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BASIC DEFINITONS AND SHIP GEOMETRY

BASIC DEFINITONS

Main parts of a typical ship

• Hull: The structural body of a ship including shell plating, framing, decks and bulkheads. • Afterbody : That portion of a ship’s hull abaft midships. • Forebody: That portion of a ship’s hull forward midships. • Bow : The forward of the ship • Stern : The after end of the ship • Port :The left side of the ship when looking forward • Starboard : The right side of the ship when looking forward

• Design Waterline (DWL) or Load Waterline (LWL) : The waterline at which the ship will float when loaded to its designed draught. • Moulded Surface : The inside surface of the skin, or plating, of a ship. • Forward Perpendicular (FP) : The vertical line at the point of intersection of the LWL and the forward end of the immersed part of the ship’s hull. • After Perpendicular (AP) : The vertical line at the point of intersection of the LWL and the centerline of the rudderstock. • Midships : The point midway between the forward and after perpendiculars.

• Deck Camber : The rise of the deck of the ship in going from the side to the centre. In older ships the camber curve used to be parabolic but in modern ships straight line camber curves are used or there may be no camber at all on decks. • Bilge Radius : The radius of the circular arc forming the bilge. • Flat of Keel (Half Siding) : The width of flat bottom plating on each side of the centre girder.

• Deadrise (Rise of Floor) : The amount by which the line of the outer bottom plating amidships rises above the baseline. Therefore, it is the difference in height between the baseline and the point where the straight line through the bottom flat surface intersects the vertical line through the side of the moulded surface at its widest point. • Tumblehome : The amount the top of the side shell slopes back toward the centerline between the point of widest breadth and the deck at side • Parallel Middle Body : The portion of the ship over which the midship section remains unchanged. In this part of the ship water lines and buttocks have no curvature; that is, all the fore and aft lines are

• Length of Waterline (LWL) : The waterline at which the ship will float when fully loaded . • Length Overall (LOA) : The total length of the ship from one end to the other, including bow and stern overhangs. • Length Between Perpendiculars (L BP) : The distance measured parallel to the base at the level of the design waterline from the after perpendicular to the forward perpendicular. • Length Overall Submerged (LOS) : The total submerged length of the ship from one end to the other, including the bulbous bow.

• Length of Parallel Middle Body (L P) : The length over which the midship section remains unchanged. • Length of Entrance (L E) : The length from the forward perpendicular to the forward end of parallel middle body, or maximum section. • Length of Run (L R) : The length from the section of maximum area or the after end of parallel middle body to waterline termination or other designated point on the stern. • Moulded Beam or Breadth (B) : The distance from the inside of plating on one side to a similar point on the other side measured at the broadest part of the ship.

• Maximum Beam or Breadth (B M) : Extreme beam (breadth), from outside to outside of the shell plating. • Breadth at Loaded Waterline (B WL) : Maximum moulded breadth at the loaded waterline. • Draught (T) : The vertical distance from the waterline at any point on the hull to the bottom of the ship. • Trim : The difference between the draughts forward and aft. • Depth Moulded (D) : The vertical distance at amidships from the baseline to the underside of the plating of the main deck.

• Freeboard (f) : The vertical distance from the waterline to the deck at side. The freeboard is equal to the difference between the depth at side and the draught at any point along the ship. • Moulded Displacement : The displacement of a ship based on moulded dimensions • Total Displacement : Moulded displacement modified by adding the thickness of shell plating and the volume of appendages. • Wetted Surface : The area of the underwater hull and appendages, measured in square meters.

Displacement

The weight of water that would displaced by the volume of the hull measured on the outer surface of the shell plating below the waterline. Displacement tonnage of a vessel can be obtained directly from Archimedes’ principle by multiplying its underwater volume by the density of water.

Light ship

The lightweight tonnage of a ship is the sum of all fixed weights, i.e. ship hull, machinery, outfit and permanent equipment. LS=WS+WM+WO

Deadweight

The difference between the displacement and the lightweight is the deadweight tonnage which is the sum of the weight of cargo, fuel, lubricating oil, fresh water, stores, passengers and baggage, crew and their effects. DWT=WC+WF+WLO +WFO + WPAS +WLUG+ WCREW WSTORE +

TEU/FEU

Container Ships are designed for stowage of containers in vertical stacks or cells either within the hold of the vessel, on deck, or a combination of the two. Containers are described in "FEU's" or "TEU's". "FEU" is a forty foot long container (Forty foot Equivalent Unit) "TEU" is a twenty foot long container. (Twenty foot Equivalent Unit ) There are six basic types of containers. • Refrigerated containers • dry bulk containers; • rack containers for lumber, etc; •automotive containers; • livestock containers; •collapsible containers for stowing when not in use.

Cubic Capacity

Tank ships are described in terms of oil carrying capacity. Barrel (bbl) is the standard liquid cargo unit of measurement and one barrel consists of 42 gallons (5.515 cubic feet, 0.156 cubic meter). One ton of fuel oil is equivalent to 6.63 barrels. Dry bulk cargo ships may also be described in terms of Cubic Bales or Cubic Grain. Cubic Bales is the space available for cargo measured in cubic feet within a ship cargo hold to the inside of the cargo battens, on the frames and to the underside of the deck beams. Grain cubic is the maximum space available for the cargo within a ship's hold in cubic meter, incorporating all volume inside the shell plating of the hull and to the underside of the upper deck plating. Grain Cubic occupies a larger cargo volume than the ship's Bale Cubic rating.

Tonnage Measurement

• Gross tonnage is the capacity of the spaces in the ship's hull and of the enclosed spaces above the deck available for cargo, stores, fuel, passengers, and crew. • Net tonnage is the gross tonnage less the spaces used for the accommodation of the ship's master, officers, crew, and the navigation and propulsion machinery.

Representing the Hull Form

The Half-Breadth Plan

The Sheer Plan

The Body Plan

The Body Plan

Ship Type

٤

٤

Tanker

Tanker

Passenger ship

Aircraft carrier

Small Water-plane Area Twin-Hull (SWATH)

3) SWATH

)(SMALL WATERPLANE AREA TWIN HULL

اين نوع از شناورها داراي دو بدنه زير آب مجزا .از هم و يك بدنه اصلي در بيرون آب مي باشند

در بدنه هاي زير آب اين شناور فين هاي كنترل براي كنترل حركات شناور وجود .دارد

٠٥

Ferry (Catamaran, or SWATH)

Container Ship

Container Ship

Hydrofoil Craft

Ordinates Drawing of A Plane-Hull Craft

پارامترهای فرم بدنه

Deaedrise Angle

Trim Angle

Step

Spray Srake

٨

Research Vessel TRITON )اين شناور همچنين قادر به حمل هليکوپتر می باشد(

٨٣

مدل شناور تحقيقاتی “”TRITON

٩٣

TSL-F

مزيت مهم اين نوع شناور در خصوصيات .دريانوردي عالي آن مي باشد

٧٤١

فاز :Iمطالعات اوليه و ساخت مدل با طول نصف شناور اصلي )٥٩٩١-٩٨٩١( فاز :IIآزمايشهاي مدل ساخته شده و بررسي ساخت شناور اصلي )٢٠٠٢-٦٩٩١( فاز :IIIطراحي، ساخت و عمليات تجاري شناور اصلي )٥٠٠٢-٢٠٠٢(

اين شناور طي سه فاز در كشور ژاپن در حال ساخت است:

Model Test

٨٤١

TSL_Fدر حال ساخت

END

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