe earth-sun line behind the earth. These
photographs w i l l provide data on the relationship of the Moul ton point and the Gegens-
chein (an extended light source located along the earth-sun line behind the earth.)
These photographs may provide evidence as to whether the Gegenschein i s attributable
to scattered sunlight from trapped dust particles at the Moulton point.

Lunar Sounder (5-209)

The objective of the lunar sounder experiment i s to detect and map geological
structure within the first 10 km of the lunar surface. This i s accomplished by observing
contrasts i n subsurface electrical parameters using 3 transceivers (frequencies are
150 MHz and 5 MHz); a VHF antenna, HF antenna, and an optical recorder. Return
echoes w i l l be linearly detected, displayed i n the recorder's cathode ray tube, and
photographed. The film cassette of the recorder w i l l be retrieved during the inflight
EVA and returned to earth for processing and scientific analysis.

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SUBSATELLITE

The subsatellite i s a hexagonal prism (Figure 89) which uses a solar c e l l power system,
a n S-band communications system, and a storage memory data sysetm. A solar sensor
i s provided for attitude determination. The subsatellite i s launched from the SIM i n t o
lunar orbit and i s spin-stabilized by three deployable, weighed arms. The following
three experiments are performed by the subsatellite:

S - k n d Transponder (5-164)

Similar to the S-band transponder experiment conducted w i t h the CSM and LM,
this experiment w i l l detect variations i n the lunar gravity f i e l d b y analysis o f
S-band signals. The Doppler effect variations caused by minute perturbations
o f the subsatellite's orbital motions are indicative of the magnitudes and
locations o f mass concentrations i n the moon.

Particle Shadows/Boundary Layer (5- 173)

The objective of this experiment i s to monitor the electron and proton flux
i n three modes: interplanetary, magnetotail, and the boundary layer between
the moon and the solar wind.

The particle experiment uses five curved plate particle detectors and two
solid state telescopes to measure solar wind plasma (electrons i n two ranges
0-14 kev and 20-320 kev and protons 0.05-2.0 mev).

Magnetometer (S- 174)

The objective of the subsatellite magnetometer experiment i s to determine the


magnitude and direction of the interplanetary and earth magnetic fields i n the
lunar region.

The biaxial magnetometer i s located on one o f the three subsatellite deployable


arms. This instrument i s capable o f measuring magnetic f i e l d intensities from
0 to 200 gammas.

MICROBIAL RESPONSE TO SPACE ENVIRONMENT (M- 191)

The objective o f this experiment i s to determine the type and degree o f alteration
produced i n selected biological systems when exposed to space vacuum and solar ultra-
v i o l e t irradiation under minimum gravitational force. Bacteria, fungi, and viruses
w i l l be exposed by passing the M i c r o b i a l Ecology Evaluation Device (MEED) out through
the C M hatch near the end of the transearth coast EVA. Comparisons w i t h C M and
ground controls w i l l provide component information required to determine the relative
mutagenic and/or alterative strength of various spaceflight sub-environments.

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Fig. 89
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OTHER EXPERIMENTS

Additional experiments assigned to the Apollo missions which are not a part of the
lunar surface or orbital science programs are listed below.

Bone Mineral Measurement (M-078)

The objective of this experiment i s to determine the occurrence and degree of bone
mineral changes i n the Apollo crewmen, which might result from exposure to the
weightless condition; and whether exposure to short periods of 1/6 g alters these
changes. A t selected pre- and post-flight times, the bone mineral content of the
three Apollo crewmen w i l l be determined using x-ray absorption technique. The
radius and ulna (bones of the forearm) and os calcis (heel) are the bones selected for
bone mineral content measurements.

Total Body Gamma Spectrometry (M-079)

The objectives of this experiment are to detect changes i n total body potassium and
total muscle mass (lean body mass), and to detect any induced radioactivity i n the
body of the crewmen. Preflight and postflight examination of each crew member
w i l l be performed by radiation detecting instruments i n the Radiation Counting
Laboratory at MSC. There are no inflight requirements for this experiment.

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LUNAR MOB1LITY AIDS

GENERAL

The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) w i l l be used on Apol l o 15 and subsequent missions
to transport crewmen and equipment on their traverse over the lunar surface (Figure 90)
I t i s a four wheeled, self propelled, manually controlled vehicle w i t h accomodations
for two crewmen and stowed auxiliary equipment designated for the particular mission.
In addition to the tools and scientific equipment used for specific lunar surface tasks,
the LRV a u x i l i a r y equipment includes the Lunar Communications Relay Unit (LCRU)
which provides continuous ground to crew communications through its high and low
gain antennas and the Ground Commanded Television Assembly (GCTA) w i t h remote
azimuth and elevation control from Mission Control Center.

LUNAR R O V I N G VEHICLE SUBSYSTEM

The LRV has f i v e major subsystems: M o b i l i t y , Electrical Power, Navigation, Crew


Station, and Thermal Control . Secondary subsystems include Space Support Equipment
(SSE) consisting o f structural support and deployment hardware.

MOB1LITY SUBSYSTEM

The mobility subsystem consists o f the chassis and equipment and controls necessary to
propel, suspend, brake and steer the LRV.

The chassis i s divided i n t o three major sections which support a l l equipment and sub-
systems. The forward chassis contains two batteries, the navigation system's signal
processing unit and directional gyroscope, and the drive control electronics (DCE)
for traction drive and steering. I t also has provisions for mounting the LCRU, the high
gain antenna, and the GCTA. The center chassis contains the crew station, the control
and display console, and the hand controller. I t carries auxiliary equipment including
a camera, low gain antenna, collapsible stowage bags and the Buddy SLSS. The a f t
chassis i s the stowage platform for the scientific payload. The forward and a f t chassis
sections fold over the center section and lock i n place for stowage i n the LM during
flight.

The chassis i s suspended from each of the four wheels by a pair o f parallel arms mounted
on torsion bars and connected to each traction drive. Vertical wheel travel and rate
of travel i s limited by a linear damper connected between the chassis and each traction
drive. Deflection of the system and the tires allows a 14-inch ground clearance when
the vehicle i s ful l y loaded, and 17-inches when unloaded. The suspension systems can
be rotated approximately 135 degrees to a l low folding and LRV stowage i n the LM

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1

Fig. 90

July 1971 Page 154


The four wheels each include an open mesh tire w i t h chevron tread covering 50 per
cent o f the surface contact area. A n inner frame limits deflections o f the outer w i r e
mesh frome under high impact load conditions. Each wheel i s provided w i t h a separate
sealed and pressurized traction drive consisting o f a harmonic drive reduction unit,
drive motor, and brake assembly. The harmonic drive reduction units transmit torque
to each wheel, reducing the motor speed a t a ratio of 80:l and allowing continuous
application of torque to the wheels at a l l speeds without requiring gear shifting. Each
drive has an odmeter pickup that transmits magnetic pulses to the navigation system's
signal processing u n i t . The drive motors are 1/4 horsepower, direct current, brush
type motors which operate from a nominal 36-volt input.

The LRV i s driven by a hand controller located between the two crewmen. I t provides
forward and reverse speed commands and steering commands to the drive control
electronics, which then processes these commands to the correct drive and steering
motors to make the desired maneuvers. The hand controller and its functional modes
are shown i n Figure 91 . I t i s a T-shaped handle located i n the control and display
console post. Forward pivoting of the hand controller increases forward speed and
rearward pivoting reduces speed. A reverse i n h i b i t switch i s provided on the hand
controller to prevent accidental reversing of the vehicle. Reverse drive i s obtained
by moving the reverse i n h i b i t switch up and pitching the controller rearward about
the throttle p i v o t point. The controller w i l l remain i n the selected forward or reverse
speed position when the operator removes his hand from the controller handle.

Moving the controller left or right w i l l cause the vehicle to steer left or right. The
controller i s spring-loaded to return to neutral steering position when released. LRV
steering i s accomplished by a steering system for both front and rear wheels, allowing
~ o f 1 22 inches. Each system has a 1/1 0th horsepower, 5000-rpm
a turning r a d us
motor driving through a 257:l reduction gear that connects w i t h the traction drive
motor by steering arms and a t i e rod. I f a steering malfunction occurs i n the system
that controls one set of wheels (front or rear) the steering linkage on that set can be
disengaged and the operation can be continued w i t h that set o f wheels locked i n the
neutral position.

Braking i s applied by movement o f the controller rearward about the brake p i v o t


point. Drive power i s disabled by the DCE once the controller i s moved more than
5 degrees about the the brake pivot point. The parking brake automatically engages
when the controller i s moved 3 inches rearward. The parking brake i s normally re-
leased by moving the controller to a steer left position. I n the event o f failure o f
the normal parking brake release mechanism, emergency release of the parking brake
lock i s effected by moving the controller rearward, p u l l i n g the release ring located
under the arm-rest, and w i t h the release ring still pulled, releasing the controller,
which w i l l return to neutral position.

The DCE accepts forward and reverse speed control signals from the hand controller
and transmits them to the drive motors to provide speed and direction control o f the

Page 155
HAND CONTROLLER

0 TEE HANDLE DESIGN PITCHPIVOT .


P I T C H FORWARD FOR FORKPRD D R I V E
P I T C H REARWARD FOR REVERSE D R I V E
REVERSE I N H I B I T SWITCH
o MOVE L E F T TO STEER L k F T
MOVE R I G H T TO STEER RIGtiT
PULL REARWARD FOR BRAKE
PARKING BRAKE AUTOMATICALLY
ENGAGES AT ABOUT
3 I N C H BRAKE
DISPLACEMENT

FOR L E F T S I D E
M-933-71
Apol l o Supplement

vehicle. In addition the DCE accepts odometer signals from the traction drives and
processes the signals for odometer/speedometer readout. Actuation of the hand
controller i n either the forward or reverse positions generates two basic signals. One
signal determines the direction o f drive, w h i l e the other reflects the amount of speed
desired. A signal disallows switching from forward to reverse, or reverse to forward
u n t i l wheel speed drops below 1 KPH. Since the state o f the i n h i b i t c i r c u i t may be
indeterminate from 1 KPH to f u l l stop, the vehicle must be brought to a f u l l stop before
a direction change i s commanded.

ELECTRICAL POWER SUBSYSTEM

The electrical power subsystems consists o f two batteries, distribution wiring, connectors,
switches, c i r c u i t breakers and meters for control l i n g and monitoring electrical power.
A l l vehicle power i s supplied by two silver zinc batteries mounted on the forward
chassis. Each battery provides 36 volts of direct current to the main power buses. The
power distribution system provides two separate and redundant power buses for each
battery. Both batteries are normally used simultaneously on an approximately equal
load basis during LRV operation. Each battery has a capacity of 115 ampere hours -
and i s capable o f carrying the entire LRV electrical load. The circuitry i s designed
such that i n the event one battery fails, the entire electrical load can be switched
to the remaining battery for continued operation. Power distribution i s controlled through
four main power buses. W i t h this arrangement, any principle load such as drive motor,
steering motor, etc., may be connected to any battery. Electrical power to the naviga-
t i o n system w i l l continue uninterrupted from either battery. There i s also an a u x i l i a r y
connector which provides emergency power for the LCRU. The LCRU power cable i s
attached to the a u x i l i a r y connector prior to launch.

The distribution and monitoring system on the LRV displays electrical system status,
battery and motor temperatures, voltage and current flow from the batteries, and ampere
hour status (see Figure 92). A caution and warning system activates a spring loaded
flag for overtemperature conditions o f 125OF for battery or 4 0 0 ' ~ for a drive motor.
The astronaut can reset the flag and monitor the analog displays for that subsystem which
i n i t i a t e d the fault indication. The flag w i l l f l i p up again when an overtemperature
occurs on another battery or traction drive.

N A V I G A T I O N SUBSYSTEM

The primary navigation subsystem uses a directional gyro to provide the crew w i t h a
continuous meter indication o f vehicle heading and, i n conjunction w i t h the signal
processing unit, a continuous d i g i t a l display of the distance traveled and bearing
and range to the LM. The Directional G y r o Unit (DGU) has two degrees o f freedom
and senses changes i n vehicle heading. Four odometers (one per wheel) provide data on
the speed and distance traveled. Using the vehicle heading and distance traveled the
Signal Processing Unit (SPU) computes bearing and range from the vehicle to the LM,

July 1971 Page 157


M-933-7 1
Apollo S u p p l e m e n t

LRV D E P L O Y M E N T S Y S T E M
BRAKED

w
LRV STOWED I N QUADRANT
FSTRONAUT REMOVES IPISULATION
BLANKET, OPERATING TAPES ASTRONAUT LOWERS LRV
ASTRONAUT REMOTELY I N I T I A T E S FROM STORAGE BAY WITH
AND EXECUTES DEPLOYMENT DOUBLE BRAKED REEL

AFT CHASSIS UNFOLDS : I/


. .-.-
Li
@ REAR WHEELS UNFOLD . I

0 AFT C H A S S I S LOCKS I N
POSITION
FRONT WHEELS UNFOLD

FORWARD CHASSIS LOCKS ASTRONAUT DISCONNECTS SSE


I N P O S I T I O N . ASTRONAUT ASTRONAUT UNFOLDS SEATS,
LOWERS LRV TO SURFACE FOOTRESTS
W I T P CENTER BRAKED REEL

Fig. 92
July 1971 Page 158
M-933-71
A p o l l o Supplement

t o t a l distance traveled, and speed. Odometer pulses are taken from each wheel and
entered i n t o the odometer logic v i a the SPU l i n e receivers. The l o g i c selects the t h i r d
fastest wheel for use i n the distance computation, thus insuring that the output
pulses w i l l not be based on a wheel w h i c h i s locked, or slipping excessively.

The n a v i g a t i o n display on the control console includes attitude, heading, bearing,


distance, range and speed indicators. A sun shadow d e v i c e i s also a v a i l a b l e t o determine
LRV heading w i t h respect t o the sun azimuth for backup navigation. For i n i t i a l gyro
alignment and updates, the crew uses the v e h i c l e a t t i t u d e indicator and sun shadow
d e v i c e . Mission Control Center uses e p h e ~ ~ e r tables
is t o refine the raw data and com-
pute true v e h i c l e heading w i t h respect t o lunar north.

CREW S T A T I O N

The crew station consists o f seats and seatbelts, armrest and footrests, inboard and out-
board handholds, and fenders.

The LRV seats are tubular aluminum frames spanned b y n y l o n strips. They are folded
f l a t onto the center chassis during launch, and are erected by the crewmen after the LRV
i s deployed. The seat backs support and restrain the astronaut's portable l i f e support
systems (PLSS) from moving sideways when crewmen are s i t t i n g on the LRV. The seat
bottoms have cutouts for access to PLSS flow control valves and provisions for v e r t i c a l
support o f the PLSS. The seat belts are made o f n y l o n webbing. They consist o f a n
adjustable web section and a metal hook that i s snapped over the outboard handhold.

The armrest, located d i r e c t l y behind the hand controller, supports the arm o f the
crewman who i s using the controller. The footrests are adjusted before launch t o f i t
each crewman. They are then stowed against the center chassis floor and secured b y pads
u n t i l deployment.

The inboard handholders are made o f one-inch aluminum tubing and h e l p the crewmen
get i n and out o f the LRV. The handholds also have attachment receptacles for the
16mm camera and the LCRU low gain antenna. The outboard handholds are integral
parts o f the chassis and provide crew comfort and s t a b i l i t y when seated on the LRV.

The v e h i c l e ' s fenders, made o f l i g h t w e i g h t fiberglass, are designed t o prevent lunar


dust from b e i n g thrown on the open v e h i c l e and its occupants, or from obstructing
astronaut vision w h i l e d r i v i n g . The fender front and rear sections are retracted during
f l i a h t and extended b y the crewmen after deployment.

THERMAL C O N T R O L SUBSYSTEM

Ther-ma1 control of LRV components i s achieved through the use o f passive thermal con-
trol techniques consisting o f special surface finishes, heat sinks, thermal straps, rnultilayer

J u l y 1971 Page 159


M-933-7 1
Apol l o Supplement

insulation and insulation component mounts. These concepts applied singly or i n


combinations allow maximum utilization o f the component thermal characteristics to
obtain the required system performance. Thermal control criteria are divided into
two parts because of the extremely divergent environmental criteria. The transporta-
tion phase (lift-off through LRV deployment) deals with a completely passive vehicle,
no surface contaminants and a deep space environment with the major concern being
retention o f heat i n the system. Lunar Surface Operation deals with active systems,
surface contaminants, and lunar surface environments with the major concern being
dissipation of heat from the system.

Radiators are located on top of the batteries to dissipate heat generated and stored
during operat,ions. These radiators are exposed during stops only i f required to avoid
overtemperatures during succeeding operations. Radiator surfaces employ the use of
Optical Solar Reflectors (OSR1s) to dissipate stored energy between sorties. The sur-
faces are protected by the LRV dust covers during lunar operation. Thermal control
of the LRV i n areas other than the forward chassis i s achieved through the use o f
surface finishes. Thermal control of the display and control console i s achieved by
use o f thermal control coatings and by inhibiting the tra.nsfer of heat between the
faceplate and the mounting plate.

The insulation blanket i s continuous except for penetrations for electronic components
fiberglass mounts and cable bundles. Dust covers over the radiator surfaces are
considered to be part o f the blanket and are insulated on the outside with the same
material and configuration. The blanket consists of 15 layers of perforated aluminized
mylar separated with nylon netting. Beta cloth i s provided on the external and thermal
surfaces to repel dust and resist abrasion. The blanket i s built up from 12 sections
and i s held together and i n place with velcro tape. Edges are prevented from "ballooning"
by intermittent bonding of mylar and nylon netting.

SPACE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT (SSE)

The Space Support Equipment (SSE) consists of two basic subsystems of hardware, the
structural support subsystem and the deployment hardware subsystem. The function of
the structural support subsystem i s to safely restrain the LRV i n the LM during launch
boost, earth-lunar transit, and landing. The LRV i s supported by three hard points i n
Quad 1 of the L M descent stage. The function of the deployment hardware subsystem
i s to remove the LRV from its stowed position i n the LM descent stage and lower i t to
the surface i n a position from which i t can be driven away by the astronauts. The
system i s operated by the use of "D" rings and cables which allow the crew to remain
outside of the deployment envelope during the operation for safety (see figure
for deployment sequence).

July 1971 Page 160


M-933-71
A p o l l o Supplement

ABBREVIATIONS A N D ACRONYMS

AEA Abort Electronics Assembly


AFB A i r Force Base
AFETR A i r Force Eastern Test Range
AGS Abort Guidance Subsystem
ALDS A p o l l o Launch Data System
ALHT Apol l o Lunar Hand Tools
ALSO A p o l l o Lunar Surface D r i l l
ALSEP A p o l l o Lunar Surface Experiments Package
AM Amplitude M o d u l a t i o n
AOT Alignment O p t i c a l Telescope
APS A u x i l i a r y Propulsion System (S-IVB)
APS Ascent Propulsion System (LM)
ARIA Apol l o Range Instl-umentation A i r c r a f t
A RS Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem
AS Apol Io/Saturn
ASA Abort Sensor Assembly
AS E A c t i v e Seismic Experiment
AS I Augmented Spark Igniter
BI PURN " B i l l y Pugh " Rescue N e t
BIG Biological Isolation Garment
B PC Boost Protective Cover
BS E Booster Systems Engineer
BS G Booster Systems G r o u p
CASTS Countdown and Status Transmission System
CCATS Communications, Command, and Telemetry System
CCGE C o l d Cathode Gauge Experiment
CClG C o l d Cathode Ion Gauge
ccs Command Communications System
CDP Command Data Processor (MS FN Site)
CES Control Electronics Subsystem
CI F Central Instrumentation F a c i l i t y
CM Command M o d u l e
CMC 'Command M o d u l e Computer
COAS Crewman O p t i c a l Alignment Sight
C RA Crew Reception Area
CS Communications System
CSM Command/Service M o d u l e
CSS Central Status Station
C T C I-awI e ~ - , / r ~ - a n s ~ o r - t e ~ -
CWEA Caution and Warning Electronics Assembly
CWG Constant Wear Garment
DATA-CORE C I F Telemetl-y Convel-sion System

J u l y 1971 Page 161


DEDA Data Entry and Display Assembly
DOD Department o f Defense
DOS Department o f Supply (Australia)
DPS Descent Propulsion System (LM)
DSEA Data Storage Electronics Assembly
EASEP Early Apol l o S c i e n t i f i c Experiments Package
ECS Environmental Control System
EDS Emergency D e t e c t i o n System
EDS Explosive Devices System (LM)
EECOM ,
Electrical, Environmental and Communications Engineer
EL Hasselblad E l e c t r i c Data Camera
E LS Earth Landing System
EMS Entry M o n i t o r System
EMU Extravehicular M o b i l i t y U n i t
E PS E l e c t r i c a l Power System
ET R Eastern Test Range
EVA Extravehicular A c t i v i t y
FCC Flight Control Computer (IU, analog)
FC S Fecal Containment System
FDA1 Flight Director A t t i t u d e Indicator
FDO Flight Dynamics O f f i c e r
9 G r a v i t y force a t sea level ( 1 g)
GCTA Ground Control led Television Assembly
GDC G y r o Display Coupler
GH2
G N2 Gaseous N i t r o g e n
GNC Guidance, Navigation, and Control Engineer
G NCS Guidance, N a v i g a t i o n , and Control System (CSM)
G N&CS Guidance, Navigation, and Control System (LM)
GOX Gaseous O x y g e n
GSE Ground Support Equipment
GUlDO Guidance O f f i c e r
GS FC Goddard Space Flight Center
H2 Hydrogen
HF H i g h Frequency
H FE Heat Flow Experiment
HOSC H u n t s v i l l e Operations Support Center
HTS Heat Transport Subsystem (LM)
ICG I n f l ight Coveral l Garment
IMU Inertial Measurement U n i t
IP Impact Predictor (at KSC)
IS Instrumentation Svstem (LM)
I T LSA Integrated Torso Limb Suit Assembly
IU Instrument U n i t
KSC Kennedy Space Centel-

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M-933-71
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LC Launch Complex
LCC Launch Control Center
LC G L i q u i d C o o l i n g Garment
LCRU Lunar Communications Relay Unit
LES Launch Escape System
LET Launch Escape Tower
LEVA Lunar Extravehicular Visor Assembly
L GC Lunar M o d u l e Guidance Computer
LH 2 L i q u i d Hydrogen
LIEF Launch Information Exchange F a c i l i t y
LM Lunar M o d u l e
LN2 Liquid Nitrogen
LOX, LO2 Liquid Oxygen
LR Landing Radar
L RL Lunar Receiving Laboratory
LRRR Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector
LRV Lunar Roving V e h i c l e
LV Launch V e h i c l e
LV D A Launch V e h i c l e Data Adapter
LV DC Launch V e h i c l e D i g i t a l Computer
MCC Mission Control Center
MDC M a i n Display Console
ME Magnetometer Exper-iment
MESA M o d u l a r i z e d Equipment Stowage Assembly
Ml L A Mel-I-itt Island Launch Area
ML M o b i l e Launcher-
MMH Monomethyl Hydrazine
MOC Mission Operations Computer
MOCR Mission Operations Control Room
MSC Manned Spacecraft Center
MS FC Marshall Space Flight Center
MS FN Manned Space Flight N e t w o r k
MS S M o b i l e Service Structure
NASCOM N A S A Communications N e t w o r k
N 2 0 4 Ni tl-ogen Tetr-oxide
NPSH . N e t Positive Suction Head
G2 Oxygen
0 PS O x y g e n Purge System
OSCPCS O x y g e n Supply and Cabin PI-essure Control Subsystem
PC M Pulse Code M o d u l a t i o n
PCMTEA Pulse Code M o d u l a t i o n and Timing Electi-onics Assembly
PDS Propellant Dispersion System
PGA Pressure Gar-ment Assembly
PG NCS Primary Guidance, N a v i g a t i o n , and Control System (LM)

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M-933-7 1
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PG NS Primary Guidance and Navigation Subsystem (LM)


PLSS Portable Life Suppart System
PS E Passive Seismic Experiment
PRS Prime Recovery Shi,p
PTCR Pad Terminal Connection Room
PU Propellant U t i l i z a t i o n
RCC Recovery Control Center
RC L Radiation Counting Laboratory
RC R Recovery Control Room
RCS Reaction Control System
RETRO Direction Opposite to V e l o c i t y Vector
RETRO Retrofire O f f i c e r
RF Radio Frequency
RI S Range Instrumentation Ship
RP- 1 Rocket Propel lant (refined kerosene)
RR Rendezvous Radar
RTCC Real-Time Computer Complex
s/c Spacecraft
SCS Stabi li z a t i o n and Control System
SCEA Signal Conditioning Electronics Assembly
SIDE Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment
SIM Scientific Instrument Module
S LA Spacecraft- LM A d ~ p t e r
SM Service Module
SMJC Service Module Jettison Controller
S PS Service Propulsion System
S RC Sample Return Container
SS R Staff Support Room
SV Space Vehicle
SWC Solar Wind Composition
SWE Solar Wind Experiment
TCA Thrust Chamber Assembly
TCS Thermal Conditioning System
TMG Thermal Meteoroid Garment
TS M Tail Service Mast
TV Television
UCTA Urine Col lection and Transfer Assembly
US B Unified S-band
UHF U l tra-High Frequency
VAB Vehicle Assembly Building
VHF Very High Frequency
WMS Water Management System (LM)
W MS Waste Management System
WTR Western Test Range

J u l y 1971 Page 164