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He graduated in mathematics, with a minor in physics.

But after three years of working in radio

astronomy, he decided that it was time to change tack. He says: `I came to the realisation that the
really good people not only had good mathematical ability, but they also had good hands-on skills and
could fix equipment. They also had huge physical intuition and I realised I did not have that physical
intuition, which is why I decided to get into biological science. I always had an interest in the
outdoors, because I was very active in the scouting movement, which had a strong emphasis on
natural history.
Gross had already become interested in mathematical biology before he entered the graduate
programme at Cornell. It was an emerging field at the time, although some aspects had been around
for many years, such as population genetics. He had taken a course at Drexel on the mathematics of
human biology with a focus on demography and had become enthralled by the subject. He liked the
stochastic mathematics and the real world possibilities of applying mathematics to biology.
He joined a small applied mathematics group at Cornell and did some work on neural network models
of the human brain. He did not think that was going to go anywhere very soon, but at the same time
he started taking a course in ecology from Simon Levin. He also met his other great mentor Brian
Chabot, who was a plant physiology ecologist.
He says: `I realised that there had not been very much work done on photosynthesis. It was an
opportunity for me to do something that I had not done before, which is laboratory work. As part of
my dissertation I wrote a paper which was published on the dynamics of photosynthesis. I looked at
how carbon uptake changes in response to changes in light. There are still many opportunities in
biology that are completely new.
After gaining his PhD he was certain about what he wanted to do - and made his first, and so far only,
career move. He says: `I immediately accepted a position at the University of Tennessee because of
my colleague Thomas Hallam, who had been hired here specifically to build a programme in
mathematical biology with an emphasis on ecology. There were very few other places that were so
forward thinking and had recognised the importance of the subject. I was appointed to the
mathematics department, but I also held a position in ecology, although that was not a department at
the time. I continued my work on photosynthesis here, before being drawn into other things. Even
now, the strong programmes in the field do not have large groups working on them, and yet that is
enough. Computational biology has grown as a field, but this tends to mean things below the
organism scale - like genomics.
Gross accepts that the growth of mathematics in fields like genomics and cell biology has gained a
higher public profile than his work in recent years, because people feel that it has a direct impact on
human health. His work has concentrated on a much larger scale, but he believes it can also have a
direct impact on human life.
He says: `My major research project over the past two decades has been on Everglades restoration.
This is an example of a large piece of real estate in which the driving force for the natural systems and
social systems is the water. Where the water is makes a big difference to where the people are and
where they are not, as well as the organisms and the responses of the whole system. It is a
tremendously interlinked system where the human systems have an impact on the natural systems.
`Unfortunately there are a very large number of stakeholders who have different views as to how the
system might be appropriately managed. We use computational models rather than mathematical
models, because its extremely difficult to write down any set of equations that are complicated
enough to capture the essence of the system and still be able to say anything useful. These models
can determine the implications of different human actions. What we say is, if you manage the system
this way, how does that impact the system of the Everglades and we have come up with a
hydrological model look at the implications of different plans on the biota.
`One of the things that we have learned from theory in ecology is the scales in which you are
interested and the scales in which they respond are tremendously important. In the Everglades, the
spatial scales are rather broad, so what is happening in one part of the system may be very much
decoupled from other parts of the system, unless something like the water is coupling the system.
Unfortunately, the water is coupling the system so you cannot take a simple average in the way that
you would with a linear process and expect it to work out. That is one of the things that we have tried
to deal with in the Everglades models. What happens in one part of space should be discernable from
what is happening in another part of space.
We have always been asked for one number that says one management plan is better than another
management plan and we have always refused to do it. We have come down to producing maps that
display how natural systems work with time series. We developed a methodology called relative
assessment with two maps that represent different management schemes and show the differences
between them. You can then do a time series of these maps and people can pick out the nonlinearities
and see how certain populations have crashed in response to a change in the water.
One project Grosss group has been examining is saving the Florida panther, which is related to the
cougar, and was on the verge of extinction with a population below 30 in 1995. The plan was to
import female cougars from Texas who had once interbred with Florida Panthers; now the population
has grown to 100. The group is working on population augmentation model to help plan such projects.
`These models were not available at the time and we are now working on them. It was an example of
a relatively simple ecological idea, but the mathematics had not been worked out. It was basically a
problem in optimal control - a long standing field in mathematics - which has differential equations
with a control parameter that you can modify to maximise or minimise something under certain
constraints. This is a relatively new field in biological systems, but it has applications in other areas.
`What we are trying to do with the Everglades is work out what to do, where to do it and when and
how to assess what you have done. This is highly computational and involves a lot of intensive parallel
computing, because when you do something in one place it affects what happens in another place.
You have a huge control space with sometimes millions of control variables.
He says a lot of ecological models can also be used in other fields, such as infection control. In many
cases, he says, there are `rules of thumb that people have used for many years to make decisions on
managing natural systems. The mathematical models can sometimes come up with alternative
strategies, which can be shown to be more effective under certain circumstances. Gross has
discovered that many issues in managing the environment, from controlling the activity of hunters to
keep bears away from human settlements to controlling forest fires, are actually very interesting
mathematical problems, often involving stochastic process. In many ways there are parallels with the
ways that advanced mathematics has become an important part of the creation of investment
strategies in the financial markets.
Gross has been at the University of Tennessee in Knoxville since 1979 and has no inclination to do the
common academic shuffle between institutions to get resources, greater salary or prestige. He was
brought in by a university management which, in many ways, was ahead of the game in encouraging
interdisciplinary research activities and as a result he has been given a long leash. Of course his
department has not been expensive to run, with many millions of dollars being brought in through
research grants as the field of environmental management has acquired a higher political profile.
He says: `What has been good about staying here is that we have been able to build one of the best
programmes in the world in mathematical biology. We have done this in a collaborative way. The
Institute for Environmental Modelling has allowed us to work with a wide variety of people from
different specialities. There are few other universities where it would be so easy to set up an
interdisciplinary research institute.
`Modern biology is very interdisciplinary and, in order to train the next generation of biologists, we will
need to inculcate them with a lot of other specialities. One of the challenges is how to modify the
undergraduate curricula so that they see other subjects. One way to do this is with electives, the other
is to have truly interdisciplinary courses.
So how was he able to persuade his university to pioneer this approach? `Well, it didnt cost them very
much. We got some stationery and we were up and running, says Gross. Since then his institute has
brought in some $15m in external funding. One well-known outputs from his research is the SADA
software package which is used for planning site remediation all over the world. Its development is
funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
Another reason for his decision not to move is the `academic two body problem. His wife is also an
academic in poetry and although he has been courted by many other institutions he has not been able
to tackle the double hire issue. He is also very happy where he is.
In the future he is hopeful that the growing profile of mathematical biology at the cell level will
eventually spread to his work at a macroscopic level. He says that one of the problems is that many of
the academic meetings have become quite specialised. Mathematical papers are presented at
meetings about a particular area of biology and people in that field are unwilling at the moment to go
to meetings where all they talk about is mathematical biology, but across many fields.
Gross has served as President of the Society for Mathematical Biology and he hopes that in the future
this will emerge as more of a field in its own right. He says: `There are so many things that you can
learn from how people in other areas of biology are using mathematical methods. There are many
routes to how the field is advanced. Some of these developments will occur in mathematics
departments and others will happen in biological science research. For example, there is a growing
field of agent-based modelling, which has so far seen few applications outside ecology. They can be
equally applied to many other fields and the computational tools are becoming available and people
without a huge amount of coding experience can do something new.
Much of Grosss work has been around parallel processing simply because in ecology you have to do it
because of the synchrony of biological systems. Gross believes that the same approach can be used in
human biology by studying `whole human responses.
Gross has developed a number of interests outside of his university work. Most notably he is the
sound engineer for a local theatre in Knoxville. He has published articles in journals about designing
theatre sound systems.
This stems from a deep interest in what might be called folk music, but his tastes are very broad.
Another reason to stay put in Tennessee?

Our vision and Nission
Cawad Kalinga

Building communities to end poverty.


Cawad Kalinga is building communities
empowered by people with faith and patriotism,
driven by a culture of caring and sharing,
dedicated to eradicate poverty and restore human dignity.


Ending poverty to S million poor families by 2024:
Land for the Landless.
Homes for the Homeless.
ood for the Hungry.

A Timeline to Timelessness
133S: Hope Begins
Couples for Christ initiated its work with the poor in Bagong Silang, Caloocan City, the biggest slum in
Netro Nanila. The first youth camp for juvenile delinquents changed the lives of 127 gang members, the
first seeds of the work that would eventually be called Cawad Kalinga.

1336 to 1333: Sacrifice and Perseverance
Social engineering began in Bagong Silang by providing training and education for gang members, and
working with their families in beautifying community areas. The very first CK house was built for the
Adduru family.

2000:Setting the oundations
Cawad Kalinga Awards was launched, and 11 teams pioneered the first CK villages outside of Bagong
Silang. Programs for shelter, child and youth development and health programs were started.

2002:irst Najor Partner
!nspired by the commitment of Singles for Christ members who raised funds and built 16 CK homes in
Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental, Philippine President Cloria Arroyo allocated P30 million to build 1,000
CK homes. This was matched by local areas, and allowed CK to be replicated in key areas throughout the

2003: The Nation Responds
CK777, the vision of building 700,000 homes in 7,000 communities in 7 years was launched on October
4, 2003 at the first CK Expo in Fort Bonifacio, Taguig City. Former President Corazon Aquino declared
that "CK is People Power," and rallied all sectors of society to engage with CK.

2004: The Tipping Point
Fr. Bienvenido Nebres champions CK in Ateneo. CK is able to bring both private and public sector to
embrace the vision of a slumfree Philippines. Rival corporations and politicians rise above divisions and
work together to transform communities.. CK in !ndonesia began with an education program for the
youth in ]akarta.

200S: CK Becomes a NationBuilding Novement
CK partnered with the National Disaster Coordinating Council, Department of Social Welfare and
Development and 200 LCUs and launched a massive campaign to provide free land and build
communities for typhoon victims. Through Kalinga Luzon and Kalinga Leyte, CK pioneered a template for
rescue and rehabilitation of communities built by volunteers. The 1st CK Highway of Peace began and the
first Nuslim CK village was built in Datu Paglas, Naguindanao. The first CK house in Papua New Cuinea
was built at Cerehu Stage 6.

2006: Seeds of Sustainability
CK Bayananihan was started, seeking to restore productivity to the land and food sufficiency for CK
residents. CK Nabuhay began to renew Filipino culture on the ground while transforming CK communities
into tourist destinations. CK and Tony Neloto received the Community Leadership award from Ramon
Nagsaysay Foundation, Asia's Nobel Peace Prize. Canadian government poured financial support to fund
more CK villages.

2007: CK Expands Overseas
Singaporean President S.R. Nathan launched their feeding program on February 14 at CK Baseco, Tondo,
Nanila. CK Rafaella village in Phnom Penh, Cambodia was turned over to its local residents. British
Ninister of State Dr. Kim Howells visited CK Pinagsama and noted that the world was seeing a new
renaissance of the Filipino."

2008: The Science and System Supports the CK Spirit
The Cawad Kalinga Builders !nstitute, the think tank, training arm, and learning center was started.
African nationals visited the Philippines with plans to adopt CK in South Africa. CK advocates Dylan Wilk
and Nathan Nari along with their families drove 22,000 miles across America to spread the work of CK.

2003: Clobal Nodel for Poverty Alleviation
Cawad Kalinga launched CK2024, a 21year vision which provides the roadmap towards a First World
Philippines. The emerging Asian model for development is unveiled to the world at the first CK Clobal
Summit in Boston, with friends from !ndia and Columbia in attendance to see how this Asian model for
development can be adopted to end poverty in other developing nations in the world.

..CK 2024 Roadmap
OUR ROADNAP to 2024:

The road to a First World Philippines by 2024 is guided by a development roadmap composed of three

Social ]ustice: 2003 to 2010

We begin to challenge and inspire everyone to go beyond charity and become their brother's keeper in
order to heal the wounds of injustice in our country. This has opened the door to major streams of
generosity through donations of land and resources to build homes for the homeless, a dream realized
through the heroic response of volunteers from all sectors of society.

Social Artistry: 2011 to 2017

We move forward to the designer phase we call Social Artistry" where we invite greater expertise,
science and technology to grow our holistic model for development. Through stronger collaboration with
credible and distinguished institutions and individuals and by engaging them to use our CK communities
as convergence points and social laboratories, we hope to pursue major innovations that will concretely
and permanently improve the quality of life for the poorest of the poor, allowing them to attain their
fullest potentials.

Social Progress: 2018 to 2024

We envision a new standard of living to take a permanent foothold in the life of a nation. This will only be
achieved by working on scale and sustainability of what have been established earlier - the spirit, the
science and the structure. By this time, a new generation of empowered, productive citizens would have
emerged, who lived through an exciting time of change moving from poverty to prosperity, from
shame to honor, from thirdworld to firstworld and from secondclass to firstclass citizen of the world.

Environmental research
The term "environmental research" covers a wide range oI scientiIic activities in many
natural sciences. Environmental research is multidisciplinary and involves sciences
like atmospheric physics and chemistry, meteorology, oceanography, hydrology,
geology, biology, physics, Iluid dynamics and mathematics together with the
computer sciences. Mathematics is vital since it is an essential resource Ior setting up
theories and models Ior a wide diversity oI problems. Mathematics provides a
universal language Ior modeling purposes in the natural sciences and disciplines Irom
industry and engineering.
Mathematical modeling
Especially in industry and engineering this has been acknowledged Ior a long time
now, resulting in a high state-oI-the-art oI mathematical modeling. Since World War
II one observes the systematic replacement oI much experimentation in design and
problem solving by mathematical modeling, as this is mostly cheaper, more versatile
and Iaster. The advent oI very Iast super and parallel computers with large memories
has accelerated this process. For instance, every modern aircraIt is a product oI
computer aided design leaning Ior a signiIicant part upon achievements Irom
mathematics, computational Iluid dynamics and computer science.
In recent years there is a growing recognition that resources Ior environmental
research should be increased signiIicantly in order to advance our understanding oI
the working oI the environment and all aspects oI pollution. Also the Dutch
government expresses its concern with the environment regularly and has allocated
several Iunds Ior a variety oI activities in the environmental sector. These activities
should include both long-term strategic and applied research, implying that research in
sciences basic to the study oI environmental problems must continue to be supported.
The mathematical and computer sciences belong to this category, since by the
complexity oI most oI the environmental pollution problems they can only be
investigated with the use oI computer models based on mathematical techniques. Our
ability to understand and interprete models Ior environmental problems relies in large
part on mathematics and computer simulation. Applications oI models exist Irom
diverse Iields such as biosphere dynamics, population dynamics, hydrology, porous
media, atmospheric physics, global energy and climatic change. Also studies
concerned with the behaviour and Iate oI highly toxic, chemical compounds in the
environment necessitate an extensive use oI simulation models.
Mathematical research fields
Research activities covered by this program may concern theory, experimentation,
algorithms, computer implementation, and may interIace with virtually any
mathematical and computational discipline. We mention, Ior instance, analysis oI
diIIerential equations and numerical mathematics, scientiIic computing and
computational Iluid dynamics, large-scale modeling on super and parallel computers,
visualization and massive-data handling, population dynamics, biomathematics,
dynamical system theory and chaos, statistics, operations research, optimization and
optimal control, image reconstruction, inverse methods and parameter estimation, etc.
Scientific high performance computing and networking (HPCN)
A development which cannot be ignored is the rapidly increasing signiIicance oI
scientiIic high perIormance computing and networking. From the Rubbia report we
quote, "The Iield oI computing is on the verge oI a new revolution. During recent
years the amount oI computational power at the disposal oI scientists and engineers
(super and parallel computers) has increased dramatically. This has enabled them to
envisage approaches that will revolutionize all Iields oI science". Another quotation
Irom this report reads "ScientiIic and societal progress, industrial competiveness, the
understanding and control oI environmental Iactors necessary to human well- being
will be governed by the availability oI adequate computing power".
Dynamical systems laboratory
The AM department has installed a dynamical systems laboratory, the purpose oI
which is to make available a collection oI user-Iriendly soItware and hardware Ior the
computer assisted analysis oI dynamical systems. Such a laboratory, provided with
a.o. an interactive interIace and Iacilities Ior graphical output, has much to oIIer Ior
the study oI mathematical models arising in environmental research. In particular, it
can assist environmental scientists who are Iaced with the growing complexity oI
environmental and mathematical modelling, in the sense that with the tools oI a
dynamical systems lab they are better able to concentrate on their problem
Iormulation and validation and less hindered by purely mathematical diIIiculties. At
present, most tools are suitable Ior dynamical systems on low dimensional spaces
only, but in the Iuture attention will be devoted to high (even inIinite) dimensional
situations as well. The lab has close connections with the NWO priority program
Nonlinear Systems.

The PhIlIppIne Fed Cross has adopted the followIng 7IsIon and |IssIon Statement to guIde Its dayto
day actIvItIes and long term objectIves, In servIng the natIon as a whole.

The PhIlIppIne Fed Cross wIll be the foremost humanItarIan organIzatIon In the PhIlIppInes, In servIces
provIded and number of people served.
The PhIlIppIne Fed Cross brIngs tImely, effectIve and compassIonate humanItarIan assIstance for the
most vulnerable wIthout consIderatIon of natIonalIty, race, creed, gender, socIal status or polItIcal
The PhIlIppIne Fed Cross Is a nonprofIt, donorfunded, volunteer, humanItarIan organIzatIon. These
are our core values:
We exIst to brIng tImely, effectIve and compassIonate assIstance to the most vulnerable wIthout
consIderatIon of natIonalIty, race, relIgIon, gender, socIal status or polItIcal affIlIatIon.
We strengthen our capabIlIty to assIst the most vulnerable by expandIng our donor base and by
IncreasIng the number of our welltraIned volunteers.
We honor our selves, our donors and volunteers by managIng and utIlIzIng our recourses effectIvely,
effIcIently, wIth IntegrIty and transparency.
Dur work ethIc and encourages and rewards teamwork, excellent performance and the achIevement
of goals.
We value our staff and volunteer and encourage them to grow theIr full potentIal In the organIzatIon.
We are a stalwart member of the nternatIonal Fed Cross/Fed Crescent |ovement and advocate
staunchly Its Fundamental PrIncIples and the nternatIonal HumanItarIan law.
We cooperate wIth our sIster NatIonal SocIetIes, Covernment and other organIzatIons engaged In
humanItarIan servIces and complement each other's competencIes thereby maxImIzIng the delIvery of
assIstance to the vulnerable.
We are FIlIpIno and, by the consIstent excellence of our conduct, performance and achIevements, we
aspIre to be a worthy representatIve of the best of FIlIpIno values and skIlls.

SectIon J of the PFC Charter enumerates the purposes of thIs CorporatIon as follows:

1. To furnIsh volunteer aId to the sIck and wounded of armed forces In tIme of war, In accordance wIth
the spIrIt of and under the condItIons prescrIbed by the Ceneva Fed Cross ConventIon to whIch the
FepublIc of the PhIlIppInes proclaImed Its adherence on February fourteen, nIneteen hundred and
2. For the purposes mentIoned In the proceedIng subsectIon, to perform all dutIes devolvIng upon the
CorporatIon as a result of the adherence of the FepublIc of the PhIlIppInes to the saId ConventIon;
J. To act In matters of voluntary relIef and In accordance wIth the authorItIes of the Armed Forces as a
medIum of communIcatIon between the people of the FepublIc of the PhIlIppInes and theIr Armed
Forces, In tIme of peace and In tIme of war, and to act In such matters between sImIlar natIonal
socIetIes of other governments and the Covernment and people and the Armed Forces of the
4. To establIsh and maIntaIn a system of natIonal and InternatIonal relIef In tIme of peace and In tIme
of war and apply the same In meetIng the emergency needs caused by typhoon, floods, fIres,
earthquakes, and other natural dIsasters; and to devIce and carry out measures for mInImIzIng the
sufferIng caused by such dIsasters;
. To devIse and promote such other servIces In tIme of peace and In tIme of war as may be found
desIrable In ImprovIng the health, safety and welfare of the FIlIpIno people wIthout InfrIngIng upon the
functIons of government;
6. To devIse such means as to make every cItIzen and/or resIdent of the PhIlIppInes a member of the
Fed Cross.

The 8lood Program of the PhIlIppInes operates In accordance wIth the provIsIons of the NatIonal 8lood
ServIces Act of 1994 or FepublIc Act (F.A.) 7719. n trIpartIte cooperatIon wIth the 0epartment of
Health and the PhIlIppIne 8lood CoordInatIon CouncIl, the PhIlIppIne Fed Cross (PFC) Is one of the key
organIzatIons tasked to provIde safe blood to the country through Its actIve role In advocacy,
promotIon of voluntary blood donatIon, donor retentIon and care and the operatIon of a network of 74
8lood ServIce FacIlItIes all over the country.



The Philippine Archipelago occupies the western rim oI the PaciIic Ocean, a most active
part oI the earth characterized by an encircling belt oI active volcanoes and Iault lines.
Typhoons, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are common. Human-induced disasters
like bombing and armed conIlict are not inIrequent either.
The roles oI the Disaster Management Services (DMS) are to provide relieI in times oI
disasters and to carry on measures to minimize the suIIering caused by them. Disaster
preparedness is also a major component oI its program that aims to prepare especially the
vulnerable communities in the event oI calamities



The CommunIty Health and NursIng ServIces (CHNS) Is aware that more
effort are stIll to be done to sIgnIfIcantly Increase the scale and scope of Its
work In health care and show the results and Impact of Its actIons. WIth Its
mIssIon of mprovIng the health sItuatIon of the most vulnerable
communItIes, CHNS contInues to expand Its servIce outlets In accordance to
the emergIng and contInuIng health needs of these most vulnerable