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Fire Station Location Running head: FIRE STATION LOCATION AND THE IMPACT ON TRAVEL

Fire Station Location and the Impact on Travel Time Performance in the Newport Beach Fire Department Paul D. Matheis Newport Beach Fire Department Newport Beach, California

An applied research project submitted to the National Fire Academy as part of the Executive Fire Officer Program

September 2009

Fire Station Location Abstract The problem was the Newport Beach Fire Department (NBFD) had not conducted a study of its compliance with the NBFD response time objectives policy. Over time, the city had grown geographically, realizing an increase in population and building development without a formal plan for the fire defensive and medical response network. An understanding of what NBFD engine companies had achieved, versus the policy expectations relative to first-due unit travel time and the implications faced when exceeding the NBFD standard was needed. Furthermore, the areas of the city that were not in compliance with the response time objectives were unknown. This purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of NBFD engine companies

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relative to the response time objectives for first-due response. Using descriptive research through interviews of subject matter experts and data analysis, the researcher was able to answer the following questions: Can the NBFD meet the response time objectives policy for first-due engine companies? What areas of the city are at increased risk due to the distance from a fire station and an extended travel time? What opportunities exist to improve first-due performance of the travel time component of the response time objectives policy? The results showed that older areas of the city met the policy objectives. However, longer travel time figures were found in two outlying areas and the newest region of the city. An inability to use the computer aided dispatch system to capture data on the travel time of responding units complicated the study. The relocation of NBFD fire stations one, two, three and five would improve travel time expectations across the city. However, the addition of a ninth fire station at Crystal Heights would ensure coverage of the entire city in compliance with the NBFD response time objectives policy.

Fire Station Location Table of Contents Page Abstract ………………………………………………………….. 2 Introduction ……………………………………………………… 4 Background & Significance …………………………………….. 5

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Literature Review………………………………………………… 7 Procedures………………………………………………………... 14 Results …………………………………………………………… 18 Discussion………………………………………………………… 27 Recommendations………………………………………………... 29 Reference List……………………………………………………. 31 Appendix A - Begnell Interview…………..……………………. Appendix B - Coleman Interview……….………………………. 33 34

Appendix C – Travel Time ……..……………………………….. 35 Appendix D – Response Time Objectives Policy………………. Appendix E - MCFA Year End Report …………………………. Appendix G – Campagnolo Interview ………………………….. Appendix H – Murphy Interview ……………………………….. 36 42 44 45

Fire Station Location Fire Station Location and the Impact on Travel Time Performance In the Newport Beach Fire Department

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Across the United States, the rapid development of commercial and residential properties can outpace a community’s ability to provide efficient public fire service delivery. Newport Beach is one area where new construction and land annexations have occurred without adequate planning for the delivery of fire protection resources. The problem is the Newport Beach Fire Department (NBFD) had not conducted a study of its compliance with the NBFD response time objectives policy. During the lifetime of the organization, the city had grown geographically, realizing an increase in population and building development without a formal plan for the fire defensive and medical response network. Specifically, in the newly developed areas of this city, the NBFD cannot meet the travel time component of the response time objectives policy. The outcome of this is an elevated level of risk in the newly annexed communities because of extended travel time due to the distance from a fire station. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of NBFD engine companies relative to the NBFD response time objectives policy for first-due, travel time response. The descriptive research method was used to answer the following questions: Can the NBFD meet the travel time component of the response time objectives policy for first-due engine companies? What areas of the city are at increased risk due to the distance from a fire station and an extended travel time? What opportunities exist to improve first-due performance of the travel time component of the response time objectives policy? This study will compare the current fire station locations in Newport Beach with the established standard response time of the National Fire Protection Association standard 1710 and the NBFD policy on travel time, NBFD SOP 3.A.201.03 (2004). Additionally, other, similar

Fire Station Location organizations that have addressed the same problem will be studied. This research will develop information to optimize the location of the fire stations throughout Newport Beach. The information will be used to improve the response capability from each fire station in an effort to meet the travel time component, for first-due companies, of NBFD policy and reduce the risk in the under-protected communities that experience extended travel time. This rebalancing of fire station locations is important for a number of reasons. First, the city is about to embark on a modernization of the current fire facilities, and the funding of a new facility in the proper location may be important to the City Council and the citizens. Second, the objective is to

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provide each community in the city with service that meets the organizational policy as identified in the response time objectives as well as to improve service and reduce risk. Background and Significance The City of Newport Beach is located in southern California about 50 miles south of Los Angeles. It covers 25 square miles of land and an additional 15 square miles of bay and oceanfront. The residential permanent population is estimated to be 86,000, increasing to 100,000 during the summer months. During peak and holiday periods, up to 200,000 additional people visit the beaches daily. Furthermore, employment and retail centers experience an influx of visitors on a daily basis throughout the year (City of Newport Beach Public Information Office, 2009). Over the years the NBFD has grown with the expanding geography and population of Newport Beach. The NBFD was established in 1911 (City of Newport Beach Public Information Office) by a vote of the Council, and today there are eight firehouses staffed by 39 firefighters twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week. The fire stations house eight engine companies, two truck companies, three paramedic ambulances and one battalion chief command vehicle. The

Fire Station Location NBFD is a signatory to the California Master Mutual Aid Agreement and maintains automaticaid response agreements with all the contiguous fire service agencies. This automatic aid agreement is supported and enhanced by a computer aided dispatch (CAD) CAD-to-CAD interface that maintains up to date unit status and availability in real time. In 2008, the problem became apparent when the NBFD answered nearly 10,000 calls for service with about 10% of those outside the city proper, with an average response time of 4 minutes, 28 seconds. (Refer to Appendix E.) Historically, in Newport Beach, the location of fire stations was based on an unknown schedule of priorities that has resulted in uneven coverage and areas of increased risk, creating a serious problem and potentially increasing the number of preventable deaths and injuries. To date, NBFD has not conducted a study of its compliance with the NBFD response time

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objectives policy. The ramification of not conducting a compliance study of response times is the impact it has on policy. For a policy to be effective, proper management control is imperative. The information gained from this study can be used to more efficiently locate fire company resources, to properly locate new fire stations, and to relocate existing fire stations. Newport Beach has an active and involved electorate. There are over 160 community associations and over 43,000 registered voters in this city of 86,000 residents (City of Newport Beach Public Information Office). These residents have an expectation of high quality public services and responsiveness from elected officials on quality of life issues (General Plan, 2006). The quality of pre-hospital emergency medical care and efficient fire emergency services are part of this standard of expectation. The possible consequences of a lack of management oversight concerning these issues are public dissatisfaction and litigation due to the untoward outcomes of extended response times.

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This study is necessary to meet the community expectations of a responsive government. This is especially important in Newport Beach, where the electorate is very active in the shaping of local government response to issues concerning the quality of life. This study addresses the National Fire Academy Leading Community Risk Reduction text and risk assessment in unit two (Federal Emergency Management Agency [FEMA], 2007), and the United States Fire Administration (USFA) operational goals of responding in a timely manner to emerging issues, (Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2008). Literature Review One marker of quality medical care is the ability of an EMS provider to meet the stringent response times for basic life support (BLS) and advanced life support (ALS) responses. These markers are four minutes for BLS arrival and eight minutes for ALS response (Pons, Haukoos, Bludworth, & Cribley, 2005). Much of this standard was based on studies of victims of cardiac arrest, which account for less than one percent of calls in most EMS systems (Pons et al.). The concept of the importance of time has been a prominent topic in the trauma literature since World War II, with the idea of a golden hour speaking to the importance of time and the outcome of a trauma patient (Carr, Caplan, Pryor & Branas, 2006). Although a “faster is better” mindset is common in the fire service, there is a balance as to what can be afforded by a community (Center for Public Safety Excellence, 2008). The positive outcome associated with a rapid response develops up until the point that further additional cost does not dramatically increase the benefit (Pareto Principle as stated in Center for Public Safety Excellence, 2008). One approach is to research criteria recognized as important in the intervention of medical emergencies as well as fire suppression capabilities (Center for Public Safety Excellence). Two standards used in the fire service are the Insurance Services Office (ISO), Fire Suppression

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Rating Schedule (FSRS) Public Protection Classification (PPC), and the National Fire Protection (NFPA) standard 1710. The ISO measures the major elements of a city’s fire suppression system to assess risk (ISO, 2004). The rating schedule is used as a tool for insurance purposes; however, the fire service uses some of these ISO methods and formulas when measuring performance and capability of a fire department. One of these performance measurements is the travel time of apparatus calculation that was developed by the RAND Corporation, i.e., Time = 0.65+1.7*Distance (ISO, 2009). This formula is used to provide an average velocity for fire apparatus response estimation, and considers terrain, weather, traffic, and intersection crossing (ISO). Additionally, another recommendation from the ISO is the distance from a fire station to the built upon area of a city, to be 1.5 road miles (ISO). This equation can be used to calculate the achievable distance, within a given time frame, from a fire station to all of the geographic area within a given fire station’s area of responsibility. The sum of the 1.5 mile travel distance and the equation computes to a 3.2 minute response time (ISO). The greater the distance, the longer it will take for the first fire company to arrive safely at the scene and begin suppression efforts. Further, lengthy response times are a function of a point of dispatch and the driving distance (Costa Mesa Fire Department [CMFD] Final Draft Report, 2007). Relative to travel time, the NFPA has a standard travel time of four minutes, or 240 seconds. However, the criterion used to arrive at this figure is not noted in the text of the standard. A study in a fire district outside of Portland, Oregon, looked at the benefit of using geographic information systems to evaluate cardiac survival. Responding to patients in cardiac arrest is a time sensitive emergency activity and using GIS to send the nearest fire company may have a positive impact on survival. The hypothesis in this study was that cardiac arrest survival may be affected by whether the incident was responded to by the first-due apparatus versus the second-due apparatus

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(Warden, Daya, & LeGrady, 2007). In the Costa Mesa report, it is stated that emergency calls for service that exceed a travel time of 10 minutes can result in criticism of the department (CMFD Final Draft Report). Other Similar Research In the Costa Mesa Fire Department (CMFD) study on fire station coverage for the city, an evaluation of the idea of the benefit of relocating a fire station or adding an additional fire station was completed by Emergency Services Consulting, incorporated (CMFD Final Draft Report, 2007). In this study, GIS software was used to calculate the estimated response travel time performance against the CMFD emergency response standard (four minutes, 80% of the time), and illustrate the polygon on a map of the city. This display was able to illustrate the travel time in the current system and plot potential sites for both a relocated station as well as an additional fire station (CMFD Final Draft Report). Furthermore, relocating a fire station will create great interest in the community and some form of outreach will be necessary to deliver the plan and gauge acceptance (Coleman, personal communication, April, 2009). The Orange County Fire Authority (OCFA), in planning for new community coverage as well in as designing plans to cover existing cities, uses a four minute response for the first due company, 80% of the time as a standard. When starting with an entirely new community, the plan can be tailored to address the master planned developments commonly seen in Orange County, California. This can be more challenging when a request to service an established city and all of the associated challenges is presented. If the service request includes a station closure the problems extend beyond operational and become political (Begnell, personal communication, March, 2009). The New York City Fire Department (FDNY), as part of their strategic plan to improve emergency

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response operations, installed automatic vehicle locators (AVL) in 388 ambulances. This led to a reduction in response times (FDNY Strategic Plan, 2007). In July, 2005, the City of Scottsdale, Arizona formed the city’s first municipal fire department. Shortly after this, the fire chief set a goal of responding to emergencies within four minutes, 80% of the time. The reasons cited for this effort were to get to the scene faster and provide a better outcome for the residents and their loved ones. It noted that brain damage can occur in 4-6 minutes without oxygen and a fire can double in size in the time it takes to brush your teeth, or about two minutes. To accomplish this, the Scottsdale Fire Department relocated three fire stations and added a station two and eight. Furthermore, as noted in the Scottsdale report, a key factor in the reduction of response times is the location of a fire station (“Planning for the Future”, n.d.). Importance of Response Time for Firefighters For everyday emergencies involving a fire, cardiac arrest, stroke or difficulty in breathing, the rapid response and intervention by fire fighters is of paramount importance in the outcome of the incident. Flashover, internationally accepted as a major threat to the life of building occupants and firefighters, is a condition in a growing fire within an enclosed space when all of the materials suddenly catch fire (Cooke, 2009). The onset of flashover occurs when the upper layer in a room reaches 900-1100 degrees Fahrenheit (Chen, 2008). Additional minutes in the arrival time of fire fighters at a structure fire can lead to flashover, the point at which a fire is not survivable, and can be as short as four to six minutes (Federal Emergency Management Agency [FEMA], 2009). Since flashover is the point of probable death for victims, the time of arrival by firefighters to begin operations and intervene must occur before flashover. The growth of a fire in a structure will eventually lead to the flashover if the hot gases are not vented and the

Fire Station Location fire is not cooled. Furthermore, no one can survive flashover and rooms will flashover, unless

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offensive operations have begun, in less than eight minutes (Center for Public Safety Excellence, 2008). Additionally, a study done by the United States Fire Administration (USFA), shows that a fire in a structure, without suppression actions, will experience roof collapse in less than 17 minutes, regardless of the construction type (FEMA, 2009). Furthermore, following flashover, the rapid growth of the fire will generate much more heat and require more fire fighters to combat the blaze due to the rapid growth rate of combustion (Center for Public Safety Excellence). This magnifies the search and rescue challenge for the remainder of the structure as well potentially endangering more people. Thus, the distance from a fire station to all points within that station’s initial response area, or first due, should not be farther than can be safely driven within the flashover time frame. The purpose of placing firehouses throughout the cities and communities they protect is based on the need for a rapid response to all emergencies, whether it is a fire related or a medical emergency. A closer look at the important time frames helps to identify just how quickly we need to arrive at the scene of a fire or emergency medical incident for a successful outcome. Each year fire kills more Americans that all natural disasters combined. Even in well protected areas, the growth often outpaces the capability of a fire department to keep up with demand. A research study of the top 500 fire department officials reported 86% growth from 2006-2009 and 75% of those indicated that service delivery was strained due to the growth (ISO, 2004). Furthermore, an estimated 60-75% of all communities have too few fire stations to meet the ISO response distance guidelines (ISO).

Fire Station Location Importance of Response Time for Emergency Medical Services

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In the United States, sudden cardiac death (SCD) is responsible for the loss of 350,000 to 400,000 lives a year and 90% of these cases occur in patients without previously identified risk factors (Callans, 2004). About 80% of SCD resulting from cardiac causes occur in the home, where victims are away from rescue personnel (Callans). Additionally, most victims in cases of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) demonstrate ventricular fibrillation (VF) at some point in their arrest (Hazinski, Chameides, Elling & Hemphill, 2005), and research has shown that resuscitation is most successful if performed in about the first five minutes after collapse (Hazinski et al.). Left untreated, cardiac arrest is fatal (Young & Krahn, 2004). Medical rescuers need to arrive in less than five minutes to defibrillate the heart and start effective CPR (Hazinski et al.). In Reading, Ohio, a study of victims of out of hospital cardiac arrest was recorded in the Utstein style. In this study the most significant predictor of survival was whether or not the arrest was witnessed (Handel, Gallo, Schmidt, & Aaron, 2005). In Victoria, Australia, a study of 1,790 people who suffered a bystander witnessed cardiac arrest compared survival rates between rural and urban patients. The major factor associated with survival at the time of hospital admission was the distance of the closest ambulance to the emergency scene. Furthermore, the study showed that survival from out of hospital cardiac arrest is significantly lower in rural areas than in urban areas in Victoria (Jennings, Cameron, Walker, Bernard & Smith, 2006). The sudden onset of a heart attack, stroke, obstructed airway, and seizure require the timely arrival of trained rescue personnel (Young & Krahn, 2004). The most important factor for success in resuscitation from SCD is time to treatment and specifically defibrillation. Each minute that defibrillation is delayed reduces the chances of hospital discharge by 8-10%

Fire Station Location (Callans, 2004). Additionally, an early study done in Seattle demonstrates that first reported automated external defibrillations (AED) decreased time to defibrillation to 5.1 minutes and increased survival rates as compared to CPR alone (Callans). Studies show that early access to defibrillation for victims of SCA is directly linked to survival. Furthermore, there is an exponential decline in the rate of survival after SCA as the time to defibrillation increases (Callans). Studies by the American Heart Association and in Ontario, Canada speak to the importance of early access to EMS system, effective CPR and advanced cardiac life support is the link to survival (Hazinski et al., 2005; City of Ontario Office of the Fire Marshal, 2004). The “Golden Hour” The golden hour of trauma is based on the knowledge that patients with severe injuries

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are more likely to survive with rapid treatment, and time to definitive care is a major determinant in patient outcomes (Carr et al., 2006). This underscores the importance of properly trained rescuers stationed nearby for rapid response and intervention. Time is a crucial element and a deciding factor in a successful outcome in the rescue business. Halting the growth of a fire and removing toxic smoke gases and excessive heat prior to flashover are critical components of a successful rescue. The speed of a rescue from a structure fire or SCA is that rapid arrival at the scene can mean the difference between life and death (Center for Public Safety Excellence, 2008; Hazinski et al., 2005). Rebalancing Newport Beach Fire Station Locations While there are some variations on the components of what is incorporated in response time, there is general agreement on the elements of what is the travel time component of response time. Travel time is illustrated in Figure 1 as a component of total response time. From the figure, it is clear that there are many separate components that make up response

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time. Simply stated, travel time is the measurement of time from the moment the emergency fire resource begins to move toward the incident following a dispatch until it arrives at the incident scene. Figure 1. Response time components DISCOVERY TIME OR ALARM TIME Unit Notification On scene Travel Time Dispatch Enroute Call Receipt Enroute

Dispatch Processing Time

Turnout Time

TOTAL RESPONSE TIME

Procedures Insurance Services Office (ISO) Formula This study plans to use the average velocity for fire apparatus response estimation formula, i.e., Time = 0.65+1.7*Distance, to predict the estimated speed of fire apparatus over a distance. The estimates from this calculation will then be used to map road miles traveled from each NBFD fire station in five minutes time. For example, in five minutes travel time, and at an average speed of 30 miles per hour, a fire apparatus can travel 2.5 road miles. Study Procedures Interviews were conducted with experts in the field of fire station location and standards of coverage. Battalion Chief Gene Begnell, a long-term member of the strategic services section of the OCFA and currently a consultant in the location of fire stations and standards of coverage, and Ronny J. Coleman of Emergency Services Consulting, Inc., a former California state fire marshal and fire chief, were contacted for assistance in the discovery of information relative to

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standards of coverage. Information was obtained from these informants to determine the existing standards for the travel time component of response time in the fire service industry, and the implications of various outcomes. Interviews conducted with Dan Campagnolo, systems administrator in the Newport Beach Planning Department and Rod Murphy, supervisor in the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Department provided the number of dwelling units, population, and assessed valuation within each first-due area of the eight fire stations. For lists of interview questions, see Appendixes A, B, G and H. A table was developed with the information obtained through interviews to compare the assessed valuation, population, number of dwelling units, annual call volume, road miles covered, and area in square miles covered by each of the eight fire stations. This comparison is important because each fire station is established to protect the emergency needs of the people as well as the structural development and infrastructure. If any fire station covers too much area of responsibility, as measured in square mileage, the ability to reach all areas of the first-due response area within the NBFD policy of five minute travel time will be challenged due to the length of travel from the nearest fire station. During the interview with BC Begnell, important information was discovered about what technical information should be considered when choosing a fire station site. The use of fractional standards, combined with the known call volume, will provide an estimation of the ability of a single engine company to meet the standard due to availability. Furthermore, with staffing of three on an engine company, as is the case in Newport Beach, the second due company with firefighters should arrive at the two minute mark. This is important due to the requirement of four firefighters on the scene prior to offensive operations (Procedures for Interior Structural Firefighting, n.d.). With three firefighters on the scene, the reflex time for the

Fire Station Location initial company to secure a water supply, hand line and force entry before entering the immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) atmosphere is about two minutes (Gene

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Begnell, personal communication, March 10, 2009). Chief Begnell, a former training coordinator from the NBFD, has firsthand knowledge of Newport Beach and was able to synthesize the data and provide insight. Begnell spoke about the critical task analysis that he had helped to assess for the OCFA on firefighter time to task completion on the fire ground and how that impacts not only first-due companies, but also the second-due companies as well. This is important as it relates to the NFPA 1710 standard and the Occupational Safety Health Administration (OSHA) two-in/two-out rule requiring four firefighters on-scene prior to offensive operations. In the OCFA study the second due company was needed at the two minute mark following the first-due company arrival when operating with three person company staffing so that additional personnel would arrive at the scene and maintaining fidelity to the 2-in/2-out rule. This is because, in the OCFA study, the reflex time to place a hose line in service was never faster than two minutes (Gene Begnell, personal communication, March 10, 2009). As a result of this information, it was important to evaluate the distance of each single company firehouse that was positioned near the ocean shoreline, as the next due could only respond from one direction. Furthermore, the stations on the Balboa Peninsula, due to their isolation on a narrow strip of land, had to ensure that this information was incorporated into the fire station site chosen for stations one (Balboa) and two (Lido). Ron Coleman discussed the influence of a community on the fire station site (Ron Coleman, personal communication). Newport Beach has many active community organizations and any fire station movement is likely to be closely scrutinized. Coleman stated that people do not like an established fire station moved out of a community and that the placement of a fire station in an established community was controversial as well. This information would be

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important in the community outreach process involving any station relocation plan in the City of Newport Beach. Data was also collected from Rod Murphy of the Newport Beach GIS Department, which provided information about the number of road miles and square miles covered within the designated first-due area of each existing fire station. Murphy used the Newport Beach GIS to map the city, illustrating the current location of each existing firehouse with a polygon demonstrating the area of coverage. These maps illustrate the coverage potential of each individual fire station based on the ISO formula for total road miles achievable in five minutes of travel time. Using this type of graphic, the reader can easily recognize those areas where the current Newport Beach fire stations overlap in coverage. This graphic also shows the areas that are too far from a fire station and outside of the policy objectives for travel time, therefore subjecting citizens and property to increased risk. This data was used when locating a fire station site by finding a location that either had a small area and population outside of the travel time zone or, with an additional fire station, covered the entire city using the GIS mapping technology. The ISO calculation for travel time, i.e., Time = 0.65+1.7*Distance, was used to map the distance each firehouse is able to cover based on the NBFD travel time policy of five minutes for the first arriving company. The maps were reviewed and assessed for areas outside the performance standard of five minutes for travel time, as well as for opportunities for relocation. These illustrations of fire station coverage were used to identify the geographical area of the city protected within the NBFD policy, and the area of the city too far from a fire station to meet the travel time standard.

Fire Station Location Limitations The relocation of a fire station will involve a number of facets that are difficult to evaluate

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without actually engaging in the process. The acceptance by the community and how that would impact the final decision by the political body are a large factor in a community like Newport Beach. Furthermore, a simulated outreach plan regarding a topic that would be so important to the community is not possible without creating undue concern. Additionally, the travel time formula for speed over a distance is a calculation and an estimation of fire apparatus performance. This formula was developed by the RAND Corporation in the early 1970s and has not been modified for the more powerful modern fire apparatus and high speed road systems of today. However, recent validation studies by the ISO still support this equation as a predictive tool (ISO, 2009). Finally, there are many gated communities in Newport Beach, and private streets with speed bumps used to slow traffic. These traffic calming measures are not part of the travel time calculation. However, weather, traffic, grade and intersection crossings are included in the formula (ISO). Results Interview data from Dan Campagnolo of the Newport Beach Planning Department and Rod Murphy of the Newport Beach GIS Department is shown in Table 1. Table 1 illustrates the area of responsibility of each of the eight fire stations in their current location. This is based on the first-due response district, or the unit that would be initially assigned within a geographic first-due district if all of the resources were available. Knowledge of how much area and responsibility is covered by each fire station is important when rebalancing fire station locations. If a station has low values of responsibility on the factors noted in Table 1 then it is likely that the fire station can handle more of the workload from a nearby fire station. A review of this table

Fire Station Location shows a wide gap in responsibility between the Newport Beach fire stations in square mileage, assessed valuation, number of dwelling units, road miles covered, and population protected. Each of the values in the table provides essential information for understanding the various firefighting threats and emergency needs of Newport Beach. Assessed valuation

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indicates the monetary worth of the residential or business structural development cost within a first-due area of a fire station. This can be related to the replacement cost if a fire of significance were to become established in this district. Total road miles, the number of road miles within the first-due district of a given fire station, are important when calculating the expected activity for the resources stationed within that facility. Square miles is important because the overall size of the geographical area captured within the fire station’s first-due is related to how much space will need to be driven to reach all parts of that district and is related to travel time. Dwelling units refers to the housing total within the first-due district of each fire station. This indicator is important for both understanding the estimated population and the expected medical call volume. The number of people or population within the first-due district of each station will impact the volume of calls for emergency service. More people will generally equal more calls for service (Center for Public Safety Excellence, 2008). Emergency call volume and type helps one to understand the emergency call history for service activity of a fire station’s first-due response district. This is important when considering the relocation of a fire station. If the activity level is exceptionally high, it will then be important to gain information on other elements of the emergency responses, i.e., the locations of the fires or emergency medical calls during the relocation discussion (Center for Public Safety Excellence). The data in Table 1 clearly depicts the gap between the area of coverage in square miles, population within the first-due response district, total number of road miles covered, value of the

Fire Station Location structural development, amount of building stock in dwelling units, and annual call volume of

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the fire stations. The difference between the station with the smallest coverage area, Fire Station One (Balboa), and the largest area of coverage, Fire Station Eight (Newport Coast), is nearly a factor of 11. There is wide disparity in the value of the structural development between stations one and eight, with the latter protecting nearly seven times more structural value. Furthermore, the gap between road miles covered and annual call volume is significant, with station one (Balboa) covering the least and responding the least, protecting 21.44 road miles and answering 528 calls in year 2008, and station five (Corona Del Mar) with the most road miles protected at 75.75 miles, and the engine company at fire station two (Lido) responding to 1,775 calls in year 2008. Table 1 Newport Beach Fire Station Demographics within Standard Policy Guidelines Fire Square Population, Dwelling Assessed Road station miles est. units, res. value $USD miles number covered protected One .6 5,560 2650 340,880,657 21.44 (Balboa) Two 2.8 17,100 8165 1,641,928,868 66.5 (Lido) Three 4.21 15,400 7350 2,358,897,174 65.3 (Newport Center) Four .74 3,066 2,143 640,071,098 27.27 (Balboa Island) Five 4.77 15,200 7240 1,663,974,346 75.75 (Corona Del Mar) Six 1.87 11,100 5290 864,169,487 35.79 (Mariners) Seven 2.96 7,600 3630 1,606,122,328 39.5 (Santa Ana Heights) Eight 6.53 8,500 4350 2,319,459,350 57.56

Engine call vol. CY 2008 528 1775 1449

818

1340

1223 1274

679

Fire Station Location (Newport Coast)

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The number of road miles is an estimate of the coverage ability in five minutes time and is based on the RAND calculation demonstrated in Appendix C. Maps were created using the current location of each existing firehouse and the distance each firehouse is able to cover using the ISO calculation for travel time and based on the NBFD travel time standard of five minutes. Figure 2 is a map of the current fire station locations and indicates the distance that each individual fire company would be able to travel in five minutes. Five minutes travel time is the NBFD response time objectives policy standard that was established to provide timely intervention in case of fire or medical emergency. In Figure 2, each of the three areas which are unreachable from a Newport Beach fire station within the NBFD policy for travel time are labeled A, B, and C. The development name that corresponds to “A” is Newport Terrace, “B” is Port Streets/Harbor Ridge, and “C” is the Crystal Heights development. As an answer to the first question, “can the NBFD meet the response time objectives policy for the first-due Engine Company?” Figure 2 clearly indicates that the existing fire station locations are not covering three key locations in the five minute travel time standard. Furthermore, to answer the second question, “what areas of the city are at increased risk due to the distance from a fire station and extended travel time?” The areas of increased risk are labeled as A, B, and C in Figure 2. Figure 3 illustrates a possible solution for relocating the current stations. This figure shows the relocation of four NBFD stations to maximize coverage, utility, and to reduce risk to the under protected areas of the city. In Figure 3, stations one (Balboa), two (Lido), three (Newport Center) and five (Corona Del Mar) are moved from their current locations to sites where the location is promising relative to travel time and the land is vacant. It would be difficult to move any station in Newport Beach, and this is further confirmed in my interview with

Fire Station Location Coleman who noted that moving a fire station from within established community is difficult. However, by maintaining the protection standard and employing a system of community outreach this may have the desired impact. The interview with Begnell provided knowledge of

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second due coverage needs with three members staffing. Furthermore, the GIS data allowed the researcher to plot the travel time in road miles so to be in compliance with the NBFD standard. In order to be in compliance with the NBFD standard, station one (Balboa) was moved to 15th Street and West Bayfront, station two (Lido) was moved to Superior Avenue and West Coast Highway, station three (Newport Center) was moved to MacArthur Boulevard and Bonita Canyon Road, and station five (Corona Del Mar) was moved to Los Trancos and East Coast Highway. The fire station coverage in Figure 3 was evaluated for the ability to maintain and enhance coverage. By implementing this plan, more coverage occurs within the NBFD policy standard for the city in area, population and structural value. Unfortunately, even with this plan, there are still areas not properly covered in the city. As indicated in Figure 3, a section of upper Crystal Heights, area C, was unable to meet the NBFD travel time policy and a small section of Corona Del Mar, area D, developed a gap outside the standard. Although this provided a welcome improvement in efficiency, it still does not fully answer the entire travel response time and community risk problem. Additionally, it creates a travel response time coverage problem for a small portion of Corona Del Mar that previously did not exist. Figure 4 presents another solution to the community risk protection problem in Newport Beach. In Figure 4, it depicts an added ninth fire station at Reef Point Drive and East Coast Highway. This additional fire station, positioned at the base of the Crystal Heights development, enhances the coverage for this development due to its proximity to the residential and commercial properties. This proximity equates to less travel time and a more rapid overall

Fire Station Location response time. Again, as demonstrated in Figure 4, almost all areas of the city are covered by

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NBFD fire stations and comply with the travel response time policy. The exception in this figure is the Newport Terrace community, area A; however, this is successfully managed via an automatic-mutual aid agreement with the CMFD whereby their nearby fire stations respond as first-due resources (ISO). The final question, “what opportunities exist to improve first-due performance of the travel time component of the response time objectives policy?” This is addressed in the maps shown in Figure 3 and 4. In Figure 3, by relocating fire station 3 (Newport Center) and fire station 5 (Corona Del Mar) we are able to cover a larger area of the city in five minutes travel time. However, there are still under protected areas labeled A, C, D. In figure four, with the addition of a ninth fire station in Crystal Heights, the entire city can be covered in five minutes travel time via the relocation of fire stations 1(Balboa), 2 (Lido), 3 (Newport Center) and this additional station. The use of AVL to send the nearest available fire company, based on longitude and latitude, is something that can provide an efficiency in the dynamic setting. Furthermore, the value of an AVL is likely to be demonstrated in a large city with a street pattern based on a grid system. Because the Newport Beach street system is not based on a grid pattern, and the relatively low call volume in the areas seen in this report as needing enhanced coverage, it is not likely that AVL alone would answer the problem.

Fire Station Location Figure 2 Map of current station locations

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Fire Station Location Figure 3 Map of proposed station relocations

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Fire Station Location Figure 4 Map of proposed station relocations and one additional station

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Fire Station Location Discussion

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Newport Beach has several topographical and geographic barriers across the land mass, including the Pacific Ocean and the Upper Newport Bay, that make covering this community for fire and EMS delivery more challenging. This study examined the capability of the eight fire stations that protect Newport Beach and its residents from fire and medical emergencies. In order to examine the response time efficiency of the NBFD stations, it was important to determine the important element used to assess the efficiency such as response time. Through informant interviews and data analysis, total response time was determined to have three components; dispatch processing time, turnout time, and travel time (G. Begnell, personal communication, March 10, 2009; R. Coleman, personal communication, April 9, 2009). Furthermore, an industry calculation was used to evaluate each station’s current coverage (ISO, 2009). This study also investigated options to increase fire station utility to enhance coverage while keeping travel time within policy guidelines (R. Murphy, personal communication, May 5, 2009). Challenges to implementing options will be discussed. The study’s findings regarding response time indicate that the NBFD has a number of fire stations that are closely spaced together, as well as areas of the city that are too far from a fire station to meet the response time objectives (NBFD SOP 3.A.201.03, 2004). The outcome of the current situation is that there is a wide disparity between different areas of the city regarding community risk. Some areas, by virtue of numerous and closely spaced fire stations, receive a high degree of overlapping coverage. Other sections of Newport Beach are a long distance from a fire station and are at greater risk following a fire or medical emergency (FEMA, 2007). If a fire station is covering too great an area, or if the volume of emergency calls becomes too great, it will be difficult for that company to meet the response time objectives (Center for Public

Fire Station Location Safety Excellence, 2008). This is because the average time that an engine company is on an

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emergency call is about 30 minutes (Costa Mesa Fire Department [CMFD] Final Draft Report, 2007). If you compute the number of calls and the time of commitment, the chances increase for the primary company to still be committed to an earlier call when another emergency request is received. This is seen when a standard of performance in fractal terms, i.e., 90%, is established. The increase in call volume will come to a point where it will not be possible for a single company to be available for every emergency call. Because the standard in the NBFD is 90% of the time, this is estimated to be at about 1800 calls per year (Center for Public Safety Excellence, 2008). When the primary company is committed, another fire station will be assigned to handle the subsequent emergency response calls. The calls that are handled by another fire station will most likely travel more distance to the emergency scene and therefore, can be expected to experience longer travel time (Warden, Daya, & LeGrady, 2007; “Planning for the Future”, n.d.). Finally, if the first-due area covered by a fire station is geographically too large, the travel time will be longer and the outcome will be similar in fashion to the multiple simultaneous call scenario mentioned previously (ISO, 2004). The two fire station location options presented in this study partially resolve the existing problem by either relocating the stations closer to all areas of the city or by adding a station to address a specific area of coverage. This is important, because to meet the objectives of the travel time policy of the NBFD it is necessary to limit travel distance to some degree and to be able to intervene in instances of SCD as well as prior to flashover a fire engine must arrive in a timely fashion (Callans, 2004; Cooke, 2009). By placing a fire station close to the site of a potential emergency the NBFD is able to control the travel time component of total response time (“Planning for the Future”, n.d.) .

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The challenges to implementing the relocation plan illustrated in Figure 3 are formidable. However, most of the associated problems will be limited to community concern. Of the four levels of review, technical, operational, financial and policy (Center for Public Safety Excellence, 2008), only the final decision will be a significant hurdle. Newport Beach is a very well established city with many active community organizations with high voter registration and voting rates. In this solution it is proposed to move a fire station from part of a community to another, thus enhancing service for some at the expense of another. Historically, whenever a plan to move or modify the services from a public facility is presented a great deal of feedback is received by the City Council. It is likely that some of this can be addressed with town hall style meetings (Costa Mesa Fire Department [CMFD] Final Draft Report, 2007). However, once the issue enters the political arena it is difficult to predict the outcome. The challenges to implementing the plan presented in Figure 4 are similar to the aforementioned but with the added cost of a new facility. This is significant as the property value in Newport Beach is perhaps some of the most expensive in California and the added and on-going personnel costs to establish a fire company from the date of opening into the foreseeable future are significant. Recommendations The data from the informant interviews, and from the table and figures, helped develop a set of recommendations to assist with the implementation of the fire station relocation plan in Figure 4. These recommendations will eliminate gaps in the NBFD station coverage and maintain fidelity to the policy standard of five minutes travel time. Toward that end, the following recommendations should be implemented to reduce travel time to the under protected areas of Newport Beach;

Fire Station Location 1. Develop a written plan to relocate the four fire stations, One (Balboa), Two (Lido), Three (Newport Center), and Five (Corona Del Mar). 2. Organize a plan of community outreach via town hall meetings to deliver the information to the public and gauge community support. 3. Identify a suitable location for a ninth fire station or engage the Orange County

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Fire Authority in the discussion of a jointly funded fire station to serve the Crystal Heights area of Newport Beach and the Emerald Bay area of unincorporated Orange County.

Fire Station Location Reference List Callans, D. (2004).Out of hospital cardiac arrest - the solution is shocking. The New England Journal of Medicine. 351, 632-635. Carr, B. G., Caplan, J. M., Pryor, J. P., & Branas, C. C. (2006, April). A meta-analysis of prehospital care times for trauma. Prehospital Emergency Care, 10 (2), 198-206. Center for Public Safety Excellence. (2008). CFAI Standards of Cover (5th ed.) [Brochure]. Chantilly, VA: Author. Chen, F. (2008). Fire scene reconstruction using computer modeling. Fire Protection Engineering, 38, 18-25. City of Newport Beach. (2006). General plan. Retrieved June 30, 2009 from http://www.city.newport-beach.ca.us/PLN/General_Plan/02?Ch1_Introduction.web.pdf City of Newport Beach Public Information Office. Retrieved January 15, 2009, from City of Newport Beach Web site: http://www.city.newport-beach.ca.us/pio/citystats.asp

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City of Ontario Office of the Fire Marshal. (2004). Public fire safety guidelines. Retrieved April 25, 3009 from http://www.ofm.gov.on.ca/english/fireprotection/munguide/04-87-13.asp Cooke, G. (2009, February). The threat of flashover. Fire Safety Engineering, 16(1), 31-33. Emergency Services Consulting, inc. (2007). Costa Mesa fire department final report 2007 deployment review. Costa Mesa, CA: Author. Federal Emergency Management Agency. (2009). Decision making for initial company operations, unit 6 (1st ed.). Emmitsburg, MD: Author. Federal Emergency Management Agency. (2008, March). Executive fire officer program operational policies and procedures. Emmitsburg, MD: Author. Federal Emergency Management Agency. (2007, February). Leading community risk reduction, unit 2: Assessing community risk (1st ed.). Emmitsburg, MD: Author. Fire Department of New York. (2007). Fdny strategic plan. Retrieved April 14, 2009 from http://www.nyc.gov/html/fdny/pdf/strat_plan/2007/goal_7.pdf Hazinski, M.F., Chameides, L., Elling, B., & Hemphill, R. (Eds.) (2005). American heart association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISO. (2004). Effective Fire Protection (1st ed.) [Brochure]. Jersey City, NJ: Author.

Fire Station Location ISO (2009). Automatic Aid. Retrieved September 10, 2009 from http: www.isomitigation.com/ppc/3000/ppc3008.html ISO (2009). Criteria for Distribution of Companies. Retrieved September 10, 2009 from http: www.isomitigation.com/ppc/3000/ppc3014.html ISO (2009). Response Time Considerations. Retrieved September 10, 2009 from http: www.isomitigation.com/ppc/3000/ppc3015.html National Fire Protection Association. (2004). NFPA 1710 [Brochure]. Salt Lake City, UT: National Fire Protection Association. NBFD SOP 3.A.201.03 (2004). Procedures for Interior Structural Firefighting, 29 C.F.R. § 1910.134(g)(4) (n.d.). Retrieved September 10, 2009 from http://www.osha.gov/pls/soahweb/owadisp.show_document? p_table=STANDARDS&p_id=12716#1910.134(g)(4) Pons, P. T., Haukoos, J. S., Bludworth, W., & Cribley, T. (2005, July). Paramedic response time: does it affect patient survival? Academic Emergency Medicine, 12(7), 594-600. Scottsdale Fire Department. (n.d.). Planning for the future. Retrieved May 1, 2009 from http://www.scottsdaleaz.gov/fire/planforthefuture.asp

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Warden, C. R., Daya, M., LeGrady, L. (2007, January). Using geographic information systems to evaluate cardiac arrest survival. Prehospital Emergency Care, 11(1), 19-24. Young, B. & Krahn, A. (2004, November 20). Implications of defibrillation. The Lancet, 364(9448), 1836-1837.

Fire Station Location Appendix A Informant Interview Name: Battalion Chief Gene Begnell Organization: Orange County Fire Authority Date of Interview: March 10, 2009 Format of Interview: Via telephone, pencil and paper During the interview, I asked the following questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. How should I look at first-due company coverage? What are the measurements? What is the data to be reviewed? What are the industry standards? Does call volume impact first-due response time?

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Fire Station Location Appendix B Informant Interview Name: Ronny J. Coleman Business: Emergency Services Consulting, Inc. Date of Interview: April 9, 2009 Format of Interview: Via telephone, pencil and paper

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I spoke with Mr. Coleman, retired California state fire marshal, regarding the optimal locating of fire stations within a response area. During the interview, I asked the following questions: 1. What are the considerations involved in the proper placement of a fire station? 2. Are there industry standards? What are they? 3. Should a target hazard impact the location of a fire station within the “first-due” response area? 4. How does the Santa Ana fire Department/National Institute of Standards and Technology study impact the knowledge base on flashover? 5. Are there other issues that will impact the final location of a fire station? What are they?

Fire Station Location Appendix C

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Minutes 2.35 2.775 3.2 3.625 3.999 4.475 4.9 5.325 5.75 6.175 6.6 7.025 7.45 7.875 7.994 8.3 8.725 9.15 9.575 10 10.425 10.85 11.275 11.7 12.006

Seconds 141 166.5 192 217.5 239.94 268.5 294 319.5 345 370.5 396 421.5 447 472.5 479.64 498 523.5 549 574.5 600 625.5 651 676.5 702 720.36

Time 0:02:21 0:02:46 0:03:12 0:03:38 0:04:00 0:04:29 0:04:54 0:05:20 0:05:45 0:06:10 0:06:36 0:07:01 0:07:27 0:07:52 0:08:00 0:08:18 0:08:43 0:09:09 0:09:34 0:10:00 0:10:26 0:10:51 0:11:17 0:11:42 0:12:00

Miles 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 1.97 2.25 2.5 2.75 3 3.25 3.5 3.75 4 4.25 4.32 4.5 4.75 5 5.25 5.5 5.75 6 6.25 6.5 6.68

MPH 25.5 27.0 28.1 29.0 29.6 30.2 30.6 31.0 31.3 31.6 31.8 32.0 32.2 32.4 32.4 32.5 32.7 32.8 32.9 33.0 33.1 33.2 33.3 33.3 33.4

NFPA Travel Time NBFD Travel Time

Where T=0.65+1.7*Distance.

Fire Station Location Appendix D Policy 3.A.201 – Response Time Objectives The sudden onset of chest pain, the discovery of a fire in its incipient stage, an injury

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traffic accident; Time is of the essence. All of these events and others like them create a need for a safe, effective and expeditious emergency response by Fire Department resources. This is the basic premise under which we exist; to respond to emergencies in a timely manner. Policy 3.A.100 – Department Goals, the first goal statement in that policy reads: “Provide a safe, effective and expeditious response to requests for assistance.” Policy 3.A.201 establishes the Departmental response time objectives for each type of emergency as well as unit performance expectations. It is the primary objective of Department personnel to provide for the most expeditious response possible to requests for emergency assistance. Every officer is expected to continuously strive to meet or exceed the objectives outlined in this policy with due regard for the safety of all personnel and the public. While every officer may not be able to effectively manage all of the components of response time, each officer should always strive to improve on those components within their control. 3.A.201.01 DEFINITIONS

ALS Response – the response of those units capable of providing Advanced Life Support treatment. BLS Response – the response of those units capable of providing Basic Life Support in advance of Advanced Life Support treatment by trained Fire Paramedics. Call Receipt - the moment a 911 request-for-emergency-assistance arrives at a PSAP (or seven-digit telephone number at the Fire Dispatch Center)

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Dispatch – the notification of a response unit(s) by a Dispatch Center that the unit(s) is to respond to a call. Dispatch Processing Time – the elapsed time from the moment of Call Receipt until the time the Dispatch Center begins to Dispatch unit(s). Effective Response Force – the appropriate number of personnel and/or units necessary to handle an emergency at its earliest stages. This would typically be provided through the units assigned to a first alarm dispatch. Enroute – the time when all responding personnel are properly attired, in the unit seat with seat belt fastened, and the unit begins to travel towards the alarm destination. First Due Unit – the closest unit to a reported emergency with the capability to provide the appropriate level of service. On scene – the time when the unit arrive at the scene, in front of the reported building address or immediately adjacent to an emergency at an outside location. Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP) – a designated 911 answering point; specifically the Newport Beach Police Department PSAP or California Highway Patrol PSAP. Total Response Time – the elapsed time from the moment of Call Receipt until the appropriate responding unit goes On scene. Total Response Time is broken down into three subcomponents: the Dispatch Processing Time, the personnel Turnout Time, and the unit Travel Time. Travel Time – the elapsed time from the moment a unit goes “Enroute” until the moment a unit goes “On scene.” Turnout Time – the elapsed time from Unit Notification until all personnel are prepared to go Enroute (appropriately attired and in the unit with seat belt fastened).

Fire Station Location Unit Notification – the moment when designated units receive a Dispatch. 3.A.201.02 A. RESPONSE TIME COMPONENTS

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Discovery Time or Alarm Time The Discovery or Alarm Time component refers to the time it takes for a person or

system to determine there is an emergency that needs to be reported to the Fire department and then takes the appropriate steps to do so. We do not track this component, as there is no way to collect and validate the data. However, Department personnel should remain aware that the time clock for responding to an emergency does not start with the receipt of a 911 call or a dispatch. This fact illustrates just how important it is to perform at a high level in the other components. B. Total Response Time The Newport Beach Fire Department considers Total Response Time a key performance indicator of how well we are meeting our community’s public safety response needs. This data provides Department administrators with some of the information necessary to educate and converse with the City Council on issues of public policy and levels of service. For the purposes of workload management analysis, Total Response Time is made up of three subcomponents.

1.

Dispatch Processing Time: this is the amount of time it takes for a request for an

emergency call (911, seven-digit telephone call or radio transmission) to originate in a dispatch center, be processed using pre-identified dispatch procedures, and be transmitted to emergency units for a response assignment. For the Newport Beach Fire Department, we typically have a 911 call originate in the Newport Beach Police Department P.S.A.P. Cellular 911 calls are handled initially by the California Highway Patrol P.S.A.P. Once the P.S.A.P. determines that it is a Fire Department emergency, it transfers the call to

Fire Station Location MetroNet Dispatch Center. Calls that come in on our seven-digit emergency telephone

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number go directly to MetroNet Dispatch Center and bypass the P.S.A.P. MetroNet then verifies the information with the reporting party, enters the information into a Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD) system, receives a recommendation from the CAD on which units should respond, and notifies the recommended units via established notification procedures. 2. Turnout Time: this is the amount of time it takes for unit personnel, after

receiving a dispatch from MetroNet, to be prepared to go enroute to the emergency. Typically, once unit personnel are notified of a dispatch, they are to stop any other activity immediately, travel safely and briskly to their apparatus, don the appropriate attire, get seated in the apparatus with seat belts fastened, and once all personnel are complete, go enroute to the emergency. 3. Travel Time: this is the time it takes for a unit to go enroute and travel safely and

expeditiously to the scene of an emergency. Typically, once unit personnel are properly attired and seat-belted into the apparatus, the officer will press the enroute button on the Mobile Data Computer. Travel time includes the amount of time necessary for personnel to use a map book to verify the location and travel route, the actual driving time, and the amount of time necessary to actually arrive On Scene. 3.A.201.03 RESPONSE OBJECTIVES

The following are the Department’s Response Time Objectives for Total Response Time and for the response time sub-components: A. 1. TOTAL RESPONSE TIME OBJECTIVES: First Due Responses requiring P.P.E. – less than 7 minutes, 20 seconds, 90% of the time

Fire Station Location 2. 3. 4. 5. time 6. time B. 1. SUB-COMPONENT RESPONSE TIME OBJECTIVES: First Due Responses without P.P.E. – less than 6 minutes, 50 seconds, 90% of the time ALS Responses requiring P.P.E. – less than 10 minutes, 20 seconds, 90% of the time ALS Responses without P.P.E. – less than 9 minutes, 50 seconds, 90% of the time

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Effective Response Force requiring P.P.E. – less than 12 minutes, 20 seconds, 90% of the

Effective Response Force without P.P.E. – less than 11 minutes, 50 seconds, 90% of the

Dispatch Processing Time Objectives: This component is the management responsibility

of the MetroNet Fire Chiefs and is the supervisory responsibility of the MetroNet Operations Chiefs. The Newport Beach Fire Department has an expectation that the MetroNet-portion of this component (the portion that begins with the receipt of a call in the MetroNet Dispatch Center) will be completed within 50 seconds, 90% of the time and within 90 seconds the remaining 10% of the time. 2. Turnout Time Objectives: This component is the management responsibility of the shift

Battalion Chief and is the supervisory responsibility of the Company Officer. For dispatches that require the donning of full Personal Protective attire, turnout time should be completed within 90 seconds. For all other dispatches, turnout time should be completed within 60 seconds. 3. Travel Time Objectives: This component is the management responsibility of the Deputy

Fire Chief and is the supervisory responsibility of the Battalion Chief. For all First Due Units, travel time should be completed within 5 minutes, 90% of the time and within 10 minutes the remaining 10% of the time. For ALS responses, travel time should be completed within 8 minutes, 90% of the time and within 10 minutes the remaining 10% of the time. For an Effective

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Response Force, travel time should be completed within 10 minutes, 90% of the time and within 15 minutes the remaining 10% of the time. 3.A.201.04 MANAGEMENT REPORTS

The shift Battalion Chiefs shall routinely review response time reports to evaluate system and unit performance. Shift Battalion Chiefs shall work with their Company Officers to constantly strive to improve on response time performance in those areas they have direct control (i.e. turnout time, mapping familiarity, knowledge of the City, etc.).

Fire Station Location Appendix E

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MEMORANDUM
METRO CITIES FIRE AUTHORITY
METRO NET COMMUNICAT IONS

DATE: TO: FROM: SUBJECT:

JANUARY 2, 2009 CHIEF LEWIS, NEWPORT BEACH FIRE & MARINE DEPARTMENT JEAN FERRELL, METRO CITIES FIRE MANAGER YEAR-2008 RECORDED INCIDENTS

Incidents in Jurisdiction__ Fire Medical Hazardous Materials Other Emergencies Service Average Response Time Incidents out of Jurisdiction Fire Medical Hazardous Materials Other Emergencies Service Strike Teams

8,871 255 6,312 123 1,305 876 4 min 28 sec 850 116 496 11 160 54 13

Number Responses by Unit___________ Station 1 Battalion 6 285 Engine 61 528 Station 2 Engine 62 Medic 62 Squad 62 Truck 62

1,775 2,544 122 680

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Number Responses by Unit___________ Station 3 Engine 63 Medic 63 Truck 63 Station 4 Engine 64 Station 5 Engine 65 Medic Engine 65 Station 6 Engine 66 Station 7 Engine 67 Station 8 Engine 68 Lifeguard Other Total Units Dispatched

1,449 2,532 812

818

1,340 1,752

1,223

1,274

679 237 35 18,085

Fire Station Location Appendix G Informant Interview Name: Dan Campagnolo, Systems Administrator Organization: Newport Beach Planning Department Date of Interview: May 4, 2009 Location: Newport Beach GIS Office, in person, pen and paper I spoke with Mr. Campagnolo, Systems Administrator, regarding the optimal locating of fire stations within a response area. During the interview, I asked the following questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is the population of Newport Beach? How many daily visitors to the beaches, retail and work areas? What is the assessed value of the structural development? How many road miles in each of the fire station catchment areas? How many dwelling units in each fire station catchment area?

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Fire Station Location Appendix H Informant Interview Name: Rod Murphy, Supervisor Organization: Newport Beach Geographic Information Services Department Date of Interview: May 5, 2009 Location: Newport Beach GIS Office, in person, pen and paper I spoke with Mr. Murphy, Supervisor, regarding current location of fire stations and relocation of fire stations. During the interview, I asked the following questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Can you create a map of a polygon for each fire station catchment coverage area? Can you determine the square mileage for each fire station catchment coverage area? Can you move fire stations to illustrate greater catchment coverage areas? Is this information accurate and up to date? Can the polygon for each fire station catchment coverage area include adjacent cities?

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