As creative director of NU Asian, a campus Asian American publication

,
I redesigned the magazine, developed the design style guide and designed the cover and several spreads for three issues.

an APAC
publication
Spring 2010
Issue 6, Vol. 2

ASIAN AMERICA’S

INVISIBLE

POPULATION

WHAT’S CHALLENGING
THE ASIAN AMERICAN
LGBT COMMUNITY

,QVLGH18·VQHZHVWFHOHEULW\‡+HDOWKFDUHDQG$VLDQ$PHULFDQV‡<RXUQHZIDYRULWHUHFLSH

14

nuAsian spring 2010

HIDDEN IN
THE FOLD

Gay Asian Americans struggle for visibility
by Nicole Hong

nuAsian
When Albert Yan came out of the closet
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responded, “Albert, let’s go boy-watching
together.” Yan’s mother, however, didn’t
receive the news with as much enthusiasm.
“She sort of still thinks it’s a phase,”
says Yan, a Weinberg and Bienen
sophomore from New Jersey. “It’s still
something taboo that we don’t really talk
about.”
Yan also decided to tell his father, who
left the family and broke off contact for a
while after his divorce with Yan’s mother
when Yan was in middle school. “I break
it to him that I have a boyfriend and that
we’ve been dating for a year,” Yan says.
“He says, ‘There’s no gay gene in my blood
line. Your mom must have slept with
someone else. Either it’s just a phase or
you’re confused.’”
Yan hasn’t heard from him since.
Yan’s narrative is just one perspective
among a largely invisible Asian Lesbian,
Gay, Bisexual and Transgender
community at Northwestern. But outside
of Northwestern Asian-American LGBTs
have gained increasing visibility across the
globe. New York City allowed an openly
gay contingent to march in its annual
/XQDU1HZ<HDUSDUDGHIRUWKH¿UVWWLPH
in its 11-year history. Gay and lesbian
Vietnamese-Americans in Westminster,
Calif., also sparked controversy in
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time in the Westminster Tet Parade, a
celebration of the Vietnamese New Year.

$FURVVWKH3DFL¿F6KDQJKDLKRVWHG
&KLQD¶V¿UVWJD\SULGHIHVWLYDOODVW-XQH
While gay Asians and other gay
minority populations face many of the
VDPHGLI¿FXOWLHVLQDODUJHO\ZKLWHFHQWULF
gay community, there may be some
cultural particularities that add another
layer of obstacles for the Asian LGBT
community.
“Because we’re part of two minorities,
that creates its own set of challenge,” says
Ben de Guzman, co-director of programs
IRUWKH1DWLRQDO4XHHU$VLDQ3DFL¿F
Islander Alliance. “On the one hand, we’re
facing racism in the LGBT community. On
the other hand, we’re facing homophobia
within our own families.”
NORTHWESTERN’S GAY ASIAN
COMMUNITY
“What community?”
That seems to be the overwhelming
response of students when asked about
the visibility of the gay Asian community
on campus. All four of the gay Asian
students interviewed could count on one
hand the number of other gay Asians they
knew at NU, and no one could name a
single Asian lesbian on campus. “The gay
scene everywhere is predominately white
or black,” Yan says. “There really is no gay
Asian community.”
Demographics may play a factor. Asian
Americans constitute well over 30 or 40
percent of the student body at schools like
UCLA and UC Berkeley, schools that are

spring 2010

located in rich pockets of Asian-American
communities and consequently have more
activist gay Asian populations. By contrast,
schools like the University of WisconsinMadison have virtually non-existent gay
Asian populations.
But pointing to demographics isn’t
DVXI¿FLHQWH[SODQDWLRQ$OWKRXJKWKH
city of Chicago was approximately 6
percent Asian in 2008, that percentage
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with Asians making up 21 percent of the
population in Skokie. For a university
that welcomed an incoming class with 22
percent Asian Americans, it seems puzzling
that gay Asians are such an invisible
minority on campus.
On the national stage, gay Asians are
VWDUWLQJWR¿JKWIRUWKHLUSODFHLQWKH
American LGBT narrative, but their lack
of visibility has presented problems for
advocacy groups seeking funding for Asian
LGBT causes. “There are not enough
UHVRXUFHVWKDWDUHGHGLFDWHGWR¿QGLQJ
support for our communities because white
gay people think there aren’t any Asians
who are gay or that there aren’t enough
Asians who are gay,” says de Guzman.
“Even Asians who are straight do not think
there are enough of us who are gay.”
The absence of an Asian support
network at NU could be the reason for a
quiet gay Asian population, says Johnston
Chen, a Weinberg senior from Los Angeles.
&KHQFDPHRXWWRKLVEHVWIULHQGLQ¿IWK
grade and told his parents just two years

Albert Yan,
Weinberg and
Bienen sophomore

“[My mother]
sort of still
thinks it’s a
phase. It’s still
something
taboo that we
don’t really talk
about.”
Photo by Emily Chow

15

16

nuAsian spring 2010

Johnston Chen,
Weinberg senior

“I’m sure there
are people who
are out there
who don’t come
out because they
don’t feel like
the other gays
when they go to
Rainbow Alliance
meetings.”
Photo by Emily Chow

ago. “I’m sure there are people who are
out there who don’t come out because they
don’t feel like the other gays when they go
to Rainbow Alliance meetings,” Chen says.
“All the gay people I know back home are
Asian like me, so having them all be white
here was a different culture and place.”
McCormick junior Travis Lau, who still
has not come out to his mother, says the
scarcity of gay Asians at NU make the few
gay Asians stand out even more. “Since
I feel like it’s rare to see a gay Asian at
NU, people aren’t used to it, so they’re
shocked,” Lau says. “Especially within the
Asian community, it’s like, ‘Oh, there’s a
gay Asian. That’s interesting. I’m not used
to that.’”
So where are the gay Asians at
Northwestern? Are they simply hiding
in the closet? Or are Asians just more
conservative about their gender and
sexuality? Do culturally unique factors
PDNHLWHVSHFLDOO\GLI¿FXOWIRU$VLDQ
American students to come out? Is this
indicative of racism and xenophobia in the
wider LGBT community? Perhaps all of
these analyses are overly simplistic.
HISTORY OF ASIAN PERCEPTIONS
OF HOMOSEXUALITY
Same-sex relations have appeared in
ancient Chinese and Japanese literature
as early as the 6th century. Some of
the most overt references to same-sex
relations came during China’s imperial
period. During the Ming dynasty, it was
“fashionable” for male scholars to have
young male partners, says Li-Cheng Gu,

Chinese professor at NU.
The Han dynasty saw the rise of
several allegedly homosexual emperors,
including the famous Emperor Ai, who
supposedly established a relationship with
KLVRI¿FLDO'RQJ;LDQ+LVWRULDQVRIWHQ
call their relationship “passions of the cut
sleeve” because one afternoon, after they
napped together, Dong’s head was on top
of Emperor Ai’s sleeve. The emperor cut
off his sleeve instead of disturbing Dong’s
sleep, an episode recounted in Passions of
the Cut Sleeve, a book by Bret Hinsch, a
history professor at National Chung Cheng
University in Taipei.
Although these practices were tolerated
in the imperial period in East Asia, that
does not necessarily mean they were
accepted. Same-sex relations were viewed
as “shameful” and “subject for fun,” says
Peter Carroll, Chinese history professor
at NU.
Attitudes about homosexuality
ÀXFWXDWHGIURPWROHUDQFHWRRXWULJKW
rejection during the imperial period,
but Gu points to Confucianism as the
primary reason why homosexuality was
denounced in the long run, especially in
Chinese society. One of the highest virtues
LQ&RQIXFLDQLVPLV¿OLDOSLHW\RUVKRZLQJ
the utmost respect and obedience for
parents and ancestors. “If you don’t have
children, you cannot carry on the family,
and the family name will be lost,” Gu says.
³7KHQ\RXZLOOEHWKHPRVWXQ¿OLDOVRQ
of the family, so because of that, gays and
lesbians (in China) were severely punished
by their families and by the government.”

After the Chinese Communist party
took over in 1949, homosexuality became
even more severely punished. The rise
in Chinese nationalism hardened critical
attitudes about same-sex relations,
as Communist leader Mao Zedong
emphasized the need to be strong and
adhere to gender norms, Carroll said. This
period also saw the beginning of viewing
Chinese homosexuals as criminals. “Mao
thought power rested in the number of
people, so the more people you produce,
the greater you will be as a nation,” Gu
says. “If you don’t produce babies, you are
not useful to society, so gays and lesbians
were considered criminals.” In fact, Gu
says when he was growing up in China,
his classmates would label students they
disliked as being gays or lesbians.
Gu also says traditionally, Asians have
a heightened sense of privacy about their
sexuality compared to their white peers.
The lack of comprehensive sex education
in China when he was growing has only
perpetuated this silence on gender and
sexuality. “Among friends, we never talk
about sex because we are so shy about
this,” Gu says. “It is such an untouched
topic in Asian culture, and we were never
educated about sexuality, so even among
my friends, we don’t talk about it.”
IMPACT OF TRADITIONAL VALUES
ON DIASPORA
But are these traditional values so
strong that they traveled with the Asian
LPPLJUDQWVZKRFURVVHGWKH3DFL¿F":KLOH
WKHVHDWWLWXGHVYDU\VLJQL¿FDQWO\DFURVV

nuAsian
the diaspora, Victor Bascara, an AsianAmerican studies professor at UCLA,
says the Confucian emphasis on family
became especially important for Asian
immigrants who
faced discrimination
in the U.S. “The
family becomes an
important site of
life in a potentially
hostile society, so
it’s important to
understand how
much is at stake in a
family’s acceptance
or non-acceptance of
a family member,”
Bascara says.
Family support
has varied across gay
Asian students at NU.
Johnston Chen delayed telling his parents
because he didn’t feel the necessity to
tell his parents. Chen wasn’t planning on
getting married soon, but he says a cultural
component played into his postponed
coming-out as well. “I’m sure part of it
was that I was afraid of bringing so much
shame to the family and honor and blah
blah blah, all that Asian stuff,” Chen says.
Other closeted gay Asian students have
approached Chen about their reservations
about coming out to their families. “One
guy was like, ‘I’m the last guy on my dad’s
side, so I’m the only person to carry on my
family name, so I’m really scared about
telling my parents about being gay,’” Chen
VD\V³7KDWUHDOO\H[HPSOL¿HVDORWRIJD\
Asian thinking that you don’t really see
with gay white people, the notion that
you have some sort of obligation to your
family.”
Albert Yan says traditional stereotypes
have prevailed among many AsianAmericans, some of whom view
homosexuality as a disease, a phase or a
genetic defect. Several gay Asian students
say homosexuality remains a taboo topic
in conversations with parents, even after
their coming out. A Weinberg senior, who
wished to remain anonymous because
he is not completely out of the closet,
says although his parents were very
supportive, they didn’t want the rest of
the family knowing. “I feel like I got a
very Asian response, like ‘Don’t tell your
grandparents,’” he said. “My parents were
particularly afraid of the whole family
NQRZLQJ,WZDVNLQGRILQVXOWLQJDW¿UVW´
Chen agrees that cultural factors make
coming out for Asians much less focused
on the individual, citing National Coming
Out Day in the U.S. as a more “liberating”
and individualist-oriented process.
“Asians have different values and different
concerns, so our coming-out process needs
to cater to our cultural particularities,

which deal a lot of what will the family
think,” Chen says.
Family values have also presented
challenges for organizations advocating
for Asian LGBT
communities. Ben de
Guzman, who has been
actively involved in
Asian American civil
rights work since 1998,
says it has always been
easier for gay Asians
to criticize other LGBT
organizations for
racism than to criticize
their own families for
homophobia. “They’ll
raise hell at gay
meetings, and they’ll
be written up in the
gay papers, but they’re
QRWJRLQJWRÀ\HULQ.RUHD7RZQEHFDXVH
Auntie might show up,” de Guzman said.
Because of these prevailing attitudes,
coming out of the closet may present extra
challenges for LGBT minorities. “So much
is focused on the white gay community,”
Yan says. “Coming out of the closet, you
do need a support network, but you can’t
exactly build your own.”
De Guzman says he doesn’t think it’s
XQLYHUVDOO\PRUHGLI¿FXOWIRU$VLDQVWR
come out since every community has
more conservative and less conservative
factions. He instead points to the allocation
of resources away from gay immigrant
communities. Almost all of the support
services for LGBT communities are in
English, and advocacy organizations often
don’t have the funds to translate all these
materials into
Asian languages.
“White gay
people ignore
immigrant
communities,
and it
perpetuates
itself in that
resources are
only in English,
which makes
gay Asians even
more invisible,”
de Guzman says.
Even in the
early emergence
of the LGBT
community in
America with the Stonewall Riots in the
1960s, de Guzman says the movement
privileged the homosexuals who had the
power and resources to come out. “The gay
narrative has been set by people who are
more likely to be resourced,” de Guzman
says, citing Will and Grace as the accepted
LPDJHRIJD\VWKDW$PHULFDQV¿QGPRVW

I was afraid of
bringing so much
shame to the
family and honor
and ... all that
Asian stuff.

spring 2010

palatable. Consequently, much of de
Guzman’s advocacy work is making sure
LGBT issues have an “ethnic analysis.”
Major LGBT social movements in
America, including the current push
for same-sex marriage, often ignore
the problems facing immigrant LGBT
communities, says David Eng, an
English professor at the University
of Pennsylvania. “These rights might
be something that we cannot not
want, especially given a long history
of discrimination and exclusion, but
mainstream gay and lesbian political
movements for same-sex marriage cloud
out other important issues, such as racism
and xenophobia,” says Eng, who is writing
about this phenomenon in his new book
³7KH)HHOLQJRI.LQVKLS´
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
Many Asian countries have recently
progressed toward a more open discussion
about homosexuality, Peter Carroll says.
In 2001, China removed homosexuality
IURPLWVRI¿FLDOOLVWRIPHQWDOLOOQHVVHV
and gay bars are springing up in China’s
biggest cities. In January, Beijing was set
WRSXWRQ&KLQD¶V¿UVWJD\SDJHDQWEXW
SROLFHRI¿FHUVFDQFHOOHGWKHSDJHDQWDQ
hour before the show began, citing a lack of
the appropriate permits.
Perhaps this also means good news for
the Asian-American LGBT community.
Although the current legal battle over
California’s same-sex marriage ban,
Proposition 8, does not necessarily have
an Asian-American face, Victor de Bascara
says queer Asian-Americans are struggling
WR¿QGWKHLUSODFHLQWKHSXVKIRUPDUULDJH
equality. De Guzman
is certainly hopeful
that more and more
gay Asian-American
students will come out
to their friends and
families, strengthening
their presence on
college campuses
nationwide.
“We’re not going
back in the closet, so
we’re only going to
move forward, and
there’s only going to
be more of us,” de
Guzman said. “The
current crop of student
leaders will produce
a generation of really empowered people
who are comfortable in both their gay skin
and their Asian skin. That’s going to be the
narrative moving forward.”
Will these new developments in the
Asian LGBT help to increase the visibility
of gay Asian students at NU? That
narrative still remains unclear.

We’re not going back
in the closet, so we’re
only going to move
forward, and there’s
only going to be more
of us.

17

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11

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KELLYN LEWIS, FMO Vice Coordinator of External Affairs

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15

JOURNALISM 376
MEDIA DESIGN
My coursework for this class included three assignments: 1) An
alternative story format for a newspaper page; 2) The concept for a
new magazine and design of its cover and one spread; 3) The concept
and design of an iPad app, which I created as a social networking and
collaboration platform for independent musicians.

made
not your grandma’s arts and crafts magazine

issue 25 -may 2011
mademag.com

vintage finds

online
DIY
blogging

101

essential reads
for crafters

$3.99

fierce
fun
fantastic

felts

HEART

FELT
By Carol McGraw

Cover photo by Kathy Lewinsky
Inside photos by Shalana Frisby

From beads to pendants to soap scrubbers, felt comes in more
varieties than the stiff sheets sold at craft stores. Learn how to
take wool and shape it into something of your own.


“You can knit
10 minutes here
and there. The
felting is easy.
It’s instant
gratification.”

your turn:

felting

There are three basic ways to
make felt. The first two, called
wet felting, use heat, moisture
and agitation — the idea being
that heat and moisture swell the
wool fibers and help entangle
them. The basic procedures:

16

1

Spread the fibers on a
mat, wet them down,
roll up the mat and
keep rolling. Then make
the item.

2

Crochet or knit an item
from wool fibers, making it extra-large to
ac count for shrinkage.
Then toss the item in a
washing machine to be
“fulled.”

3

Called dry felting, you
first outline a design on
cloth, then use barbed
needles to jab wool fibers into the cloth to
fill in the design. This
can be done by hand or
with a sewing machine.

made

t’s like watching a sow’s ear
transform itself into a silk purse
before your very eyes.
But in this case, it’s wool that magically turns into felt — with a little help
from Black Forest, Colo., llama rancher
Marlice Van Zandt.
She starts by spreading puffs of
multicolored llama wool in an attractive pattern on a bamboo mat, tops it
with a plastic liner, then adds another
layer of wool. She sprinkles the wool
with hot water, rubs it with a soapy
goo and whacks the heck out of it with
a meat cleaver.
That done, she rolls up the mat
and rocks it back and forth zillions of
times. When her arms get tired, she
sits down and rolls it back and forth
with her feet.
Eventually, she unwraps the mat,
and there — in soggy splendor — is
beige felt with a brown design, soon to
be turned into a purse.
Van Zandt is one of the many
crafters breathing new life into the
8,000-year-old art of felting, turning
DQLPDOÀEHUVLQWRYHVWVERRWVSLOORZV
wall hangings, masks, jewelry and
more.
Several new felting books have
come out in the past few months, with
two more due to be released by January, and more classes are popping up
locally.
Several attributes make handmade
felt the material of choice for clothing
and crafts projects. It’s soft, drapable
and warm — nothing like the stiff
stuff that kids use for arts and crafts
projects. And it can be cut without
fraying.
Felting has become especially popular in the Pikes Peak region because
´WKHUHDUHVRPDQ\DQLPDOVZLWKÀEHU
— and owners who don’t know what
to do with all of it,” says Kris Hill of
Table Rock Llamas Fiber Arts Studio in
Black Forest, Colo., where Van Zandt
teaches felting classes.
Both she and Van Zandt use wool
from their own herds of llamas to
make felt, but some people even use
fur from their cats and dogs.
“If you ever forget to comb your
dog, you can see felting — those mats
behind the ears or under the chin,”
says Van Zandt, who has been felting
for 10 years.
But you don’t have to use your

own animals’ fur to felt. Felting has
also become popular with knitters
and crocheters who use store-bought
wool. Rather than soak and beat the
wool, as Van Zandt does, these crafters rely on a washing machine to do
the felting.
At Green Valley Weavers and
Knitters in Colorado Springs, Colo.,
students recently knitted colorful cloglike house slippers. After making the
booties much larger than needed, they
threw them in the wash to felt and
shrink.
“Felting is great,” shop owner
Kathleen Orr says. “It’s good for
knitters because it covers up a lot of
mistakes.”
Elizabeth Nijkamp, a Woodland
Park, Colo., resident and engineer for
the city of Colorado Springs, Colo.,
was making a bright orange and yellow pair of clogs. She started knitting
two months ago and has already felted
three purses.
She quilts, too, but loves the portability of knitting and eventually felting
an item.
“You can knit 10 minutes here and
there,” Nijkamp says. “The felting is
HDV\,W·VLQVWDQWJUDWLÀFDWLRQµ
Although wool can be expensive,
the equipment used for handmade
felting is not, and it can be picked up
anywhere. For example, Van Zandt
uses sushi mats, window screens and
DODUJHÁDWSDQ³DQRLOSDQVKHJRW
at an auto supply shop — to catch
the excess water. She uses a glass
washboard to rub the felt, although
a clean stove broiler pan would
work as well. And anyone who has a
washing machine has a built-in felter
if they don’t want to use Van Zandt’s
method.
No matter which method felters
use, they love the “wow” effect of the
ÀQLVKHGSURGXFW7KH\DUQVDQGZRRO
are often hand-dyed for special effects,
and silk, beads, pieces of metallic
threads and other items can be used
for embellishment.
“You have something unique,”
Nijkamp says. “You know how much
these would cost in a boutique if you
FRXOGÀQGWKHP"µ
“That’s the whole idea — make
things you can’t get at a store,” adds
Dottie Weir, the class teacher. “It
makes a special gift.”

bandwidth
stories

studio

A Little Spirit
I And I
I And I (Demo)

space

NOW PLAYING

FOREVER

By Erik Adams
Photos by Emily Chow

TITUS ANDRONICUS' PATRICK STICKLES

spends a lot of time thinking about conflict. “Too often, we need an adversary to give us
an understanding of ourselves,” he says. “If they just blinked out of existence, or started
doing everything that I thought was cool, what would I do?” That thought is central to
The Monitor, Titus Andronicus’ sprawling sophomore LP. Filtered through long-winded
metaphors and references to the American Civil War, the record—part punk invective,
part permanently hungover introspection—pits Stickles against a number of enemies,
none more dangerous than the frontman himself. “Our hero,” Stickles’ preferred term
for the autobiographical role he plays in song, can only hope to defeat or come to terms
with these adversaries if he gets right with himself. As such, it could be difficult to
determine who’s fighting whom amid the blood, guts, and self-laceration of Titus’ show
next Wednesday at the Bluebird Theater. With that in mind, The A.V. Club asked Stickles to discuss some of the more prominent members of The Monitor’s “rogues gallery.”

FRIENDS AND DRINKING BUDDIES
The way you sing about the hero’s friends on The Monitor recalls the derisive way Ian
MacKaye treats similar bad influences on Minor Threat songs like “In My Eyes.”
Oh yeah, no doubt. “All my asshole buddies,” right?
Does our hero overcome those characters? Or is it possible they don’t need to be
overcome?
Our hero does engage in some irresponsible drinking over the course of the narrative,
but hopefully it’s clear that it was our hero who put the beer in our hero’s hands. Our
hero could try and say, “Oh, it’s Saturday night with the boys, so that makes it okay.” But
that’s just like anything else. That’s just making excuses. Our hero’s got plenty of them,
but that one is pretty much bullshit. All the stupid stuff that our hero did when he was
drunk, it was his own fault.

!HE'S JUST 18 FOR NOW, BUT HE'S GOING TO MURDER US ALL"
The Monitor’s closing song, “The Battle Of Hampton Roads,” creates this image of
an adversary: “He’ll be 70-some inches tall / He’ll be chugging a beer and he’ll be
grabbing his balls / He’s the remote explosive waiting for someone to call.” Is this
the stand-in for the people you encountered when you left your native New Jersey for
Boston?

Watch: Titus Andronicus, “A More
Perfect Union”

TITUS ANDRONICUS' PATRICK STICKLES

spends a lot of time thinking about conflict. “Too often, we need an adversary to give us
an understanding of ourselves,” he says. “If they just blinked out of existence, or started
doing everything that I thought was cool, what would I do?” That thought is central to
The Monitor, Titus Andronicus’ sprawling sophomore LP. Filtered through long-winded
metaphors and references to the American Civil War, the record—part punk invective,
part permanently hungover introspection—pits Stickles against a number of enemies,
none more dangerous than the frontman himself. “Our hero,” Stickles’ preferred term
for the autobiographical role he plays in song, can only hope to defeat or come to terms
with these adversaries if he gets right with himself. As such, it could be difficult to
determine who’s fighting whom amid the blood, guts, and self-laceration of Titus’ show
next Wednesday at the Bluebird Theater. With that in mind, The A.V. Club asked Stickles to discuss some of the more prominent members of The Monitor’s “rogues gallery.”

FRIENDS AND DRINKING BUDDIES
The way you sing about the hero’s friends on The Monitor recalls the derisive way Ian
MacKaye treats similar bad influences on Minor Threat songs like “In My Eyes.”
Oh yeah, no doubt. “All my asshole buddies,” right?
Does our hero overcome those characters? Or is it possible they don’t need to be
overcome?
Our hero does engage in some irresponsible drinking over the course of the narrative,
but hopefully it’s clear that it was our hero who put the beer in our hero’s hands. Our
hero could try and say, “Oh, it’s Saturday night with the boys, so that makes it okay.” But
that’s just like anything else. That’s just making excuses. Our hero’s got plenty of them,
but that one is pretty much bullshit. All the stupid stuff that our hero did when he was
drunk, it was his own fault.

!HE'S JUST 18 FOR NOW, BUT HE'S GOING TO MURDER US ALL"
The Monitor’s closing song, “The Battle Of Hampton Roads,” creates this image of
an adversary: “He’ll be 70-some inches tall / He’ll be chugging a beer and he’ll be
grabbing his balls / He’s the remote explosive waiting for someone to call.” Is this
the stand-in for the people you encountered when you left your native New Jersey for
Boston?

Watch: Titus Andronicus, “A More
Perfect Union”

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