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Trainning Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for the particular job.

Training is a short term educational process and utilising a systematic and organised procedure by which employees learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose. The organised procedure by which people learn knowledge and/or skill for a definite purpose. In other words, training improves changes, moulds the employeess knowledge, skill, behaviour aptitude and attitude towards the requirement of the job and the organisation.

Stages in training Stage 1 Need Assessment Stage 2 Program Design Stage 3 Implementation Stage 4 - Evaluation

Training need assessment Training needs are identified on the basis of organisational analysis, job analysis and man analysis. Training programme, training methods and course content are to be planned on the basis of training needs. Training needs are those aspects necessary to perform the job in an organisation in which employee is lacking attitude/aptitude, knowledge, skill etc. Training needs = Job and organisational requirements employee specifications Training needs can be identified through identifying the organisational needs based on: Organisational analysis: This includes analysis of objectives, resource utilisation, environmentscanning and organisational climate. Organisational strengths and weaknesses in different areas like accidents, excessive scrap, frequent breakage of machinery, excessive labour turn over, market share, and other marketing areas, quality and quantity of the output, production schedule, raw materials and other production areas, personnel, finance etc. Departmental analysis : Departmental strength and weakness including special problems of the Department or a common problem of a group of employees like acquiring skills and knowledge in operating computer by accounting personnel. Job/Role analysis: This includes study of jobs/roles, designs of jobs due to changes, job enlargement, and job enrichment etc. Employee analysis: Individual strengths and weaknesses in the areas of job knowledge, skill, etc. Assessment methods

The following are used to assess the training needs The following methods are used to assess the training needs: 1. Organisational requirements / Weaknesses 2. Departmental requirements / Weaknesses 3. Job specifications and employee specifications 4. Identifying specific problems 5. Anticipating future problems 6. Managements requests 7. Observation 8. Interviews 9. Group conferences 10. Questionnaire surveys 11. Test or examinations 12. Check lists 13. Performance appraisals Group or Organisational Analysis Organisational Goals and objectives Personnel/skill inventories Organisational climate indices Efficiency Indices Exit Interviews MBO or Work planning systems Quality Circles Customer survey / Satisfaction data Consideration of current and projected changes Individual Analysis Performance appraisal Work Sampling Interviews Questionnaires Attitude survey Training progress Rating scales Observation of behaviour

Training content for different categories of employees Training methods and content may not be the same for different categories of employees. As such management has to train the employees of different categories in different areas and through different methods based on the job analysis. Training methods and content for a few jobs are discussed hereunder with a view to giving an idea to the reader. Supervisory training Supervisors mostly learn to supervise under the guidance of a manager. Hence, the emphasis should be on the job training methods. Course content of the training to this category include : Production control, organisation methods, work/activity control, method study, job study, time evaluation, company policies and practices, personal policies, procedures, programmes, training the subordinate, grievance handling, disciplinary procedure, communication, effective instruction, report writing performance appraisal, personal records, dealing with absenteeism, labour turn over, industrial and labour laws, leadership qualities etc. Sales training

Emphasis should be towards on-the-job as well as off the job training methods in training the sales personnel. Course content include job knowledge, organisational knowledge, knowledge about the company products, customers, competitors, sales administration procedures, law concerning sales, special skills like prospecting, making presentations, handling objections, closing the sales etc., employee attitudes such as loyalty to the company and trust in the company products, understanding and tolerance with regard to potential and existing customers. Clerical training Emphasis may be given on the off- the- job training, in training the clerical personnel. The training content includes organisation and methods, company policies, procedures and programmes, background knowledge of the company, forms, reports, written communication, clerical aptitude, maintaining ledgers, records etc. Learning and teaching The training programme will not be effective if the trainer is poorly qualified or ill-equipped with the technical aspects of the content or if he lacks aptitude for teaching and teaching skills. Training comprises of mainly learning and teaching. Training principles can be studied through the principles of learning and principles of teaching.

Evaluation of training programme Training programmes should be evaluated to correct shortcomings and improve further. It can be defined as any attempt to obtain information of the effects of training performance, and to assess the value of training in the light of that information. Five levels on which evaluation can take place Reactions : Training programme is evaluated on the basis of trainees reactions to the usefulness of coverage of the matter, depth of the course content, method of presentation, teaching methods etc.

Learning : Training programme, trainers ability and trainee ability are evaluated on the basis of quantity of content learned and time in which it is learned and learners ability to use or apply the content he learned. Job behavior : This evaluation includes the manner and extent to which the trainee has applied his learning to his job Organisation : This evaluation measures the use of training, learning and change in the job behaviour of the department or organisation in the form of increased productivity, quality, morale, sales turn over and the like.

Ultimate value: It is the measurement of ultimate result of contributions of the training programme to the company goals like survival, growth, profitability etc., and to the individual goals like development of personality and social goals like maximising social benefits. Essential ingredients for a successful evaluation There are three essential ingredients in a successful evaluation 1) Support throughout the evaluation process. Support items are human resources, time, finance, equipment and availability of data source, records etc. 2) Existence of open communication channels among top management, participants and those involved in providing data, etc. 3) Existence of sound management process Basis of evaluation: Training programme can be evaluated on the basis of various factors like production factor, general observation, human resource factor, performance, tests, cost-value relationship etc. Production factors: In operative training, the prime measure of worth is that of productivity. Productivity rates covering both quantity and quality are good indicators of the values of training. In most business situations these rates will have to be obtained before and after training. In an experimental situation a control group that does not receive training could be compared with the one that does in order to ascertain the effect of training. Management will generally look first at production and wastage rates to determine the worth of operative training. The other production factors are decrease in unit time and unit cost of production and reduction in space or machine requirements. General observations General observations should not be overlooked as a means of training evaluation. The immediate supervisor is often a good judge of the skill level of his subordinates. For on the job training programmes supervisor is, in effect the judge of his or her own efforts. If the supervisor is treated as a part of the professional management of the organisation and is properly selected and trained, this self analysis and appraisal can be quite accurate and objective. The efficient supervisor observes accurately the level of skill and knowledge acquired by the trainee during the training programme. He also observes how effectively the trainees apply acquired skill and knowledge to the present and future jobs. Human resource factors Training programme can also be evaluated on the basis of the employee satisfaction which in turn can be viewed on the basis of: 1. Decrease in employee turn over 2. Decrease in absenteeism 3. Decrease in number and severity of accidents

4. Betterment of employee morale 5. Decrease in grievance and disciplinary cases 6. Reduction in time to earn piece rates 7. Decrease in number of discharges or dismissals Performance tests In the immediate sense, the specific course of training can be evaluated in terms of written and performance tests. The test is supported by a sample of what the trainee knows or can do. Successful accomplishment of the tests would indicate successful training. But the true test is whether or not what has been learned in training is successfully transferred and applied to the job. It is dangerous to rely upon test alone to demonstrate the value of training. Performance appraisal on the job before and after training may be supplemented to the tests. Cost value relationship Cost factor in training should be taken into consideration while evaluating the training effectiveness. Cost of various techniques of training and their value in the form of reduced learning time, improved learning and higher performance can be taken into account. Cost of training includes cost of employing trainers and trainees, providing the means to learn, maintenance and running of training centres, wastage, low level of production, opportunity cost of trainers, trainees etc. The value centre of the training includes increased value of human resources of both trainee and trainer and their contribution to raise production, reduce wastage, breakage, minimisation of time requirement, etc. Cost value relationship of a training programme or a training technique is helpful in 1) Determining the priorities for training (for present and potential managers, age sector of the trainees etc) 2) Matching the employee and job through training 3) Determining the work of managing sacrifices (like time taken by training programme, non availability of staff for production during training period, etcc.) 4) Choosing the right training method

Any one of the possible combination of the methods of training evaluation listed below can be used by an organisation for evaluation depending upon the need and convenience. The various methods of training evaluation are 1) Immediate assessment of trainees reaction to the programme 2) Trainees observation during the training programme 3) Knowing trainees expectations before the training programme and collecting their views regarding the attainment of expectation after training. 4) Seeking opinion of trainees superior regarding his/her job performance and behaviour before and after training. 5) Evaluation of trainees skill level before and after training programmes 6) Measurement of improvement in trainees on the job behaviour

7) 8) 9) 10) 11)

Examination of testing system before and after sometime of the training programme Measurement of trainees attitude after training programme Cost benefit analysis of the training programme Seeking opinion of trainees colleagues regarding his/her job performance and behaviour Measurement of levels in absenteeism, turnover, wastage/scrap, accidents, breakage of machinery during pre and post period of the training programme 12) Seeking opinion of trainees subordinates regarding his/her job performance and behaviour

Feed Back Training evaluation information should be provided trainer and / instructors, trainees and all other parties concerned for control, correction and improvement of trainees activities. Further the training evaluator should follow it up to ensure implementation of the evaluation report of every stage. We can use questionnaire or interview to collect feedback.