Step by Step

This page intentionally left blank

Step by Step
Everyday Walks in a French Urban Housing Project
Foreword by Françoise Choay Translated and with an Afterword by David Ames Curtis

University of Minnesota Press
Minneapolis London

The University of Minnesota Press gratefully acknowledges the generosity of the French Ministry of Culture, which contributed financial assistance to the publication of this book. Ouvrage publié avec l’aide du Ministère français chargé de la Culture— Centre national du livre. The University of Minnesota Press acknowledges the work of Edward Dimendberg, editorial consultant, on this project. Photographs of the Arlequin neighborhood in Grenoble, France, were taken by Yves Bardin and Babette Mathieu. The map in Appendix B was created by Holger Sauer. Lines from “Walking and Falling” and “Big Science,” from the album Big Science by Laurie Anderson, quoted as an epigraph to the Afterword and in a note, are reprinted here courtesy of Laurie Anderson. Originally published in French as Pas à pas. Essai sur le cheminement quotidien en milieu urbain by Éditions du Seuil in 1979 as part of the Espacements series edited by Françoise Choay. Copyright 1979 Éditions du Seuil. Copyright 2007 by the Regents of the University of Minnesota All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Published by the University of Minnesota Press 111 Third Avenue South, Suite 290 Minneapolis, MN 55401-2520 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Augoyard, Jean-François, 1941– [Pas à pas. English] Step by step : everyday walks in a French urban housing project / Jean-François Augoyard ; foreword by Françoise Choay ; translated and with an afterword by David Ames Curtis. p. cm. Translation of: Pas à pas. Includes bibliographical references and index. isbn: 978-0-8166-4590-9 (hc: alk. paper) 978-0-8166-4591-6 (pb: alk. paper) isbn-10: 0-8166-4590-6 (hc : alk. paper) 0-8166-4591-4 (pb : alk. paper) 1. City and town life—France. 2. Sociology, Urban—France. 3. Urbanization— France. 4. City planning—France. I. Title. ht135.a8813 2007 307.760944--dc22 2007026439 Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper The University of Minnesota is an equal-opportunity educator and employer. 12 11 10 09 08 07 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

On the Imaginary Ground of Inhabitant Expression Conclusion: A Cosmogenetic Point Appendix A: Synoptic Table Appendix B: Map and Toponymic Lexicon of the Arlequin Neighborhood Afterword: Walking Together.Contents Foreword Françoise Choay STEP BY STEP vii Itinerary 1. Arteries. Impasses. An Inhabitant Rhetoric: Figures of Walking 3. Three Decades Later David Ames Curtis Notes 221 Bibliography 249 Index 255 3 7 23 77 115 135 165 179 189 193 . Side Streets 2. The Body of Inhabitant Expression 5. An Inhabitant Rhetoric: The Code of Appropriation 4.

This page intentionally left blank .

neither had the young discipline of urban sociology had such a time denouncing the disparities between the product (the built environment) being offered to consumers (inhabitants) and the expectations of the latter. inscribed within the technocratic climate of intense urbanization that. among technocrats. was.” Never had urban planners and architects in our country had comparable firepower at their disposal.Foreword FR ANÇOISE CHOAY To republish or—what amounts to the same—to translate a book. had witnessed the transition from “high-density housing complexes”1to “new towns. Both these hypotheses apply to Step by Step. which arose from his academic dissertation. This work by Jean-François Augoyard. were questioned and mastered with a modesty and a simplicity that seemed almost ridiculous. Augoyard quietly introduced the twin teachings of Martin Heidegger on dwelling and of Herbert Marcuse on technology. written a quarter century ago in reaction to a precisely dated and limited context. Augoyard’s Pas à pas arrived on the scene as the perfect opposite of the fashionable socio-politico-economic analyses and the ruling ideology. the bearer of multiple readings. present between the lines. and vii . All along the both unassuming and meticulous investigation he conducted in the enclosed area of everydayness and people’s ordinary behaviors. to borrow a term familiar to him. in France. presupposes that the document in question would either present some clear historical value or had been. from the outset. All the issues of the day. polysemous in character. practitioners. And yet. Some people were not fooled: Michel de Certeau always recognized the debt he has incurred vis-à-vis Pas à pas in his analysis of the “everyday.”2 On the other hand.

But does not Pas à pas. First is his unveiling of the role the body plays (through the apparently trivial and insignificant activity of deambulation)4 in the semanticization of our spatial and social environment. Pas à pas has attained global significance. the body’s exclusion by architecture and planning schools viii . and it is “inhabitant expression” itself—this “power.FOREWORD sociologists concerned with what Augoyard subsumes under the terms construction and lodging (as opposed to building and inhabiting). condemned to exile: indeed. reified by the media and supplanted by ever more efficient technological prostheses. the symbolization inherent to speech. word by word). Pas à pas had hardly any impact at all. this time. It is not my role here to substitute myself for the present-day reader and to project in detail Augoyard’s contributions on the backdrop of the electronic era.” grounded in the imaginary. to struggle “against the real as conceived. I reread his book “step by step” (or. in everyday life. the “reduction” process detected and revealed by Augoyard has become generalized. to orient otherwise the edified world”3—that is threatened with extinction. offer another dimension besides the merely documentary one? I confess that I have asked myself the question. In twenty-five years. this book testifies in a nearly unique way to a consciousness of the fundamental questions raised by urbanization as it stood at the threshold of the yet-to-be-named electrotelematic revolution. by historical curiosity: with globalization as my horizon as I made my way through the book. Today. our era of globalization. the questions asked and the observations made by Augoyard seemed to me not merely premonitory but fully in step with our own times.5 finds itself. rather. Today. Next is the key analysis (still to be pursued) of the ways in which temporalized spatial figures recapitulate. I shall therefore limit myself to two points. at the present hour. as conditioning by technology came to apply no longer just to urban lived experience in our globalized societies but also to their social practices as a whole. via the mediation of the body. Exactly twenty-five years after I enthusiastically welcomed Augoyard into the series I was editing at Seuil publishing house. carried along. This is a lesson to be pondered at a time when the human body. The collusion between technology and capital had become ever more radical in the interim.

Thus.FOREWORD as well as by professionals in those fields. as he takes his final steps in his last pages. apart from the polemical and the political. especially in light of the fact that. in Aristotle’s strong and original sense of the term? These are but vain questions and sterile regrets inasmuch as Pas à pas draws its full force from the minimalist option Augoyard adopted and from the way in which he succeeds in standing at the very threshold where meaning emerges from nonmeaning. it concerns at present all humans identically.9 the key word is let loose: cosmogenesis. Of course. anthropogenesis? ix . would not the use of the term city6 elicit some reservations? Why reduce “the social unit of everyday life [to an] aggregate”7 and consider “advocacy planning” to be nothing but a failure?8 How can one justify the absence of two words. This precise specification is of precious value. for example. for what is this cosmogenesis if not the innermost calling of our species. a close reading of Augoyard’s book might lead one to regret that which its heroical minimalism deprives it of. goes to ensure this very exile. for it is also (as Augoyard makes clear in detail) only through the body that space becomes a world. henceforth threatened with eclipse. These questions and regrets remain vain and sterile. obsessed as they now are by computer-assisted design. For that option erects the very sparseness of its approach into a method and confines itself to the field of the ordinary and the individual. identity and difference. Indeed. which give their status to the articulation of the body and of space by integrating therein the properly political dimension.

This page intentionally left blank .

Step by Step .

This page intentionally left blank .

and with the hope of not betraying them too much.” have taken us. It is dedicated. Their daily strolls. a side step in urban studies. first of all. to a small number of inhabitants in a town that looks like many others. confidence in our own scientific knowledge has slackened. To the point of rambling. We shall simply attempt to state in the pages of the present volume. every day. We thank them for this salutary change of scenery [dépaysement] which invites us to make three somewhat unusual steps in the field of scientific knowledge about the city: a side step. But their approaches have come to take over our own and have obliterated the abstract itinerary we had projected to follow. likening their spatial practices to one or another of the major routes that structure present-day familiarity with the city. We wanted to learn how these inhabitants live their relationship to the spaces of their habitat. At the rhythm with which time itself is lived. The “quality of life” theme is “in” today. First. what the inhabitants are expressing by themselves. perchance to take a plunge [un pas à sauter].Itinerary This work takes the step as its point of departure under a variety of headings. Yet step by step. little by little. along many detours and into the flurry of particular details of ordinary life. We wanted to make them say something. After several decades of urban planning that were characterized by an increasing mastery of space in quantitative terms. which we have “joined in mid-march. in their most unremarkable forms of conduct. a step forward. It is asked how the “user” can come to live within 3 . our reductionist techniques have fallen by the wayside. the inhabitants have suddenly become an object of concern.

One seeks to improve the living conditions of the “consumer” or the “constituent” [l’“administré”]. there has been a marked interest in qualitative analyses of urban life. and then one searches for remedies. by promoting sociocultural activities and entertainments. incidental.” after the fact. people talk a lot about a new sociology that would free itself from the quantum. Yet the everyday problems intensive urban development generates are still being dealt with in one of two ways. or it is contemplated before the urbanization program is carried out. But is not this omission itself of significance? Is there not a qualitative gap between lived practices and representations of these practices? Is everyday life to be reduced to a reproduction? Is its fate to go on repeating. Either such treatment is considered after the development and construction have been completed. the urgent imperatives dictated by the economic order and the ideological order? Or does it really have a productive and expressive capacity of its own? The question could at least be posed for once. For a few years now. it might merit a side step. What one now considers classical sociology— which was based on statistical data that allow one to offer an overall diagnosis before it is too late and to reveal the most general causes of a growing urban malaise—has perhaps even been criticized too rashly. and then hypothetical data are taken into account via preconceived ways of using the urban space. an already laid-out and developed space. accidental. For both these approaches. It necessitates a step forward in the methods of qualitative sociology. to look into what its own powers and abilities are. from this point of view. Such an approach is in no way an easy one. were it only for the time of the present volume. A qualitative methodology is nevertheless still taking 4 . and to cast. Today. blindly. urban planning in reality merely manipulates representations of use. Everyday time—which cannot enter into a construction parameter—becomes secondary. or an attempt to follow lived time as closely as possible.ITINER ARY these new urban arrangements. a different glance upon the urban world. it seems. the instantiated principle [instance] of the inhabitant or “user” can be dealt with only in the form of a content that “fills in. And. In its operational mode. New techniques have been invented to soften the edges of planned spaces— for example.

our study will hardly ever depart from a quite specific urban neighborhood that serves as an example. correcting its errancies and adjusting its extrapolations. in this sense.” Others. procrastinations. Moreover. True. Because of this. also risk reduplicating the reductions currently imposed upon it via the production of planned space? Also. everyday life does not yield states of affairs. grasped in its lived quality. Following the approach we have taken over several years. were it granted that. it has seemed to us. the writing is inflected in two unusual ways. each moment—and here each chapter— outstrips the previous one. The primary task of a modal analysis undoubtedly is to take into account such constant to-and-fro movements between the scattered pluralities of lived experience and the minimum unity required by speech. For. Beyond the I. It gives us movements. the modalities of lived experience belonging to each inhabitant do indeed participate in a community of meaning. considerably reduces the gap [l’écart] between everyday life and our observational experience of it. in first-person terms. behaviors whose typological structure could be fixed in place. A step would be taken. however. and repetitions. there is undoubtedly a we. this makes the reading of the book all the more difficult. The account we shall offer respects its evolutive or “fleeting” character. But this option. May the reader therefore excuse us for our slow goings. attempt to describe. Step by step. on the one hand. conducts. The itinerary we are proposing will no doubt appear off-track and 5 . does not every statement about everyday life that would fail to enter into its concrete particularities and singularities risk setting it too quickly and rigidly in the realm of the represented and. which expresses itself in everydayness. inspired by a more poetic model. the quality of lived space. Is a method of modal analysis possible in the case of urban sociology? The present volume presents the concrete experiment we have undertaken. everyday life is a fabric of ways of being (before being a set of secondorder effects) and that.ITINER ARY its first steps. it weaves together what we hope will be close ties between ambulatory practices unfolding in a concrete space-time and our analytic approach. taking pains to distance itself from a search for necessary causes or from ethnological methods that abandon the exotic in order to return to the “endotic. on the other.

the patchy. The urban world has reduced everyday life to a series of functional operations.ITINER ARY puzzling [déroutant]. that the way in which one does things might appear as significant as the result of the action taken—and that one’s style of expressing oneself might carry as much weight as what is signified (what is called “the signified”) or what is expressed (what will be called “the expressed”). the insignificant? What contribution can such a sidelong approach—one that. And so as not to reduce this last power and ability of the urban dweller even further. from the outset. to settle ourselves straightaway into the insignificant. must not our investigation summon up all its patience and must not our scientific knowledge give proof of a great flexibility. perhaps even accepting the overthrow of a few of its certainties? 6 . that world conditions its needs and gives the code of its usages. In this world. fails to take into account the certainties of today’s scientific knowledge—make that would deepen our familiarity with urban life? Such an invitation to vagabondage might be able to alter our mental attitude about urban phenomena. Ought not a philosophy of everyday life begin by making this deliberate leap [écart]? A philosophy of the remainder is unlikely to be possible except through a break in the hierarchy of epistemological values. to think everyday life through its own logic. the plural. everyday life retains possession only of its expressive or rhetorical dimension. Such a philosophy implies that modality would not be merely an instrument of causality—that is to say. It prods us to take a plunge. What interest could there possibly be in accounting for practices so unremarkable and familiar that they would seem to us to border on the innocuous.

—René Char Arteries Who has not. indeed. and effectively inhabited (in the active sense) by each inhabitant? Probably a quite small part: a few neighborhoods or broken sections of neighborhoods scattered at the will of the fragmented activities that are our lot (work. the cuts that run invisibly along the route Are our only route. which thereby become embedded. glimpsed that everyday habits get lost in the details and. sometimes one’s lodging all by itself. one that conceals itself. one day or another. without growing drowsy.1 Arteries. it seems. appropriated. what part is frequented. Impasses. quantitative evaluation is hardly 7 . consumption). upon the accidental irruption of such an impression. and the concentration of slum areas. the city he inhabits? And who has not. social division. leisure. Again. economic pressure. now that it even goes so far as to reduplicate this loss of self and of “home” in the city by closing off all prospects through the shrinking of cityscapes. had the distinct impression that he has been pretty much banished from. dispossessed of. The production of urban space today hardly offers the inhabitant any respite. the inhabitants seem to lose themselves further and further within it. by the wayside. digging in their heels? The city is a furtive object. that these habits seem to repeat this banishment and this dispossession. sometimes even less than one’s full lodging. Side Streets The paths.1 Whence the following simple question: In the collective space that is the city. who Sleep. for we who speak in order to live. overpricing of “small” property lots. Far from dominating their city. domicile.

preexisting totalities to which one must necessarily refer qua citizen. it may be the “city” unit. in a few hours’ time. consumer. the urban habitat as given appears as a conceptual space laid out and developed according to the rules of the whole and its parts. I M PA S S E S . or inhabitant. that all that is needed is a breakdown of a few power stations or strikes by public transport employees or by garbage collectors for one of the world’s most extraordinary powers. to be rendered.).A R T E R I E S . such as the “high-density housing complex. long-term and medium-term forecasts. Everything takes place according to a relation of container to contained. But the new forms of urban living.” organizational logic. worker. political conditions. such as its great metropolitan areas. and timing of urban programs. strategies for domination. S I D E S T R E E T S of any significance. And sometimes the parts are so well integrated into the whole. plans. an increasingly necessitarian rationality seems now to reign over the city. These “units” establish a descending series of interlocking memberships. etc. economic “imperatives.” are created straightaway as simultaneous totalities. and in such an interdependent way.2 The production and organization of the built and developed world have privileged a kind of manipulation of space that is based on a logic of repetition as well as on the following fundamental principle: produce first the urban habitat so as to hand it over then for use. The inhabitant who comes 8 . With schematic diagrams. literally helpless. social insurance contributor. the container implies all the signs of the system that has modeled it (realestate market. the “neighborhood” unit. we have no foothold upon the city as a totality. And they take on a life of their own as given. Historical and symbolic communal memory still maintains the illusion that the city dweller has taken part in this development. or the “high-density housing complex” unit. In its form. But what is this urban totality? Experienced daily through functional constraints and operational imperatives. Whether it be in the overall organization of usages or the mode of production of urban space itself. Qualitatively speaking. Older urban zones or “aging” mixed neighborhoods exhibit a unity that has been built up little by little.

tedious—fashion. are five royal roads for the analysis of urban life. five main ways of finding general and basic causes that explain inhabitant malaise. The space is too hostile or impervious to collective habitation. we prefer to limit ourselves to designating the main arteries within which the present currents of thought circulate. S I D E S T R E E T S to “fill in” this or that form of habitat is hardly able to discover either the significations assigned to it or its organic relationship to the totality. one in which appropriations of space might be able to succeed without experiencing too many constraints and in which the neighborhood would be considered to be something like an extension of one’s own “home. Individuals feel they are being driven back into their lodgings. in an undoubtedly approximative way that nevertheless corresponds to our own recollection of the words and writings of urbanists or researchers or inhabitants themselves. Thus. architects. Life is dreary and fragmented. at least decent—that is to say. is there an inhabitant malaise? This question is not a new one. Instead. In any case. Here. as it turns out. and he finds himself captive of an overly complex network of functional operations. in short. in a necessarily incomplete—and.” Now. and even a portion of the public. “Housed” rather than “inhabiting. nothing happens as planned. have elicited responses from urbanists. Who is responsible? Neither the inhabitants nor the authors of the project. once the project is fulfilled and built. an inevitable series 9 . if not of scientific knowledge. here.A R T E R I E S . the works of certain theorists. Since the early sixties. the entire set of interpretations that constitute the field of the urban question. It is the fulfillment of a development plan that introduces too many changes into the initial project Certain developmental and architectural projects ought to allow for a “social life” that is. 1. then. I M PA S S E S . they go from the most specialized kinds of research to the most trivial doxa. if not idyllic. which at the present time constitute a veritable corpus of issues and criticisms.3 Rather than trying to enumerate. it has set off numerous attempts at a response.” his daily life seems to unfold in a cramped living space. What kind of fate has befallen the city? Why do the inhabitants have no mastery over the relation of the whole to its parts? Why.

however. This intervention. The inhabitant fails to intervene in the production process After the first massive wave of urbanization. it is thought. is it culture. this answer does not go so far as to challenge the project itself or its general mode of production. this statement avoids identifying too clearly the origins of this inhabitant malaise.5 Indeed. whereas their cause remains unclear. Some city-planning professionals started to become sensitive to the idea that the inhabitants could intervene in the production of their habitat. or is it “life today” that is the cause? Whatever the reason. It may symbolize a vague and never theorized state of mind that is nevertheless apparent in the ideology of urban production. The remedy? Relearn how to inhabit. learn how to read the new urban and architectural forms.A R T E R I E S . the issue of how to delegate speech. Numerous efforts were made in this direction. the inhabitant no longer knows how to inhabit his space This surprising response occurs more frequently among architects than one might think. as well as those pertaining to economic and political strategies. Organizational and construction technologies. people no longer know how to inhabit the city. Rather. Yet a new style of real-estate sales has already anticipated this diagnosis. have their weaknesses. is a pedagogy of architecture. a sort of “user” awareness was awakened. The remedy would thus be an increase in technical applications. The failures of such “advocacy planning” raise. Is it civilization. 3. the inhabitants have to be represented by 10 . it takes note of the ups and downs of the project in terms of technical analysis. would appreciably alter the physiognomy of the building product. 2. Disfigured or ill educated. which could even be done on a recurring basis. which warps the project. it now delivers an instruction manual for a “new art of living” along with the keys to the apartment.4 Formulated in the passive voice. I M PA S S E S . properly speaking. And to prevent bad things from happening. with just a little bit of power on the part of those intervening being sufficient. Often suggested by urbanists and architects. S I D E S T R E E T S of constraints and dysfunctions occur in the production process. What is needed.

the former are posited in terms of strategy.A R T E R I E S . “operational” constraints are different from the inhabitants’ requirements. a twofold distortion therefore slips in. the antagonists cannot communicate in a constructive manner. the study of one’s lived relationship to inhabited space is insignificant unless it is centered on an analytic deciphering of a phantasmatic space (psychoanalytic interpretation of interviews. The cause of the malaise of which we have spoken would thus come under the heading of a communication problem. Critique of urban political economy The fourth type of explanation for inhabitant malaise has been formulated many times over since the mid-sixties.7 subjugated building production to the system of commerce. The inhabitant thus finds himself “conditioned. The inhabitant never totally succeeds in adjusting his desire to reality This type of response to the question of inhabitant malaise takes as essential.” Briefly put.” handed over to a de facto situation. Reference must therefore be made to the initial childhood experience of space. and besieged by an ideology he cannot help but reproduce. Under cover of a second-order effect that is ideological in nature. which has transformed the old craftsmanbased organization of the construction process.” Despite the best intentions in the world. when decisions are to be made). To an urban practitioner. which is 11 . Now. and this renders any hope of effective intervention quite hypothetical. the words uttered by an inhabitant just “do not sound right.” Between the inhabitant speaking for others and the designer. 4. At the crucial moment (generally. geometric and economic quantification. I M PA S S E S . Well-argued analyses develop a critique of urban political economy. the same cause turns housing into one consumer object among others. and these “representatives” manipulate the prevailing representations and the ruling code in the sphere of urban production. of tests. the production code blots out the user code. S I D E S T R E E T S someone who can make himself heard. as well as overall “objectives. 5. an explanation that would start from the individual histories of residential “subjects. and of daydreams).6 The primary cause relates to the ruling economic power. and given birth to a technologybased rationality of urban development. if not sufficient.

sometimes psychological. within this or that family. the inferences it advances concern a “social practice” or a “social change” to which. the concrete observational object is the individual. It is granted. mixing form and content. at such and such a time. The structuration of one’s own body depends on this. psychosociological interpretation wavers between two systems of causality. Each of the arguments is of extremely unequal consistency. it will not be lost on the reader that the stated causes of this inhabitant malaise seem to be highly varied. sometimes sociological. Indeed. Impasses Theoretical or Methodological Impasses This chart of the main lanes of explanation of inhabitant malaise is obviously quite cursory. It places on the same level a quite diverse set of discourses. psychosociology has attempted to shed some light on the problem of the inhabitant’s relationship to his habitat. The nature of the causality in question is sometimes instrumental (the functions of the system of production). that such factors have had a significant impact on the initial childhood experience of space in a specific home setting. 12 . the individual is referred. in other respects. In the field of scientific knowledge that investigates the urban world. and it is on this basis that everyday space will later be lived. These factors condition the “subjects” that are observed today. S I D E S T R E E T S always tied to the parental imago. moreover. The “pregnancy” of archaic space would thus be an essential or formal cause of people’s inability to appropriate the space of their habitat or of the ever possible conflicts between the spatial archetype and the lived experience of the various lodgings a user occupies in the course of his existence. For psychosociology. I M PA S S E S . In all.A R T E R I E S . Also.8 economic and historical factors are also taken into account. sometimes economic. inhabitant malaise would be explained by a deep-seated cause that is psychological in nature and that is incorporated into an efficient or circumstantial cause tied to economic and social status. In the most nuanced studies. Starting from this explanatory core.

But this will be a “directed” reading.A R T E R I E S . for example. the reality around which the interpretation turns is the instantiated principle of the individual. One would no longer know “why .” The second intimates that individual factors enter into the equation. while the most well-argued applied research papers endeavor- 13 . And the grid of analysis will not be able to take into account the microcosmic level of everyday practices. whose existence he had nevertheless assumed at the outset of his undertaking. For. rather. which argues along the lines of economic and social determinants. It will pick up. And the investigator would find no unity in the system of explanation. Scattering out the causes in that way would remove all coherency from one’s approach to the problem. psychosociological thought finds its coherency in a set of psychological categories. . the mediations are not concrete but.9 In such a reading of urban life. well-argued explanatory formulations—whose goal is to obtain a restricted number of deep-seated causes—cannot linger over mere singularities. In other words. offers an essential key to understanding that the socioeconomic setting defines our “conditioning. Should not one be interested as much in the overall situation as in the singularities belonging to each individual? Now. the best guarantee of coherency and universality (what would hold for a collection of “subjects” would hold for the collectivity) is the system of causal interpretation. S I D E S T R E E T S two theoretical routes have been particularly well developed. Subsequent comparisons and classifications are based on a listing of common factors (factor analysis). They do not happen to intersect. For its part. what is interpreted holds only for each subject taken separately. I M PA S S E S . Thus. The first. it turns out that these two paths are not complementary. necessarily privileges a macroscopic reading of urban life. Figures at the ready. it seeks overall coherencies. ?” One would overlook the causal nature of the question. . similarly occurring housing practices within a given class. theoretical. which takes note of the prevailing mechanisms of economic production and social reproduction. Inferences from the individual to the collective remain hypothetical. which are often complex and contradictory. The first. Among inhabitants. In a first stage. The investigation will bear on statistical sets of data and on questions posed to residents in questionnaires and interviews.

S I D E S T R E E T S ing to explain urban malaise offer valuable systems of causal explanation.” The containers or the signifiers (words. if not via an investigation that takes form outside the universe of totalizing representation. we must find some side roads or connecting streets. This is for the simple reason that the modalities of questioning involved do not allow them to appear. as an example. one extracts a signified that will be subjected to “content analysis. they fail to provide an account of either the concrete aspect of people’s everyday existence or the lived mediations by means of which the inhabitants of an urban space form a collectivity. I M PA S S E S . There is always a “remainder” in analytic operations that involve division. the lived practices of the inhabitant are not apparent. outside the sphere of necessary causes and “why” questions? An Exemplary Impasse Beside or between the arteries of knowledge about the city. Let us consider the everyday practice of walking around and through 14 . From what it expresses.” they neglect the intermediate and the singular.” this surplus that cannot be retrieved by the machinery of production and that is situated outside the scientific categories currently in force? And how can it take on meaning.A R T E R I E S . drawings. negligible value. a type of approach to everyday life that we have attempted under the heading of a counterdemonstration. daily life examined in this way must verify or invalidate hypotheses that emanate from an already constituted field of scientific knowledge. It would seem that the expression of inhabitant malaise would always have to confirm either the state of the system of economic production and social reproduction or the theories that are considered authoritative in the human and social sciences. Before doing that. under this heading. we want to offer. Might not inhabitant expression have anything to say on its own? Through these theoretical and methodological impasses. Yet what is this “remainder. In order to satisfy a scientific method that often confuses “rigor” and “exactitude. Indeed. and gestures of the inhabitants under questioning) have a purely instrumental and.

Yet. thus seemed to us an improper way of accounting for spatial practices as they are lived day to day. and to be able to appreciate its value as a social indicator. Now. rather. what graphic code are we to choose? Dotted lines will indicate an occasional trip. How are we to trace one and the same trip that. to evaluate how a laid-out and developed space can be frequented. I M PA S S E S . within a mobile spatial practice. that it provides a common frame of reference for individual practices. S I D E S T R E E T S a neighborhood. like any interpretation based on continuities and contiguities. There certainly are some represented limits that do not vary at all and divide up the space in question.10 1. frequent trips. which we can thus trace on a background map. only a few seconds? One can superimpose maps of the trips sketched on transparent tracing paper in a such way as to assess the rate at which various pedestrian pathways are frequented. There are other ones that owe nothing to geometric representation of the space but exist. when faced with the liveliness of the oral narrative and with its thousand qualitative details. Limits Unexpectedly. for the next day. First. in this attempt to grasp their paths. merited ten minutes of detailed narrative and. several difficulties became apparent to us. such a topographical summary no longer made a great deal of sense. Let us question a bunch of inhabitants. for one day. the trip appears as a continuous trace that. at a certain moment. These limits can be perceived very well in all movements of avoidance recounted by the inhabitant.A R T E R I E S . The problem is to find the signification of this practice. an unbroken line. Either one treated the narrated lived experience with disdain. But all that remains quite approximative. they have meaning only to the extent that the inhabitant makes reference to the possibility of transgression. thereby sacrificing time to topographical spatiality. limits display other forms than boundary markings. their walks. or one really recognized how limited graphic representation is when it comes to everyday expression. Let us mention several forms of this aporia. everything is 15 . A topographical translation. In its graphic representation. They recount to us their routes. Topographical space offers the following apparent advantage. We were in an impasse. crosses some boundaries.

the initial consistency of these two antagonistic designations of a laid-out and developed space collapses. The intactness [La totalité pleine] developers of the laid-out space had proposed now disappears.A R T E R I E S . How is it that one inhabitant. one finds no appropriation or counterappropriation that would have a definitive meaning or that would be established once and for all. with curious “limits” liable to appear and disappear. The supposed flatness of inhabited space dissolves into a heterogeneity that is connected. if it is not by the absence of something appropriable? The first person walks through the space in saturation mode. They are but marks momentarily affixed upon a space that has been the field of favorable or unfavorable movements of appropriation. In lived time. momentarily and fragmentarily. how is it that another. it offers one no foothold. However long lasting they might be—and there are always a certain number of inappropriate or unappropriable spaces—these marks do not account for the “how” of appropriation. Some inhabitants who. the second in the mode of emptiness. Inhabited space then becomes homogeneous. Beyond the appropriated and the unappropriated: something appropriable The demarcation between the appropriated space and the unappropriated space pertains to a synchronic representation of limits. it has no more of an everyday meaning than some geometric diagram. For the inhabitant. the trace of the steps manifests a movement that varies depending on whether the space is empty or full. travel throughout the neighborhood nevertheless feel everywhere that they are outsiders. it clears a path through the space and is homogeneous in its extension. vacancy. to emerge alongside and parallel to the direction of one’s walk. In narrative accounts of everyday walks. spatially speaking. at the same time. What has become of the totality? How has it faded away? 2. who takes infrequent walks but avoids nothing. There is no more place for the appropriable. In fact. I M PA S S E S . and to exist at one hour of the day but not at another. Nevertheless. S I D E S T R E E T S continuous and contiguous. only by the succession of steps. who strides through and knows perfectly well the zone into which he is venturing. the qualification of appropriation depends neither on the 16 . or nothing glimpsed that could be appropriated. also is an outsider. remains an outsider.

On the contrary. one’s first morning steps. rather. Let us cite another example. none of the narratives of the inhabitants’ trips ever omits the presence of the collective dimension. a logic of serial articulation comes to substitute itself for that of distinction and territorial boundaries. like an atmosphere. I M PA S S E S . S I D E S T R E E T S quantity of the space traveled through nor on the constancy of territorial limits but. 17 . and through this creation the space into which one has gone takes on this or that quality. the sense of preoccupation and the feelings of constraint that are quite characteristic of this kind of activity accompany from the start. at each moment of the stroll. Thus. The referent for one’s walks is not the simultaneity of a planned spatial whole but. the coexistence of the different instantiated principles involved in everyday life. depending on the occasion. One’s trip to work is not equivalent to the use of pedestrian spaces that mark out little by little the abandonment of one’s domicile and the appearance of the public sphere. Another totality then seems to sketch itself out on the horizon of what is to come. on the degree of possibilities it includes. For a daily stroll. and from the projected to the imaginary. resembles a sort of creation. which is always present in each step. In what way can such a totality. The “trace” of a route signals an action and the way in which it unfolds in everyday time. which moves from the absent to the projected. be equivalent to the one planning produces for us? 3. but which is also always in the course of development. rather. rather. Very often imagined or the object of a presentiment on the basis of spatial markers. but no longer has any permanency of its own (except in representation and on maps).A R T E R I E S . the development in movement of this coexistence. it insists and persists in a silent and diffuse way. how the act of progressively inhabiting a built-up space is constituted through the patient rhythm of one’s walks. in the course of an enacted process that renders things explicit. The explication. This presence is not necessarily personalized. The totality—which is the necessary referent of the planned parts—gives way to the “globality” of the world of everyday activity. what is more metaphorical than a map [un plan]? To the extent that one seeks not to evaluate the way in which a space conceived as a container can be filled in by some inhabitant content but.

the practice of inhabiting as it is lived always escapes. in short. It would be necessary. I M PA S S E S . Side Streets Intermediate Practices The side street or connecting route leads “to a place to which the main road does not lead. to substitute a modal type of interpretation for a causal type of explanation. Daily 18 . what the scientific outlook distinguishes. and it disappears in the face of all the “why” questions that are all too prompt to find causes for it. Highly polymorphic. It is apparent only in the extreme complexity of its ways of being. or something else. its detours. Does one want to make it say something? It loses all consistency and fades away. to postpone for some time the repetition of our “why” questions and to give free rein to the “how”—that is to say. and “the main road does not lead” to them. Now. Perhaps what is then needed is to settle into the immediacy of the plurality of modes of inhabiting and to stay [séjourner] there for a sufficiently long time without knowing in advance if these modes are causes. the neighborhood—or one aspect of city operations—traffic. And one must choose the paths that would be likely to make inhabitant expression appear.”11 In the main lanes of analysis of urban life. effects.A R T E R I E S . public services. businesses. The study inclines toward some portion of the space—the housing stock. one’s interest lies in clearly locatable objects. etc. consumption. in the course of lived experience. there are other practices that elude such approaches. its minuscule day-to-day variations. The judicious circumscribing of the field of investigation seems to be an essential condition for the rigor of one’s argument (not to mention the ease with which one then uses statistical data that have cohesion only to the extent that they concern a single object). S I D E S T R E E T S In summary. these are what we may call intermediate practices.—or some definite practice—work. leisure. mixing together. and so on. whether one sketches it on a map or sets it within the framework of a causal system. domestic life. and its delays. that would grant it the time to recite its singularities.

capable of forgetting what is apparently essential and of lingering over details. so to speak. which is often highly immediate in character and is forgotten as soon as it is 19 . Nevertheless. in the view of scientific knowledge. The inhabitant does not. it seems to us. however. prone to digressions. This practice therefore ought to be valuable to us because. and no causal explanation has yet come to apply to it any reductionist filter. of “going out on the town. I M PA S S E S . these walks of course link one’s place of domicile to workplaces and to various leisure and consumer sites. One and the same trip can summon up the private and the public. the individual and the collective. the necessary and the gratuitous. oral expression has appeared to us to mimic quite closely the act of strolling. It expresses itself through walks that speech struggles to tell over again. better than topographical observation. Everyday practice is necessarily forgetful. Activities that have been classified in functional sequences now come alive and rediscover their lived unity.12 A methodological approach that has chosen the path of modal analysis (one oriented by the “how” rather than by the “why”) collides right away against a major difficulty. insignificant. is that these spatial mediations are ordered according to the properties of lived time. barely occulted by abstract representations. talk about it. Is it not another expression of an identical way of being? Yet how is one to reawaken this experience of the everyday.” but also that of hustle and bustle and fuss. Finally.A R T E R I E S . Like the latter. Defying functional classifications. S I D E S T R E E T S strolls. belong to that class of overlooked practices that apparently cannot be co-opted by the commercial economy and that are. it seems unremarkable and hardly of any interest. because the act of walking is an intermediate practice. Indications about the Method of Approach So as not to delay the presentation of these walking practices. we shall simply indicate our methodological options. The important thing. it still allows one to see how the life of the inhabitant is steeped in quite immediate sensations and impromptu actions. The time of walking is the time of the promenade. it is fluid.

in a general mode. constituted as an expression. In other words. Now. Whence the appeal to an enacted and protentional memory. 3. It becomes possible at this point to understand both how a lived experience is constituted and how it is expressible. In the present. that is to say. he will produce an abstract collage. in everyday life. if not to incite. and if it is not. He will respond. Thus. what form of question was it necessary to pose to the inhabitants? Let us imagine that the question would be as follows: “How do you walk through your neighborhood. memory is the “tomorrow” of currently lived experience. So as not to weaken too much the fragile ties that connect an expressible lived experience to a living experience that is effectively inexpressible in itself. Several practical consequences follow therefrom: 1. such modalities can be apprehended only through individual narratives. one does not appeal only to a memory of the past. For. “In general. S I D E S T R E E T S enacted? In other words. one must limit as much as possible both abstract representations and general value judgments that the customary way of conducting interviews tends to induce. one would have to take memory not only when it is no longer anything but a memory but still at the moment when it is constituted. 2. I M PA S S E S . that is to say. we would say. eventually narratable. he will have summed up his walking past. Collecting his memories.A R T E R I E S .” All lived qualities will disappear. nothing of everyday life is communicable if what is perceived is not memorable. The conduct of the narrative13 is recognized and accepted for what by nature it is: an oral relationship with social constraints (the memo20 . The investigation of a “how” of everyday inhabiting has no meaning except apropos of a specified (here and now) lived experience. from the very start. I go by here. which favors observation of the most unremarkable of feelings and actions. what trips do you take?” The interviewee will respond in the style of the question. at the very instant when it organizes the expression of a way of being to which it will be able to relate later on. In one time. There is also a memory enacted in the present—“protentional” memory. rather than retentional—the kind by which we organize our perceptions according to what will be memorable.

as against the hypothetical and illusory position of the abstract observer. One cannot be satisfied with surveys or brief questionnaires when it comes to everyday life. since it aimed only at clarifying in common language the duty of self-observation that was to be accomplished. The narrative of a single urban voyager who travels all over the city with a floating but curiosity-filled attention and who recounts the city while 21 . The question posed to the inhabitants was the following: “Will you recount in a few weeks the walks you have made from today onward?” The first interview was therefore always brief. yet at the same time nondirective. Thus. It seems that the categories of “directedness” and “nondirectedness” are not relevant in this case. With such recognition and acceptance comes a reintroduction of the affective level between questioner and respondent. And perhaps this presence of the affective within the narration of lived experience guarantees (as more faithful to the originary climate surrounding the conduct of the narrative) greater rigor than that of observational neutrality.A R T E R I E S . During the second interview. the inhabitant recounted his trips. Was one going to take an entire city? The number of inhabitants one would have had to question for a minimum of overlap was incompatible with the bounds of this work. One allows the narrative of the inhabitant’s lived experience to appear as its mood suggests and at its own pace.” in the sense that a duty to recount is established. S I D E S T R E E T S rable and the narratable are always commanded by the other person’s eventual question). Final Note: A Last Word about the Terrain Chosen Any contemporary urban setting could have served as a field of investigation. the interviewing method is completely “directive. in that the only obligation is to recount. either because they unjustifiably bracket the necessarily social and constraining relationship of the interview situation or because they promote a “content” that is already formatted by the hidden inclusion of categories within the questions. I M PA S S E S . A third interview seemed necessary when the inhabitants had developed a taste for going back over the unremarkable particularities of their existence and wanted to add to their initial narrative.

the production of which is taking place before our very eyes.14 22 . it was important that the residential complex chosen be conceived as a totality and that it be made the object of explicit research into its qualities.A R T E R I E S . it would be the paradigm for an increasingly common type of laid-out and developed space: the highdensity housing complex. if not at promoting a better social life. Conceived as a totality. The “Arlequin” (Harlequin) neighborhood in Grenoble. such a complex cannot be taken as going without saying. Finally. Indeed. we felt. both as a well-delimited space common to the individuals being questioned and as a site for a coherent expression of their differences. We chose a smaller grouping of residential units. and in particular the last one. I M PA S S E S . Such a grouping. seemed to us to satisfy this set of conditions. S I D E S T R E E T S recounting himself brings a richer and more coherent “givenness” than any account of the responses to a hundred “questionnaires” about lived experience. for it raises many problems. was more appropriate. France. And it would include a social program aimed at ameliorating the existence of the city dweller.

And in these ruling representations. Or almost nothing. the details.2 An Inhabitant Rhetoric FIGURES OF WALKING O draperies of words. Nothing very interesting for investigators. to the abstract Essence that casts its spell upon scientific knowledge. who no longer knows the secret of gestures. to my rescue! To the rescue of the man who no longer knows how to dance. and the tics of our everyday unremarkable existences hardly have any meaning at all within the rational coherency of an urbanistic discourse. ornamentations of periods and brief signs. the singularities. O massifs. this neighborhood? Nothing at all. Plural and equivocal. like investigators. who take the inhabitant to be a universal and abstract subject. architectures. What happens in the trifling everyday details of those who inhabit this complex. O plurals. lovely curls of consonants. Nothing of weight and nothing assessable for the managers of this space whose action bears on general operations. flower beds of colored vowels. the quirks.” Managers. Our attitudes? They were a system of codes. and who no longer has either the courage or the erudition of direct expression through movements. preoccupied as they are with the major characteristics of “social life. assemblages of the literary art. have accustomed us to such transparencies. shadows of the silent letter. 23 . La promenade dans nos serres Take an urban space. —Francis Ponge. to these reductionist alignments. settings of lines. our movements are emptied out and our acts lose all qualities of their own. Our gestures? Purely instrumental. and who will at best form a representation of one typical neighborhood practice. this lot.

casting a bit of doubt upon the systems of knowledge for producing our cities. But allowing singularities to arise with their ingenuousness and enunciating these everyday ways of being without betraying their nature. considering the multiplicity of individual paths. here accentuating and there derealizing. a force that is perhaps more insistent than it might at first appear. these secretive transformations. sometimes pursuing. a mode. may the analysis at its best preserve the lived plurality and particularity of cases. in accordance with lived time. or daubing some paint on a facade does not broach the geometric massiveness of the habitat-object. Let us have the patience to follow the detours on which they send us. except that so-and-so inhabits in such and such a manner? Is there no community of meaning among these neighboring existences? Might these singular ways of walking perhaps be classified typologically? Thus would hybrid gradations appear—from the most copycat kind of walking to 24 . the inconsequential dross of life could very well become the opposite of a nothing-at-all. We have labored over narratives of everyday walks gathered on a specified and dated site. not only do spatial incursions never cover the totality of the built architectural unit. it seems that “day-to-day” commonplaces say a bit more than nothing. thetic. A tenuous difference. but also that the latter exists only in the particular form of a walking that turns it into metonymy. a way of doing. “essential. of which nothing more could be said. We lack the tools. in an almost derisory way. sometimes avoiding—that. this is a force neglected by our scientific knowledge because it is not of a stable nature.1 Yet. It is difficult to overturn our mental attitudes. It will be seen that.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G So. The almost-nothing. Altering a partition. that would sidetrack [déroute] you. for the inhabited space one travels through is the one the designers and builders have produced.” but rather a capacity for alteration. Let us develop an interest in the modalities of everyday life. in a word. nothing. And yet these rare blisters and swellings. What sort of aid are we to call to the rescue? What kind of guides are to be found? First. Or almost nothing? Lingering over the details. to be sure. placing a flower pot on the window sill. could one deduce therefrom a collection of mutually divergent orientations. these sporadic scratches manifest. orients it.

the mixing together of things rational order would distinguish. rather. And then there is the following noteworthy constant in these walking narratives: there always is at once a minimum degree of submission and of action. It is not “either this or that” but. Here we have. conjointly and according to the moment that the represented and the lived. even when done in the slightest of action modes. or from the sort most based on use-value to the sort most favoring misuse-value. Nonexclusive disjunction. from the most individualistic and differentiating mode to the mode most repetitive of identities belonging to the social group. Yet none of all that corresponds in any way to what is actually lived. 25 . if not identical. or else again. whatever may be the prevailing tenor of each particular trip. at the same time what one sees produced therein are both perceptions and movements that are. the individual and the collective compenetrate. as it depends on different moments and the diversity of inhabitants. the necessary and the playful.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G the most inventive. they are precisely those ones that disregard the knowledge for producing a profitable space. The analogy with graphic expression is unendingly striking. at least similar in kind. then. Do certain trips and certain stays take place in an absentminded sort of way? Yet the succession of steps effectively rewrites the space that opens before the walker. They are those that Francis Ponge calls to the rescue of our ailing practices: indeed. sometimes rather more hewing a new one. Just as a book is read in company with a motionless (re)writing and is written at the same time that it is read for oneself and for others. the flowering of words taken for themselves— these are the characteristics of the poetic. Sometimes rather more following an existing path. a relation of “spatial practices” to practiced space whose complexity sidetracks any sort of explanation that would claim to be clearly causal in nature and would proceed by exclusive disjunction. the reproduced and the produced. Two indices come to our aid. the useful and the poetic. walking resembles a reading-writing. Although a given space is perhaps never lived again exactly in the same way. one moves within a space that never tolerates the absolute exclusion of the one or the other.

Direct expression. The reader will find this path again in the chapters that follow. It would be the translation of both the organization of the styles proper to each inhabitant and the correlations among these styles within a shared space. These figures that are liable to enumeration and illustration on the basis of the concrete case chosen—the Arlequin neighborhood—appear more or less clearly. rather. ornamentations of movements in space.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G Through the practice of one’s walks. the most scientifically negligible one: draperies. If daily walks are a form of expression—and only rhetorical analysis can confirm this—one must patiently note down the figures of this rhetoric and the kinds of combination of which they are composed. This analogy is to be pursued so long as it does not betray the lived quality that is of interest to us and so long as it does not reduce the traces of pedestrian activity to a prosaic linguistic system. lovely curls. Thus. Analyzed in the narratives related by the inhabitants. This is the type of reading that has been attempted here. massifs. They would then be only the projection of a discourse onto an illusorily metamorphosed spatial practice. the account will aim more at exemplariness than at any sort of illusory exhaustiveness. everyday life seems to take on the look of a language. it is a collection of figures of spatiotemporal expression that 26 . We have simply allowed ourselves to head toward the least reasonable. In any case. The steps taken would expound spatiotemporal actions whose overall configuration would have a style. plurals. in the building complex under consideration. varied. one never makes a complete tour around the everyday as it is lived. of a walking rhetoric. Let us speak. these figures are never to be reduced to mere extrapolations. As a result. Many other readings no doubt remain possible for these inhabitants’ gripping. the most modal. to what is commonly called “stylistic devices” [figures de style]. Not only can the figures these walks write be observed directly. the propagation of which borders on infinity. depending on whether they are set in particular chosen spots. flower beds of steps. the least known. Here is another point about the nature of these walking figures. or whether they are repeated in proliferating and hybrid varieties. but also a number of mixed forms found in the interviews indicate the convergence of language and of walking in one and the same expressive style. and rich narratives.

Whence the following three moments: elementary figures. to get a feel for them. Following thereafter will be the most composite modes of configuration. as clearly as possible. it attempts.”3 A selection is to be made in a set of possibilities. figures observed and recounted by the inhabitants. it is a matter of designating. combinatory figures. the way in which walking is articulated. figures that manifest. Each time one walks. little by little. in a single stroke. those that lie closest to the complexity of lived experience (combinations that are analogous to those of the syntagmatic axis of linguistics). Instead. and. instead. unconnected things. and before his steps organize it. as in language. Some figures have called for the creation of neologisms.2 For the convenience of the reader. Elementary Figures Our project of effecting a progressive change in scenery cannot rid itself. Also.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G will appear straightaway in the present chapter. such a selection comes into play. Appearing to the inhabitant on his walks is a spatial whole that in itself. or rather the way in which it varies and proceeds via substitutions and alternations. of the most common modes of thinking. the interviews we have gathered present us with some 27 . As a whole. objects that are constituted by an expression developed in space and in time. There is competition among a variety of sites. for which we apologize in advance. we shall begin by presenting the most lexical expressions (the paradigmatic axis of linguistics). most often it occurs without the knowledge of the expressive actor. The names for each of these figures are borrowed either from the terms of classical rhetoric or from the vocabulary of logic. But such a methodological choice must not make one forget that the elementary and the combinatory instantiated principles operate at the same time and that it will be necessary to look for the foundation of this concomitance. In all these cases. the sites that bolster these fragmentary forms of writing will be well circumscribed and easily identifiable (they can be illustrated by photographs). and fundamental figures. is nothing other than a “muddle of disparate.

28 . The citation of this pseudofigure of exclusion simply marks the beginning of the elementary figures properly speaking and tells us from what unexpressed realm they arise. in an active way. exclusion is at once the near side of an expression and the elsewhere of a rhetoric. This is the exclusion of an unrecounted. Indeed. its margin. What. the gallery at night. that is to say. Its overall form borders on ellipsis. exclusion seems to be less than a figure and more than a figure. In the absence of a complete or exhaustive enumeration. In short. the inhabitant can exclude without refusing.4 A sort of negative or repellant force never appears except through its inscription upon something else. Nothing more is expressed at this inchoative or inceptive stage. usually in the present tense: this is a masked or latent form of absence. as one knows. either it is fictively sketched out in the representation of a static territoriality or it leads to an avoidance in the course of the lived experience of a trip. in the course of other effectively enacted figures. Exclusion thus denotes the “degree zero” of this writing that is walking. ignorant of spatial totalities. the cove of the silos. they allow us to comprehend how a walk is constituted at the elementary stage. the gaze of someone who would see everything from above. a figure that. Yet. which would be impossible. is excluded from a walk applies to a very diverse and quite variable number of sites. unlived territory. The same does not hold for the exclusions the inhabitants mention. Most often cited are the ends of the pedestrian gallery. one talks about them. the mezzanines. depending on the inhabitant. which is equivalent to a pure absence. Still. which are forms of absolute avoidance within their spatial practice. Only the trained eye of the planner can evaluate these desertions—that is. Exclusion A “figure” of exclusion? Is this first term pertinent? The narratives as a whole allow us to see that entire zones of the neighborhood are abandoned.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G noteworthy and exemplary figures. always refers to a context wherein the excluded object or term is bypassed. Thus.

and photographs show that they can sketch out shortcuts that avoid an obstacle or connect two laid-out and developed paths. (See Figures 1 and 2. without further specification.” or they even. Peritopisms: Elementary Figures of Avoidance Paratopism Paratopism is the form of ambulatory movement that proceeds via substitution of one path for another. the most frequent cases of “paratopic” substitution relate to variations around these charted paths (some of which the developer even hoped would be obligatory). Depending on the context. These pathways leave no traces.” By way of contrast. Given the highly pedestrian texture of the design plan.) And yet the “shortcut” in question is often highly symbolic. it is by a repulsive effect or by a change of direction that people more or less voluntarily avoid them. Others are visible. some “wild paths” [chemins sauvages] thus appear. Others parallel or sometimes lengthen the trip. like the “tunnel” made by children in the bushes of the North Cove that escapes the notice of the adults. or “through the parking lots. The ground does not allow it or the substitution is a singular act that does not mark the terrain. The cases of avoidance therefore bear in large part on the gallery as a whole and the laid-out and developed paths. by divergence. The trip actually taken unfolds therefore in the place of another one.” pass “through the massifs” of plantings. (See Figures 3 and 4. other inconveniences) or social in nature. Whatever the case may be. it is always a matter of a site avoided by the person walking. Thus. like the radial figure. a set of trails that seem to lead nowhere and then die out.) 29 . At the elementary level. They may not offer any apparent meaning. just “go around. what these narratives contribute can be compared with the traces other substitutions have imprinted upon the loose ground in certain spots: it could be said that here we have “semi-wild paths” that are cleared little by little through collective repetition. That which is substituted for can be the subject either of systematic exclusion or of alternation: it can be avoided on account of a momentary obstacle that is physical (repair work. to borrow one female inhabitant’s expression. Some exist only for the initiated. people “cut across the grass.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G Paratopisms.

Figure 1 Figure 2 .

when all is said and done. well. Right away. except through some after-the-fact statement: there is a certain way of reducing to a spatiogeometric form of behavior the obscure and unreflected aspect of one’s prior conduct.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G The meaning of the extreme multiplication of such paths. later on. . Let us follow three examples of a noteworthy and richly indicative variety of paratopism that heads in this direction: c. Thus. a few hesitations. . I take the grass. I didn’t have it in mind to tell you. The bar . The thread of such a narrative leads us to the right. wherever their play takes them. To state it better. Is there a gratuitous playfulness at work here? The proliferation of wild or semi-wild paths is often the doing of children who are seen crisscrossing the space in all directions. cutting “through a hedge” provokes. a leap toward a more abstract and reassuring signification.” Or. “perhaps it’s a driving habit. . . . some sort of cunning conduct is always inserted therein. is to be found even in the narratives of some of the inhabitants who refuse to take trails that have been packed down through repeated deviant usage. Last time. as another inhabitant says: I don’t always follow the small paths. getting on with the story. [thirty-second digression]. Thus. substitutions exhibiting an indifferent attitude are quite rare. .: I go by way of the paved path. A shortcut over a segment of terrain can subsequently lengthen the path. there’s the bar. it’s nicer.” A change in tone. 31 . do not shorten one’s way. paratopic figures have never had a very clear gait. . I look right away to see if there are people inside. one person “prefers to go completely outside on the grass. and especially for those that. . a difference in expression. For this set of deviant paths. . and then. . interviewer: Right. is it then a matter of particular forms of appropriation? Is there only play involved in these topical pranks? In any case. an obligatory bypass movement. Even if there is the path and the grass next to each other. but I really love to walk on the grass. Then . there is a halt. . We were there. . . The inhabitant does not qualify them thus. For. which footprints manifest in a detailed way.

Figure 3 Figure 4 .

33 . Behind. we would call this figure paralipsis. A ten-year-old child: interviewer: Do you go beyond number 170? isa. Mixing a slight bifurcation with a hint of avoidance. [another comment about some other fracases].: So. That is what the breaks in the narrative and the suspension points reveal. . often with a change in rhythm that responds either to an event-induced break—the place might have been frequented in former times—or to a distancing from a site one has to walk alongside.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G c. there’s a vacant lot. not very much. In rhetoric. It’s amusing. and whose avoidance is hinted at. it is a swerving [un écart]. But I don’t go there. . Here. I look in. but I never stop there! [Laughter] Apropos of the “Bar-bu. . but which is fascinating at the same time. a deviation apropos of a site spoken about quickly or about which one is not quick with the details. . Thus do peritopisms distinguish themselves from paratopisms. Everything was broken! I was listening! . . they lead us to discover another group of figures of avoidance in which the walker does not diverge from his path by turning his back but seeks to vary rather than to avoid. . one no longer goes there. Except when I do a short errand on foot to the supermarket. . The swerving movement attempts both to place it at a distance and to see it from a distance. . . It is a matter neither of a clear substitution of one path for another nor of a genuine bypassing. These paralipses in space correspond to mixed elementary figures that are to be found again in many other sites: the entrance to the junior high school and fragments of the gallery. It proceeds like an instance of periphrasis (circumlocution) used in the place of a word or like a relation of synonymy. . Peritopism Peritopism is how the figure of walking that proceeds by variation may be designated. opposition hardly finds any place. Rather. . These three examples illustrate a sort of false avoidance. there was a fight. at number 30”:5 One night. or Gypsies.: No. . I often look when there are caravans. . Now. .

: When I go home.”.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G A certain number of “shortcuts” do not proceed through opposition. It is a figure quite symptomatic of the ambiguities of everyday life. But there are paths6 that cut through there. rather than a walked figure. bypassing occurs each time a site that is not an absolute obstacle presents a difficulty of variable (physical or social. beyond even the apprehension of some combinatory process. The reality it designates is split between paratopism and peritopism. . it refers us back. to the subsequent confrontation between the lived and the represented. “I cut through . . Only contextual analysis can sort out the different forms of shortcutting: in order to go more quickly. For example: c.: Yes. c. . I cut through. The other peritopisms resemble more clearly the procedures of periphrasis and digression. then. even when the statement would call for the substantive. Qua elementary figure. real or imaginary) nature. paths made by pedestrians. they may subsequently designate the action by contracting it into the term shortcut. would not the shortcut be a concept whose geometric origin is beyond doubt? The inhabitants first say. permanent or accidental. In fact. The shortcut is a complex figure. . . . interviewer: You have to go under the barrier. there is a barrier under which one can pass. As to the gap in the relation between this reality and its substantive designation. in order to avoid congestion in or frequentation of the gallery. Does the geometricality really stem from one’s actual spatial conduct—or from the representation one gives of it? The descriptive phrases contained in the narrative do not use the concept. . they enter into a second group of figures of avoidance: avoidances by variation. Under this heading. then. It is then easier to 34 . or else in order to vary one’s repetition of the same trips—one can then take one’s time and the shortcut is no more than a form of spatial play. Oh! . Would the visual (and geometric) order here be replacing the instantiated principles of play and motor activity? Path segments taken prior and subsequent to the shortcut allow an evaluation of this: such an analysis pertains to the syntactic and no longer to the elementary level.

social events that have marked a formerly familiar site. . The narratives offer us quite numerous cases that vary over time. and in relation to the unforeseen: the temporary appearance of repair work. who are coming out.” or “in general. . this bypassing underscores the site bypassed. or more simply avoidance of sites wherein one senses a not very pleasant atmosphere at the moment the trip is being taken. which becomes a notable point along the trip. we have counted at least one or two passages every minute through the holes located near the center of 35 . At rush hour. the inhabitant will say. Yet. We are talking about some triangular holes made in the walls that run alongside the elevator entrances. In recounting his trip. But at the same time. Here we have a quite characteristic example. this time passing by way of the gallery. there exists a peculiar spatial form that fosters brief bypass sequences. On the one hand. it creates at the same time an event in relation to one’s usual trips. who talk unbelievably badly. there was a bypass: “with all those kids who hang out underneath. unexpected dropping of refuse on the floor of the gallery. The photograph (Figure 5) allows one to see that the level of the sill or threshold of these “holes” involves a change in the continuity of one’s ambulatory movement. These are crossing areas of choice for children.” Another one will talk about this zone “of silos. but in which “you’re suffocated . The developer planned to put in some glass panes. during the summer months.” The mode of walking then bypasses this spatial complex through a symbolic absence: “it’s automatic. it’s the same old thing. but only a few have been installed. you’re crushed by the concrete.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G bypass the obstacle than to go through it. under the gallery.” But in fact. on the other hand.” Several inhabitants bypass the entrance to the bar/ tobacco stand by cutting across the marketplace. they avoid the part of the marketplace occupied by the outdoor café tables. bypassing often occurs following an event. or that lighten a load-bearing wall. “I passed in front of the junior high school. even though the walk did not pass through there. conversely. one can see that bypasses are closely tied to the intervention of events. the café entrance is from the market side). the café was then seen from the back (actually. . In the neighborhood. with the occurrence of accidents. From this last example.” which he frequents by necessity. but also for a good number of adults.

Figure 5 .

. that shortens things and . and as if without the speaker’s knowledge when he forgets to come back. As another elementary figure in which avoidance takes place more through variation than via radical substitution. . [laughter]. I’ve passed through five or six times—for example. something other than a choice imposed by a rational geometricality occurs: an alteration of motor function is brought into play. when there are too many people. fosters a prolongation of the direction one has taken. the site one wanted simply to bypass is forgotten. I pass through the hole in the wall! Then . which reduplicate the line and layout of the gallery below. [ . it’s the same. . since the real shortcut would cut the whole area surrounding number 70 in order to approach the gallery straight on. Bypassing is then transformed into digression and can even be metamorphosed into paratopism. the shortcut is entirely fictive. where it’s flat. it becomes fully clear in the liveliness of the narrative accounts: OK. . ] I always pass to the left when going toward number 60. digression in the previous example. The variation in the vertical dimension. one inhabitant 37 . Here. evoke a spatiotemporal conduct from which digression is not absent. One can begin a variation in this way. without obstacles. . and the leap it induces. I find myself in front of it and I pass through. the hole in the wall at the exit to the gymnasium. When an inhabitant takes a “mezzanine” (see Figure 6). Thus. you have to pass through the hole. . with each clearing of the hole. toward number 60. . this is also a form of bypassing. instead of taking the passageway . but here it becomes the subject of the expression and is valid for itself: this is the case of the holes in the wall. .”7 The process of swerving away is carried out a little bit at a time. takes on the exact meaning given to this term in rhetoric: “what in speech strays [s’écart] from the subject. . But the peculiar spatial form of these landings.) In fact. . Otherwise. well. . ] [ . to go to the garage there’s no problem. (Here. The hole near the gymnasium . As for the quality of this frequency. . Other than that. . and well. a few times.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G the gallery. I really like to pass through the hole. . there’s something there . as well as in the one that will follow.

Figure 6 .

What’s more. So. I had a desire to get lost over there. coming home. . . OK? The feeling rather than . and then after that—on the level of the mezzanines. . For once. . the school. . . huh?—I went up and then came back down at number 110. this time for the very pleasure of it: Once . . was the feeling . there’s a lot of noise. or then in my free time. I go there. . so it was rather special. but a space on the concrete. I sit down and I look out. There is a false avoidance on the part of the inhabitant who is at once repelled and fascinated by the mezzanine. there’s no one. . especially. . What I was looking for. one time. than the view. . it was evening. because one is less accosted by people. I say it so I don’t forget it. on their way to some place: It’s pleasant. like in a labyrinth. too. and the dizzying ramblings: are not they the very essence of digression? 39 . Another example of digression. The way these expressions advance demonstrates the imperceptible passage from bypassing to paratopism or even to paralipsis. “I prefer to pass by way of the mezzanine. Never do you meet anyone on this mezzanine . I believe that . well. I went by after the silos and I was on foot—other times I always pass by there in my car—and there then. you are always looking for something quiet. . . I think. By the mezzanines.” Two other inhabitants take this digression in one direction only. it’s the end of everything. it’s often . and I found that it was good for hiding . . it’s the same. the trip varies and the succession of these dark landings that abruptly open up onto the silos and then start up again elsewhere under the shadowy cover of the gallery draws one imperceptibly into a labyrinthine movement. . OK? This entire exceptional (“one time”) lived digression involving the mezzanines and occurring after a return home in the car begins with an abrupt decision. The transformation from bypassing into forgotten digression is expressed in the eleventh interview: In class. [laughter] and in order to get familiar. not a garden. .A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G says. when there’s some wind in the winter. . there’s a garden. . But you get the feeling of being closed in. . I had a desire to do that. The specifications. . . the unforeseen breaks. . .

They walk in such and such a place and in this or that manner. the problem becomes still more complex. Now. The 40 .A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G These variations on a conduct characterized by avoidance. The very order of our presentation has attempted to follow this succession of nestings in which figures deliberately envelop and overlap with one another more often than they appear in their pure state. and I shall tell you what kind of inhabitant you are. fillings up. On the scale of a group of inhabitants. Would it not be necessary to observe. Polysemous Figures The group of figures thus designated offers some varieties of a fundamental element of this reading-writing that walks seem to us to be. Tell me what you avoid. Would not one’s refusals and rejections be just as indicative of the essence of the everyday as any fillings in. the inhabitants we have questioned have related to us certain ambulatory practices that carry some latent significations between the lines. or retentions? The urbanist seeks to know what spaces are willingly frequented. Yet. which they mention and which render architectural forms and spatial conducts ambiguous. they configure either some complementary sites or some other modalities of meaning. Here appears an equivocality in space and in time that increasingly calls into question cartographic representation and calls for a refinement of the study of elementary figures. how some sites are avoided? There is another perplexity. which are picked up in every walking narrative. another surprise than that provoked by examination of this first group of figures: between the opposite poles of paratopism and peritopism we find theoretical distinctions everyday pedestrian statements mischievously like to mix in and confuse together through a series of imperceptible shifts. Various styles of inhabiting begin to express themselves in their similarities and their differences. first. tell us more than they first would seem to. It is through the material of an expression walked-recounted by the same inhabitant over a short lapse of time amounting to a dozen days that one can see how the same sites can be walked in different ways from one day to the next. in doing so.

” The Market Place is an open-air market. For the inhabitants questioned. Going down. . In fact. you get the impression of going into a hole . . the inhabitants travel. it should already be pleasant for me. . we have someone saying: I find it hideous. the terms of ambivalence are not cited at the same time and with analogous expressions. it’s darker than on the Market Place. there’s nothing about . . because there are buildings right away . most often. and for me. and this accidental irregularity in the inhabitant’s path makes her suddenly feel its heaviness. . it is just that one sees only the prospect of a descent that occurs after the end of the gallery. first of all. as for me. in addition. Ambivalence As one knows. saying that under the gallery “it’s somber. more or less vaguely.” We have even heard the following truism. . One and the same object takes on several meanings. not being perceived in a clear way. . I think that there’s nothing nice about it. . a given site can be walked through in several ways at the same time or one time after another. One of the “valences” is designated. . it’s somber. The sky has darkened and becomes a basement for the buildings. Other inhabitants offer equivalent expressions. a veritable “element” that envelops and accompanies one’s walk. 41 .8 which serves as the firmament of the universe through which. . which appears to be so only when taken too quickly: “Under the gallery. Thus. . . This is the case with the ceiling of the gallery. . . I don’t know how I feel about it. the gallery does not go down. a hole! And then. nothing studied about . Hardly ever perceived—people always have a hard time naming the colors of this painted ceiling—it is strongly sensed. there. . It is the ceiling that has gone down.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G term polysemy describes it well. and the ceiling is maybe lower? It will be noted that the essential element defining the climate of this walk arose only at the end of the narrative. in everyday life the developed architectural design plan loses its monumental and functional monosemes. . First of all . . you go down there . . in the narratives. . . . The variety of usages ruins its beautiful clarity as a finished product. Now. a break in its flatness. I prefer . It crops up in the narratives by its accidental irregularities [accidents]. a hole like . In fact. the other surmised.

” of “being crushed. Here.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G the gallery’s ceiling is always taken as the celestial vault. ] You’re underneath a gallery all the time. and then one finds the connotations of “somberness. or the “ramp” at number 150. It’s nice to pass underneath. .” of an absence of the “real” sky: “Oh! I practically never see the sky on my trips!” Apropos of one and the same spatial element—either this gallery ceiling. you feel right at home. But then it is heavy only to the gaze that evaluates it from outside the gallery: a “feeling of being overwhelmed. for my part. offers an interesting example of staggered polysemy. of different natures.” someone says—which. the sky is lower. refer to the order of the visual. It is therefore a matter of a concealed ambivalence that manifests itself only by accident or by reference to the context (“outside the gallery”). distinguished. These are so many expressions that are centered on the action of walking rather than on recognition of this ceiling-roof spatial element. however. Staggered Polysemy Another spatial element. I really like it. “even if there are stacks of apartments above!” Seen from the outside. various possible mean- 42 . an essential commonplace both of people’s walks and of everyday discussions in the Arlequin complex. and its function can be recognized.” Others make indirect reference to it through connotations of quite distinct values: Underneath the gallery. a ceiling and a floor. These two meanings for one and the same spatial element that accompanies one’s walk place two instantiated principles. there’s no longer any danger. the gallery’s ceiling does indeed seem like the raised basement supporting the residential buildings. Conversely. Thus. is not felt underneath the gallery. Simply. into competition: recognition and vague feeling. [ . . curiously. or else the “passageways”9—the walking narratives reveal only one or the other of the two meanings. Only one inhabitant recognized the permanent double meaning of this “ceiling. this same ceiling can be genuinely perceived. Other expressions. it is at once a top and a bottom. The gallery is perceived or has been perceived from the outside.

they’re ill conceived. Above all. Site where a stationary posture and minimal verbal exchanges are obligatory 4. when pushed to the height of discomfort. a commonplace topic of conversations and. ] As far as I’m concerned. discussions involving complaints. . in this sense. it encloses within its cab a maximum amount of tension that pours out first through sighs. becomes. people are obliged to frequent 2.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G ings are set in nonexclusive disjunctive relation. the elevator. you gotta change the cables. anxiety. and I’m speaking from professional experience. or protests. OK? . . quibblings. then with words or exclamations of fear and anger. Of the four meanings we have cited—four ways of passing time in the elevator—each always can actually call out for the others in the course of one and the same descent or ascent. As for me. Thus. the following expressions show these staggered connections in their order of appearance: As for me. and apropos of which conversations are possible In a paradoxical way. of which it is said so often that it has nothing of a tool of communication about it. . . I take it only to go up. 43 . Site of fear. three outcomes remain possible: a return to silence upon exiting. Site of physical and social constraint (with the possibility of overt conflict) 3. technological aggression—which. the third outcome is suspected or assumed: physical aggression against the machine itself. At the same time. the manifestation of one calling for reference to the other. . [ . a “lever” for verbal communication. This is how people experience their passages in the elevators at the beginning and end of their walks. They work when they want to or there’s no light. there are some defects. these elevators. They’re no good. Such passages take on the following significations: 1. by necessity. or else. You see. . Site of complicity among the communal victims of (possible) abuses by a machine that is much maligned. each assumes the others. . At this point.

“Yes. “I don’t attack people like you. This is the case with the high-capacity elevators. I pick it up. the elevator door opens. there’s a lady who insulted me in the elevator the other day. I’ll be in there. In the elevator [while getting out]. you know? Good morning. [ . no way! Well. Oh. No one inside! While going down. and then there’s the missing buttons! I don’t know if it’s due to vandalism. When I see a piece of paper on the ground. I’d say. You can’t start a conversation. I am really out. good evening. the door opens on the ground floor [diary entry]. but this mode is favored by the less deteriorated state of some elevators. . . I don’t know why. I feel a sense of insecurity. it’s not like you’re in your country. in order to provide the two extreme outcomes of the combinations among the four modes of spending time in the elevator.” But I told her. people were terribly frightened of the doors. I don’t think so. She said to me. For me. after an infernal clanking noise announcing the arrival. ] You feel like an idiot when you don’t get out at the bottom. small elevators or co-op elevators.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G I’ve always been afraid of elevators. huh. for me. But I tell myself. here are two opposite examples: The elevator is mine. Finally. especially those serving renters. If there were a fire. But at the beginning that really gripped me. . huh?” She insulted me! You had to see it. that is. a very young woman! Here is the first outcome: an appropriation of the space in the maintenance mode. huh?” I’m always scared for the kids who go in. Listen. 44 . . . OK? I asked her to hold the door. because you’re French in any case. who knows what would happen? Finally. And a second outcome: the conflict arises specifically on the basis of a question of which code to follow (hold the door for someone/have the door held) and degenerates into social or racial conflict (sending each back to his or her typical group). They believed it was a vice that was going to crush them! [To go up] you take it at the mezzanine level and it always goes down. I see people who say lots of stuff in the elevator. “One of these days. huh? It’s an intermediate kind of thing.

45 . and they are commutable in a rather homogeneous way. . the previous figure had offered a simultaneity through transference of one meaning to the other within the same moment. and truly destinal. within space. Bifurcation Different from staggered polysemy. of the ambivalence between two simple terms. Spontaneous choice for reason of avoidance is much rarer. The exemplary case is that of the thick pillars planted in the middle of the pedestrian gallery. You see where this pillar is? interviewer: Yes. An unremarkable form of transport. moved by staggered and vaguely nervous feelings of ambivalence.: Well. Here is a solitary and firmly deliberate example of this: “I pass to the right. the elevator easily becomes a vehicle for the imaginary. the Sphinx and Janus of high-density housing complexes. . of an imaginary that turns up where one hardly expected it. The pressed button sets in motion a certain.) People necessarily have to pass either on the right or on the left. . most of the time the inhabitant chooses this or that side without noticing anything more about it. bifurcation may be presented as an equivocality of meanings. there is something like an expression of surprise in the narrative and a touch of amusement that one has in recounting these ordinary accidental irregularities in one’s travels. symmetrical case in both directions ph. . voyage that nothing will stop: toward well-oiled habits as well as catastrophic breaks.” Most often. The scenarios are as follows: 1. after number 100. By way of contrast. . These irrepressible slippages indicate to us already the load. but only in an exclusive way. Indeed. Such equivocality is practiced in the instant one walks. which will have to be weighed later on. (See Figures 7 and 8. if there’s a lot of people.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G At the Arlequin. Almost always on the right. People pass on the left [laughter]. The inhabitant makes no mistake about it. there in the middle. They are the precise transcription. it is through the significations it carries with it that it is of precious value to us. which poses a problem [laughter]. there’s a pillar. to the left if there’s no one. through the gallery . .

Figure 7. The pillar at No. The pillar at No. seen from the south. seen from the north. Figure 8. 100. . 100.

it’s a thorny point in one’s travels. uh. beyond any particularities. . it also marks. . . .: Ah. I think. . Spatially speaking. I never do it on the . 2. local univocality. bifurcation represents the 47 . But the pillar becomes an ironic object and creates perplexity: it is “a thorny point. it depends on the time. basically. For. . whether there are people there or not. asymmetry of directions for coming and going Ah. . the habitual patterns likely to shed light on his return trip. .: Yes. . . The pillar is ironic not only for the inhabitant. And as for me. It’s not systematic. Always on the same side of the pillar. Mixed figure. Examination of these polysemous figures clarifies only too well the cases of walked variations that become spatialized and are fixed in place. . while it allows one better to understand and to illustrate the equivocalities of figures of walking. . well. . as a matter of fact. at number 100. in order to go to number 90.] 3. I maybe do it like that. huh? Then. well. there’s less wind. so I pass to the left when I go out. . It seems to me that people pass preferably on this side. I think. which clarifies the hesitations of the first example So. basically . OK! [Laughter.” What is going on is that this figure of bifurcation can show us something of greater interest. . Well . there. ph. . it’s always on the right [laughter]! interviewer: When coming back . but it’s without paying attention. . I think that I pass on the same side.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G ph. I never pass behind! I find that there’s less of a path. people pass preferably on the left. On the other hand.] And. . the inhabitant in the first example tries to invoke. I pass maybe on the right in both directions. But . . . My car is in the garage. . . . an important point of bifurcation in the connotation of the figures we have expounded so far. . [The context and the pencil sketches this young inhabitant draws while talking show that she passes to the west. except to go get my car. I pass all the time on the right—in the direction of number 90—. there’s a pillar and there’s a little thing there. . Recalling the purposes of one’s trips helps this last inhabitant who spoke to specify the forms of bifurcation she carries out.

For us. That this “point in one’s travels” would be “thorny” is the sign of the presence of something other than a spatial logic at work in these polysemous figures. on the left.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G simultaneous polysemy offered by a site. The hesitations one finds in walking narratives are of precious value. Up close—that is to say. in coming from number 110. although there is still a “game. of a plurality of significations that vary with time. rather.” it is no longer played on the field of some overall probability but. beyond the fact that it is completely altered. The Metathesis of Quality This figure occurs in cases where repeated traveling through one and the same site can accidentally change in quality via nothing more than the effect of a difference in one’s everyday chronological cycle. At the same time. it plays itself out through all that the walker’s temporality can offer that is different and unforeseen within the fore-seen space to be traversed. The pedestrian statement is then inscribed upon a background of transitivity. on the right). one can then attribute to this figure thus localized the qualifiers of randomness and indifference as to the nature of the competing terms. 48 . The willingness to use a comparative in one’s narration expresses the deferred polysemy that affects one’s ambulatory practice. Indeed. when the bypass becomes imminent— everything does change and everything can change. in this specific example of the pillar. the act of walking would be dissolved. When the inhabitant bifurcated most often as if “without noticing anything more about it. A single element changes and the whole atmosphere of the walk finds itself metamorphosed. time.” Depending on the walker’s mood in his actual conduct.” this unnoticed quality was not the equivalent of something “random. within the competition between indetermination and anticipation. for the perspective itself. leaves room for the more immediate conduct of one’s steps. through all that the conduct of the walk may have anticipated. Universal representational clarity would have led to an irreversible spatialization of the figures of walking. only one of the directions for passing by it seems obvious from afar (in coming from number 60. and it throws the order of perspective off its game. A sketch would yield the last word of explanation. bifurcation makes itself felt between the order of sight and the conduct of one’s walk. namely.

it’s smaller. . ] At night. . . I always go on the inside [because of tiring quickly]. I go out very little. . I’m very scared. And then at noon. it’s nice. . . . there are days when. . more noise. . . The short segment of the gallery traveled by a female inhabitant: I really like mornings . ] I go outside because. . it’s different. it’s the opposite. I felt reassured only after getting in my door. For example. rather. I went out only once [ . there are but very few people around. The elevator comes right away. it depends on the day. . . ] the wind. I’m scared. you get the impression that it’s . pleasant kitchen smells in the street. There’s more of a bustle. can take on the opposite quality. it’s calm. . . the last word. . and I didn’t go looking for it. . . [ . . and season-to-season variations. It only was missing day and night: Oh. . In the afternoon. . too. . the decisive step around the pillar-obstacles previously encountered. . for example. whose connotation is often that of a site of convenience and shelter. . . . . it’s like a labyrinth. . to a particular quality of the walk. 49 . carried away my scarf. . pertains no longer to a purely spatial game but. From the standpoint of climate. [ . which was blowing hard. Otherwise. . no one’s in the gallery. This extreme expression of the difference between night and day finds more temperate forms in other cases: At night . . Other examples follow. People go for walks. the galleries. This sequence contains in shortened form all that we have been able to find in the narratives as a whole. Everywhere in the gallery there are wind currents! Coming home.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G Thus. it’s very calm. . despite the hours being the same. This is the difference between one’s way out and one’s return for one and the same trip. it’s very different. Sundays. this same gallery. The passageway is calm . hour-to-hour. first of all. I didn’t talk about that. You can feel that people are in a hurry. It notes the day-to-day. . at night. One and the same female inhabitant will say: I sometimes happen to go on the outside. the housewives who come and go. there’s a lot of wind currents and then because I find that it’s quicker that way. a difference that is prompted by the project moving the walk and its foreseen duration. indeed. if the weather’s good. narrower. . . then [nighttime].

of excess.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G It may clearly be seen. the elementary level can no longer be understood without summoning up [une convocation de] sequencing and combination. we reach combinatory figures. and differential memory of one’s varying gaits. centered on two notions rhetoric holds to be of capital importance: redundancy and symmetry. What relevance do they have when it comes to expressive walking? Figures of Redundancy By redundancy. yet the most specific one depending on one’s mood in the act of walking. From the site walked to walking on the scale of a trip or of complexes of trips.11 With the extreme figure of polysemy.10 With these examples. Combinatory Figures The combinatory figures noted on the scale of whole trips and of complexes of walks seemed to be divided up into two groups. it appears that the metathesis of quality risks becoming the most general figure possible from the strictly spatial standpoint. we intend the meaning given to this term in the Art of oral and written expression: overabundance.” Likewise for a visit with friends. becomes part of a game for a ten-year-old child who “passes through the whole gallery. for synchronism explodes into diachronism. from the standpoint of the design plan. that is to say. in the wake of 50 . when what. time sequence. which in rhetoric had a connotative meaning of abuse. This notion. It is the excesses of the climate that in fact provoke the paradoxical passage to “the outside. is most “functional” becomes the most playful. the entire layout of the gallery. at the moment when one includes context. At the outer edges. that brevity is an interchangeable assessment. it is no longer a matter of polysemy. bifurcations included. when comparing the first quotation with the third.” Here is another metathesis of quality: when a moment is available.

Four varieties of redundancy are worthy of note: • redundancy of combination. one day at a time. Now. Little by little. Everyday lived experience takes our representations by surprise. The variations. The everydayness expressed in the narratives we have gathered presents itself as essentially redundant—and this is probably the case for all forms of everydayness. in examining people’s walks. Such overabundance is. • polarization of varied trips toward one and the same site. Nothing is settled between the same and the different. of precious value. Redundancy henceforth appears as a fundamental mechanism in the functioning of language. because it persists in a slow and tenuous modification of properties. yet most often it remains on the scale of the details involved and takes place in some sort of a chromatic way.12 By contrast to ellipsis.13 The very same inhabitants will say at the start of their narrative. with variation of details. Such an operation is highly variable in degree and sometimes can be extreme (see the day/night opposition). if not exclusively identical to the look of a topographical map. in varied combinations. The examples would be innumerable. in short. huh? Always the same thing!” and will go on to recount so many different details apropos of one and the same trip. One needs only refer back to the examples illustrating the metathesis of quality: the difference between a day trip and the same trip at night varies one’s walking conduct. “It’s always the same. has been reemployed by communication theory and has been introduced into linguistics. which can be very repetitive. 51 . Redundancy is thus a phenomenon of composition or combination. these differences in one and the same trip come to explain the way in which an inhabitant takes his walks. • repetition of one and the same set. and • amplified repetition of walking one and the same site. it explains and permits identification of the term it takes up.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G the new Arts of thinking developed in the Cartesian era. the substitutions either are exceptional or else bear on fragments—which does not mean that they are insignificant. one can see that the essential features of walking activity unfold in the mode of redundancy.

according to combinations whose variety seems endless (that such variety should be reasonably finite is an argument of the planner or surveyor). properly speaking. And yet. either over the whole of a single “trip” or through a tendency to vary as much as possible the path from home to some goal or from some goal back home. They are either three or four pages in length (we have not been able to resist quoting at least one notebook page written by a ten-year-old girl. CBA . Yet they are no less interesting. which seemed to go without saying and which is cited in an allusive way. Sometimes. BCA. the narration of which fills no less than five handwritten pages. for someone of this age. corresponds to the rhetorical figure of metabole.). The exhaustiveness toward which this form of redundancy tends expresses precisely the gratuitous character of the act: “to have all the time to . It is but one inordinately long trip from morning till evening (six times she returns home. . or playful tone to it. A bounded spatial set is walked at one’s pleasure. The space walked is valued for itself. yet in a knowing tone. Metabole is always carried out in one’s walks with a poetic.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G The first of these four varieties is the most ordinary. a huge festive end-of-the-week metabole. The rarest one. who makes one understand how. the whole thing can be related in a few expressions: 52 .” This figure of composition and recomposition of leisure space is to be found especially among children and young people. It may be illustrated by the relationship of elementary figures to combinatory figures or in the discrepancy one will be able to pick up between ordinary trips retraced on maps and figures of variation and substitution. the one in which redundancy bears on the repetition of a finite set in varied combinations (ABC. see Figure 9)14 or the expression. this combinatory model is lived in a mode that has nothing to do with rational exploration. metabole is possible even outside a moment of play. The narratives illustrating metabole offer some extreme forms. A given Saturday of a sixteen-year-old girl will offer one example of this. ironic. Indeed. . . or they take it up. of a long moment of strolling. like a key. . adults have the time to play with this figure. in a few words. The three other figures of redundancy are found less often. yet she hardly remains there at all).

Figure 9 .

. I run toward the elevator. tending toward exhaustiveness (“all the way”). . Once.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G Saturday . interviewer: You follow your dog’s rhythm? ph. . He runs where he wants. . . there is always . the poetics. When I get to the bottom. . . In a few sentences. Thus begin the stray ramblings of the early-morning stroller: behind a dog. Same for the path. . and then afterward. each time you scale the Mounds [ . “No one can catch up with me” [laughter]. Let us also recall the narrative of the female inhabitant who went out “to get lost. in all directions. one from which she would not have been able to exit. I went all around the New Town via the passageways on the top floor. it’s like that. . . he does what he does. ran [ . which are inexplicable from the functional standpoint of traffic movement. ran! No shoes. all the way! When I go out.15 On this scale. Metabole functions all the times when one seeks. if the elevator isn’t there. the “labyrinth” effect sought after was to summon up an exhaustive trip that would have overtaken her. . And I was at the Park [resuming her lively and gay voice]. For adults. ] went to the Mounds. . or some errant wandering: [In the park] I stroll around in all directions. [laughter] there were some things! Afterward. This dispersal of means and this wasting of steps. . the sun’s out there. I direct him a bit. Likewise in a discovery stroll. the play. If he sees another dog. in order to have a look from above. . . I run and go down by foot. Until . I say deep down within myself. we went around the market. . yes! Quite so. through varied repetition. refer 54 . let’s say up to the lawn.” near the silos and the mezzanines. metabole is more accidental and is limited to a circumscribed territory over a given time. All combinations are possible. everything is said: the feverish activity. he goes where he wants to go. Ten seconds . to diversify a site that can be walked in a multitude of directions. . . I wait for him. . ] when you go up the hill. . ] there is an impression of freedom.: Oh yes. Then the Park [ .

A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G back. which tends toward divergence.” then “gallery. . to a poetics of space that depends on an unmeasured time or a time the inhabitant refuses to measure. this Community Center is not an important site of activity for the woman who is speaking. in doing so. especially the Community Center. it is “the commercial gallery—well. deA. In fact. .” and finally “Community Center”) to the walks actually carried out at various moments that the figure of centering is sketched out. In the detail of the space traveled. there is anaphora. It is by comparing the semantic slippages that. yet will always fascinate. The metabolic process marks out what can be most gratuitous and irrational in the conduct of one’s walks. Simply. Does not fascination then take on its full force in the promising name that goes into this space? Whence the following words: “It’s to see what is going on. a particular inhabitant does not allow the true center of attraction of her walks to appear right away. It is in terms of temporality that anaphora is to be apprehended. . and despite the variants she introduces.) Each time a mode of walking is organized in its entirety around some localized pole that may attract or repel. centering. one must follow the play of meaningful effects found in her designations of landmarks. In this way. little by little. . In contrast to metabole. 55 .” The attraction of this site is not for reasons of usage or convenience but. anaphora. rather. come to specify the object (“Arlequin.” The true attraction can hardly be discerned here.” Now. the third figure of redundancy. By reason of prudence or for pleasure. yzA. specifically and directly. the commercial gallery . These postponements are noteworthy elements in walkers’ writing. repetition of the same term in some series in which the rest varies. substitutions or variations (paratopisms or peritopisms) therefore appear that manage to effect a delay between the departure point and the avowed or unavowed goal. . does “not have the impression of being ill at ease. she “traverses it” and. (Its logical model would be bcA. one gives oneself the time to render explicit and explain one and the same object. . articulates the spatiotemporal organization of one’s routes in terms of convergence.” then “commercial gallery. the dynamic center of attraction of the main portion of these walks will be stated only later on. to try to become integrated into the Arlequin. . Along the narrative of her different trips.

. . As for me. the people who are with their baskets in front of the Gro. they are already at the café. However diverse they may be. . one finds numerous occasions for pauses and stays in the areas bordering the “Junior High School/Community Center”: this is a tempting site. one discovers a centripetal dynamic that is symbolic in nature: that is why some time is needed. The inhabitant then leaves the impression that he is 56 . Moreover. The central site undergoes. Well . maybe . nor . . it’s the same thing. . . . Spatial diversity matters much less than the untiring search for additional postures of attack.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G through symbolic reproduction of the function given by the designers: activity center. In the narrative of one adolescent girl. But going to the “junior high” as a schoolgirl. of systole. nor at the stationery store. with its tables outside. Hmm . . it “monopolizes the surrounding area” and “overflows [déborde] its own limits. .” or else “to smoke a cigarette in the library. uh . an opposite movement of diastole. when people at the café. . the people who are outside on the terrace. Anaphora organizes one’s walks according to a postponed movement of contraction. All examples of anaphora go beyond the simple quest for a site. . I’d compare it. the variations persist in repeating one and the same attraction. they are neither at home nor at Gro’s. I don’t know what to say! The more the site throws up resistance and fascinates at the same time. they are already at the Gro. to exhaust its various significations. There is a tendency for these gradual differences to encompass it. Hyperbole. as an aftereffect. but one likely to encourage dilatory detours. Right. but I don’t have the impression of overflow for all that.16 An excellent example in which the rivalry of “approaching” [aborder] and “going beyond” [déborder] is recounted in the following narrative: It’s the same with the bistro. ! Because.” to use Pierre Sansot’s expressions. occurs when one’s siege of a site is finished. for example. . the final figure of redundancy. the more the interested inhabitant makes it into the main locale. . . then to the “Community Center” to “see girlfriends. without that basket of items. At the heart of this figure. the places where she crosses barely vary. if not.” allows one to bring diversity to the site. nor . nor close by. the Junior High School/Community Center forms the center of almost all her walks. .

the site as it is “in reality” (these Mounds are not mountains). this question no longer has any importance. but a game with conviction in its very exaggeration. higher than at first sight. it was high.” whereas only the locks had been forced. The steps themselves were probably redundant.”17 how are we to understand her expression? Rhetoric would say “exaggerated expression.” Compared with all that the inhabitants imagine at the height of the Mounds. on the other hand.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G digesting his victory and he overloads the site that has been walked on. The writing of one’s steps produces at the same time a reading that magnifies the site [une lecture amplificatrice]. When an inhabitant talks about some emergency exit doors between passageways that “someone has smashed in. A game was being played.19 in other words. By what yardstick would one judge the truth or error or exaggeration? The Mound was mounted by a scaling operation. As a figure of hyperbole. only if one grasps the homology between the spoken expression of hyperbole and the action being recounted: these are two forms of expression that refer to one and the same style and one and the same way of reading-writingsaying the spatiotemporal action that occurred. which will be taken to task for its excessiveness. the action has vanished and what one might have grasped of it as lived experience slips completely away. with their relentless trudging in anticipation of the “summit. While undertaking a serious and critical examination of the disparity between signified and signifier. When other inhabitants speak about the Arlequin’s “wings” 57 . such a recounted-walked expression is not surprising. When an inhabitant speaks of “scaling the Mounds. Emergency exit doors “closed! In New Town! That’s just plain crazy!” she exclaims. The retelling of this manner in the narrative again reduplicates the redundancy.”18 To adopt this understanding of the figure would be to distinguish and compare two heterogeneous instantiated principles: on the one hand. faithful to what happened that Sunday. the “scaling of the Mounds” becomes a pertinent expression. Was there an “escalation” or not? Henceforth. there is a clash between a certain way of walking that clears the space on the mode of combative appropriation and a certain kind of constitution of the laid-out and developed space in which obstacles of this type are sensed as bogeymen with evil intention. the statement.

Beyond any differences. these “varieties”—which come in types of combinations that are all redundant—are always repetitions that render explicit and explain in a more or less passive. and with more or less resistance. the interviews as a whole demonstrate sometimes a willingness to “embellish” the neighborhood. properly speaking—in the sense of order through difference and congruency (superimposition through folding)—presides over all alternations in people’s trips. either the sites of concern and known commotion or the sites of relaxation and leisure. architectural devices tending toward the sumptuous and the ceremonial can be perceived as instances of hyperbole.” Of the four cases of redundancy that have been examined. One will already have suspected their presence when we finished with the elementary figures. This is the case with the junior high school’s lobby. more or less active way. redundancies that look exaggerated to the inhabitant who feels external to the sites in which they are flaunted. sometimes overloaded. which is deemed “flashy” and “extravagant.” a monumentality is erected that neither the neighborhood’s buildings nor the lake seem to possess. Indeed. Symmetry Symmetry. for the calm and the pleasant. 1. Hyperbole repeats. for those who feel at home there as if they had literally appropriated it for themselves. Redundancy brings together all that. The park will therefore readily be walked in this mode—but also the Community Center. The choice of one term in the place of another is no indifferent matter. one thus goes from the most intimist to the most expressionist. tends to write or to read the same things. Figures of Symmetry Around the notion of symmetry are grouped all the combinatory figures that proceed through difference and organize the orientations of one’s walks. sometimes a search for the sumptuous and the ceremonial. These unique fashionings of possible bi- 58 . a spatial whole whose identity is sometimes imprecise.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G or about the “ornamental lake. in the organization of one’s walks. Conversely. with a marked preference.

in some way. Hmm! It’s funny. For several inhabitants. to exist. don’t pass by the silos unless you are going to the stores. . after a departure from home toward a specific site. Large portions of the complete trip are affected by them. In order to illustrate the first form. I see it on my way back. order in expression): a composition of plenums and vacuums according to rules of repetition. Dissymmetry Dissymmetry is produced by accident: when. . which reduplicates her way of taking the obligatory bifurcations. there’s a door with some flyers on it. depending on the direction of one’s walks. the return trip does not happen to occur as foreseen and another route is then taken. For another inhabitant who “goes out” in the opposite direction. [silent laughter]. right? Well. storefronts. and return by number 110. It is rewritten in an alternative mode. wherein the absent always runs alongside the present. let us recall a few examples: Don’t cross the Community Center as a walkway except on the way out. illustrate two key ways of walking a cartographically identical route. a whole side of the space bordering the walk is but an extended “hole. Symmetry is produced in these cases via a one-way route in this loop trip. follow one’s dog by always going out by number 80 in order to approach the park. don’t take the “ramp” except to go home. All these cases offer a lot of symmetries on the scale of overall combinations. Symmetries via polarization are expressed especially through what they disregard. The two most noteworthy cases found offer an extreme form of such surprising dissymmetry. when I go from number 60 toward the inside . I’m looking practically to the right. 2. At the junior high. Thus. they 59 .” Walls. the whole or a large portion of the trip is erased and ceases. This is what symmetry really is in the most “classical” sense of the term (architectural order. and pillars exist only on the side where the mode of walking makes them be.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G furcations and these polarizations to the left or right. The gallery suffers this fate with the greatest frequency: On the way out. all the landmarks cited above are to be found on the right of her path. The whole of the built world around the gallery has no consistency of its own.

At the level of a “rhetorical” examination of these walkings. I know some people there. but . they do not backtrack and they allow themselves to be led by their spatial blunder. I always get lost. the Arlequin finishes sooner than it begins. In their actual practice. Then it’s the hole by the passageway. and afterward I finish up through the end of the park until number 60. at least once if not several times. Perhaps this discrepancy will open up a path where explanation will be something other than a reasoned and reasonable irritation before an uncontrollable phenomenon. . I have always gone back down by number 10. At the other extremity. uh . I always make a detour. The most ordinary cases of dissymmetry appear with striking regularity in all the interviews. Return trips do not begin or end at the same spot as the trip on the way out. however. In the first case. and the inhabitants concerned do not succeed in understanding how the phenomenon occurs and how they are led to make a dissymmetric detour: To come back [from the woodshop at number 60]. a stupid reflex. from number 10 to number 20. The trip toward the “exit” is shorter than the entrance trip. whereas I wanted to go down by number 20. I have never succeeded in finding my bearings in there. In the passageways. one can only take in the facts without understanding their nature. . It’s a reflex: I go to the right. I have always passed between the two round things there. the relation of the return trip to that of the trip on the way out is equivalent to the relation of the half circle to the straight line. .A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G are repetitive. . one sees the entrance “home” occur sooner (elevator 60 . the return trip is markedly lengthened. In the second case. an incident involving disorientation and automatic reflexes occurs that alters the return route in an irreversible way. But in both cases. The quotations betray the touch of irritation the inhabitants feel before this irrational figure when they try to give an explanation for it or to issue a judgment about it. There’s a spot there. and it obliges one to pass into a corner the female inhabitant in question does not like. We are speaking especially of routes that extend beyond the neighborhood. Given the mood of these trips.

” the abrupt transition). the tone. The domiciliation process can contract or expand according to the direction of one’s walk. You’re obliged to lift up your feet to pass through. there are cars everywhere. In several inhabitants’ narratives. They don’t do that. asymmetry may be observed in all cases where a trip is affected as a whole by multiple and divergent variations. the apartment’s front door marks the “caesura. there is neither symmetry nor dissymmetry but. The overall direction retains the same basic orientation. their walks often display this organizational figure. and to top it all off. sometimes gallery corner) than the exit (in this case. but numerous inopportune branches are grafted onto it. absence of symmetry. which are almost always hyperactive. ill conceals a decided pleasure they take in breaking up20 the built-up space with each step. Let us listen to what one inhabitant has to say: Ah. I hop.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G or passageway. because there are barriers you bump your nose against. Nothing is thought out. I find it’s very badly done. because they’re in a hurry. there is the joy of a spatial form of irony. if necessary. but as the pages go by one discovers that it is dictated by a rational functionalism: the technical upkeep of the neighborhood. sometimes a willful shattering of everyday isochronisms. as well as the rhythm and posture of the inhabitants’ steps. For two adults. I thread my way. Some inhabitants thus go on walks whose exact route cannot be foreseen. I bend. barely contained. Inhabitants who are less than twenty years old are particularly inclined to take the asymmetric approach. The dissymmetric relation between one direction and another reveals the difference between one’s housing and one’s domicile. you get tickets. Asymmetry Qua figure of combination. because it was thought that people were going to take the gallery. The variations. The signification of these everyday dissymmetries refers us back to the act of appropriation and the dynamic it brings into play. 61 . whether uneven and jerky or feverish. rather. Between the trip out and the return trip. 3. Sometimes. bring into play the three combined dimensions of space. The walking style. is transcribed via an abundance of verbs in the narrative.

the exposition has demonstrated.” a collection of elementary figures and model figures of organization. it seems that something else has been running alongside. totally absent elsewhere. one also finds in these walks two quite singular figures. but they do not correspond to a complete syntagmatic model.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G Thus. are we going to end up referring each way of organizing one’s walk to the style of the inhabitant producing it. In its good-natured willingness to trim down and to clarify. we are still in the dark as to the role of the expressive movement by which the inhabitant comes and goes. this style being a particular way of using certain elementary figures in certain elective combinations? Would the “material” of this reading-writing of space be the sole entity shared in common and never exhausted by the actual and singular usage performed by these walks? As is the case with one’s tongue. the oversight of which vaguely pursues us. In other words. the last figure for organizing one’s walks appears as a disorganization of the laid-out and developed space. They clearly manifest themselves on the scale of the overall combinations. surfacing here. but also has taxidermized as stuffed “specimens. Their role is to articulate among themselves the elementary figures that are present in 62 . it tells us more than the others about how walking is practiced in a global way according to specific styles of inhabiting the space. The least coherent with regard to the functions of traffic circulation. for language? Or do there exist one or two invariants that would yield a community of meaning for all the walking styles we have observed? Two Fundamental Figures: Synecdoche and Asyndeton From the elementary to the organized. through the progressive discovery of the figures these walks write. Their nature differs therefore from the figures previously expounded. We have barely caught a glimpse yet of the role played by the actual way these organizations function and by the way in which the elements do or do not take their place therein. Now. but they are not elementary. They can operate on the elementary level. From here.

”21 Synecdoche is not mere substitution of one term for another. It involves a competitive play of significations. the murky compenetration of elementary figures finds its condition of possibility in one and the same instantiated principle. Through this selection. to diverge: each modification carried out could be read as quantitative variation at the level of the space being traveled through. how this metafigure functions must be pursued. the less for the more) that is none other than synecdoche. How does synecdoche appear in the reading-writing of space performed by these walks? Like the “Snark” hunted in Lewis Carroll’s famous poem. the species for the genus. As noted in conducts involving avoidance. several elements being brought faceto-face. Yet this is but a second-order effect. to cut through. “one takes the genus for the species. one says “the billows” for “the sea. to bypass. When. 63 . To avoid. the whole for the part. The selection made is not necessarily the best one. Synecdoche Synecdoche is the process by which.”22 the context alone (the type of combination projected. among which there is a choice that depends on the context and the expressive intention.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G an overall organization. or the part for the whole. Synecdoche weaves a twofold relation: between competing meanings as well as between the criteria of selection and the context of the expression to be produced. a selection is carried out. Metafigures in a way. must be tracked down via the diverse effects manifested in the elementary figures and the combinatory figures. which is present in the formation of each of these figures: a metathesis of quantity (the more for the less. the trace left by the figure in a synchronic representation. Prevalence refers specifically to the context. to take up the traditional example. they intervene at the level of connections and acts of relation [des mises en rapport]: such are synecdoche and asyndeton. as well as the tone of the phrase and of the situation being expressed) is able to show why and how the selection was this one. in which would be grouped together all the neighboring meanings in an exhaustive manner.

one discovers. in one’s 64 . it is in the combinatory figures that synecdoche best shows its nature: a movement of constitution. In the line of the narratives. We discover at the same time that the final term (Community Center) holds for them all. All inductions of another nature refer us back both to the combinatory figures and to the context of the action of walking. the walk is geared in a certain direction rather than another one. in each interview and in each walking universe. the woman in question employed four successive and progressively reduced terms: the “Arlequin.23 There. it was possible to illustrate our examination of the elementary figures with photographs that set before us the “choices” of paths considered in relation to the spatial context. each narrative makes slippages of meaning apparent. In this way. the creative gait of lived space-time.” and the “Community Center. Nonetheless. rather.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G We see the limit of analysis when it is conducted at the elementary level. Without the quantity of space being altered. there is never an equivalence of possibilities. such movements of particularization and totalization—which are not a relation of partial elements to the totality of the building complex but. Walking phenomena are grasped in relation to space rather than in relation to time. Also. thanks to the attractive signification of the site. and the meaning of a term is never equivalent to the meaning of its synonym or of the neighboring term when one compares the appellation of one’s bearings [repérages] to the nature of the trips these landmarks [repères] were designating. As a whole. In the elementary figures of polysemy. It is always the more for the less or the less for the more.” The specifications became increasingly particularized as the walks were recounted in more and more precise fashion.” the “commercial gallery. at other moments) that are valid as parts. The whole for the part.” the “gallery. the metathesis of quantity found a more subtle form. A particularly well-sequenced example was related earlier. even in bifurcation. the inhabitants go once and again into the same sites. from one day to the next. a selective organization among sites walked through that hold as totalities and other ones (or the same ones. What is manifested in too spatial a manner is thus understood as a simple effect of the gravity of a more encompassing context. But the name of the site changes. From one path to another. the part for the whole: such are.

for games”. Yet only one site is specified. like some tubes . the intermediate forms being the more for the less and the less for the more. by extension. especially that sort of place where there are some bricks .” the rest of which this inhabitant knows by frequenting it regularly. In the park. from the brick place and from the group of mounds to the Mound—that is the itinerary of synecdoches in 65 . . she provides no precise details about the very act of walking. it lacks “a cozy feeling. . . Second. The park as a whole leads simply to some remarks that are general in character: there is a lack of “whatsits .”24 For several inhabitants. sought out in the name of the context. I go there . especially the Mound. characterizes the park. the crossing of this part of the park replaces the unpleasantness of the gallery at what she calls this “dead” spot with the pleasantness of the park taken in terms of its general value. the one that is equipped with steps. that this is only one part of the “park. . Let us note. From the park to the brick place. each time you scale the Mounds. There is always . An example follows of two synecdoches that are apparent in their selective succession: The park . . first of all. But do movements of particularization and those of totalization even bear on the same realities? We must reexamine more closely these examples in which the process of synecdoche crops up in a condensed way. I pass through the park. If I want to go from number 40 to number 60. .A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G walks. .” The context of their walks in the park is focused entirely on visiting [le séjour] and relaxing within a lakeside poetics that. characterized in terms of the lived experience of walking it: “the scaling of the Mounds. . A remark: the inhabitant then lays out in an abstract way her reasons for liking the park. And they do so to various degrees. . A process of totalization of meaning occurs here. . that sort of place with the mounds. the main feature of the park whose walking merits a description is the area around the lake. . the two extreme forms between which all the figures we have encountered take their places. . Finally. I walk around in all directions.

as well as in every walk. The rest of the neighborhood and the other paths merit no narrative as storied as this one. the layout of the gallery with the line of buildings. I go into the space that is dirt-covered . an overall judgment: the foibles of the designers of the space are mimicked. taking the time to recount the lived details. . which is marked by anxiety and a fascinated repulsion. The surrounding space is hardly definable at all: half sand. First instantiated principle: the reference to the overall walking context that orients this or that selection. the dragon tends to become the landscape itself. Often. the mezzanine trip is but one part of the space traveled. as the main portion of the walking occurs in the mezzanine. The totalization process tilts very rapidly toward abstraction. synecdoche is organized along three lines of force that span everyday life in its entirety. Overflowing its condition as a signal for play. 66 . From a quantitative standpoint. Second instantiated principle: the whole for the part and the part for the whole are expressed in terms of a difference in kind.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G which the partial is made more precise as it is walked and in which the final term bestows all the others with its lived signification. nothing more specific and colorful than this enamel-covered metal “dragon” for the children. Everything had already been said in its most tellable part. voilà! Another remark: Nothing is more imprecise than the start of this phrase. to digress. however. . The most detailed trip recounted in this interview concerns the inhabitant’s comings and goings on the mezzanine. its polymorphic character contrasts with the environing zones whose materials are clearly defined: high bushes. half dirt.25 To serve as a general example. In these examples. There is here a pathic synecdoche applying to the whole expression of the walker’s lived experience. These two decidedly divergent inflections place back to back the practice of the urban designers and that of the users of the urban space. we would have to quote the twelfth interview in full. The process of particularization willingly lingers. toward the dragon. copiously condensing the whole way in which this inhabitant lives at the Arlequin.

on the one hand the phenomenon is expressed in descriptive terms. connections. Whereas synecdoche shows the way in which selection operates.” by transcribing the succession of steps 67 . The selection of one of the instantiated principles tends to reduce and to exclude the others. such as the process of connection that is characteristic of this or that style. That is how things proceed in language proper.” as we are told in rhetoric—is the second key to the process of organizing one’s walks. synecdoche grounds a universal mode of organization in which the part stands for the whole. along with one fundamental characteristic. When the whole stands for the part. Now. the walking process becomes allusive. however. through one of the keys to the organization of walks into a reading-writing. the disassociation between a representation of the trip and the narrative of a lived experience of walking. the climate of the mezzanine is concretely equivalent to one’s overall representation of the Arlequin. Thus. As lived. referring each back to the overall context in which this selection is based—which is what the relation to the signified is supposed to clarify. Asyndeton Asyndeton—“figure by which one suppresses conjunctions. More likely. The atmospheres on the Mound or at the lake symbolize everything poetic that can found in the park and in the neighborhood.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G Third instantiated principle: when the part stands for the whole. one can see being sketched out. Only a topographical map will give the illusion of something “linked. what it does is include them in a concealed way.26 In the rhetoric of one’s walks. on the other hand the part takes the place of the totality in the form of a climate and in a relation of symbolization. and then Representation governs one’s apprehension of space. the second fundamental process should bring juxtaposition. and conjunctions into play. ambulatory expression seems to be grounded essentially on an absence of connections. These are the links through which every element of expression follows another one of them in the constitution of the expressive whole.

. in considering the narrative in itself. and take account of the silences. and exhibit a constant economy of descriptive detail (few adjectives.” “right”. Yet let one listen to the interviews more closely. quite storied descriptions. recollection of the hour or the day takes the place of connection (“then .27 Being played out here is a point-by-point account of an overall movement. Indeed. and not sequence. the prevalence of certain “fragments.” “however”).” and the mode of occurrence of asyndetons (where connections disappear) are so many characteristics of a style belonging to the inhabitant.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G and putting them into continuous lines. with connections by subject-point. one can identify patches of description that evoke the spatiotemporal unfolding of the moment of densely narrated walking. especially for personal subjects and words). it will be said. There is an economy of narrative. the Olympic Village. The connections proceed along the lines of contiguity. behind the well-connected fragments. . One cannot recount everything.”) that leaps onward to another description and skimps [fait l’économie] on concrete spatial continuities. but they occur within these long. the passageway. sometimes broken up by a sudden encounter with a few rare favored sites: the lake. as walking styles differ. . the latter being a popular conjunction not recognized in grammar) and sometimes sequential ones (“finally. The way in which synecdoche takes place. . and the punctuation breaks. . either a digressive transition in which value judgments break through or a connection of a temporal nature (“afterward. 68 . When grasped as a whole. and then one will perceive.” “at such and such an hour. between these fragments. What can be known about what occurred during a walk? And yet narrative styles differ from one story to the next. A young girl uses many coordinating conjunctions (“and. the suspended intonations. Between these descriptions. then. What to us appears to be a fragment limited by the unit of description always tends to be given as a totality. an economy of memory. a background of discontinuity that is present in all these interviews.” “next. I . consider in detail how oral expressions repeat walking expressions. A ten-year-old child thus offers us an expression that is typical of this age group. the transcribed narrative can also make one believe in a relatively homogeneous sequence: a mere overall impression.

when taken on the scale of these trips as a whole. is diffuse and that the play of the narrative’s expressive contiguities does not succeed in masking. well. . Now. and a state that may be deemed as condensed in relation to a qualitative leap that occurs between this first mode of walking and the few rare sites that are walked with enthusiasm. in that of the thirty-year-old worker. Right [beginning a small sketch]. Two forms of asyndeton are already taking shape: a state that. and in that of the forty-year-old housewife. for whom the “holes” in the narrative correspond to a kind of walking that is designed to conserve her energy and is concerned with brevity from the start.: On the first floor.”). what floor do you live on? n. The deceptive succession of contiguities hides a discontinuous style of walking in which nothing truly sticks to the child’s hurried steps. She speaks of her lodgings. it’s always the same thing. where the division established by the break between the narrative of his walks to work and the narrative of his leisure walks corresponds only too well to the reality of everyday life as it is modeled in a certain mode of production. The same parallel between what is said of these walks and the way in which it is said holds for all the interviews. these short hops. In this case. Beneath the variety of styles belonging to each inhabitant. um. asyndeton permits her to leap from one path in her public life to another path of the same type: the aspect of her existence that this young girl values as against the problems at home that are placed within brackets. . interviewer: Then you haven’t told me about the end of your trips? n. right .: Oh! . Except for stylistic differences. in order to arrive home. these transitions by leaps mask the chief asyndeton that structures the everyday life of this inhabitant: a forgetting—indeed. . where the poetic mode of walking appears only through a break from the repetitive 69 . . [sound indicating indifference]. asyndeton operates insistently and with an identical function: in the narrative of a seventy-year-old inhabitant. . in the end. . . only reluctantly: interviewer: At number 50. the discreet rejection—of everything about her lodgings and the surrounding area.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G Saturday afternoon . . asyndeton fulfills an analogous function in the spoken and walked expressions of the tenyear-old child. .

.or right-hand side of the trip? It doesn’t interest you? e. or else? . . as manifested in the equivalent three dots of silence. you talk about a few spots. I once wanted to take it with the kids. . it’s to be discovered! Later. Indeed. I don’t know why. I don’t know. well . . . Other times. this same figure clearly dominates the organization of a walk: these are precious accidents that shed undiffracted light on the way in which the absence of connections grounds one’s walking expression. I don’t talk about it. there. . . but only of being “broken. .: Oh. as there are the passageways . . . Well. Thus also. that’s right. there is a passage from there to there [she points this out on a small sketch she makes]. It must be quite harmless. . monotony seems incapable of being altered.: Um. well. . .” A few choice. . . it’s a bit complicated. the . huh? That’s what they were . . child present: —the mezzanine! interviewer: Why? j. besides. but between these spots.: Yes. It is a parenthetical site that is left up in the air. this passage. following the example of synecdoche. The mezzanine as walkway thus becomes doubly absent. . On the left. . . you remember? Then. I’ll be myself. interviewer: Right. When I’ll go everywhere . that’s the gallery and there. e. um.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G utilitarian mode. nothing of importance? . dead ends.: I never take. . Yes. What’s more. asyndeton crops up from time to time from beneath an obvious and succinct expression that offers us a digest version thereof. . interviewer: In your [written] account. . specific examples will better illustrate the general and fundamental role asyndeton plays. There is a loss of the name of the site in which one gets lost. . . . . the little place. . well that. . . what is there? . Holes Asyndeton manifests itself in the following examples not only as a lapse in memory [trou de mémoire] but also as a hole [trou] in the narrative and as the very porosity of space: j. there were some . I would take it. . ? We made a U-turn and took the gallery again. huh? 70 .

afterward. only an unwalked area that surrounds her trips. of their quantity.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G Reflection on the first absence (between two poles) leads the inhabitant to discover that her walks are written on the background of an absent totality. The absences allow for a project of coming appropriation at the same time as a future elucidation of one’s identity as an inhabitant. I dash off. there very well are “holes. . The trip to work will easily be permeable to large absences. there is nothing more to do than to “dash off. The compartmentalized state of the memorable and recountable walk appears as such only upon the background of a graphic representation. For the inhabitant at number 60 who leaves for work in the morning. indeed the totality of it. . for the moment.” On the other hand. . I am thinking of number 50. huh? After number 50. these “holes” distinguish. The walk loses all detail. Absences The climate within which a walk is carried out is an essential agent of the frequency of asyndetons. . huh? Afterward . the landscape is already “dashing off. and of their duration.” Focused on the worry and the repetitive burden of his job. because. the moments of the present from those that are to come later on from a long-term effort at appropriation. of the “hole” that can affect a large portion of the trip.” Some other examples: 71 . right away. even though he has not yet mounted his vehicle. his presence in the neighborhood is remarkably short-lived. From this point of view. The narratives transcribe this through holes in the phrasing or sometimes explicit recognition of the absence. there is nothing to say because nothing acted or suffered is expressed therein. This “everywhere” that allows for a reserve of possibilities is. over the whole of the context that envelops the lived experiences of one’s walks. which begins at the end of this trip after twenty minutes on a moped. practically . It all ends at number 50: Oh. rather. Between the gallery and the little place. the inhabitant has already left.

. the second spoken. and whether we recognize therein the mark of a certain kind of civilization. The asyndeton has taken up the entire place. I saw nothing. neglect. we can recognize in it a stylistic effect of prolonged asyndeton. the first acted out.: Oh. the sign of a failure in building as it is subjected to the mode of production that directs it. I don’t give a damn at all! I don’t know anyone here . of having traversed some sites in complete indifference is not some accident. I had some worries about work. Whether it is expressed in terms of worry. [fifteen seconds of silence]. Its identity owes as much to the elective place of two figures carrying greater weight than all others as to the typical layout of these two modes of constitution. perfectly well punctuate. Henceforth. The absence of connection at this point merges with the absence of memorable lived experience. preoccupation. rather. but. 72 . Only the “duty to remember” feature imposed by the framework of the interview has allowed these minimal expressions of walks with neither any thickness nor any density: ectoplasm-trips. In the afternoon. . the very background for the organization of our walks. this paradoxical phenomenon of articulation through absence of conjunction continues to be probably the most universal one there is among all the modes of walking through an inhabited space today. In combinations of figures. From then on. round trips organized according to symmetrical alternations had already shown the phenomenon of a longitudinal hole (absence of a right or of a left). quite to the contrary. I look at nothing. weariness. in this narrative. an anomaly of lived experience. or the wear and tear of everyday life.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G interviewer: Was it the same trip when it rains? n.29 From Figures to Code Walking rhetoric is a quite particular form of expression.28 Nothing to say! The two expressions of silence. one can see how this impression of not having truly walked but. the way in which the walk was carried out: overall absence. Here we are dealing with genuine hole-trips.

a certain type of expression.”31 73 . we rediscover in the enunciation of one’s steps the two axes language theory30 names as the “axis of combination” and the “axis of selection”—the combined play of a “metonymic process” and of a “metaphorical process” in which internal relationships (the meaningful relation) and external relationships (the contextual relation) produce. in terms of the syntagmatic series. at their intersection. But this intersection takes a quite peculiar turn owing to the eminent position of synecdoche and asyndeton. one does one’s utmost to disconnect. Nothing is ever lived except partially. rather. These discontinuities exist only upon a background of absence. Asyndeton is the condition of possibility for synecdoche. But here. And a second difference emerges. The linguistic analogy is lame. the fragments giving themselves out to be the “globality” of the situation.” of “holes. No doubt. there is greater consistency when the task of connecting things together is performed well. How would linguistic theory evaluate what we call “walking expression”? Probably by likening it to a specific form: poetic language.” as the inhabitants say. in the practice of one’s walks. to instaurate discontinuity. Yet daily strolls persistently confer value upon certain elements. In the pedestrian statements in which synecdoche privileges the usage of the part for the whole.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G These walks yield a surprising idea of everyday life. The Poetic Idiom Thus do the proposed analogies between linguistic analysis and a walking rhetoric begin to fall apart. “The poetic function projects the principle of equivalence from the axis of selection into the axis of combination. In our language. Here is a first difference. spatial particularities that overflow the rightful functional partitions and shake up the territorial sequences. in which the measured hierarchization one finds in prose is broken up in favor of a rhythmic arrangement that lays emphasis on the terms first of all for themselves. asyndeton renders possible the appropriation of the whole via the part. of “blanks. A word is not chosen for itself all alone but.

and the question of signification has been left hanging. also. one neither fills in nor fails to fill in. which was permitted by the absence of conjunction and which leaves the part free to “stand for the whole” in the symbolic mode. The rhetorical form indicates in what sense it has to be structuration. and not mere general usage of constructed spatialities. and to what extent.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G “Equivalence” does not mean “indifference. Take. for example. the uneven and jerky articulation of a movement that constructs the lived experience of space in an often diverting mode. rather. which will be taken again later on. well-connected—way how. constitution of singular space-times. when present. This process is possible because asyndeton breaks the connections that. that the process of combination would have created a vacuum. But in the practice of one’s walks. that law of contrast at the level of overall combinations. that is. The discovery of the two metafigures thus moves into a more theoretical lane of analysis. 74 . The act of walking is not the progressive totalization of a given space to be traveled through but. As in poetry. the inhabitant does or does not “fill in” a traffic space. which is not forgotten when combinations are made— but on one condition. The final contribution we could ask of linguistic knowledge may be formulated in a proposition that creates the dividing line between the language of prose and the rhetoric of walking: the organization of one’s walks is constituted in the manner of a poetics. that first moment of organization via exclusion.” This sort of autonomy the word preserves in the poetic syntagma is the persistence of the process of selection. Too vacant at times. that the enunciative model privileged in prose (wherein words take only the fair share granted to them by the signifying whole that is to be stated) would be broken up. Our rhetorical exposition still remains incomplete. would prevent such interference of what is selective within the combinatory. Take. a part of the walk can be valid for itself and render itself autonomous in relation to a totality it shakes up and deforms while attempting to go beyond it. which would like to see in a coherent—that is to say. overcharged at other times. walking styles seem excessive and chaotic only from the geometric outlook. an initial figure about which we can now understand that it stems directly from the combined play of asyndeton and synecdoche.

which is sometimes so explicit that it serves as a “message. More ordinarily. going home. among other things. Now.32 Like all expression. it seems.34 The descriptive study of everyday comings and goings is therefore to be pursued in the direction of its most manifest signification: the social dimension. one’s walking conducts refer back to a context that situates them. one more attentive this time to comparison of the referents each stylistic effect calls for. psychological attitude.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G Toward the Instantiated Principle of the Collective The various modes of walking that belong to each inhabitant share a community of style that is henceforth recognized. This last signified encompasses. Pedestrian statement signifies two things: one’s immediate goal (going to work. temporal situation. these walks unfold mainly in the epic mode: a poetics of narration. without at least the vague presence of the instantiated principle of the collective. one’s ways of doing (the rhetorical modes) tell us in a mediate way one’s ways of being. the contextual element most often mentioned by the inhabitants questioned is a social referent. The epic is characterized in modern rhetoric by the strong contribution it implies for the referential function. going for a walk) and one’s way of living the situation. The figures of walking rhetoric propose an arrangement of signifiers. the dimensions of spatial position. This community of meaning is nevertheless entirely theoretical. Only episodically does one experience elation in one’s approach or does an unforeseen and gratuitous event suddenly emerge and cross one’s steps (daydreaming at the edge of the lake or on the mounds and fascination at the play of light and shadows under the gallery at night are two of these rare examples). There is one inhabitant rhetoric in the sense that the fundamental principles of articulation do not vary. We are hardly talking here about a sociological study 75 . But what concrete and everyday signifieds do they express? A new reading of the narratives is required. Here is our first overall impression: everyday poetics rarely abandons itself to lyricism. In other words.”33 No one walks. and the presence of the other. going shopping. The inhabitants do not play in vain at their comings and goings.

than to describe the code through which he who walks and those who surround him are signified throughout the walk itself. at the perimeter of the chapter to come.35 76 . Just as each chapter began with a simple configuration of traces. so we are attempting to do nothing more.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : F I G U R E S O F W A L K I N G in the scientific sense of the term. Our purpose is more modest.

This art of persuasion minimizes or exaggerates.” Through its propensity for stylistic effect. is a swerving sort of [de l’écart] practice. to “make it truer. bewitches.1 Although the effort to render the truth of words equivalent to the truth of things remains an unresolved problem. who forgets all his own arguments. to make it accessible and convincing. like a quickly cast net. the truth that is to be spoken. or he who remains indifferent. there is no doubt that the essence of rhetoric is to flow beyond the object of discourse. into one’s game. rhetoric strays from the literal meaning. We shall not respond to these questions before having sought out what the singular. A tight and mobile interlacing of terms charms. knowledge of the art of rhetoric has seemed to confer upon its owner a certain power. The use of figurative meaning produces this interval [écart] that has always rendered undecidable any evaluation of the art of speaking well. The goal of rhetoric is to convince. like figurative speech. and finally. which. as closely as possible. Well-chosen.3 An Inhabitant Rhetoric THE CODE OF APPROPRIATION At all times. to draw one’s adversary. 77 . one’s way of expressing? The same questions hold for inhabitant rhetoric. anamorphoses or transfigures at that very place where the flat statement would employ only the right and strict series of words deemed necessary to produce. well-handled words exert a sort of magical effect. everyday fashioning of space described in the preceding chapter might signify. avoids or repeats.2 Is one to appreciate rhetorical expression for its capacity to make the stated object splendidly appear or for its performance in “figuring” things so well? Does what is expressed have more or less importance than the expression. ensnares the listener.

and of differentiations. and among diverse ethnic groups. or island of buildings has particular ways and customs. It is not our wish. Through repetitions and variations. has he not identified. where this or that law of the code is suddenly perceived as an obstacle). of rejections. each in his own way and each through his own semiology. And the depth psychologist. Even more than that. but also those of oppositions. through his pedestrian practice.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N Without doubt. of similarity. the inhabitants recognize one another and make themselves recognized. from day to day. the “content” of these ambulatory configurations. When a passerby bypasses a site. The ways of organizing space figure the similarities and differences existing among the inhabitants. each inhabitant always reveals. without the knowledge of the inhabitants (save in moments of extreme tension. one can observe how.” Beneath the general codes revealed by sociology in its study of the oppositions between the urban and the rural. group of single-lot homes. opposite himself. and of cohesion. to snap so quickly the thread of the inhabitants’ narratives. the forms of sociability knit themselves together and unravel without stop. Over a small unit of space. among various social classes. there exist more particular codes. of a mobile collective process that unfolds. Through this code. however. the classical sociologist. the political scientist. most often. high-density housing complex. A more phenomenological approach would find that the code for the fashionings3 of inhabited space is the fruit not of a state but. the real or possible movement of someone else? We already had a premonition of these mutual anticipations of avoidance or encounter when expounding the figures of walking. spatial readings and writings. and even the economist will read. Each has its own “good manners. A sort of code appears. however. he traces a figure of avoidance. the peculiar traits of his personality and his choices in relation to social attitudes as well as to the available options about the usage of space. and the produced and the reproduced. In the same stroke. How is this code to be qualified? Every urban zone. the signifieds find at least a minimum of homogeneity. The explicit stake involved in inhabitant practice is what may be 78 . Thus are woven together relationships of collusion. the inhabitants to whom we have listened state explicitly in their narrations how the other intervenes in the everyday landscape through which they travel. rather.

first of all.” “I don’t feel rejected here. And. that has justifiably been criticized. and the spatial. One also hears. it will be above all in order to indicate the concomitant presence of the instantiated principles of the individual. The Naming of Places If we talk about the everyday circulation of pedestrian traffic.” “I feel good here. “This place feels good to me. repeated too often. as happens with words spoken over and over again that suddenly become empty sounds. it will have a wholly instrumental. or even to deny. the writing of one’s walks seems to signify that there is a dynamic of appropriation. The concrete seizure of space begins via the question of the appropriable. place79 . hostile sites.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N called qualified space. They indicate the heavy punctuations of an observational approach—which is. These reservations having been made. My way of coming and going is sometimes going to repeat the already accepted or sought-after qualifications. depending on the case at hand. We are dealing here with a notion that is never clearly definable. about networks of spatial frequentation that acquire consistency on a map. The rules that will be stated will not. When we shall employ it.” This syncretism among oneself. the space. My steps qualify the path taken. In the pages to come. We shall endeavor to bring out progressively its code. but whose fuzziness seems to us to designate rather felicitously the barbarisms and “blurrinesses” of everyday life. But before me opens a space already traveled by the other. and the other seems to be designated quite well by the term appropriation. attentive to the most obvious forms of appropriation (and the most explicit ones in the inhabitants’ narratives) and then curious about more complex phenomena expressed in a discrete and sparse sort of way. sometimes it is going to disqualify. Are the sites to come beneath my steps appropriated or appropriable? And how are they so? Everyday language talks about a “feeling of being at home” that meets with success or struggles to be successful or that fails. all converge at the same time toward a closed definition of this code of appropriation. the social. however. it will perhaps end up losing its meaning altogether and disappear of its own accord. entirely provisional value.

the reference in question is not always clearly apparent.” Through employment of the toponym. for all that. All toponyms are then of equal value. what steps configure. the stable boundary markers between which the lines of people’s trips are stretched. just sink into an irremediable state of equivocality. Indeed. the inhabitants carry out a veritable process of placenaming. The first difficulty encountered is therefore the relevance for a community of meaning of the appellations that are stated in the narrative. The words do not always succeed in encompassing the spatial feature involved on the background of a language-imposed requirement of univocality. Signs among other signs. and that annihilates them as it pleases. “everyone. nor do they constitute anything by themselves. This is a metalinguistic phase of the narrative where one goes off in search of equivalent units. the narrative makes one recognize the space through the statements of a shared discourse. They appear along the walk that instigates them. Now. names do not. Our reading of the narratives of one’s walks has driven us. within every community of style. The narratives indicate this designation-assignment of the space within which speech expresses. Thus do we discover a few moments in the narrative that are spent entirely on specifying an ill-understood or barely clear name. it should be pointed out that no naming is performed without the involvement of the instantiated principle of the collective. Nonetheless. to overturn this reductionist attitude. as manifested in narra80 . In this sense.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N names will serve to indicate enduring landmarks. toponyms do not in any way precede something else. None of them will tell more than any other in what direction the inhabitant walks with or against the others. Between the individual and the collective. that informs them. they reflect the qualification one’s pedestrian gait inscribes therein by making them be. behind him. While not being univocal. words do not express a spatial relation defined identically for everyone at all times. however. Names are but one of the abstract elements in the system of cartographic location. Some namings fail to achieve their project of shared designation. In the configurative movement of one’s steps. The narrative of one’s walks calls for a citation of sites in a form that can be identified by “the listener”: he who listens and. granting value to some space or rejecting another one.

purely formal and linguistic phenomena. self-assurance in the employment of the appellation and its frequency differ from one inhabitant to the next. Nonetheless. on occasion. the more atomized the collectivity becomes on the scale of the entire neighborhood and the more mutually distinctive social subgroups become.” we say here. they connote what is most common and most clear in the identification of sites. They do not in themselves call for any particular commentary in the course of the narrative—save. These namings are revelatory of a lived experience of one’s walks that is not exempt from difficulties.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N tive. the inhabitant says: “at number 60. One’s hesitations and the mishaps that occur in the naming of spaces do not seem to be. On the other hand. And this occurs through the general practice of one’s walks in the neighborhood.” “toward number 100. Let us begin with the most common form of naming. but always insistent. even failures in relation to the instantiated principle of the collective. in order to criticize or praise the graphic or chromatic inscription of the numbers. They betray a certain way of having lived these places from which the collectivity is never absent. The youngest inhabitants. reproduction of the memorable relation places maintain with names. errancies. On the one hand. They can be arranged into a progressive series with two constants. Whence arises a second difficulty: How is one to evaluate the collective connotation involved in the apprehension of places walked? “Apprehension. the mode of appellation contains a more or less faithful. the most common names are those that bring the least tensions and differentiations into play. for it really is a matter of a seizure by words as well as by one’s steps. the regulars at attend81 .” “from number 130. My toponymic landscape merges to a large extent with the others’ landscapes. Numbering So.”4 Such appellations are used by all the inhabitants questioned. the more specific place-names become. Reproducing the location devices imposed by the design plan and by the management. employed either exclusively or as synonyms for a previously stated name deemed insufficiently precise. in this case.

Functional Appellation This form of naming differs very little from the usages commonly employed in other urban neighborhoods. connote references to groups of initiates. One sometimes uncovers more accidental names that refer to a transient operation of some sort. Others hesitate sometimes. “Toward the bakery” and “toward the butcher’s”—-these two shops being next to each other—are indications that allow for no ambiguity as to the space thus named. as well as their placement and the graphics used. or are familiar only with the number of their domicile and those of their neighbors. which everyone can place. do not require that one belong to the groups who make practical use of these sites.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N ing various activities in the neighborhood. of an inhabitant in her seventies. Other sites. the shops. Referencing by numbers selects. For. This is the case. designated by less well-known functions and prompting frequentations for specific purposes. in particular. the schools. More generally speaking.” he summons up in the listener the practice of a group of inhabitants who are well informed about the events that take place in the Arlequin neighborhood. display an unusual type of organization. the perennial operations of the junior high school. without these activities 82 . a certain type of inhabitant who is likely to adapt quickly. These are the same people who do not get lost and can circulate through the neighborhood “as if they were at home”—though this apparent ease does not necessarily correspond to a successful overall appropriation of the area. and those who work around there juggle easily with the numbers. do not know certain numbers. When one inhabitant says. but simply demand a knowledge of the most obvious features of the neighborhood. They harbor activities of which other inhabitants are unaware or about which they are familiar by hearsay. de facto. It would seem that the ease with which one employs these numbers should be a function of the level of one’s overall adaptation to the neighborhood. “next to the children’s bedroom display. The shops and activity areas in the neighborhood permit unmistakable location—all the more so as these place-names also mark the environing space. and the neighborhood’s activity rooms. the places designated by the numbers.

” “toward my stairwell.” “I arrive home. introduction of the motor order specific to the lived experience of one’s walk into a sequence of the enunciative order. because one’s walks are articulated with precision over these sites that are prone to a definite and limited appropriation. of the area bordering one’s domicile: the space near the elevator entrance that overflows onto the gallery. “I make this detour.” which are obvious for the three inhabitants familiar with these places. would be perplexing or ambiguous for other people.” “toward the other retirement home. Finding one’s bearings [Le repérage] is then loaded with a clear allusion to a specific aspect of everyday life. The process of particularization heads in the same direction. It is then that the act of appropriation delimits a space with no physical markings and makes it change its nature. rather. Thus.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N being able to serve for them as spatial landmarks.” “I cross the small place. This happens either through an effect of personalization or by reference to the part rather than to the whole. who in this case are summoned [convoqués] onto the field of speech but who are supposed to exist for real also in similar practices that have them frequenting “this” detour or “that” little place. Singularized or Particularized Appellation This type of naming is to be distinguished from the others in that a synecdoche is produced.” It is not a matter here of one’s own lodging but. here.” she either is provoking the ostracism of those who do not know whether one is speaking of the 83 . appellations like “toward the photo shop. When one inhabitant says. which borders on itself—or as being perceptible only to initiates.” the designation is narrowed down. The appropriated space stands out either as not being the place that is common to everyone—and then the value is placed on the singular. Demonstrative pronouns and adverbs of place then indicate a latent appropriation that other expressions will come to confirm more clearly: “my spot.” “next to the insurance office. restriction of the meaning of the appellation through rejection of commonly accepted names. with several noteworthy effects: substitution of an allusive singularity for the discursive universal. When one inhabitant says “on the mound.

In this case. Another concrete signification of the fundamental figure of synecdoche is manifested here. Singularized appellation and particularized appellation tell us as much and more about spatial relations as about the space itself. To say the less for the more is to refer to a particular appropriation that is liable to bring together a group of similar spatial practices among distinct inhabitants. and • the “ramp” is an incline fifty meters long that raises the gallery from zero to seven meters in height. the names given by the developer are not always convincing: • the “gallery” is the main street beneath the buildings. The angles characteristic of the facades5 and the layout of the street beneath the buildings take the inhabitants right away out of their usual element [dépaysent d’emblée l’habitant]. • the “passageway” is the access corridor on three floor levels.” as some inhabitants say. And this relation is always formed with reference to the collective. • the “cove” is the exterior space outlined by the building’s curves. Moreover. We are dealing here still with new or unusual architectural forms. a shared appropriation is possible because the synecdoche and the ellipsis used here correspond to one and the same kind of frequentation of the park and to a seizure of the space that is carried out in the same mode. but which is “very well known” and “where one sees so well. 84 . ones that the authors have sometimes nicknamed by themselves but that do not correspond to any coding recognized or practiced by the inhabitants before they began to reside in the neighborhood.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N park and which mound or is spurring the complicity of those who understand immediately that she is talking about “the big mound in the park with the stairs”—which is no higher than the others. Unnameables The case of unnameable places shows very well that an appropriation and a qualification of space would be impossible without appellations.

They have quickly integrated the representations of the neighborhood design plan and sometimes have reduplicated the official appellations. and very often collective. the gallery itself is not a street. Thus. the periphrases used reemploy what can be designated by use or proximity: “at the bottom of the elevator. these doors open either directly onto the gallery or onto a half-enclosed space that is quite handy in protecting against the wind but looks quite expletive. such “slips” are a matter of indifference. Spaces with nominal definitions hardly occasion anything but differences in one’s representations of them. Indeed.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N The inhabitants make attempts to use these words. for example. and when. waiting).” confuse things in a way that the first group would find “glaring”: one inhabitant. Whatever the case may be. one female inhabitant likes to name the Arlequin “New Town” each time an innovative feature is described.” “by 85 . One very often hears “gallery” for “passageway.” “passageway” for “gallery. passageway) or proper names (gallery.” “pool” for “lake”—so many places whose names put one off track. as the inhabitants note. And from this point of view. yet not a corridor either. mistook the “Community Center” for the “Arts Center” (situated in the Malherbe neighborhood).” “galleries” for “the gallery. All the inhabitants questioned misuse the “official” appellations at least once. less knowledgeable about the Arlequin “project. ramp) whose suitability to the site seems arbitrary or seems to designate a space too large to fit the mood of a well-defined appropriation. on the one hand. like filler? In order to describe this spatial form that is of importance in one’s walks (a place for extended. These confusions are of practically no importance. the names for the walkways and crossing areas retain an uncertain character. wherein they are often likened to nonplaces [non lieux]—allow of only one kind of social differentiation: that between those who know how to employ these terms perfectly well and those who make mistakes or who are unfamiliar with them. we are dealing here either with common names (cove. Others. In short. Some of them succeed in doing so from the start. Other places are genuinely unnameable because they lack any imaginable name. as they are more or less alien to usage and lived practice. these place-names—still fairly alien to one’s everyday practices. What is one to call the parts of the gallery adjoining the elevator entrance doors when. on the other hand.

For others. ill defined from the start. these unnameable and unappropriable places are given over to accidental and erratic uses—for the children who play there a moment or two. are the entrances?). Others. moreover. connotations differ from one appellation to 86 . Figure 10 shows a few examples of collective neologisms.” On the other hand. for some adults who periodically make them into the corridor of an apartment whose rooms would be each open lodging. then. in an emergency exit area!” This difficulty in naming unusual places does not last forever.” “corridors” as opposed to the passageway. The power to name is power over space and at the same timea distinct force within a sociospatial whole.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N the mailboxes.” “garbage disposal areas. a distinction is created through which a differentiated social relation is organized. Certain spots. the site for televised meetings most often being the “six-hundred-seat room. either these appellations impose a name where there was none before or they substitute themselves for the “official” name. of which the inhabitants are unaware. “entryways” (but where. As for what they denote. like the passageways and their nooks. Between the groups that first name places by appropriating them—thereby recognizing one other and being recognized by the quality of the names they have affixed thereupon—and the rest of the inhabitants. remain an undefined area open to anything. they are “bicycle garages. “Agora” is employed only on maps of the neighborhood and in the notices of the “Video-Gazette”6—with a meaning.” And what is one to call those “passageway” nooks that sometimes end in a window and sometimes lead to two or three apartment doors? One tried to pass them off as “social squares” but only those really in the know were able to connect the name to the place beyond the incongruity of the relation. Clearly. Collective Neologisms Through the use of a created name. that is different. become characterized one day by a memorable appropriation. the process of appropriation appears to us to be an effort to identify spatial forms. and for “people who put beds in the corridors.

the junior high school entrance lies outside and overflows too far onto the gallery. at the time of the market’s creation.” the most outlying part is hardly visitable at all but. rather. from the collective point 87 .” Because of this. Rarer are the inhabitants who speak of this place as they approach it “without any problem. The appellation “junior high school entrance” does not display the same lack of differentiation. in the narratives of all inhabitants. “the inside. the term Market Place nevertheless was established spontaneously and appears. this “junior high school entrance” corresponds more to an entrance than to an exit. Although it refers to a country-village-like feature that contradicts the urban setting of this neighborhood. “with all those kids. the part on the near side of the glass panels. thus inducing figures of paratopism. irrespective of social group. imaginable. age. For those whom it disturbs. The reemployment of an ever-so-common term has therefore marked the site according to its temporary function and with an indistinct appropriation performed on the scale of the entire neighborhood. Different uses of one and the same term therefore connote. Quite to the contrary. those hooligans hanging around.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N Official name (nonexistent) (nonexistent) Nature of the site installation for the morning market in Arlequin main approach to the junior high school and the Community Center on the gallery side fragment of the park paved in bricks and half-enclosed by a low wall Common appellation Market Place junior high school entrance Red Square Agora Figure 10 another.” For the regulars at the junior high school or in the activity areas. or sex. That is to say. the denotation may vary beneath one and the same designation. the hall that penetrates deep into the buildings. it generally occurs in the course of people’s trip narratives at the point where an obstacle is being mentioned. The part of the gallery of concern here is only a terminal point of the “entrance” within. as by general consensus.

” “the little square [ . .”) or from an effect of ironic distancing expressed by inhabitants who are quite up to speed about the “park story” and who. “accompanied” by a political group.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N of view. Everyone can go there. and who says. ] that is named the Red Square. . or greater participants. maybe. which recalls a stormy meeting. . . “It’s open. because of the concrete. Greater actors. Starting from nameless places or places of unknown name. I don’t know. “Yes . . in one of those syncretisms of which parallel languages hold the secret. that took place on this small square between some inhabitants. but “I . huh?” She enters the junior high school easily and even makes use of it from one end to the other as a crossing area. which other inhabitants speak only with care. twice do the interviews reveal the use of the term in a metalinguistic comment clause: “what is called the Red Square. I don’t think that just any woman would get the idea in her head to do it . The color of the material became associated with the color of the event upon the background of a well-known word-form (Moscow). express astonishment that the appellation has become so matter of course. Less polysemous. the apposition of a term allows a noteworthy appropriation of these places at the same time that it permits the manifestation of an identification process for the social group that first played with language’s relation to the space in question. but has not made the connection. and the landscaper. . Maybe it’s dangerous for the kids. to them none of the important events in the life of the neighborhood is alien. We have the right. While certain collective neologisms spread to a whole 88 . marking by this common word a shared sense of belonging. in a knowing tone. Thus.” Some inhabitants of the neighborhood employ the term as a matter of course.” she had said right beforehand. is the appellation “Red Square. about work being done in the park. This is also the case with languages of initiates. . They know the history of the appellation. either a differentiation via rejection or an identification with groups that are able to “enter the junior high school. .” as it is seen later on.” As one inhabitant says.” The evocation of equivalencies and the discrepancy between speech proper and the appellations cited stem either from hesitations (like the one of the female inhabitant who knows the “park affair. and used in a more restricted manner. .

etc. We have seen. have a strong connotation of belonging to this or that group or social subgroup. One can detect in groups of children the appearance and rapid disappearance of neologisms that exist for the time of one game. straight off. However. the more hermetic is its language. When one inhabitant says he has taken a walk over “this sort of place in which there are bricks” and when others.” it is a matter of the same site. under one and the same qualification.). he no longer tells what quality the cement tube had for the group (house? airplane? ship?. it is not the same place. It is often difficult to understand the meaning of the neologisms used by groups of inhabitants.” Such mischievous concealment prevents knowledge of the concrete qualifiers lived within the game. “stuff . In naming everyday places in such and such a way. He decodes it by saying. the more closed and typical the group is.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N neighborhood and become elements for identification. This appropriation set aside by private appellations equally operates among adults.” It is a matter more concretely of a self-definition through which the aggregate distinguishes itself by recognizing itself in a sociospatial practice of its own. to all those who employ it and who thus recognize themselves in this identical usage. more restrictive in character or even jealously guarded by those who employ them. others. First Sketch of the Status of Appropriation on the Basis of Namings The naming process yields an initial. from the standpoint of the lived activity. . depending on whether this or that group fashions it in its own manner. through prior examples. thingamajigs to have fun in. It has. a particular qualification. Such a naming makes the site known. Indeed. approximative idea of the nature of appropriation. call a meeting “on Red Square. . how important can be an act of naming that informs a site. either activity organizers or “active” inhabitants. which is no more one person’s property than that of the others. the inhabitants are concretely expressing the fact that they belong 89 . The definition of these social subgroups or aggregates is not given only in terms of “socioprofessional categories. When the child recounts the game to an adult (and to the sociologist who questions him).

that. One and the same space can be designated by different codes: simple codes of naming for the moment. in accordance with a specific time. no place has been observed. reproduced space and more and more on the re-created space. Such is the case with all gang hideouts. rather. While certain places are strongly marked by the coding of a few subgroups and lead others to avoid them. or. as remaining exclusive property on a permanent basis. The junior high school entrance. but ones about which we have already had a hint that they signify ways of being. appropriation basically is a matter of time.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N to some groups or collective aggregates. but in a privileged way. The school courtyards that are impassible at recess time become a perfectly calm crossing area at other moments of the day. moreover. Naming is the most obvious information the inhabitants set in opposition to the space as it is built. it is the social quality of every apprehension of space that hangs over the selection of this or that appellation. 90 . It is the regulatory system of namings that indicates what type of social relation to space is at issue. on such and such a relationship between a form of sociability and space. appropriation by a group may coincide with a veritable social ownership of a coded site. in going from the sites most commonly frequented by all sorts of groups that tend to be indistinguishable to sites specified by a private. Appropriation does not bear. or has been described to us by any of the inhabitants questioned. beyond the sociospatial relation involved. What is more. A First Rule of the Code of Appropriation would thus state: The collective nature of the frequentation of a space is inseparable from the process of naming that characterizes that space. Nonetheless. even secret. It is in time that a group manifests or does not manifest its existence and that it occupies a determinate public space at the same time as everyone else. on the contrary. first of all. appropriation bears less and less on the given. one can nevertheless grasp that. over the entire public space of the neighborhood. name that marks the exclusive relation of certain subgroups to these places. at a specific moment. Certain times. on space but. which is avoided by certain inhabitants. It may be noted. is not always “occupied” by the young.

These territories. often seen.” “the children. One could therefore draw up a synchronic map of the sociospatial allotments inscribed upon the neighborhood and thus see territories appear. from the pure representation he makes of the spatial relations practiced by others. the inhabitants mention spaces that. the delimitation 91 . The permanency of the occupation then felt by the inhabitant does not stem from his practical experience of the space but. rather. For the inhabitant who speaks of or suggests recognition of such a “territoriality. The extension of the “occupant” category to other interveners than “people” allows one to suppose how imprecise is the definition of “occupation.” “those who know how to talk. do not change their social quality. are occupied by groups of inhabitants.” and “the Video-Gazette. nor would one be able to predict the likelihood of permanent occupation by this or that group over such and such a privately set-aside space. for them.” his relation to the space is always a negative one. Most often cited are “the young.” “the North Africans” (and. Also mentioned are “those from the activity areas. And yet. And. These would be sites that are always well bounded. not traveled through. As we know. If the limits seem to him so precise. that is because he delineates them through his acts of avoidance. in addition.” Still other ways of occupying sites are manifested: “by the dogs” that have covered certain grassy areas with their messes and “by the cars” that must be walked around when they are parked. one would not know from it in what way these territories are constituted.” and vice versa).” In the act of sensing a counterappropriation. the “Tunisians” are distinguished from the “Algerians. territories are not.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N Territorial Appearance In their narratives. The site under consideration is doubly “ill lived”: sensed in a harmful way and. the figure of the metathesis of quality has helped to demonstrate this point. bicycles and mopeds always appear as menacing features in the walking narratives. which are apparently so enclosed. beyond the fact that the map would constantly be changing. permanently occupied in the same manner. within this pseudogroup. practically speaking. although they occupy space only in an episodic sort of way.

by one or two determinants. “the group” extends to all other people beside oneself. People watch us from the bistro. or that all the other inhabitants would be represented as mineralized. Or maybe it is the shape of their faces that bothers me? Generally speaking. And as the school is next to the market. At its outer reaches. . the aggregate known as “Video-Gazette. part of an overall landscape one only grazes against: [At number 50. there are people who hang around all day in the passageways.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N and supposition of territorial permanency matter much more than the precise identification of the occupying agency [l’instance occupante]. I even find that there are never many children at number 130. It brings in . let us cite the following expressions: In the market. Their expressions are indifferent. . Here is a particularly evocative example in which a site’s state of being-rejected reduces recognition of hostile collective forces to some simple topical assignments: 92 . This is quite clearly apparent in several of the interviews: it is that one can inhabit one’s lodgings. unless. Such is the case with the group called “North African.” to which a particular power is attributed. Groups that are apparently well encompassed by an appellation meant to define them do not necessarily correspond to any reality. Some of them piss in the passageway. that is. there are always young people. or that the whole neighborhood finds itself incorporated into a sort of phantasm of the threatening collective.” Heading in this direction. there are too many children coming out of school. The Community Center. it brings in lots of things. I go on the road. I didn’t go into the Community Center. No.” which appears as such only for those who do not belong to it. . because . the group is first of all “the others” who are distinguished and identified only through vague names. You see. When I can. it seems to me that you especially see young people in there.] there are some people concentrated around there and garbage cans lying around. rather hostile.7 or “children” and “young people. . “despite” the whole New Town. they all come to steal something. I keep clear. . They play in the gallery or in the park.

people don’t find it very easy to go in there. by the fact of being at the Community Center and by the privilege of their power of speech. . to one category of inhabitants. For that inhabitant. The inhabitant deemed to be a regular at the site and belonging to the group of the “others” will not necessarily have the same opinion. a lady talked so well during the meeting that no one said anything afterward. that’s all! The others feel themselves housed. nor will he carry out the expected conduct. for which we grant our respect. Nothing is more vague than this community of rejects that does not recognize itself in itself but is to be inferred simply along a Manichaean dividing line. So. one has only been taught to listen. It suffices to compare such a way of apprehending this site called Community Center to the way a regular does so in order for us to understand how much the closure of territorial limits and the permanency of such and such a social quality are manifestly obvious only for the person who feels excluded.” One’s way of being in space passes on one’s wholly negative way of being with the other. A general judgment that arises soon after the first quotation confirms this point: The New Town belongs to a category . I cast a glance at the half-opened door to the sixhundred-seat room to see if there is another meeting. The failure of appropriation is attributed in the end to a prohibitive counterappropriation in the face of which the inhabitant identifies herself with a still imprecise “one” whose identity is but that of being situated outside the occupied site. we see the partial phenomenon erected into a symbol of everything. The lack of a precise definition of the “others” considered as a group makes possible the unlimited extension of the power of appropriation that is ascribed to them. this not easily accessible site would be the property of a group that is doubly determined—namely. that’s all! Once again. 93 . He will say: Sometimes. Beyond the character of destinal facticity well underscored in the expression. the state of passive fixedness is confirmed by the phrase that follows: “it’s always the same. He can be excluded at a certain moment or not feel himself to be a member of one and the same occupying group. The other day. One hasn’t been taught to speak. it’s always the same.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N For all the good there is that the Community Center is located in the middle of the gallery. when passing by. .

It holds but one interest for us: it brings to light the tensions centered on impossibleto-achieve or difficult appropriations.” in some sort of way. Even without any specific purpose. we are talking about two redundant 94 . or “extradited. the process of rigidification of a territory corresponds to one’s inability to identify the lived way in which a group occupies this space. . . I really like to pass by there . Certain figures may be placed under the heading of a tendency to maintain one’s appropriation. It stands in for a definition of the occupying unit. It is not to be assessed in terms of a locating of immutable and closed territories or of a listing of “properties” but. on the basis of the nature of the movement through which the inhabitant walks with ease or uneasiness. as the field that has allowed and does allow the appropriable. rather. A positive appropriation will come to light if the space is seized not as appropriated pieces of a puzzle but. But an inhabitant’s domain of appropriation does not have the nature of a no-man’s-land:8 a hollowed-out constitution delineated by positings of “filled-in” sites. Here. rather. walking figures already gave us a glimpse of some interesting indices. Confronted with the modalities of occupants’ lived experience of a site. On the elementary level as much as on the level of organization. to try to better integrate myself. feeling “at home.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N Or: I pass by the Community Center because there is always something to see.” in the mode of collective complicit arrangements or in the mode of feeling alien. which point to the minimum constituent element of the code of appropriation: Second Rule of the Code of Appropriation: The characterization of the inhabited space in terms of fixed territoriality is but the apparent effect of the assignment to a site of the group one has difficulty defining. definition of a permanent territory seems quite fictive. Territorial Fluidities Is territoriality a fiction? Do there exist only counterappropriations? No doubt.

through a series of imperceptible gradations—even when it is embodied only in those slippers one is permitted to wear under the gallery. where one is domiciled can be reduced to an area smaller than one’s own lodging. the mother who is preparing the meal. you always find yourself outside. You don’t have to take an umbrella and you can go down in your slippers. You even see women in dressing gowns. Another breakdown in these territories (which we had thought of as frozen in place but which start to dissolve and become metamorphosed in climatic and chronometric time) is to be found once again in the figure 95 . you’re near everything. In order to do one’s shopping. digression. . given therein in order to stand for the totality. territories neither finish nor begin in the same spot. which lays siege. the only place where one feels at home. Then. a grandmother from the neighborhood says. which create some paths in order to avoid other ones. where the “public sphere” still seems to tolerate the “domestic” one.10 The feeling of being “at home” glides from one place to another and can extend quite far. the former undergoes expansion or contraction—movements designated diastole and systole in the analysis of the figure of dissymmetry. which forgets. Appropriation is a dynamic process. It really was one’s encounter with alien appropriations or counterappropriations that provoked peritopisms and paratopisms. synecdoche allows one to see quite well what kind of economy organizes appropriation and how the lived parts are. with the television on top of that . even on the interior staircases. The sole refuge. As such. it shakes up spatial permanencies.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N processes (metabole and hyperbole)9 and symmetry. Finally. indeed. Other figures signal one’s search for appropriation. Conversely. to an excessive degree. Included here are anaphora. Thus does one see one’s being domiciled dissociated from the notion of lodging. . Depending on the directions of one’s walks. even in one’s living room. with this gallery. and simple paratopisms. where there are the little ones. becomes one’s bedroom. the brother who does karate. the father who yells. a twelve-year-old sister who is jealous of the other sister.

let us add some other. on Wednesday and Saturday afternoons. I think that the smell of spices comes from number 50. or will be. one sees the territories change when night falls. how to describe it? It smells like the kind of cooking I don’t do. one passes. quite eloquent ones: the extended occupation of the center of the gallery during the summer months by inhabitants from the south (especially North Africans). Following a group of adolescents with nothing to do. By day. mezzanine at number 50). to a diffuse and mobile territoriality. . movement and a project of differentiation. and their uproar. toward all the upper and surrounding apartments. At night. makes itself heard only intermittently above the clamor of daytime comings and goings. the heightened presence of an alien group whose members are nevertheless spread out spatially. the takeover of this same site. whereas another inhabitant feels at ease only in a tiny territory leading up to her apartment and yet prepares a tenacious 96 . These odors exhale. nimble children (on roller skates and miscellaneous vehicles).12 by groups of noisy. if any. It’s a specific odor . . With this last example. From territories for hanging out that are clearly bounded during the day (junior high school entrance.11 To the examples already cited in this regard. Even the notion of a state of ease or of uneasiness merely transcribes momentarily and individually what has been. When one inhabitant walks everywhere with ease and yet does not feel at all at home in the neighborhood and flees as soon as he can. The same thing applies for unaccustomed cooking odors (grilled lamb and fish) that may waft from some unassuming balcony.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N of the metathesis of quality. which upsets one’s spatial prejudices. small youth gangs are seen. we have still another dimension of appropriation. most of the inhabitants sense the irruptive presence of these gangs only through their hearing. two-wheel-vehicle repair shop. . at night. though it is summer. These territorial fluidities reveal already a first feature of the dialectical nature of appropriation processes. Anything that one would look for in terms of spatial division and permanent states would mislead us. . It smells like . The territory suddenly becomes diffuse and takes on an extension incommensurable with any spatial judgment that could strictly be connected with their visual faculty.

through this movement. if not with almost assignable limits. On the other hand. for one’s walks give them a specificity that depends on intention and orientation. a year later. via individual everyday actions (we have chosen walks under this heading). we know to have been successful). The second will not necessarily succeed in appropriating for herself the entire space. but she will live her appropriation in relation to all other appropriations. without anything more. The first person will always be an individual skirting the social as well as the spatial. as their condition of possibility. and finally that. do not coincide.13 It is through change that territories appear and disappear and that two territories. which should be merged in space. thanks to the identification of a space endowed with qualitative unity. now or in the future. On the one hand.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N project of conquering the rest of the neighborhood (a project which. the surpassing of purely spatial determinants that express social relations only in the form of simple “states of affairs. she will designate the group to which she belongs. Two phenomena that are temporal in nature shatter the bounds of territories seized in their spatial permanencies. we can retain two paradoxical remarks about territory. It is via anticipation that appropriation overflows the territory’s spatial forms.” Such movements imply a dynamic that is apprehended in time. They render the strictly spatial determinant of the code of appropriation unsuitable as an explanation of this code. the difference in the quality of the appropriation is beyond doubt. Third Rule of the Code of Appropriation: Movements of appropriation assume. it bears on time and on the possible. that it makes itself heard or felt before it is seen. beyond space. every collective movement of appropriation stands out thanks to territoriality—therefore. 97 . how qualitative differences are constituted. nothing can be understood about collective appropriation if one does not seek to know. Differentiating Appropriations From the foregoing.

the quality of the competing appropriation. avoidance is easy to prearrange mutually. or a site for one’s eyes. Thus. in dispersion. 98 . In following the walks taken in everyday life. the state of reciprocity in which all possible appropriations are situated displays no homogeneity. one never notices this territorial “system. a site for daydreaming. It’s being able to watch over the children from the mounds. the state of a collective housing complex is therefore to be described as an organization of appropriations that are interconnected and opposed to one another through their specificity. yielding for us a “state” of this system that is never lived. What about the notion of territory. walks in the park encounter only weak counterappropriations. unpleasant encounters with oppositions and exclusions. It’s the pleasure of going outside. On the other hand. and the search for sites that are favorable or deemed appropriable. and one can believe oneself to be alone there. on the grass. Individuals or small groups always see one another from a distance. The park.14 Whence such expressions as the following concerning the park: It’s looking at people from behind. the writing of one’s walks expresses quite well indifferent skirting. Over a spatial whole given as a unit of habitats. summons everyone in an undifferentiated way. because from here you have the best view.” The representation of the whole reconstructs it. movements of appropriation enter into dialectical relation. From this point of view and depending on the time. the counterappropriation that arises through the walk modulates. rather. And every differentiation posits the specificity of an appropriation in which the inhabitants who are operators of difference are identified. then? It becomes the field of assignment (from the synchronic point of view) around which move (diachronically speaking) the figures of a walking rhetoric that is productive of territorial appearances. Diachronically speaking. Certain sites are appropriated neither in unity nor in opposition but.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N Synchronically speaking. in proportion to its strength. where you can even get a suntan without knowing you’re being watched. Every identification of another appropriation produces a differentiation.

99 . one finds neither clear oppositions nor genuine collusions but. a loose and temporary consensus. the force of opposing appropriation is heightened. in this case. the latter only occasionally expressing the former. There is always. and already “the whole gallery has been invaded. if there were more trees. Young people feel at home there. we have: I didn’t go into the Community Center. Other particularizations of space practiced by those who feel excluded come in response to particularizations of space encountered as obstacles. On the side of the counterappropriation as felt. In this way. People of a certain age don’t go in there. rather. The gallery becomes qualified when. The marketplace becomes socially qualified when a part of it is occupied by a group of activists or when gangs of children invade the area behind the counters. the process of differentiation borders on metastable individualization. the strongest appropriations manifest themselves through the fundamental figure of synecdoche. As soon as the first students leave the junior high school at noon. in a corner. At the same time that sites are divided up. for passersby.” The worried inhabitant then passes to the outside of the covered street. . In such forms of macrocollective usage. Three “hooligans” “go up” the gallery at night. The more these counterappropriations are anticipated. the central section of the gallery is already. Let us follow an example of this complex process that applies to one and the same site. in their expression and in their perception by “the others.” “the stores. a particularization of space rather than a partitioning of space. which in language is expressed through a generalization. The site momentarily takes on a fictive unity that is expressed well by the names then employed: “the park. because . . one hears or catches sight of an aggregate of inhabitants who walk or visit in the same mode. fully occupied. it seemed to me that a lot of young people were seen there. The elementary forms of avoidance observed in the figures expounded in the preceding chapter thus fashion spaces of rejoinder and reaction.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N It’s a spot that could be even more intimate.” the more partial appropriation tends to give itself out as total appropriation.” In contrast.

go home!” Everyone really knows one another. it’s instead there that you go. but also a series of generalizations: the “young. It clearly follows that. as well as that of the various sites attributed to the appropriation of one and the same group. so one always has a tendency to stay in the Community Center. Of all the quotations reported. When there’s some kid. Thus. in the main. tends to cancel 100 . appropriation is situated in the oppositions and not in the system of mutual recognitions that is always approximative and situated off center. the series of counterappropriations encountered in the course of one’s walks tends to become simplified and to be schematized for economy’s sake. Various territorial occupations of different natures are grouped around a common quality. We have some symmetrical synecdoches. there is this: To the Community Center. there was no one there any longer! So. they kicked us out of the Community Center. of all the expressions coming from inhabitants concerning the processes of counterappropriation.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N And on the side of the supposed appropriation (by “the young people”). “they” or “one” on the other. They put them out in the morning. The confrontation of various appropriations assigned to one and the same site.” on the one hand. In the Community Center. they have children: it’s the same thing. . we get together. to see what’s happening. and for the whole day! The rhetoric of one’s walks therefore seems to proceed with as much excess in its signifiers as in its signifieds. doing what? Talking bullshit. Let us note that the site of specific concern is the entrance to the Community Center. a well-circumscribed site. and yet one confused with the whole establishment both by the “young people” and by those who feel “excluded” therefrom. . dogs and children are assigned to one and the same process of appropriation that arises from counterappropriations by the adults who kick them out of the house: People have animals. Ultimately. . at 5:30. A little later (for the same social aggregate): OK. and hang out. he’s told: “You are not from here. us young people. none proved correct in an “objective” examination of reality in general.

Through the decisive weight of its dynamic feature. the play of such competition has manifested itself in three basic modes. the fourth rule of the code of appropriation marks the limit point of the study of pedestrian signifiers in terms of combinatory structure. The arrangement of signifiers—what walking figures express—into a stable organizational structure generally applicable to a territorial whole thenceforth becomes more and more improbable. moderate rhetorical effects. find abstract middle terms between these expressions that singularly heighten the force of their competition. Up to the present time. or one trusts the inhabitants’ narratives and then becomes witness to the manifestation of extreme expressions of what arises in the everyday existence of social aggregates. It calls for a choice between the analysis of a system of relations of force and the study of expressive force. The quality of the appropriation is to be assessed in terms of the force of competing counterappropriations. for the benefit of a system of appropriation that is. When a group declares itself to be excluded. always incomplete and always to be modified again. quite the contrary. Yet. Fourth Rule of the Code of Appropriation: The movement of appropriation takes on specificity and is apprehended under the modality of a force of variable degree. it is not necessarily the one that the occupying group rejects. An inventory of the state of appropriations that would end up representing everyday life as a system of relations of force would constantly have to temper the excesses of signification.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N out differences. and allow the appearance of only one predominant signifier. movements of appropriation are expressed only through a propensity to diminish differentiations or. one begins to suspect now that these modes are dialectical relations: 101 . With the appearance of the dynamic factor. In this sense. while establishing the limits and at the same time setting the facts straight. finally reduce the contradictory particularizations that go into a given space. to heighten [amplifier] them. moreover. one would be rendering the force that moves appropriation insignificant and makes the study of its nature incidental. Either the observer spots the relation between appropriated sites and the groups who appropriate and will then. give an account of the instantaneous system he has identified.

if not some permanency. such and such a social aggregate can infer the existence of other aggregates. at least a persistency in the qualification of spatial relations.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N • a dialectic in which appropriations and counterappropriations oppose one another and that produces identifications and differentiations in a connected way. and also prolonged absences. it transforms space through change and anticipation. This is the resolutely disruptive function of everyday events and the fundamental role of spatial deconstruction. as a matter of fact. One thus finds. specifies them. through these 102 . • a third dialectical form in which one sees oppositions between walking practices of appropriation and verbal generalizations (coming under the heading of representation and of the reproduction of systematic classifications). The Differentiating Event Although appropriation and counterappropriation would be liable to appearances and disappearances. and. Subgroups must really have a tendency to be insistent in their way of manifesting themselves. It will become possible to affirm that it really is a matter of a dialectic only once our examination of the nature of the forces of appropriation and counterappropriation has been completed. one discovers. appropriations are also qualified by a marking to which they refer and which. regular reappearances at different moments. and vice versa. which thereby allows recognition of them and a presentiment of them in their minimal identity. moreover. Inhabitant activity displays still other properties that allow us to advance in our understanding of this force. such properties cannot be integrated into a systems model that tends toward closure. Nonetheless. Thanks to this. we are still unfamiliar with the overall movement that brings about these antagonisms. • a dialectic between space and the first dialectic as concerns the movements of appropriation. Already qualified by their assignments of a group to a space.

self-service restaurant).A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N narratives of one’s walks. Everyone was in disguise. Now here. the carnival and the fights. you get used to it. like the “park affair” (Red Square). One question posed to the inhabitants was aimed at knowing what they had felt to be events in the neighborhood since their arrival. the children’s carnival. Ways of inhabiting space change smoothly through the fashioning of a common usage deemed suitable to all. . two classes of events appear: on the one hand. . 103 . which was judged to be pleasant by all. but also the openings of various sectors of activity or consumption (library. [ . The creation of the market was an event that lasted five or six months. And yet their strains or their din have a lastingly resounding effect upon the way one conducts oneself at such and such a moment. .” one female inhabitant recounts. There are many people who know each other. ] I knew that the market was going to happen. the diffuse force of its impact and its nature. in this or that place. I really like brass bands. fights or violent conflicts whose nature is well encapsulated in the expression of one female inhabitant: “It’s not every day that there are things like that. that was neat. really good. The first few days.” The varieties of events are to be distinguished first of all by the duration of the event. authorize a collective appropriation on the scale of the entire neighborhood. a concomitance between the manifest force of an appropriation and the memory of an event. collective celebrations (Bastille Day. more or less foreseeable changes in the collective space. there were some musicians. on the other hand. though of inverse moral value. the best example of which is the creation of the market. unforeseeable accidents that happened to individuals or groups. stairwell or floor meetings). or opposite one or another subgroup. . Afterward. though I didn’t know about the carnival. . And then a big dragon. By way of contrast. and I find that it’s good. Did you see them? I sensed something intimate. Appropriations persist all the more when the irruptive force of the event has created a greater impression. are both of short duration. “The market opened Saturday. A child thus exclaims: There was the carnival! There was the Archi brass band.

Certain events first alter space set aside for public use. I got goose bumps because of it. . Morphogeneses differ in their effect. it was a disaster. and to persist longer. I was up above. “Eventfulness” is an operator of difference that shakes up spatial appearances because it contrasts the wholly singular marking of a time of its own with the duration of the everyday. look for anything that shatters 104 . inconceivable.15 Between events that include an expected change and irruptive events. to gloss over the effect of a break. Everything was broken! I was listening. you can no longer go to this bar. Taking on a form of appropriation that affects the neighborhood as a whole. one recognizes the group. Yet. Some groups of inhabitants attempt to attenuate the irruptive features of the event. The recognition of the identity of the subgroup authoring the event or the difference tends to be heightened. the passing by of “gangs. Having arisen in some corner of the neighborhood. One night there was a fight. as one sees when relating the tracings of one’s walks to the narrative of events. There’s practically nothing but Algerians. Even more than that. each time one’s path approaches the site.” altercations as well as neighborhood celebrations) do not resound in the same way in all cases and do not enter with equal importance into the lived experience of one’s habitat. huh? . two or three events will seem inordinate. . The style of their narrative abounds in incidental clauses of the following type: “that happens so often” or “it hardly surprises people anymore. events of a similar nature (moped treks.” Alone. Appropriations and counterappropriations stand out in a much stronger and more differentiating way in the second case. The marking of the appropriation or of the counterappropriation proves in that case to be much stronger and more memorable. the synecdoches are reversed. by way of contrast. Other inhabitants. others first alter one’s way of being in the space. fights acted out and lived out by a small number of inhabitants tend to heighten the differentiations among groups and to mark in a lasting and memorable way one’s relation to this space or to that group. Now.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N One inhabitant living near the café says: For a while. the market in fact alters only a part of the space and the practice of a quite particular moment of everyday life.

A second consequence follows: only if we take into account the unforeseen eventualities brought about by nonchronometric time can we clarify the nature of the dialectical movement through which appropriations and counterappropriations articulate lived collective relations—in other words. they have similar ways of fashioning the event. ways of repeating the space in one’s memory habits. Depending on the strength of the impression and the nature of the interpretation of the event. Assuming that the code of appropriation could be classified as a system.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N the commonly held image of the living spaces in the neighborhood and anything that builds up a tension therein. within a spatial whole.16 105 . some groups of inhabitants differentiate themselves from other groups through an identification in their same treatment of what is memorable. Each time an event occurs. All sorts of events then become for them levers for difference. rather. a difference is brought into play (until the point of rupture) via the tension it generates among ways of homogenizing time. as retention of the other as other in the same. a system open to change. is differance. Fifth Rule of the Code of Appropriation: The forces of appropriations and counterappropriations vary in direct proportion to the impact and persistence of the marking performed by the eventful memory. via the synecdoche of fragments that are rendered exceptionally singular and that will never again be as they were before and. in what sense this movement. Whence a twofold consequence regarding the various ways of understanding the process of differentiation in everyday life. Eventfulness differentiates. it would not be a closed system in which the contiguities between identified elements would persist in terms of the permanency of the differences involved but. and even to disturbances of unforeseeable effect. and ways of shaking up spatial repetition and chronometry through the enhancement of irruptive moments. The third difference is the collective effect of the first two. through the hyperbole of the memory of one time. Eventfulness is creative of differentiation under several headings. never anything other than the suddenly marked site. for a long time.

It’s true that that encourages a lot of things. and rather through snatches than in an organized manner. which is imaginary in nature. This instantiated principle. the galleries. by prudence on their part or because of a lack of self-assurance in case some unfortunate and unforeseen thing might happen. they dread trips at night. I refuse a bit to see people. People recount a lot of things about the elevators. imaginary extensions borne by rumors unfailingly appear. and of synecdoche.17 one sees the elevator become loaded up with one signification after another. of anticipation. rather. A lot of things have been said: the gangs. it never is observed directly from the site [lieu] itself but. . one that is quite active in the appropriations recounted to us by the inhabitants. may be detected first of all in the rumor. and paralipsis. the figures it prefers are the metathesis of quality. hyperbole.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N Appropriation via Dislocation [Non-lieu] After the reversal of the hegemony of simultaneity and of purely spatial determinants that is performed through the manifestation of the force of time and of memory. it is the gallery as a whole that becomes a “fearful” place. I was haunted by this return trip. The “topos” in which it is willingly incorporated is the discourse that circulates among the inhabitants. . the people you wouldn’t want to associate with. to use the expression of one female inhabitant. Beyond synecdoche. staggered polysemy. Behind or at the end of these significations. Present in the processes of heightening. from its negation. the attacks. Nevertheless. At night. 106 . Other inhabitants alter or cancel their trips solely on the basis of what they have heard others recount. it’s like a labyrinth. Several inhabitants thus begin by saying that the rumors are not to be believed. It is always connoted by a certain dose of fascination. anaphora. Also. In the exemplary case of staggered polysemy. most often disturbing in nature. since I fear that they would scare me with their gossip. . that envelops this or that site. even when one wants to treat hearsay disdainfully. there subsists an ultimate instantiated principle.


One no longer knows, in the end, whether the series is ordered by the mood of the imaginary or terminates, as if accidentally, with imaginable evocations of things to come. However, the ease with which images drawn from bestiaries or science fiction are superimposed upon all the significations of restriction, tension, and worried collusions and encompass them leads one to think that these significations are quite often only the instrumental delegates for an unavowable imaginary expression. It is a matter less of a counterappropriation than of an appropriation in which social differences are easily confused and which, taking the detour into the imaginary, “derealizes” the merely spatial dimension of the site. That elevator cab suspended at the end of a cable and making its destiny-led hazardous voyage no longer encloses anything but the disturbing, the threatening, and the fatal. Thus:
People are monstrously scared of the doors; they believe it’s a vise that is going to crush them. You’re trapped like wild animals there; you know: Bam!

Everyday observation shows that, inside the elevator, verbal exchanges and dramatic evocations are set into gear on the basis of noises. Some of the elevators do indeed emit metallic scraping sounds worthy of a Scottish castle: “an infernal noise heralds its arrival.” Jokes about exorcism or exclamations verging on panic inaugurate the process of communication and explicit collective appropriation in which memory of rumors is mixed with metallic rumblings. All the passengers sink into the same sense of imminent catastrophe. But the most dramatic images arise with the halt of the noise, at the point where one no longer knows whether one is moving or if one is stuck: “you no longer hear anything; for me, it’s the start-up of the gas chamber.” The site is then completely cut off from the environment and anything becomes possible, provided that it would be the worst. Thus, certain spaces that are lived in a mode impregnated with the imaginary tend to lose their nature as a “site” inserted into a laid-out and developed spatiogeometric context. The process stems from the effect of an excessive division owing to synecdoche and from the effect of a derealization of the representations and recollections of visible space. What is heard, whether collective rumor or disturbing noise, covers over and deconstructs the visual realm, which ordinarily is predominant.


One no longer sees the elevator, or the café, or the mezzanine where the development plan has situated them; imaginary instantiated principles metamorphose their reference to the situation. Such an appropriation via dislocation is always inserted into the complex web of pedestrian movement, which follows the rhythm of singular events. A sequential attempt to take one’s bearings by distinguishing spatiotemporal fragments one by one would never allow such an appropriation to be seen. In this sense, the abrupt silence of the elevator is particularly dramatic, for the preceding occurrence of the disturbing noise had already absorbed the entire lived experience of the atmosphere. The dislocation is often of what is heard, noises or words. And yet one already has a presentiment of other varieties of atopic configuration—in the sense that the geometrically constructed space collapses—in various walking figures. First of all, there is the metamorphosis of spatial determinants in hyperbole.18 The dreamlike appropriation of a “site” makes it lose its “real” spatial context and tends to give it out as the totality, presented under the heading of a preeminent quality. Thus, the “mound” does not correspond to a part of the park as the latter was laid out; it recovers and symbolizes the dreamlike quality belonging to the park. Through an imaginary evocation, the staircase inside the apartment derealizes one’s lodging and removes it from the context of the high-density housing complex: “With this staircase, you’d think you were going back into a small private home.” These types of appropriation are hardly based on oppositions. Rather, they draw their strength within the confused cathexis of reproduced attitudes and image patterns: the solitary dreamer; one’s desire for a single-unit home. Eminently singular, such a dislocation, such a nonplace is never totally dissociated from the “commonplace” or from what is named the collective imaginary. In anaphora and paralipsis,19 figures that may be compared by the presence within each of fascination and that write en route a prudent besieging of a site or its delayed avoidance, dislocation corresponds to what could happen. The increased force of attraction imaginarily projected into a site that thereby becomes fascinating comes to reinforce one’s persistent imagining of possibilities, and one thereby finds one


has a hard time diverting one’s steps. Beyond de facto differentiation (being rejected), these figures signify delayed identification, as well. This is what one assumes about alien appropriation, about which one cannot make oneself indifferent. That is the nature of the fascination one encounters in one’s walks. Frequenting the bordering areas or lingering around there is equivalent to sketching out already the projected appropriation. Indeed, the imaginary component in the force that moves appropriation gives one last dimension to the signification of the processes of asyndeton and synecdoche. The division and the deformation of the laid-out and developed space are accompanied by a derealization of the relation between sites and the overall spatial context. The intention of this clearly and distinctly composed “reality,” which presupposes territorial homogeneity, is to situate every everyday practice within the context of the geographic whole. Such referencing is put in check by the phenomena of rupture, delay, anticipation, and impregnation by the imaginary. The dialectic of appropriations and counterappropriations refers to the lived spatiotemporal situation and not to spatiogeometric representation, which this dialectic returns to its originary abstractness. Sixth Rule of the Code of Appropriation:
The process of everyday appropriation of a built-up and developed space implies a derealization of this space. Collective ways of being in space do not necessarily privilege the visual order, but also that of the audible, of the tangible, and of the imaginable, all three of these instantiated principles being very active in this deconstruction.

Conclusion in the Form of a Bifurcation Obsolescence of the Notion of Appropriation and Splitting of the Signification of the Code of Appropriation
The code of appropriation is very much the result of a dialectical movement. This dynamism, whose nature had earlier called for further clarifications,20 is a force of negation, of subversion of what are taken to be self-evident territorial facts. The essence of collective life in an


urban setting is to be defined not only through the lived experience of oppositions of one social group to another, but also by a constant tension between constructed spatiality handed over for use and the rhetorical deconstruction of this space, which is done in favor of the expression of styles of inhabiting. Nothing is ever definitively settled or decided in such a play of oppositions. Reproduced by the dominant representations of functional use, territorial appearance resists; the inhabitants enunciate it in terms of having, of ownership, of spatial boundaries, of territorial solidity. This resistance is incorporated into all the effects of encoding that tend to have some permanency. The effects of decoding, or of counterappropriation, each time express, in their movement of negation, the reality of an ever renewed dynamic. In other words, one day or another, the apparent appropriation of territory is denied, but, in other respects, it is absorbed and preserved21 in order to be used in some new spatiotemporal configuration. Also, the code of appropriation concerns just as much the social organization as the disorganization of space. It can serve two readings. The term code therefore takes on two significations. On the one hand, the play of encodings and decodings gives itself out to be a system of explanation of collective life over a space that has become the stake in a conflictual affirmation of groups and social aggregates. Yet we are dealing here with a code of effects, of signs of differentiation and identification. For, on the other hand, there exists a rhetorical code, or metacode, which is for us the condition of possibility for the other one. The moments of its emergence form a discrete sequence that reduplicates the succession of codings and decodings carried out in appropriated sites. This repeated effort of destructuration—which is possible one day or another—of every coded and apparently appropriable space undoubtedly becomes apparent only through careful modal analysis. In conformity with this perspective and despite the systematic appearance of a statement of “rules,” the sequence of the six noteworthy forms of appropriation that have been presented has nothing of an enumeration of explanatory laws about it. If such were the case, the exposition would be but a feeble contribution to the problematic of social codes, which has, moreover, already been skillfully developed in the field of contemporary scientific knowledge. Its sole interest would then be to


propose an ever more critical analysis of the pseudoconcept of appropriation, which has already been used and abused so much. Indeed, we have seen how appropriation affirms itself only through its own negation. From the first to the sixth, each form of appropriation outstrips the preceding one through a repeated dialectical process. At the outset, the possibility of the gap is announced by the indication of the impact the name has on the site. It is then that territorial constants are fluidified, movement renders the apparent structure shaky, rhetorical force (through excess, immoderation) rattles systematic representation, and what is singularly memorable breaks up spatial permanencies—to the point where the site itself is derealized. The sixth rule offers the final explanation of what the preceding ones had only approached. Even more than that, it introduces a decisive rift into the reading of the code’s significations. We were expecting that these signifying pedestrian configurations (the figures of walking) would be pregnant with a body of well-connected signifieds and that this body would be surrounded by the— now quite dubious—name of code of appropriation. Here, signification is split in two: on the one hand, it denotes; on the other hand, it connotes. Denotation brings to light the organization of the appropriation of the space by aggregates of inhabitants in the form of an unstable structure that is always being called back into question. Connotation refers us back to something else; it indicates the structuration itself, the code-producing movement. Inhabitant rhetoric produces a strange division of Meaning. Two significations run alongside each other, one of which ends up expressing the social constitution of an inhabited space, the other of which is the return of meaning upon its own power to signify. Undoubtedly, the first signification will seem to be the sole one acceptable. Our taste for clarity and univocality will tell us again and again that every signifier has to be pregnant with a different and unique signified. The examination of the rhetoric of one’s walks would then be but the stylistic study of the contemporary situation of being “housed” in town. Nevertheless, the second signification points to the possibility of an inhabiting power. As tenuous as it might be, we want to spin the web of

which distinguishes a signifying body and a signified body. they persist in the code of appropriation (the event’s derealization of the spatial context. because. pedestrian irony marks its limits. Several phenomena of noteworthy importance bear witness to this. These phenomena also raise as many questions. Whence comes such an excessive power? 2.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N this power at the point where scientific knowledge. dislocation. Discontinuity and the overflowing of the partial onto the whole are the signifier and the signified at the same time. After having served the purpose of rhetorical analysis. does not rhetorical analysis. the memorable. would it not express at the same time its own powers? Behind its cautious and submissive appearances. and qualitative overdetermination of a site). this pedestrian irony scrambles signification and overflows the bounds of such an analysis. would see only anecdote. The entire signification of one’s walks is shot through with the processes of asyndeton and synecdoche. bring out the expressive movement at work in everyday life? Because it knows how to express more than one signified as well as to express itself. So. Ambulatory practice refers to the space as it is laid out and developed only by derealizing it. already being essential conditions for the configuration of everyday sites. This polysemy clouds and clutters up the representation of so112 . These processes affect as much its signified side as its signifying side.” “social reproduction”). Even more than that. ambulatory practice is also capable of avoiding the trap of making a clear distinction between signifier and signified as well as that of asserting their necessary correspondence. The Third Meaning of Rhetoric: An Inhabitant Expression Would inhabitant rhetoric not signify itself? Occupied with configuring the habitable. preoccupied as it is with the massive forms of causality (“production of space. it increases the confusion22 by purposely granting more than one signified to a signifier. 1. Let us recall them here.

a rhetorical effect. Where does this imaginary come from? Under what heading does it intervene. within the field of significations? 3. The topographical simultaneity of a map charting everyday trips will obviously tell us nothing about the lived experience of the walk. It inserts itself into polysemous figures.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N cial space. in any of their moments. from movement to pause. The evocation of time here has left us nothing to understand about temporality. from the acted to the suffered. Nothing has appeared of the pauses. an articulation from the absent to the present. Might it be that one’s general style of walking in indifferent fashion as well as a walking style that acts through difference and variation do not exclude. perhaps these two do not take great care only to characterize one walk as especially acted or another as especially suffered. rhetorical analysis will have listed only the noteworthy effects brought into play through the movement of everyday life. from accelerating to slowing down? Of time. in so impertinent a manner. If what is suffered and what is acted are never absolutely dissociated from each other in one’s ways of walking. As early as our examination of combinatory figures. Yet the coordinated stream of the organization of walking figures seems to sweep inhabitants into perpetual movement. It takes the forms of memory and eventful resonance when the code of appropriation is inflected in a decisive way. Walking in town again becomes a “given” that can be analyzed 113 . Nonchronometric time has intervened each time the qualification of sites is diverted from being a simple play of spatial relations. halts. and temporary or prolonged visits that either punctuate one’s walks or terminate them. or into the “time taken” to configure metabole. its action still seems subordinate and instrumental. lived time was taking on increasing importance. Everything that is displayed as rhythmic in the movement of one’s appropriations and walks has thereby also been reduced. The imaginary is probably not alien to this upheaval inflicted upon a too well constructed reality. which would like to have univocal codes. It is again only the antithesis of spatiality. Nonetheless. as early as the third form of the code of appropriation.23 as well as into the delaying process of anaphora.

writing and reading. either in the language belonging to the laid-out and developed space (whole and part. In each of them.A N I N H A B I TA N T R H E T O R I C : T H E C O D E O F A P P R O P R I AT I O N in itself. the third meaning of the activity of inhabiting (signifying oneself) merits some attention. The rhetoric of one’s walks has demonstrated the possibility of an inhabiting power. The issue of the status of expression must now be taken up. 4. so excessively that they will seem irrational. signifying and signified). emphasis. and sometimes. This expressionism outstrips the semantic suitability or equivalency required by prosaic signification. If. container and contained. beyond the signifier and the signified. How. it makes it possible for a plurality of meanings to flourish. Without that. the kind that always intends the proper meaning and the unique meaning (univocality). too much that is unsayable. this figure of silences and suspension points—asyndeton—maintains its vigil. too tied to the order of signification. walking figures connote more than they denote. it cannot truly attest to the existence of this power. space and time) or in the language about the practice of this space (acted and suffered. the movement of expression will always fall to pieces. What status is there for signification that will finally account for articulatory and rhythmic phenomena? Our study of styles has shown how the close connection between the expresser and the expressed becomes overloaded and how excesses in expression. including thereby too much that is implicit. through the whole of everyday rhetorical activity. can inhabitants express themselves and express their own power? 114 . nor can it comprehend its nature. And the act of walking seems to arise from the movement traced by steps taken without a body. the total in favor of the scattered. and hyperbole are added thereto. Yet. one must stray from a discourse that is too obstinate to distinguish terms two by two. Shattering the order of dualisms. ever ready to reject unity in favor of the plural. Often. because what is now in question is also the power of an inhabitant expression.

of which knowledge always speaks. As if it were some unknown town—which is here a metaphorical town. Phenomenology of Perception The study of inhabitant rhetoric succeeds all too well. we had noted a stylistic homology between the narratives recounted by the inhabitants and their spatial practices. of marks affixed upon the space? Or will one be able to tell how these steps had a body. Is inhabitant expression never but a play of effects. stigmata. the subtext of built-up appearances—here the coherent organization of pedestrian tracks1 that will satisfy our demand for knowledge has been brought to light. The steps had left traces. and in relation to which every scientific schematization is an abstract and derivative sign-language. Do not narrative style and ambulatory style emanate from a more encompassing style 115 . by retracing too well its structure. Is it not to be regretted that. as is geography in relation to the countryside in which we have learnt beforehand what a forest. how they signed simply a presence in space capable of a broader-based expressiveness that is also pregnant with other powers? Already.4 The Body of Inhabitant Expression To return to things themselves is to return to that world which precedes knowledge. a prairie. the act of structuration—the movement of configuration—has faded away and now escapes us? The geography of our travels dulls the taste for landscapes we nevertheless inhabit. or a river is. by classifying too well its figures. which permitted the excavation and exhumation of something expressed that is obscure and yet marked by everydayness. —Maurice Merleau-Ponty.

persuaded that such an object is ungraspable. Not easily identifiable. imprecise periphrases. how many redundancies are there in one’s walks. it is quite appropriately felt through an immediate sensory experience. The second conjures up too much the idea of some artificially-produced contrivance (“creating an ambiance. when weather and light are always changing. where the striking event that has marked it no longer has timely relevance? Why persist in besieging a site into which one cannot really penetrate? Is the obstinate repetition of certain trips just a constant treading over the same ground. We shall be less attached to words3 than to the reality they surround.” “atmosphere”? The first designation has a meteorological ring to it. The third wavers between the meaning given to it in gaseous physics. climate is not separated from its preperceptual characters. Climatic Pregnancy What is one to name this set of impressions that surround the lived instant? “Climate. Indeed.” “mood music” [musique d’ambiance]). We shall “reawaken” this experience of the world by rereading the inhabitants’ narratives in another manner.T H E B O D Y O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N of being that engages and commits the whole of our experience of the everyday world? And is not this experience rooted in a lived immediacy.2 before the mediation of relations of signification. suspension points: in language. unclassifiable.4 How does one avoid for long a site that is nevertheless deserted. The pregnancy of their everyday atmospheres and the immediacies of their sensorimotor activity will be our Ariadne’s thread. Yet how many avoidances. Abortive expressions.” “ambiance. Arletty’s memorable intonations in Hôtel du Nord. be they ever so slightly? Like 116 . of which we have related only its winding trajectories? The question of the body of expression invites one to rediscover the experience of the body before knowledge. and the indulgent smile of knowing arrogance. psychologically too complex. how many stops and stays are explained by the pregnancy of a site’s atmosphere. each one in its own way. and sociologically too trifling. the climate of this or that moment of everyday life always takes on a capital importance for the inhabitants we have questioned.


collective presences, built forms are never given in strict permanency and rigorous identity. Altered, transformed, present although (“really”) absent, they become what reasonable acquaintance would call “unreal.” They are incorporated, in fact, into the climatic, the “pathic,” into a certain atmosphere that envelops the ways one inhabits, the force of which, sometimes being very restrictive, always helps to qualify the actions of everyday life. In the sense that climate overdetermines, it could be called something “surreal.” By virtue of their nature, everyday atmospheric phenomena are a discouragement to every expository device that would try to define them and classify them in an exhaustive manner. Because they are lived in their sensorial immediacy, they certainly could be subdivided in line with the five senses and the proprioceptive senses. But the various types of sensation often become entangled. And while certain expressions of inhabitants relate only what is felt—the pathic—most add thereto an actual or an anticipated motor dimension. The acted and the suffered introduce themselves from the start and simultaneously. We shall therefore attempt to sketch some lines of force for the pregnancy of the atmospheres involved in the lived experience of one’s walks. How is inhabited space to be qualified on the basis of “climates” and how, through the latter, does the wholly unique relation of the acted to the suffered manifest itself? The identification of sites on the basis of their climatic characters5 bears on very different units, the smallest ones being one’s lodging or a part of one’s lodging, the largest verging on the neighborhood itself. Here are two extreme examples:
At sixty-eight years old, one lives at home in one’s atmosphere; the rest doesn’t interest us. When arriving at the Arlequin, one is no longer on the alert, that mind-set one has when one is in town. In relation to the noise, one is more sensitized in town; one is kept on one’s toes. Here, you feel at home; there’s no more danger.

A climate seems to be perceived clearly only through a play of differences. Thus, a sensation can take on a quite particular, or hitherto nonexistent, nuance and intensity, suddenly surging forth and rendering a site clearly distinct from the spatial whole.


The second type of differentiation comes almost exclusively under the heading of the olfactory realm. Those odors that rise up as if by magic—a surprise that things would still be flavorful—and that are endowed with the gift of literally enveloping passersby qualify the atmosphere all the more when they are impalpable, unstable, vanishing when one would like to smell them, obstinately hovering around when one would like to ignore them. An inhabitant clearly identifies one passageway by the odor of the wall coating but smells nothing in her own one, whereas the odor is the same. The power of olfactory selection exerts itself all the more when the scents are foreign, rare, or unexpected, thus leading people to say things like, “In the morning, there’s a smell of bread near the baker’s!” or “Near number 50, there’s spicy cooking, like down south,” or “It smells . . . it smells like the kind of cooking I don’t do!” When they are the sign of the times, odors relate less specifically to definite objects. They will then be messengers of seasonal cycles: “There is a certain odor now. . . . Maybe it’s the summer.” Some evenings, the wind from the southwest brings unpleasant chlorine smells that suddenly insert the whole neighborhood back into an urban setting where industry is once again a lived presence. The weather takes a turn, and this rotation lets the manufactured, anti-“nature” side, which one would like to forget, become apparent: “You’d really like there to be more of a smell of flowers.” The sweet-smelling or foul-smelling character of the atmosphere punctuating one’s travels and enveloping the moments of one’s stays plays a minor role in the representation of everyday life. Olfaction—a sense that is so well developed, it is said, among our distant ancestors from fishing- and hunting-based civilizations—becomes today the most neglected of senses, the deepest buried. The lexicon of olfactory adjectives is probably the most impoverished one in our language. At the same time, and not fortuitously, evocations of smells are hardly ever accompanied by hints of motor responses. This sensorial form remains the most accidental of characters, the most incidental, the most unforeseen of the everyday world, the one that manifests itself the least willingly in one’s memory of inhabiting. On the other hand, climatic differentiation through one’s other sensory modes easily interweaves sensations at the mere transmutation of


an adjective. Let us reread a page from the notebook of a schoolgirl.6 The trips leading to the junior high school and those leaving therefrom that morning were undertaken unenthusiastically. How are they qualified? By a climate transcribed in adjectival expressions: “I was afraid,” “I was very hot,” “we were sad,” “without any enthusiasm,” “I was sick to my stomach.” Everything blends into the same character, that of a “lousy morning,” as one might say. And no part of her everyday chores could be avoided: “I didn’t really want to go there”; this is the wish for flight that will come true only in the evening: “I went home, happy.” Various sensations are mixed together, but nothing truly is canceled out. Everything complements the rest and everything is reduplicated. These walks tracing out a fine example of metabole are all the more feverish as the object of her worry that particular morning was unavoidable. Nothing specific describes this detrimental site (the junior high school) that is nevertheless willingly frequented at other times; for, it becomes then uninhabitable, almost a nonplace, and wholly absorbed in the world of this feverish flight that would have wished to annihilate it.7 A climatic quality is deliberately expressed through a mixture of sensations. Thus, cold will characterize, through a series of slippages, one’s relations with the other, the felt effect of the temperature, and the tactile reception of the wind. “It’s sad to say,” one inhabitant notes,
but it happens to me for whole days at a time not to . . . without seeing someone. Even if I do encounter some people I know, we don’t talk for long. . . . Not that it could be said that one would establish right away . . . Because it’s cold. . . . Yes, I find that it’s because it’s cold. It’s a bit windy.

Likewise, “the air” signifies equally a certain “current” of air, the absence of a roof (unlimited vertical dimension), and the absence of walls or pillars. Depending on this or that meaning, the act of “getting some air” or “being out in the air” differentiates one’s lodging from the gallery, or the passageway from the gallery, or yet again the gallery from the “open-air” zones. “Between the passageway and the gallery,” it is said,
there is a tiny difference . . . in the sense of being out in the air or not out in the air; a bit like the difference between being inside the buildings or outside.


Thus, in the climate of such a moment of everyday life, the diverse sensations of nature come together and give to the inhabited world a quite particular atmosphere that transforms the apparent immobility of the architecture. At the Arlequin, all the inhabitants talk about the wind, “a pool [bain] of air currents” that envelops and passes through one, bidding one to stay under cover or else to hasten one’s steps. The whole gallery becomes a whistling and, as a matter of fact, striking8 landscape that rushes toward you too quickly; it seems to take a long time to step through it. And this confrontation with the wind is no more epic than the upheavals one feels with variations in the seasons, meteorological changes, and the nychthemeral cycle. Night can conjure up many phantasms.9 The same malleability of a new order in which artificial shadows and lights follow sidelong one after the other is burdened with threats regularly waiting in ambush “at every pylon,” “at every corner.” At night, the gallery becomes “smaller, narrower.” This fear is sometimes tempered by the “calm silence” and by the magic of the lights. Rainy weather prompts the same ambiguity of affects. Felt through the cold and the dampness, rain will precipitate some into solitary flight10 but will give others a taste for the convenience, even the poetry, of the gallery, which has become a genuine dwelling. Indeed, with the gallery, “when it rains, no need for an umbrella,” “it’s pleasant; you can do your shopping in your slippers,” and then, “there are really bright colors.” Let us be even more specific. Urban atmospheres are born in the crisscrossing of multiple sensations. In this immediate experience of the world, the rain, the wind, and the night hardly have any value of their own. What the inhabitant retains therefrom is the raininess, the windiness, the “fearfulness,” that is to say, the affective tonality. Thus, raininess (coldness, dampness, desire for shelter) will qualify the lived world in that very moment. An everyday ambiance takes on a consistency on the basis of a focusing, of a valuing of one element in the environment that will symbolize and reduplicate in an expressive way the atmosphere in which one is bathed [baigne]. There is a “reduplication” of urban sites, as Pierre Sansot says.11 This color or that coldness will set the tone for all the rest of the sensations and will even enlist, as if by a never extinguished resonance, cultural images, social representations, and ideological reflexes. Here is one example from the world of sound. North


African music, which is heard rising up on hot summer nights and wakes up the inhabitants of one “cove” around midnight, often exacerbates feelings of expropriation or injury (injuria, in the sense of ethnic illegality). But for certain inhabitants, an indulgent sense of satisfaction that “there’s a party” is awakened at the same time. And perhaps those people are lulled back to sleep with dreams of an unavowed exoticism. Moreover, collective presences can by themselves alone create characteristic climates. Boisterous invasion or teeming games when the last school bell of the day rings, jostlings and crowdings at the foot of the elevators at these same times, lascivious or bustling times in the market area—these are so many different atmospheres that the auditory and the visual, sometimes the tactile, and more rarely the olfactory senses make one feel and that can bring on opposing kinds of conduct: pursuit or flight. This boils down to saying that the extreme diversity in the nature of atmospheres and in the way in which they alter the style of one’s walks calls for an inexhaustible number of descriptions. Climatic and pathic phenomena seem therefore to have become diversified into a limitless pluralism. And yet, climates and atmospheres are continually instructive, in that they render explicit and explain the qualitative resonance of everyday lived experiences. The same goes for atmospheres that are as peaceful and dull as they are unsayable, those that are unremarkable, those that are repetitive and wherein one day looks like another, and those that one inhabitant labels “gray days [griseurs].” And such a gray day also deforms and anamorphoses, as through a mirror whose silvering has crumbled away, the ephemeral monumentality of housing spaces. Here, then, we have a first form of derealization of the built world as it is handed over for use. Here it is that, over the days one lives one’s life, an unmeasured separation redistributes the produced space. One term returns over and over again in the interviews, as if it would be the main criterion by which the various atmospheres are to be differentiated from one another: the inhabitable, which is defined by the possibility of dwelling, of coming to a stop. Through the climates of everyday life, inhabiting and walking take on the same lived meaning. There are walks that inhabit certain sites and other ones that do not inhabit them. The

if not into a precipitous effort to be finished with them as quickly as possible) “cannot be called spots. It is an impression. in this sense. to find out on what common ground such nonexclusive disjunctions are possible. how do these compenetrations occur. It would be wise. and how are they linked together? The inhabitant’s narratives allow it be understood that there exists a sort of excess of sensory experience. are qualified within a habitat-space. At the same time. Indeed. that is to say. my presence and that of others find themselves shaken up and tend to become like each other. we may ask. But first. a site that is appropriable under the sky of an inhabitable atmosphere. and of pausing.” A “spot” would be.12 It encompasses in this way both the acted and the suffered. one walks willingly. between the world of objects and that of subjects. its horizon. the static presence of the architectural and the deformation of this built world. there. Visiting is possible there. and that of motor movements.T H E B O D Y O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N sole difference is this: one must really carry out trips directed by the demands of usage. a site in which one could stop. Such excess was condemned by 122 . therefore. for everything slips into indifference. But as one female inhabitant says. it shows how styles of being. Sensorial Hyperboles and Anticipations Thus. styles of inhabiting and walking. of stopping. in both senses of the term: what is felt and what is imprinted. on the other. From this point of view. between acted and suffered. one might say. The still too brief examination we have been carrying out of this climatic condition allows one to discover two hitherto neglected dimensions: that of dwelling. the reading and writing of one’s walks. it envelops every moment of everyday life and is its sky. the dichotomies between given (built) and lived. those sites one walks alongside (rather than traverses. how are these mutual assimilations organized. all that seemed structural in rhetorical analysis begins to take on bodily shape in a movement of structuration: the shaping of the inhabited world on the basis of climatic quality. on the one hand. The climatic allows one to understand how walking and inhabiting refer to each other.

“You’re in the New Town as soon as you glimpse the blue from afar. topical position. these hyperboles. or even from one’s abode. these surprising usurpations of synecdoche encountered in walking figures appear here once again through the discrete and scattered expressions of corporeal lived experience. whereas the outer limits of the neighborhood have not yet been crossed.T H E B O D Y O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N the academic “psychology of faculties” because. it is split in two. More than a signal. Blue thus takes on a double meaning: from far off and from nearby.” a “civil-defense blue that makes me sick. At the first glimpse of 123 . each sense must remain in its proper receptive place and be. free from error. this color already projects the inhabitant toward his site of rest. For all the inhabitants questioned. It engenders a climate that ushers one in as one leaves behind oneself “the town” one has barely yet vacated. The various sensations picked up in “atmospheres” tend to overflow the site in which they should have been confined.” “overwhelming. depending. But the old textbooks of Jansenist morality. under the command of perception.” had perhaps better surmised their dynamic and Dionysian nature. “you don’t see who might be looking”). the preferred colors are the reds and oranges on the other facade. which anathematized this “overflow of the senses. depending on the inhabitant’s current conduct.” “disturbing. the one seen from the park side. a color that is nevertheless generally viewed as unpleasant: “not very aesthetic. Blue becomes the signal13 of the still far-off environs of this neighborhood.” However. the colors painted on the centralwestern facades of the Arlequin herald the fact that “home” approaches. and the presence of other inhabitants all fuse together.” a blue that gives a paradoxical intensity to the look of the windows. As lived in its tonality. These excesses. up close. And yet seen from quite far away. too. blue seen from afar acts like a character (and therefore a sign) on whose basis is created a new climate in which spatial forms. on what he is doing in such and such a place. Feelings and attitudes find themselves already altered. the time remaining for one to travel along one’s path. from the standpoint of rational knowledge. and depending on what he is going to do. The most oft-cited color is blue. Sense impressions already have a power that is to be understood only in accordance with the time involved. which become darker by way of contrast (for. the precise place of one’s domicile.

. and they add that this ceiling is not colored.17 But fore-seeing is not only a view from afar and from on high. . you already stop there. Would this be only a fore-seeing? Let us clarify without delay the peculiar status of the visual in urban atmospheres. In anticipatory fore-sight. They denote the concern one has to be able to tell in time what 124 . when one takes an octagonal trip. comes very much under the heading of a plastic arts’ vision of habitat. unlivable. . huh? You’re blocked by something that stops you. .” Conversely. . The topological confusion of colors is often noted because the climate of such and such a moment on one’s path was well matched with a single tone. to see people coming. as beautiful. one already sees the garage or what is going to happen.T H E B O D Y O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N the “reading. it’s the same thing. the “blue cove” so absorbs one’s gaze that it turns that gaze into being-gazed-at. when you have a turn with a right angle. The concept of readability.16 One young female inhabitant evokes with amusement how the postcard then becomes the ridiculous paradigm for finding one’s bearings through sight. . . . is precisely for that reason uninhabitable. to see a larger space before oneself. before taking the turn. a young woman remarks that. .” the “writing”—that is to say. Thus. which is connected to that of the transparency of forms. . This “seeing for the sake of seeing” also rules over one of the ways in which one contemplates the park—which is “simply looked at” because it is “pretty” or even frequented solely via its “belvederes”15 and which. Some inhabitants thus cite colors on the facade that in fact are found on the ceiling of the gallery. attracted necessarily by the spectacular dimension. Let us cite the case of an inhabitant whose body suddenly becomes numb and ill at ease in a part of the gallery where. It’s important . you see beforehand. And for people. But. on a visual level . These two expressions do not refer to some spectacular form of objectification. Their fashioning of space is carried out in perceptual indistinction. you don’t see. For example. ahead. “with those slabs of concrete. from the top of its imposing wall. in a preawareness of the most pregnant color that took the place of the sky under which they were strolling. motor reaction or action is implied. the action of inhabiting—is already beginning.14 The visual sense would be directed and led toward the most obvious signifier.

In short.18 Yet. you go up the stairs. The steps are too long or too short. the stairs are inconvenient. Sensoriality is doubly “overflowed. So. . or does not have. for one is surprised by those rare plant stands. . The mounds are qualified essentially by an upward climbing movement and the tactile sensation of the grass. Someone will say: It’s the terrace that . Spatial distances contract along with the time.” The senses encroach upon one another to such an extent that certain colors are expressed only through their form and certain forms only through the mediation of olfactory or tactile perceptions. as well as what walking figure one already has. The collage of a meaningless decor superimposed upon a function to 125 .T H E B O D Y O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N the future one will be traveling through is to be made up of. If you take two steps at a time. on the other hand. .”19 Bearing witness to this are numerous expressions gleaned from inhabitants in which the description of sensorial experience is expressed through some motor conduct. it’s too tiring. As for the “terrace” of the silo-garage. The kinesthetic quality is antecedent to all others. The space is also fashioned when one stumbles around. You must go up the stairs to get to the first level. it’s too long. A site will thus take on the tonality of the effort spent to travel through it. it is unknown which one precedes the other. that are crushed by the high rectilinear facade assailing them. in general. . the here and the there are narrowed into an “already. the motor order is inserted within the sensorial order and works to select tangible qualities. I go by way of the smooth part. . which is so large in geometrical reality and yet “soon crossed” or apprehended only through the “short promenades” it offers for one’s steps. prospecting the situation. Or: On the terraces. If you go up one by one. Climates differ according to these various ways of “passing through” the park. Sensed climates already sketch out the conduct of one’s action. what is suffered or what is acted. looking so ridiculous and so lonely. the power to sketch out (figure of redundancy or figure of avoidance). it has no meaning as a visual composition. to have some sort of premonition of whether one’s encounter with the other will be unforeseen or whether one will be able to ready oneself for it.

in its own way. This was also the wholly preconscious way in which inhabitants stepped over the “holes” created in the walls that hold up the gallery. Such sketches are reactivated at certain moments in the narrations we have heard. This terrace where adolescents are happy to hang out finds quite another meaning in the terms of one’s lived motor experience: the stairs one can climb up.T H E B O D Y O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N which it remains absolutely alien (roof of a silo for automobiles) and which it never succeeds in covering up was conceivable only according to the order of the plan. Such is. configures something through a gesture. one will come to have a better understanding of several phenomena of spatial practice that were sidetracking us when we undertook the rhetorical approach. any rationalization of one’s conduct comes only after the fact. He sketches with a gesture in the present what he had felt and thus reproduces as closely as possible the lived instant. very much the dynamic nature of the lived experience of inhabiting. the fact that it is a favorite inhabitable crossing area. And in order to cast radically into doubt the received notion that first we perceive and then we react. Motor function decides when one’s foresight allows itself to be surprised. no longer finding words of his own to recount what happens during a trip. as when the inhabitant. Anticipation makes what is still far off feel close. the spaces “where the kids play. The motor act does not follow the sensation. With this motor anticipation.20 one must recall the ways in which the figure of bifurcation and that of digression arrange [décident de] the space on the basis of the movement undertaken. however. . The meaning of the landscape composition appears only from on high. Territorial limitations 126 . there is no antecedence. given spaces and preconceived uses.” The three suspension points denote perfectly well the immediacy from “feeling” to “moving. which endlessly re-creates. I find myself in front of . nor any consequence. the recesses in which one can sit down. . forty meters aloft. And already. or points with his finger.21 Let us listen to their silences as well as to their utterances: “Sometimes. nor does it precede it. the movement is sketched out. When an inhabitant passes to the right or to the left of obstacles set in the middle of his path. draws on a scrap of paper. above all.” and. and I pass through.” Between the feeling and the movement. even if sometimes a few worries are mixed in (the oppressing view from all the windows).

on the other. It seemed that the dimensions of height and depth should have remained the prerogative of architecture—which.” and “wild” paths where one’s pleasure in treading on the grass is barely disguised. gates. or grassy. would have given them only to be seen. in the tension from near to far. Through these climates and by the power of motor anticipation. differences in material. our everyday steps take on a new meaning. having laid down elevated forms. shifting all motor conduct into the horizontal dimension.” whether the site in question is his lodging.24 Let us recall. They were simple schematic 127 . limits as they are lived through the very act that transgresses them or readies itself to transgress them. as were expressed in the figures of polysemy. some part or other compared to the rest of the neighborhood. or truly muddy ground allows a variety of motor conducts— from following along charted paths to the most unexpected sorts of trailblazing—at the same that it serves to differentiate one’s climates.23 imply motility. barriers). which are geometrically spatialized into routes.” whose uneven height is combined with a “granular and unpleasant” floor surrounded by “repair-work mud. or the neighborhood itself. finally. unless it is that the climate for entering and the one for exiting always differ?22 Through motor anticipation. tar) or on better equipped. Why do limits not have the same spatial assignment depending on the direction one is walking. The possibility of walking on laid-out and developed paths (concrete. since it is immediately composed by potential motor responses. and. limits represented (and reproduced) according to the planned order. breaks in architectural forms. how certain atmospheres are lived and are engendered through one’s very contact with a material: the “ramp. Is not the climatic also a form of action. brings to life through motor response (one’s apparent bodily immobility changing nothing about this) lovely as well as terrifying imminent prospects of plummeting.T H E B O D Y O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N are split into two opposing varieties: on the one hand. which was to have turned the vertical dimension into an abstraction. various closures (porticoes. And yet the elevator itself. based on what is possible? The feelings of exaltation from on high or of crushing heaviness. It could no longer even be stated that urban atmospheres induce alterations in bodily attitudes and conducts. the inhabitant is already “inside” or “outside.

deformation of the built world such as it was conceived and re-creation of space through feeling and motor function. the power to orient otherwise the edified world remains ever active. rhetorical figures. Against the “real” as conceived. Is that how it goes perhaps for the atmosphere of the everyday world that envelops each lived moment? Would not asyndeton (absence of conjunction. Each direction of meaning derealizes all that does not enter into the climate of the lived instant.T H E B O D Y O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N traces. The work is the way. The work is the walk. figures. anticipation still appears only in the form of a shortcut. does the rest of the space the inhabitant will be able to travel through tomorrow or later on have no value just because today no lived movement is animating it? Will these absent sites not be present one day or another? The space configured here and now is not a reductionist gathering of all the other spaces. On the basis of the site traveled through and inhabited. Every walking. of a rather spatial gait whose temporal nature is not yet apparent. A second form of derealization now comes into view.28 The gathering of the universe into the lived present was possible only upon a ground of absence. but also as configuration. that is to say. everything that is neither near nor far has no consistency and finds itself literally “marginalized. Let us reread the strange story by Jorge Luis Borges. at first provokes the marvelous illusion of a simultaneity of all spatially contiguous entities. “holes”) prove to be the condition for synecdoche?29 128 . The “overflow of the senses” [débordement des sens] (of the sensible) therefore produces an overflow of the meaning [débordement du sens] (formal significations) set in the edified world. said Paul Klee.26 The “Aleph. configuration. Moreover.27 Disillusion then sets in: nothing has been seen without the passage of time and without forgetfulness entering in.” a mirror of the universe. For. of a forward projection. structuration. it seems to us. then it would turn out like some magic crystal ball that contains the world but whose description in successive stages does not end. here they are now as operative movements. and the act of walking is the work. every inhabiting gives itself out not only as structures. in this “between near and far” in which all walking is organized.” And yet. holds not only for the “artistic” production of space but also for the inhabitant who reorganizes it after his own fashion.25 This affirmation.

These three varieties are dominant accentuations that exist in one’s fashions of inhabiting. Now. The forms of one’s habitat are to be composed of the basic postures of everyday man (reclining. Rather than postures. the specifications made through oppositions and differences. standing). seated. indeed of conjugating movement with pausing and dwelling? An Articulatory Process Le Corbusier’s theory of the “modulor” is well known. into poses. 129 . a way of understanding how. pauses. how is one to know exactly in what way time spans each style of inhabiting? Communication through sympathy (Einfühlung) would bring us nothing of decisive importance. inhabitant expression as apprehended through one’s walks shows that there is nothing of the sort. In all the expressions we have gathered from the inhabitants. and the characteristic possibility of stopping. where lived time is broken down into attitudes. Let us imagine an ongoing cinematographic observation. though too coarse when compared to the lived quality of each instant. Yet it is particularly difficult to grasp this.30 it would still be the objectifying illusion of transcribing in continuity what is discontinuous. permits one at least to sift out some common characters that do not contradict what inhabitant rhetoric has been able to show us. and is thus reduced to the architectonic. And yet the examination of the verbs used in these narratives. the present would respond to the absent? Does it not boil down to the temporality of securing the identity between the act of inhabiting and that of walking.T H E B O D Y O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N Is this figured absence in syndeton nothing? Would there not be. the narratives of inhabitants express gaits: a style and quality of movement. we note three principal stylistic varieties that concern one’s way of being at once in space and in time. and the similarities between narrative style and walking style allow a convergence that. in the final analysis. To the extent that we are talking about rhythmic phenomena. This is a fine example of static architectural thought. Rather than poses. in inhabitant practices.

The protentional tendency expresses itself when the walk is already completely stretched toward its goal. finally. and when.”. each time humble everydayness repeats itself. From the vaster seasonal cycles observed in “climates” 130 . . when one’s busy and sometimes feverish movement telescopes the topological succession of sites (this is the case in particular with figures centered on a site that holds one’s fascination). he lets himself more often be led by the space as laid out and developed than he transgresses it. when the atmosphere of his lodging is contrasted with all the “rest” of the space. The third variety would offer a eurythmic composition combining protention and retention. each time a hyperbolic redundancy occurs (the exalted scaling of the Mounds).T H E B O D Y O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N 1. and then the walks are easily punctuated with stops and changes of rhythm: “I walk in a normal way. there is always a minimum of protention and retention. when. when I go to work. more fundamentally still. but. 3. The retentional tendency expresses itself when the inhabitant recounts his trips while saying that he “leaves home” or that he “goes home” instead of saying “I am going to . no genuine moment of dwelling is memorable in the whole of everyday life and the inhabitant leaps nonstop from one site to another. either in a minimal mode (“I’m not in a hurry. finally. Each time a break or a variation interrupts the continuity of this or that gait or such and such an orientation. Rhythmic phenomena are expressed in all the narratives. . which is characterized in terms of mere utility. . but I don’t stop”) or in a more pronounced mode. 2. Its sole advantage is that it illustrates the protentional component and the retentional component that do indeed operate in every configuration of inhabited space. and when. we can clearly see the incompleteness and fictive approximation such an enumeration carries along with it. how would you say it .” Through this last quotation. but also in a. even in the course of long trips. be it only through the simple motor articulation in which one step follows another. . and they do so as much on the level of elementary figures as on that of combinatory figures. brisk manner. everything unfolds in perfect regularity and “nothing snags” the inhabitant.

Without them. More than this “temporal succession of fortes and pianos” by which academic musical theory had defined rhythm. would the relation of movement to pause have any lived meaning if it were not referred back to the possibility of an articulation from the present to the absent? Whether we are talking about a momentary halt to one’s steps (which “are snagged by something or someone. one’s favorite place of retreat within one’s own lodging. or even simply some details about one’s gait—absence manifests itself in the very movement that guides one’s steps. the absences or “holes” in the course of a trip. all these halts are lived in the mode of a presence that has rendered the rest of the space absent. To the dimensions of the near and the far. one rejects the alien group into a time-dependent absence. about which one can say “it’s mine. and what is imminent is the re131 . the description of a site through which one has walked. a circuit considered worthwhile in its own right.T H E B O D Y O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N and “atmospheres” to the tiniest gesture made. the others never exist. again. inhabitant narrative is found to be completely shot through with the disappearance of one time and the appearance of another in the here and now of lived experience: there are chronotheses and chronogeneses. at once felt and acted.”34 or. For the absent to present itself. is all the greater as its return to the present is felt as the premonition of a possibility. Still. the present must absent itself. the high and the low. making each of them the condition of existence of the other. and the force of this group. one must add those of presence and absence. The presence of others can itself be lived in the mode of absence. either by avoidance or by an instating [mise en état] of difference.” as inhabitants say) or deliberately stationing oneself in this or that part of the neighborhood. such absence is transitory. the disappearance of sites left behind and the absence of sites on their way to becoming this “far away” about which one has a presentiment before oneself. Finally. which finds itself represented then in purely spatial terms.31 at issue here is the opposition of a mutually engendering pause and burst [élan].32 Rhythm is the coincidence of contraries captivating appearance and disappearance. It is the apparently total absence of never-frequented territories. in the mode of encounter or confrontation.33 In a lived differentiation. On whatever scale one’s walks are associated—the whole of a trip leaving one’s lodging and returning to it.

which one had thought was inviolable. The inhabitants recount these absences-in-abeyance either as the path that remains to be traveled when the body. which bodily rhythms nevertheless succeed in making coincide? Also. In order for us not to become lost in an abstract theory of signification. through architectural forms. Is not the concrete articulation of the act of walking the eminent paradigmatic sign of the tensional nature of everyday lived experience? Inhabitant practices are a form of expression inasmuch as they are grounded upon an articulatory process we shall define as a connection of heterogeneous instantiated principles enacted in lived time. In the design of the edified space. already en route.T H E B O D Y O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N appearance of the absented sites. 1. and to indicate the import of such an interpretation of everyday life in an urban space. It was for this reason that one of the inhabitants questioned later moved.35 The absented space makes a special irruption into one’s dwelling through one’s auditory apparatus. one’s dwelling ends up losing all domestic and private meaning of its own. between presence and absence. to reinvigorate the key contributions of rhetoric. we sought to grasp the lived body of everyday expression. in an allusive way. 132 . Inhabitant expression incorporates itself into a tension between near and far. evokes one’s memory of the space of the neighborhood. the private sphere. Is this not the very essence of rhythm? And is not the difficulty one encounters in describing such phenomena the result of writing’s inability to project itself ahead while also going back and its inability to enunciate at the same time a signified and its opposite. will not the reading of the preceding pages have elucidated quite easily the difficulties inherent in every attempt to describe lived time? A few remarks are needed to take stock of this moment in our approach.” which was supposed to be absent. becomes too present. Sudden invasions of louder or softer noises have the ability to dissolve the closure of one’s lodging. the auditory sense comes to undo the territorial limits that had been set between private and public. between movement and pause. And if a sonic solicitation from this “outside. draws the heaviness from the lingering look or as the glance through the window of one’s own lodging that. where arrangements have been made either to favor one’s “view” or to mask.

The spatial contiguities and conjunctions that seem to ground the existence of laid-out and developed space upon connections between homogeneous parts remain abstract fictions. Between suffering and acting. tends in the direction of our action). to articulate them in a play of absence and presence or. on the other hand. The articulation from walking to abiding [séjour] defines what inhabiting is. The particular tonalities of our surrounding landscape are the mirror of our sensibility of the moment as well as of the project of our action or of our relaxation. Fundamental figures of walking rhetoric. in conformity with the power of the body. every strolling has meaning only in relation to stopping. an urban territory would be split in a qualitative way along two types of spaces: on the one hand. synecdoche and asyndeton emanate from lived sensorimotor experience. Also. 3. there is neither logical sequence nor confusion but. Now. instead. A sign of our capacity to qualify space in a singular way. a set of sites that are inhabitable because they leave to strolling and to abiding the power to configure them. lying in wait. The “blanks”—the “holes. rather. protentional ones (when one’s sensibility. 2. synecdoche expresses the immediacies and discontinuities of lived time over against the linearities and transitivities of chronometric time. and vice versa. We all have in our memory the immediate experience of these fairly retentional moments (when action is deferred) or. it is the powers of our corporeal being that go to make up the way in which this expression occurs: the power to be in affective resonance with an ambient atmosphere and the power to anticipate our motor reactions. for. to re-create them.” as the inhabitants say—allow for a lived instant that would be similar to no other one. The near and the far as well as the high and the low exist in a relation of heterogeneity. everyday rhythm proceeds from the interval [écart].T H E B O D Y O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N whose actors would be the inhabitants. a set of uninhabitable sites (sorts of nonplaces. Faced with such a criterion of heterogeneity. Asyndeton inserts absence into space and into time. from rupture. in this sense)36 because between walking and abiding there is no possible 133 . degrees of tension.

namely. And this way radically contradicts the current postulate of how to build. is formed otherwise. rejection (or the attitude of indifference the inhabitable puts on). through the powers of the body38—rhetoric then becomes “generative and transformational. Its dynamic nature appears in the tension between the absent and the present.” Such wholly homogeneous sites offer no place for sensorimotor configuration to get a foothold in them. corporeal being retains the power to reform. they correspond not only to the unfrequented parts of the neighborhood but also to those parts that leave one indifferent. indeed.” Rather. “inhabiting” has nothing of an abstract or static concept about it. As such. according to feeling and motor function. It is always born of something possible: the inhabitable.T H E B O D Y O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N articulation: these are instead mere crossing areas or places “where one has to go. The present exists only between these two forms of absence that permit what we have called structuration. Inhabitant expression shows us. configuration. From this standpoint. that inhabited space is articulated according to lived time. to deform. through lived sensorimotor experience and “atmospheres. is the “real”? In the habitat as it is produced or in one’s sensorimotor way of inhabiting? Inhabitant expression does not “derealize. Instating absence is the third way of derealizing the real. It indicates to what extent the lived present is to be evaluated in terms of force and not of a state. or with possibility and project. Understood through the body of inhabitant expression—that is to say. produce space according to chronometric time and foresee usage according to purely spatial considerations. They bear witness to a space that is conceived in homogeneity and yet. Upon this concrete condition of absence. it “realizes” in its own way.37 4. Absence is combined either with forgetting. Where. the word derealization might still be deceiving. and they are lived in the mode of an absent presence. and to develop.” melts into insignificancy.” that is to say. it subsumes the first two: climatic transformation. overflow and anticipation. on the contrary. 134 .”39 Against the container state some have wanted to assign to it. It tells us about the condition through which what is built up is deformed into an “atmosphere.

If spatial totalities lose all meaning of their own and are but the occasional material and pretext for deconstruction. hastening us to the point of running. delaying us elsewhere to the point of taking a pause or even making a visit.5 On the Imaginary Ground of Inhabitant Expression As we rise higher in the triangle. Suddenly.1 And the nature of this upheaval has just become apparent to us: lived time invalidates the rules of rationally composed space. We inhabit a discontinuous space in 135 . the question about the ground of inhabitant expression becomes only that much more insistent. step by step. The architectural forms and functional uses these injunctions try to give out to be read seemed to propose an inevitable text. what is the field of reference for everyday action? What is the basic ground brought into play by expression. Yet here it is that. An unforeseeable force “defying all calculations” asserts itself. for derealization. Concerning the Spiritual in Art Thus. when laid-out and developed space finds itself relegated to an accidental modality? The question can be posed in another way. the tracks configured according to the whim of ordinary preoccupations bring the city into a state of decay and undermine the foundations of the representation one usually gives of it. a program to which we cannot but conform. Inhabitant rhetoric made us understand that our walks move about over a space that has come undone and been dispersed. we find that confusion increases. the everyday strolls by which we come and go. —Wassily Kandinsky. took on the air of obeying the silent injunctions of the urban space. just as a city built on the most correct architectural plan may be shaken by the uncontrollable force of nature.

less in the sense in which they allow themselves only to be glimpsed— and is not discretion connatural with everydayness?—than in the sense in which they exist only at the pinpoint. one must ask oneself how unity concretely circulates between each “discrete” manifestation. on the other. There thus exist a stylistics and a process of sensorimotor articulation that give an overall coherent meaning not only to the lived experience of a single inhabitant but. to explain in a concrete way the connections between each discrete expression and.” in a scattered way. also. The ways of inhabiting are located through their discretion. from one place to another. inhabitant expression has two basic ways of breaking up the representation of the continuities and homogeneities that belong to laid-out and developed 136 . one grasps only the feverish and random traces of particles that otherwise allow themselves to be defined only in the contradictory terms of immobility. to the whole of coexistent everyday lives. the Imaginary Ground Beyond all the varieties of spatial practice that manifest it. the fact that inhabitant expression manifests itself only “discretely. merit then a more theoretical definition? Between the Present and the Possible.O N T H E I M A G I N A R Y G R O U N D O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N accordance with a time of differance. here and there.2 Now. does not imply the absence of qualitative unity. between the visit and the walk. over a given field. on the one hand. Is this to say that everyday actions correspond to an inhabitant stochastics? And yet. We thus rediscover an older acceptation of the term: the discretum. which is both incorporated and grounded. In other words. Does there exist an instantiated principle whose omnipresence would have already been indicated to us by prior observation of walks—one that would be able. to characterize the nature of the ground from which all everyday expression proceeds and from which it draws its expressive force? And would perhaps inhabitant expression. everyday life does not unfold like a Brownian motion in which. between my way of inhabiting and that of the other inhabitants. from one moment to the next. and how each of these manifestations refers to a never clearly expressed common ground.

Each time our “imaginary” capacity has been taken into account as a whole. the imaginable overflows the limits of a spatial “reality” that is otherwise represented in terms of two contradictory characters: on the one hand. memory. In derealizing large fragments of space. whose discrete existence we have often pointed to in the course of reading walking narratives. within the process of inhabitant expression. too uncultivated and too uncontrolled in its sudden appearances to be a bearer of truth. we prefer an a posteriori definition that is engendered little by little through empirical illustrations. seems to respond to our expectations. It is the lived imaginary that we are to understand. etc. the imaginary has been considered neither as one of the lower faculties. Does it have the power to produce those fundamental connections that would give coherency to the functioning of inhabitant expression? Instead of a formal definition of the imagination that would risk reproducing the foibles of that psychology of the “faculties” in which mental operations are divided up. the instantiated principle of the imaginary. Several times in the history of thought. “the” imagination. two centuries ago. Kantianism—which. taken apart. on the other. Nonetheless. nor as too confused a faculty to be able to attain the empire of reason. In both cases. In anticipating action. the place of the imaginary has pertinence. it was in order to point to its operative function: imagining is the power to connect. In this sense. and hierarchized (perception. those “blank trips” lived in the mode of absence. the real corresponds to the present. between the present and the absent or the possible. or asyndetons that insert discontinuity into our everyday travels). and it is its modalities of appearance. it renders absent what representation would judge to be “really” present (thus. did not immediately 137 . a brief reminder on the theoretical level will allow us to evaluate how. The imagination is the medium par excellence. in which the form is substituted for the force. that we will have to carefully note down.O N T H E I M A G I N A R Y G R O U N D O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N space. archaic in origin and confined to the production of images.). the real is defined in relation to a totality of which it is a precisely assignable part. Thus. and in which what is organizing power is given as a mere instrument. it renders present what “really” is not yet so (we have already sketched out in this way both avoidance and the search for a site that is not yet but on the horizon of our stroll).

Experience of the world would not have any meaning. The imagination connects the manifold and the scattered because it animates and grounds at the same time. which literally outstrips the understanding. To judge from a short statement by Immanuel Kant in his Critique of Pure Reason5 and by the pages devoted to the analysis of the sublime in the Critique of Judgment. Developing the contributions of the Neoplatonist current of thought. far from being a simple and passive reservoir of images. and creating. the present and the absent are tied together in a process of articulation we were evoking just a few pages ago?4 Certainly. The set of connections is more significant than the set 138 . But is it not by this same power that the acted and the suffered. in the Renaissance. the manifold and the singular can find unity and universality (which is the essential feature of Kantian concerns). and knowledge would have no concrete application. is clearly indicated. Its faculty of conferring unity of meaning upon instantiated principles as contrary as the universal and the singular does not just have the merit of making it an instrument of noteworthy value. but it understood that power as the manifestation of a force that spans the universe and constitutes its very texture. the Renaissance was already familiar with this power of connection.6 the at once obscure and overflowing aspect of the imaginary. which give it a surprising importance. which takes on a less restrictive meaning. In an entirely other epoch. we prefer to designate henceforth such an instantiated principle by the word imaginary. synthesizing.7 (And under this heading. a central notion in the interpretation of the world).O N T H E I M A G I N A R Y G R O U N D O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N preoccupy itself with the instantiated principle of the imaginary—nevertheless conferred upon it the threefold role of reproducing. the imagination possesses an activity and a capacity for synthesis. sensation and motor function. If deprived of the connections the imagination afforded them. the dynamic aspect of the imagination was even more clearly accentuated.) The imaginary would have not only the force to unify discrete pluralities but also the force to make opposites coincide (the coincidentia oppositorium is. the understanding and sensibility would never meet. It is to be understood that.3 Thanks to these. the Idealism that centered on the problem of knowledge developed this capacity of the imagination to synthesize only to the extent that the functioning of the understanding was clarified by it.

Through the omnipresence of this activity that gives it its eminent quality. Such a circulation of the imaginary. each lived present substitutes for that space an imaginable possibility. It does not hold topical assignments in place but. it becomes the common ground and the field of reference for all that it sets in a relation of coincidence. Does not such difficulty stem from its highly peregrine nature? The imaginary voyages. indeed. 139 . rather. as well as between space and time and between the individual and the collective. defies them. the inhabitant’s conduct can be deeply affected by it. The concept of vicissitude. These indications can relevantly guide our final reading of walking narratives. It does not allow itself to be grasped with ease. It accepts the paradox of being at once the fundamental instantiated principle and the instrument of connection. whose active power we have noted. Evocation of the Imaginary: The Present according to the Possible Each urban atmosphere lived by this or that inhabitant at such and such a moment is never absolutely alien to what the other inhabitants are living. The various narratives of everyday life in one and the same neighborhood demonstrated homologies and similarities between the deformations and new structurations the space undergoes. will be illustrated thanks to the reversibility between the present and the absent and between the lived and the possible. The power of the imaginary takes on coherency only at the end of our path. And perhaps we will finally come to know whether the inhabitants whose narratives we have listened to do indeed practically live in the same world. splendidly expresses the imaginary’s dynamic: making very different things alternate in an ever mobile reciprocity. the imaginary first of all signifies itself.8 which the Renaissance proposed as a key for the interpretation of the world.9 which runs the risk of irreverently transgressing the clear distinctions we claimed to establish between the particular and the general. in disqualifying the laid-out and developed space. All the styles of inhabiting have at least some points in common.O N T H E I M A G I N A R Y G R O U N D O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N of connected objects. In synthesizing. which is now coming up. In other words.


It could therefore be assumed that the inhabitants’ everyday fashionings are based on a common expressive ground. Now, the narratives we have gathered explicitly evoke an overall imaginary climate that arises from time to time and in whose name spatial derealizations are possible. The most apparent vehicle for this imaginary ground is to be found in all the common rumors that are passed by word of mouth. Most often, inhabitants place responsibility on those who do not live in the neighborhood. Here are three examples.
In Grenoble, they say: How can one live in the New Town! Aren’t you overrun by the filth yet? New Town! It has a bad reputation, between us, huh? People who don’t know say, “You oughta be careful.” . . . Their impression is that there are muggings, stuff like that.

These particular turns of phrase, these ways of hiding what was felt and what one does not dare to admit clearly, demonstrate quite well the imaginary essence of these “they say” expressions, whose force of impact is not negligible. Circulating in people’s speech, rumors that are only hinted at seem hardly distinguishable from a local form of ideology that stigmatizes the Arlequin neighborhood and is trying, in political terms, to exorcize the “socialist myth.” But in addition, the rumors are grounded in sites, and it is unknown whether they are felt impressions that are masked behind the rumors of the “they”—that is to say, of the others—or whether it is these “they say” expressions—collective delegation—that allow individuals to specify more sharply their own lived experiences. Whatever it turns out to be, the following remarkable cases will demonstrate that the atmosphere of sites goes well beyond the power of rumor and that, in the lived present, everything is reactivated in accordance with the force of the imaginary.10

The Diurnal according to the Nocturnal
The nychthemeral (night-day) cycle does not yield a simple and regular rotation of daily atmospheres. We have seen in the figures of polysemy11


how, though in demand during the day, the gallery, this central walking site, might be avoided at night. But there is more than pure alternation going on here. In the simple terms of frequentation taken on the scale of the collectivity as a whole, the gallery is inhabited above all during the day. In terms of diurnal ambulatory rhythm, the nature of the possible is that of a project or of an intention already under way that varies quite obviously from one inhabitant to the next. Along the entire length of one and the same walk, multiple differentiations segment the gallery, derealizing such and such a part in favor of some other part. By way of contrast, with the appearance of the nocturnal the whole gallery is encompassed within one and the same overall qualification, within one and the same climate, placed under the heading of the imaginary. This possibility, which the inhabitants sense as a common ground, is eminently disturbing. Is the danger real or not? We have gathered no narratives of nighttime muggings, though there probably have been a few. Whatever the case may be, the paths we are told one takes at night do not veer away from more or less hidden expressions of dread, swervings, avoidances, even downright runs. The same inhabitant who states that she is “not afraid at night,” who looks to go on labyrinthine excursions, and who likes to get lost will also underscore the unhealthy climatic features that well up at night (chlorine and garbage smells) and will loathe the feeling of going downstairs (“it’s too dark”). Some inhabitants who do not have these nocturnal fears nevertheless do not fail to report rumors about the nighttime and to admit their feelings of reticence about “going out on a jaunt during those hours.” All the narratives reflect echoes of unwholesome vibrations in which expressions of dread are repeated to various degrees, yet they always narrow into expressions that in part symbolize the unsayable. The most frequent synecdoches are the possible presence of “hoodlums” or gangs, disturbing noises heard once or several times and then amplified and interpreted, fear of “waking the dead,” or the fear of “meeting drunks or old people.” Finally, the evil power of the nocturnal realm becomes a force physically felt when the howling wind is added:
I’m scared; I’m very scared. I went out only once at night [ . . . ]. The wind, which was blowing hard, carried off my scarf, and I didn’t go looking for it! I felt reassured only after getting inside my door.


Nychthemeral alternation is therefore not governed by symmetry. The night brings together in a confused way what the day had distinguished. And the ways in which the gallery is qualified offer no point of similarity, or even any complementarity: on the one hand, there is diurnal dispersion, dependent on the preoccupations of each person; on the other hand, nocturnal condensation. Sometimes, the inhabitants make comparisons between pleasant places and unpleasant places, but the reference remains spatial. More often, the same place that is “lived well” calls for an evocation of its nocturnal mutation through a temporal antithesis: “whereas at night.” Above all, one apprehends (in both senses of the verb) the gallery as a whole in a similar way in terms of nighttime. The many-sided multiplicity of the daytime gallery is grounded upon a shared evocation of the gallery at night. Even more than that, the nocturnal realm reduplicates its insistency. As a threatening absence one exorcizes in daytime activity, it has a way of being spatially present. For, the apparently reassuring and firm ground of the gallery trod upon by one’s steps covers over and conceals a hell below. The earth beneath one’s feet then sounds hollow. Daytime activity unfolds in a feigned carefreeness over a void filled with shadows that are evoked only through half-articulated hints: a terrifying underground den where the foulest beasts teem in the twisted innards of one’s habitat. The mechanical gallery that reduplicates down below the layout of the busy street-level gallery in fact harbors the indispensable belly of the complex that digests, that pumps out, that forces back up, that is supposed to ventilate, and that often just plain stinks. Source of and bosom for the air,12 of now-digested food matter, of clean water and of dirty water, and of heat, it fills itself up and empties itself out nonstop. The mechanical operations governing the flow of all these fluids are suddenly turned into some altogether unforeseen quality. Their purpose was to maintain life; here they are, imagined to be something deadly. In accordance with an imaginary metabolism, a transmutation has taken place between everyday sensory experiences and what is premonitorily sensed on a ground of collective rumor. As one inhabitant says:
Some disturbing things, . . . well, it’s used stuff, huh? People hardly remember that. Bizarre facts, it’s not sorted out. . . . Me, I know about it through a


worker who came to repair the bathroom; a panel that might have tumbled into the mechanical shaft. But it’s not a coincidence if vermin are climbing up everywhere.

Another inhabitant says:
Underneath, it seems, it’s unbelievable. Vermin, rats, everywhere. . . . Someone tells how one day some officials came around. But they left running! [ . . . ] Often there are odors from the garbage cans that waft back up.

The infernal insidiously rises up through the ducts and conduits (“mechanical shafts”) and into the most intimate recesses of people’s dwellings. It snakes around and creeps into the dark recesses of one’s domicile. One has a presentiment that each bug, each cockroach, and each rat that frolics around at night still lies in ambush during the day. The nauseating odors that ascend from somewhere in the depths of the apartment complex also bring up with them hints of an omnipresent absence. Thus, under the gallery but also through the openings in the walls, everything is possible, and in a catastrophic way.13 A latent subterranean underside sticks to the diurnal surface of functional uses. The right angles of the ducts and conduits are turned into tortuous knots.

Form and Use according to the Accidental
Modes of inhabiting evolve upon the common ground of an imaginary that is clearly nocturnal and subterranean in tone. Other shadowy forces also manifest themselves here and there through one’s walks, like delegations of the nocturnal, more isolated substitutes. Possibilities that can be evoked readily lie in ambush in the accidental irregularities [accidents] of a spatial form opening before one’s steps. The corridors, called “passageways” and yet lived in a rather favorable way as a prelude to one’s domicile (and some of these passageways really do extend one’s lodging, as the door remains open during the day), will be criticized for their length and their overly rectilinear perspective; but, “You put up with it.” By way of contrast, the recesses in the passageways, like those of the gallery, cast a shadow over the tone of one’s walk. The threatening irruption of a more pronounced shadow, hidden in a break


in architectural forms (pillars, open areas, acute angles), becomes possible. Also, these “ratcesses” [racoins] (to borrow the expression of one inhabitant, which would delight a psycholinguist with the reduplication it includes and the reversal it evokes: corners for rats [coins à rats]) are tied up with the maleficent nocturnal realm. (Contrasted with them are the “little corners,” as the inhabitants say, the places in which the familiar, the domiciliary, and “homeyness” take refuge.) They are the “spot where one needs to pay attention, because anything can hide in there.” The spiral staircases, called “emergency stairs,” create more unevennesses [accidents] of an architectural nature. To these are added unanticipated rubbish as well as excrement both seen and smelled. As one can read in the journal of one inhabitant:
The staircase is disgusting, broken glass strewn about and unidentifiable refuse; I think that there was a break-in at night or something like that!

Also, these stairs are never taken without a certain amount of fear. The feelings of dizziness they provoke are qualified as “horrible” in a double meaning of the word, in relation both to the sensation of “falling,” the suffering of vertigo, and to the prospect of some horror.14 One never knows where or when the fatal encounter in the labyrinth will occur. Likewise, in the mezzanines, which nevertheless are ordinarily so calm and so deserted, regularly arranged formal irregularities—“details,” in the view of an architect—imaginarily spill out [débordent] onto the entire form of the edifice. The mezzanine becomes a site for harmful events, a site of potential accidents for most of the inhabitants, except for the children who go through in their roller skates—these “children who can throw things on your head,” as the adults say. Either one does not frequent the mezzanine, and yet the unforeseeable still accompanies one’s walks from above, or one takes the mezzanine in a more or less avowed search for the unforeseen. Let us mention once again the unremarkable butcher shop in the middle of the gallery, where
there is always something bizarre; the windows are often broken . . . the curtain’s messed up. And, indeed, you wonder why.

But it is within the elevator that one lives out the accidentalness that is felt most likely to occur. Such accidentalness highly derealizes

Territorial appearances—which correspond to an attempt to assign a group onto a site in a fixed way16—take us back to an effort to exorcize all that is imaginary and confused in the identificatory movement of social aggregates.” The Ordinary according to the Alien The preceding examples already serve to illustrate precisely how the form of the present is lived according to the force of the possible. even though they have not actually been felt. Some point to the “stairwells” of the North Africans. The force of all the afflictions that one believes to be possible. Bam!”).” similar to some sort of bestial possession and ready to seize hold of someone (“like jaws”) as well as to perform a metamorphosis (“you’re trapped like wild animals. It is an imaginary ground that combines the sensations of imprisonment with an imminent sense of free fall. All these powers of the night play at ceaselessly driving away and bringing near the unspeakable subterranean world. one might say—alien forces that may possibly be encountered. and also with sites where “there is too much concrete. Tunisians identify typically Algerian sites. . in a “mixed-up” sort of way. symbolic collages are possible for those who wish to safeguard their “ordinary existence. All sorts of eclectic. In rereading the numerous excerpts from inhabitants’ narratives that illustrate staggered polysemy and appropriation by dislocation.” but equally well with spaces in which too many children hang around. One tries to represent as perpetually distant that which in one’s premonitions may imaginarily be approaching. others the fancy apartment stairwells.” Alien sites are apprehended in confusion. as inhabitants so often say. Messy or dirty space is associated with the space inhabited by the “foreigners. is confined within the apparent limits of a site. . the “infernal noises. . Here are some other examples in which the imaginary evokes—as if at the surface of one’s walks. This fateful game of cat and mouse is well described in graffiti repeatedly engraved on the doors of the elevator: “rat trap. these are sites in which one does not make out 145 .O N T H E I M A G I N A R Y G R O U N D O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N its instrumental form as well as the everyday use one makes of it.15 one will discover how the imaginary ground surfaces.” their familiar world.

these contradictions nevertheless coincide. In the ordinary present. what is contradictory according to a clear-cut spatiality becomes contrariness in the lived present. the possible corresponds to what would happen a single time. a general polysemy for one and the same signal. which are often quite slender. starting from these indices.” Homologous interactions between signifier and signified (foreigner:dirty.O N T H E I M A G I N A R Y G R O U N D O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N very clearly what is going on and in which one does not quite know what might happen. dirty:foreigner) will put causal links off track. one on top of the other. this extreme singularity of the exceptional event is imagined as something eventual. this imaginary topology would be incoherent. Beneath the storied finery of the event. or else it is reactivated—reimagined. rather: an odor from a foreigner’s kitchen or intense traffic circulation of children in the passageways is sensed by one’s sight or hearing and amplified by rumors. The Everyday according to the Eventful In its everydayness. Projected onto the topography of an urban map. the only meaning this play of forces will ever have will be that of epiphenomenon of a social mechanism according to which everyday lived experience is an insignificant accident. There would be double or multiple contradictory meanings for one and the same site. and territories become fluidified. A sign suffices. they say. all the rest is left up to the imagination. The intense traffic circulation of children within a passageway may signal a North African mode of life or a style belonging to those “student households where everyone lives together.17 Understood in terms of force and not of fixed boundaries. The ordinary is dynamized only through the evocation of the possibility of the alien. Without a recognition of the dynamic ground of the imaginary. indexed. the foreigner finds himself fingered. Appropriation has any force at all only through the force of its contraries. Through these signals. and. There is nothing in 146 . the strange. if we may put it that way—as a unique fact from the past and an unreality from the present. and the foreign. a signal. the ordinary is a present that is repeatable each day. For. for the meanings of sites are superimposed.

are brought together in the modality of something eventual that is neither true nor false and yet endowed with a force that makes these people avoid the site. past events that have marked urban places and climates were either seen—in which case they implied the presence. is still evocable. even one sought after.” whose importance we saw in the study of the code of appropriation. all these unforeseen events continue to impregnate certain spots and. in this sense. it is a “neither-true-nor-false. which is closely connected with the truth of the concept. the possible is defined (engendering definition) by the imaginary and. Now. The present’s relationship to the possible is ill judged in terms of an exclusive true-or-false disjunction. they alter for a long time one’s ways of strolling and inhabiting. loses its self-assurance in the lived practices of everyday inhabiting. this tension between the possible and the present is extremely variable in degree and in quality. Was the imagined or reimagined event dramatic. because their repetition. “eventful marking. depending on the peculiarities of the action of the inhabitants. or seek out its specific quality. would bear on the persistence of a quite true “reality. even if improbable. and then they are reconstituted according to the visual imaginary or else again reported through rumor. Yet. once passed. For the inhabitants who imagine such possibilities on the horizon of their present. bypass it. or else again the unexpected punctuation mark on a walk that thereby exits from the ordinary? In the least catastrophic cases. it seems. or else curiously unforeseeable. the possible becomes an expected probability. On the other hand. of the witness (like the fight in front of the junior high school)—or heard.O N T H E I M A G I N A R Y G R O U N D O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N common. Indeed. To the extent that they can be evoked.”18 It is evaluated not in terms of the real but. rather. all these different types of events. a cricket heard last year and now chirping 147 . in subsequent presents. From the standpoint of inhabitant expression. Thus. the nocturnal. between a fact that has “really” occurred and something eventual that is not obliged to arise by any necessity. the accidental. whether they were “really” lived or not.” And yet the concept of truth. close by. and the strange would be grouped under the banner of a true or false imagined eventuality. And the present takes on an affective tonality that differs according to whether the eventuality in question is imagined in a harmful or a favorable light. in terms of the present quality of which it constitutes the horizon.

they come to blend in with the everyday background noise. the bells that call for help when users are stuck in the elevator. they are nevertheless precious indicators both of the dynamism of the imaginary and of the reversibilities these forces perform. In expressive lived experience. It is rather when there is a halt to this noise that one is surprised. A cricket at the minimarket! Well. Would it not be necessary to reread again the singular tracings proposed in walking figures. somewhere near the store. also. these fascinated bypassings. This is the case of the sirens that indicate a problem in the garages’ ventilating systems. the evocative trait brings the present closer to the eventual and weaves an intimate contemporaneity 148 . Studies on the imaginary list all these phenomena less readily in their classifications of symbols. as one had hardly hoped to expect. and in particular those of hyperbole. examining them now in terms of the role played by the modality of the evocable? In these variations. The imaginary that is thus evoked through what is heard insinuates itself into the lived present and gives itself out as a ground—“background noise. how the possible introduces itself into the present in the forms of a lived imaginary. because such sounds do not correspond to visual images. would one see not only on what ground of possibility the everyday is constituted but. with a song whose presence makes it sound completely surrealistic in a universe of concrete and metal. really! Most likely hidden in a metal pylon! He was already there last year. I don’t know if it’s the same one or another one! It so astonished me that there would be a cricket here! Other events that function as a signal are repeated so often that the thing being signaled fades away. these detours. in the excesses and overflows of synecdoche. in the impetus [élan] of a delayed or deferred project. and the alarms retailers have installed in their stores. Let us cite again the ongoing noise at construction sites that. with time. All the ringings that make people jump and worry end up merging together. signals the existence of a ridiculous yet tenacious natural world. Some inhabitants mention the impression of agonizing silence when the mechanical systems that ventilate the apartments cease operation because of some accident.O N T H E I M A G I N A R Y G R O U N D O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N again. anaphora. and metabole. Through excessive repetition.” in the paradigmatic sense this time—coexisting beneath the present. loses its unforeseeable and irruptive quality.

for the housewife. “a little event. such as the Mound. Let us mention one last time the remarkable form of everyday eventfulness that flourishes in certain walking figures and that. The present is not situated simply on a ground of possibility. either with enthusiasm or a certain dazedness. something of this favorable event remains and is still surreptitiously exuded beneath their everyday steps. rather. thus showing us the two sides of one and the same power? Convocation of the Imaginary: The Possible according to the Present The Event in the Everyday Certain events end by coloring with a particular tonality the sites in which they arise. a change in climate. in its superfluity.” what is possibly imaginable has still not been exhausted. which hovers between sky and earth. The imaginary is closely mingled with a diffuse ideology centered on two opposing poles: “concrete hell” or a “new life. it immediately implies the force of the imaginary. whose import has so often been evaluated. because its installation. the Arlequin in its entirety has been considered as itself an overall event. borders on hyperbole. whether or not it was foreseen. On several occasions in our interviews. the market is mentioned by all inhabitants. It punctuated an important moment of the residential history of the inhabitants who never regard it with indifference but.” For several inhabitants who frequent the Community Center or the Medical Building. Thus. The sites about which one can wax most poetic are situated in the park. and the lake: 149 .” The market’s periodic presence punctuates in a favorable way the cycles of everyday life.O N T H E I M A G I N A R Y G R O U N D O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N between these two instantiated principles. These cyclical events in which the exceptional tends to become commonplace are evoked as much as they are convoked. the possible is convoked within the present in the sense that one is looking for something new.” For the enthusiasts. Going to the market remains. tiny unforeseen events. Ought we not to look for other everyday expressions that would carry out the reversal from the evoked imaginary to the convoked imaginary. unexpected encounters. even on the sublime. And “although one has now put things in perspective. was noticed by everyone and because the event persists on this place that has become the “Market Place.

it has to be said. when the eventful becomes commonplace and reemerges into the immediacy of a present with which it blends in. the possible is suddenly convoked and takes shape on the basis of the present. It’s the first time I ever saw that! These are still straightforwardly urban sites in which tenuous signs of nature nonetheless both wander off and dig in their heels. it was in August. On the basis of such signs. Transfigured.O N T H E I M A G I N A R Y G R O U N D O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N When one is on the hills. These sites lose all topographical meaning.” The café tables arranged on the “Market Place” during the summer months create in a flash a village-like atmosphere. One would say. . that there are these three small trees that are in the corner. it’s quite pleasant. the “ramp” can be traversed as if it were the “backstreet of some steep village in the South. Because it rises between two walls and a ceiling (a vault?). All the inhabitants have a premonition of its eventual obsolescence. . the present convokes the possible: The gallery is made of concrete. it’s high up. inhabitant expression tries to live “what the neighborhood could be” by superimposing upon them some entirely contradictory values. The sun is there. it’s a bit high up! When you go up on the hill. . Thus. and there it was being reflected in the lake! . . for example. you are there! One evening coming from my home . they are felt like some sort of atmosphere. certain architectural elements take on unexpected features and serve as a support for imaginary events. [small voice]. you see. Later and elsewhere are woven right into the lived now. Tomorrow according to Today The ways in which one envisages the future evolution of the neighborhood offer a remarkable convergence of perspectives. and you. . and when a bit of air is blowing. there was a moon all big and round. with their foliage. an imaginary world that turns its back on functional space and suddenly opens up an unhoped-for prospect. one is not on earth. . . . it’s not always flat. . And yet. which stretches 150 . Seizing hold of these spatial clues and transforming them. When removed from their context by someone’s floating and dawdling attention. near the elevator. there’s the sun. One example is given by the irruption of the rural within the most massive sort of urban world. .

The way of imagining Arlequin’s tomorrows is organized on the basis of the present. “When I’ll go everywhere [ . A female inhabitant who said. you see old armchairs. It would be a pigsty in no time at all.” Physical deterioration as well as a deterioration of the social climate seem like they are going to arise little by little of their own accord. ] I’ll be myself. 151 . . One then imagines the forces that might be able to check such a decline through a reinforcement of social activities. according to certain signs. And. Reading these statements from the inhabitants. disaster is already conjugated in the present tense: If there are some people who are a bit filthy. The Arlequin is already. what it could be tomorrow. if abandoned. . later. it’s a disaster. the two major guarantors to whom.” “everything fallen apart. it appears that the sometimes fantastical evocation of the future brings us back to a way of living the possible in the present. and I like it a lot . you could no longer live here. very colorful. The apparent evocation of a future destiny is imperceptibly turned around into an immediate presence of the imaginary thus being convoked.” Now. and I would be quite afraid if the municipality abandoned it.O N T H E I M A G I N A R Y G R O U N D O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N from partial deterioration to cataclysmic disintegration: a “disaster. [ . the various forms of deterioration as well as the kinds of forces capable of “restoring discipline”—or of better supervising the maintenance and upkeep of the neighborhood—presently exist within everyday life. Yet then trivialization would become inevitable: “It would become a housing development like the other ones. . there will be a disaster. through the deliberate choice of making the neighborhood an ongoing creation. Facts lived everyday feed the possibilities envisaged. this neighborhood finds itself tied. huh? Because the New Town. ] If this became really unpleasant.” has too great a fear that the overall atmosphere might change in the meantime. . One keeps an eye out for the first signs of abstention or abandonment on the part of the activity coordinators and the municipality. Sometimes. . stuff lying about. . I feel a bit apprehensive for the New Town of tomorrow. Filthiness here promises to be filthiness everywhere. would be horrible! It would be a labyrinthine pigsty.” a “pigsty. because I find it really nice. as one inhabitant notes.

None of them has gone even once into the park.” Another inhabitant lives according to a style that is decidedly voluntaristic. Three heuristic examples will clarify straightaway how the imaginable is convoked in one’s ways of inhabiting frequented sites. She hopes it will always be “nice” and “colorful”—whence her understandable fear that the nocturnal world. Three inhabitants repeat each day the same short trips. spatially speaking. For the first inhabitant. Here we find it in the process of organizing the latent yet fundamental presence of the imaginary in the lived experiences of inhabitant expression. the windiness outside. Whatever the variations in atmosphere might be. and they are unfamiliar with most of the buildings. For these three inhabitants. or as uninhabitable. has no project for a more expansive appropriation. she imagines the rest of the neighborhood as a space that is to become appropriated more and more by everyone and to be lived in the mode of “encounter. the rest of the neighborhood is evoked and convoked in the present. Synecdoche was presented as a fundamental figure of a walking rhetoric. But this ignorance implies nothing unimaginable. who is very disturbed by his short daily trip in the mezzanine. The uninhabited elsewhere stands out already as inhabitable possibility. and these modalities are qualified according to the style of inhabiting belonging to each one. the carcasses of bicycle frames and the shells of old cash registers” he steps over each day. A regular at various activities.” The enormous qualitative charge affecting such brief trips (the narratives are quite long and always different from one day to the next) highlights her walking as a way of inhabiting the whole neighborhood. and the Arlequin neighborhood as a whole is evoked for him by the “garbage and vomit. Each day he traverses his daily hell. the neighborhood in its globality is evoked as a possibility that is appropriable little by little. The third inhabitant. they occupy only a very small part of the neighborhood. Each of them evokes in his or her own way the rest of the neighborhood. And these obser152 .O N T H E I M A G I N A R Y G R O U N D O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N The Whole according to the Part The process of synecdoche manifests itself again as these evocations and convocations of the everyday imaginary unfurl. and maintenance neglect might come to impede her project of inhabiting the area and confine it to what she calls “my corner that I’ve made for myself.

thought would be pleasant. equivalency. the accidental. This twofold movement—which. and even favorable to the blossoming of a genuine “social life”? Why is the color not necessarily cheerful. And. each in their own moment. and transparency. These characters are capable. more propitious for encounters with others. is this not. the alien. the “real” is the presently lived site. Such a globality. not even one who travels widely across the territory of the neighborhood. in their representations. If inhabitant expression deforms and derealizes planned urban totalities. the totality is reimagined as globality. in fact. the real totality offers no foothold. Moreover. 153 . it is radically unimaginable. succeeds in making his everyday life coincide with the spatial totality. No inhabitant. One’s steps cite and configure at the same time a space whose nature is nontotalizing yet globalizing. accentuates sometimes the evoked. in the narratives we have gathered. why does it not render forms light and “transparent”. of insinuating themselves into those particularities that will predominate in this or that present and in such and such a possibility. the disturbing possibilities the process of conception-production had evacuated reappear all the more in one’s not represented. who are split between two extreme cases: that of the voluntaristic project of appropriation and that of fascinated abandonment. the eventful. through it. is constituted through the evocation of the possible and the convocation of the imaginary within the atmosphere of the present act of inhabiting. which gives itself out as the common ground of inhabitant expression. The style of the first inhabitant offers the example of an intermediate case: that of a rather balanced articulation between her project and the resistance it encounters. permeability. In everyday life. sometimes the convoked—refers us back to one and the same imagining power in which the possible and the present are mutually responsive.O N T H E I M A G I N A R Y G R O U N D O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N vations hold for the inhabitants as a whole. and their contraries—are also found to be convoked or evoked. why are the volumes not always reassuring? Yet all that took on meaning only in an overall project in which everything was all too well tied together. Given in homogeneity. on account of the implementation of this imaginary ground in which the lived present draws its corrosive quality? Why are harmful characters experienced in places the designers of the spaces. The same outstanding common characters—the nocturnal.

Against the diurnal transparency of a technological habitat. usage. and the nocturnal. by hurling into the vacant lots of the irrational all that might cast doubt on rational rules and the clear and distinct conceptions governing both thinking about space and its planned production. this way of confining the irrational and the polysemous in the seedier parts of town. the imaginary would be the mere complement. the imagination looks like it is abiding in a space of its own. A study of everyday life that is attentive to singularities and to details would show that in it lies a power whose import is ill evaluated by the universe of technical production. the unforeseen. the facile foil. a strategic effect? Yet.O N T H E I M A G I N A R Y G R O U N D O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N but rather lived. which is characterized by the following modalities: refusal 154 . set in opposition the forces of the accidental. Is not this reduction of a concrete power into a psychological faculty. From this perspective.”19 Three Powers of the Lived Imaginary The imaginary does not have the phantasmagoric and unstable character one ordinarily assume it has. Everything that the former would not accept would be thrown out as dross in the latter domain. Examples of social deviance. unco-optable forms of urban conduct. the imaginary can still. a sort of mental territory that is not to surpass certain limits and that is called upon during quite a specific set of activities: connecting perceptions. of the real. and everyday practices that remain inexplicable20 no doubt share a common bond. It is conceded a single liberty: it is allowed to go at will into the seemingly incidental field of aesthetics. in the suspect “zone” of the city of knowledge. so many additional attributes have been given to the diffuse and subterranean force of the imaginary. in the sense in which the imaginary has “an autonomous symbolic existence. Presented as one of our psychological faculties. being the compost of artistic and technical creation. preparing the genesis of concepts. They manifest in a point-like way and with a peculiar sort of irruptive violence the hidden presence of a forbidden imaginary of abiding. We have studied some of the most commonplace expressions of this way of being. through lived experience.

the fundamental presence of these two imaginary instantiated principles in every inhabitant expression. moreover. those spatial derealizations on whose basis the social code of appropriation and the articulatory process that defines the act of inhabiting are structured—signify. and rejection of exclusive disjunction. it exhibits the tenacity of that nocturnal realm we evoked earlier. which are entirely suitable to a logic of the imaginary. in this sense. we would have appealed to it in order to clarify some spatial practices that were too vague. those accidents and imponderables that readily justify the contention that one must always plan more. The first kind of definition would have straightaway put forward one function among others. The imaginary is a domain. One willingly grants the existence of heuristic and “marginal” cases. These two characters. Such a theoretical option—which. The second one. And yet the two principal walking figures—asyndeton and synecdoche. But it can hardly be granted that the essence of lived everydayness is grounded upon these same irrational instantiated principles and that. it is always ready to disturb the diurnal certitudes that feign to ignore it. which we now recall: 155 . We never completely leave its soil.O N T H E I M A G I N A R Y G R O U N D O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N of ongoing connection. And this paradigm illustrated better than any other in what sense the lived imaginary is the ground from which inhabitant expression draws its three principal powers.21 are to be found again both in ordinary urban practices and in exceptional ones. establishes itself bit by bit along the line of a concrete examination of everyday actions and until it reaches the point of the hitherto improbable affirmation of its decisive import. or conjunction. Instead of a formal definition of the imagination. In that case. we have preferred a genetic definition of the imaginary. the system of our certainties might be shaken to the core. which prejudges nothing. The term imagination conveyed too much the classical distinctions among various functions for us to have been able to use it here. Rational urban thinking will be scandalized by them. a field of action and of passion that spans the whole of our existence in space and in time. is quite common—will always demonstrate the incidental role of the imagination. Indeed. each in its own way. In its insistency beneath the apparent solidities of planned spatiality and functional uses.

But in order that a site might take on such an importance that the rest of the neighborhood or the city would be canceled out. and 156 . Likewise. One sensation sets the tone for all the others and overflows the apparent spatial limits that. all ambulatory figures border on synecdoche—which. Each one symbolizes in this first sense (evocation in a shortcut form) something imaginable with indefinite limits. the total is not suppressed.”22 In everyday life. In this sense. or is deferred. Power of reversibility. These reversals pertain to a process of symbolization that is peculiar to the imaginary and that outstrips what received knowledge says about it when it defines the symbol: “every concrete sign evoking something that is absent or impossible to perceive. 2. spanning affectivity. make the part stand for the whole. Thus. a particular sensorial condition is required. thanks to the absences and breaks made by asyndeton in planned space. determines the tonality of this atmosphere. between acted and suffered affect the most fundamental ways of living space according to time. the imaginary upsets constructed spatialities and derealizes them by the power to give the whole in the fragment. in addition. The climate of such and such a lived moment substitutes a sensorial and imaginary globality for the representation of the spatial totality. Power to exceed. it is convoked also under the form of an atmosphere enveloping the present. feeling. the still-green edge of lawn or some striking color—all these evoke in their own way absent possibilities of which they are discrete signs. the process of symbolization convokes at the same time that it evokes. the cardboard box of garbage half strewn across the floor of the gallery. But the quality of the present action that is to come.O N T H E I M A G I N A R Y G R O U N D O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N 1. Graffiti that are not understood. Evoked in the partial. Thus. They configure the space in their own way by first rendering it heterogeneous. between present and absent. Everyday conducts introduce chaos into the spatial organization produced by the developer and excess into foreseen functional operations. motor anticipation transforms into a tension between near and far. the evocation of a possible future on the basis of the present reduplicates the convocation of tomorrow in today’s inhabiting. The reversals between whole and part. And yet.

on the other hand the object. The imaginary weaves beneath each present lived experience a ground the imaginary immediately gives to it as world. If an image must be provided. One has rightly attributed to the imagination the functions of connection. It engenders an imaginary field that is the medium par excellence. the site of exchange between the drive-induced gesture and the environment. To the extent that everyday life can find meaning qua expression. The pregnancy of the imaginable in the climates of this or that moment. on the other. and all the spaces inhabited.O N T H E I M A G I N A R Y G R O U N D O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N motor function. 157 . on the other hand the world in itself. 3. and objective summonses emanating from the cosmic and social setting. the convocation. The imaginary is lived according to immediacy. of an evocable climatic globality—all these processes show that inhabitant expression lived in space and in time skips causal or rational sequences and does without streams of representations. on the one hand knowing. relate. the superimpositions between the convoked possibility and the evoked possibility. Reversibilities indicate that the evoked imaginary and the convoked imaginary are caught in a mutual genesis. Yet the imaginary connections hardly use conjunction and logical sequence at all. and synthesis. assembling. in the act of configuring space. on the one hand.”23 Finally. the same goes for rationalizing explanations that would yield on the one hand the subject. between the plurality of styles of inhabiting and commonly held modalities. a linear representation of time is absolutely alien to the lived modality of inhabiting. these same symbols produce imaginary resonances that are capable of mobilizing the presently lived act. The power of reversibility implies the rupture of chronological continuities and spatial contiguities. Power of immediacy. this “incessant exchange that exists at the level of the imaginary between subjective and assimilative drives. the imaginary proposes itself as the essential referent to which the moments of inhabiting. There is nothing about it of a “relation” of part to whole or of a “relation” of the individual to the “socius”. that of the circle would be more fitting to illustrate such circulations that carry the present toward the possible and bring the possible back toward the present through the vehicle of symbols.

and when. Is inhabitant expression but a series of rejections. in a rhythmic manner. and is its unity of meaning simply hypothetical? In short. These theoretical adjustments have taken place four times:24 when two fundamental figures. Are we rambling? On the one hand. that they are lived through a process of articulation. in the preceding 158 . inhabitant rhetoric would lead to a set of remarks that. when the body of inhabitant expression showed that acting and suffering are not two distinct instantiated principles but. finally. in overflowing the boundaries of the well-known and reassuring structure of the relation of signifier to signified. might end up straying into the realm of the arbitrary. One will also have glimpsed that this dynamism emanates from the imaginary. with only snatches of it being grasped and its empirical examination never ending? Is it only dispersal. rather. from errancy to errancy. This would thus be a contribution to present-day research on the imaginary roots of collective life. can the lived experience of inhabiting be told and understood only in the trace of a pure practice. have some noteworthy points interrupted our forward bound [élan] and invited us to take a look around. or just some babbling provocations launched against urban planning? Has it no internal necessity? Can it not be rephrased into a theory? Toward a Theory of Expression Just as the inhabitants whose steps we have followed sometimes stop in the course of their trips and look back on something or toward someone. forces for reorganizing a lived spacetime. rather. But. The progressive appearance of the global power of the imaginary leads us quite far afield. so. one will have had an adequate glimpse now of how everyday conducts are not forms of occupying a space that has been proposed to one but.O N T H E I M A G I N A R Y G R O U N D O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N At the outset of a patient reading of narratives of everyday life. on the other hand. we were seeking a change of scenery. synecdoche and asyndeton. along the itinerary of our investigation. when spatial derealizations brought to light by the code of appropriation scrambled the order of clear significations and indicated that everyday rhetoric also signified itself. referred ambulatory rhetoric back to a poetics rather than to prosaic statement.

the status of expression outstrips that of binary-structure signification in that it never functions in an arbitrary way. as a matter of fact. they would never depart from a climatic pregnancy that never leaves them totally “unmotivated.” The atmosphere brings together a veritable network of significations that envelop the lived presents. nothing in common among these four theoretical sketches of inhabitant expression that. walking rhetoric clearly differs from a linguistic process. Of the convocations and evocations of the imaginary that are mingled with “climates” and that ground the articulations of each inhabitant expression. no expresser remains the arbitrary instrument of what is to be expressed. However unremarkable our ways of inhabiting might be. everyday practices have expressed a rejection of the self-evident truths of planned space. on the other. Even if the space “traveled through” were the same. Is there. plainly persist in stating the existence of the polysemous and the arbitrary? Yet.”26 Finally. The 159 . however. On four occasions. It makes one understand that.25 Now.” Also. reversal. the fundamental presence of the imaginary in the regulatory system of lived inhabitant expression appears not only likely but necessary. the linear character of the signifier. at the level of the process of symbolization (which becomes concretized in spatial configuration through synecdoche and asyndeton). it could not be said. the ground of inhabitant expression proved to be imaginary and was to be characterized by the three powers of excessiveness. on the one hand. one need only bring up again the figures of inhabitant rhetoric in order to grasp that “expressers” outstrip the order of “convention” and that they are far from “unmotivated.O N T H E I M A G I N A R Y G R O U N D O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N pages. and immediacy. they are “a line. one never walks exactly in the same way. And the four forms of interpretation they called for seem to call into question the certainties of our knowledge of social space and to disturb our overly inured habit of seeking general causes and clear significations. Everyone knows the two principles on which the theory of the sign is grounded: the arbitrary relation between signifier and signified. In everything that inhabitant expression has manifested. as well as of collective relationships. expression is never carried out according to an arbitrary relation and does not unfold in a single dimension. as against determinate space and knowledge.

the globality of the inhabited space? One never finishes recounting the modalities of any one inhabiting. It already “holds” and “is valid” for itself. we come to suspect that the study of such modes finds no decisive end. There is still and always something else to say. And in its way of configuring the inhabited space. colliding against and shaking up the linearity of the statements made. ease of habitation or inhabitant malaise) refers back to the mode of expression. as well as that of the analyses made about it. In addition. the narratives of the inhabitants. a reversal from 160 . sidetracks our habits of thinking in terms of exclusive disjunction. qua mode of expression already loaded with meaning. through which an object is this or else that and cannot be qualified in a contradictory way. in its multiple dimensions? Is it not true that each lived moment in this or that site implies and convokes. the mode of expression implies straight off what it endeavors to express. if one does not succeed in making a complete tour around this inhabitant expression and exhausting its expressive force. on the other hand. can be exasperating from the “scientific” outlook. the strangeness of such expression. move about from one detail to another. like our ways of reading them. The same goes for our attempts at analysis. This “nonfinite” character of the narrative of everyday life. What is expressed (for example. rather. is it not that its nature has nothing linear about it and that it must be understood. Yet in the end is it a matter of contradiction or of contrariness? It is not contradictory that there might be at once a relation of the expresser to what is expressed and. are hampered by the linguistic process one must indeed use. in a manner that is not arbitrary and yet is pregnant in its concrete plural forms. which likes to tour all the way around questions and put a decisive full stop. through our understanding that the modes of inhabiting have meaning only under a regulatory system of expression. which functions in an immediate as well as mediated manner. And yet. And in its linear stretch. As for us. No doubt. this linguistic process has a hard time accounting for the expression of a practice that is itself already lived as an expression. or binary principle of noncontradiction. The narratives turn back around and take up in another way what was said.O N T H E I M A G I N A R Y G R O U N D O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N signifier holds and is valid only by virtue of the signified content. avoidance or the seeking out of a qualified site.

Having “unfolded” in this way. This contrariness nevertheless has permitted us not to betray the lived experience of various particularities and to spurn hastily arrived at abstractions. It offers no operative interest. of the eventful from the everyday. and we lack the notions to do so. because the first goes from immediacy to the exposition of mediations and distinctions and the second from the mediated and the successive to immediacy. of the present from the absent. The most evident one is developmental movement. the lived practice of inhabited space displayed itself in accordance with two movements. It is quite difficult to give a theoretical representation of this. one could say. The whole was given in the part. It has also allowed us to sift out the shared principles involved in multiple ways of inhabiting. and a configuration is displayed in figures. of the acted from the suffered. from expressed to expresser. And yet these two movements thwart each other. a movement of unfolding in spatiotemporal succession by which one step follows another. a path ends in a stationary position. the theory of expression no longer exists. the imaginary ground was convoked immediately in this or that lived here and now. of such and such an aspect of movements of appropriation from another. These movements of explication and implication that appeared in our attempt at an approach in fact make up the fundamental mode of inhabiting that gives itself out as expression. the various modes of inhabiting allowed one to see the elements of their composition and authorized the disjoining of this or that figure from some other one. Or rather. Although they are contraries. The connections. What is this third movement? A theory can account for this coincidence of contraries only by 161 . a movement of constriction. these movements are lived simultaneously. could thus appear at all levels of analysis. can we find a way of thinking that accounts for expression’s status and presents it in a theoretical form? Examined in its concrete operation.O N T H E I M A G I N A R Y G R O U N D O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N the expressed to the expresser that can be contracted into immediacy. As a test and in a transitional way. The second is an enveloping movement. like the absences of connection. the possible coexisted beneath the present. of the possible from the present. it is not usable in any production technology. in which the elements developed in the preceding movement convoke one another mutually: from expresser to expressed.

Implication is the movement in which modal particularities convoke one another. Complication. of totalizing union. and for the diverting and paradoxical powers of the imaginary. Finally. the expressed referring back to the expresser with each expression wrapping itself up in the others. is at once the state of envelopment expressed through implication and the movement that expresses itself through explication. complication seals the status of expression. and complication. Explication corresponds to the movement of modal exposition. which here has the meaning of global inclusion. These three specific notions have been borne by a—nevertheless suspect27—current of thought that became established especially with Nicholas of Cusa and Giordano Bruno. Simultaneity and succession as well as immediacy and mediacy coincide there in the same sense. This autonomy. of an expression that configures and allows how expression configures itself to appear. implication. it accounts for the way in which the part gives itself out as the whole and the whole can be convoked in the part. Both ground and power at one and the same time. for the meaning of these at once contrary and concomitant movements of differentiation and identification. This triad probably provides the most pertinent means for giving theoretical unity to all that the lived modes of inhabiting have allowed to appear in the diversity of their articulatory forms. which are eminently suitable for thinking expression.O N T H E I M A G I N A R Y G R O U N D O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N appealing to a third term. which manifested themselves in the code of appropriation. which can be defined in theoretical terms by the notion of complication. Everyday existence expresses itself practically in the modes of inhabiting that express in turn an autonomous power of expression. One must go back rather deep into the history of thought. Whatever the object to which they may be applied. but also for the cohesion of walking figures in spatial configuration. one can preserve the meaning of these notions. of successive development. back to the Renaissance. It accounts for what we named the process of sensorimotor articulation. the same meaning: lived experience of inhabiting does not have to express anything other than itself. We are talking about explication. All these processes have. in order to find a triad of notions capable of giving coherence to the representation of the status of expression. is not an everyday delusion that would be superim162 . in short.

Otherwise. but relates essentially to what expresses itself as distinct from the expression itself. yet bears no resemblance to it. in short. “what is expressed” has no existence outside its expression. the expressed has a very paradoxical status. to remove from them the unimaginable reality with which they are adorned. as Deleuze notes. grasped as expression. and so retains only the couple “expresser-expression”. implicit.29 One grasps clearly only one or the other of the two movements. wound up in its expression. the expressive power will not allow any meaning to appear. Expression thus bears within itself a double movement: one either takes what is expressed as involved [on enveloppe]. when recognized as expression. the meaning of being-able-to-express. It cannot be performed with clarity and binary distinctions. A collective habitat is perhaps even a matter of choice—yet. does a theory of inhabitant expression seem barely conceivable today? The notions that would allow such an approach have been emptied out. Now. Indeed. the complication that gives coherence to the status of the expression comes undone and is split up. the approach remains particularly difficult. theory brings “expressions” back up to the expressed—the expressed being. Why. this paradox exceeds the dualisms and the properly distributed conjunctions that govern a dominant mode of thinking-producing. Indeed. can be deleterious if it itself recognizes itself and that would show what threat it would then evoke. finally. or one unfolds [on développe]. It is precisely the paradoxical status of the expressed that would show how an act of inhabiting. it is inevitable in present-day building production— about which everyday lived experience can manifest its buried and unnoticed powers. This is because. Quite to the contrary. a lived experience of inhabiting has the power to deform these habitat situations one hardly chooses.O N T H E I M A G I N A R Y G R O U N D O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N posed upon the prosaic “usage” of the laid-out and developed space. unwinds expression so as to restore what is expressed (leaving the couple “expresser-expressed”).28 But furthermore. Let us cite Deleuze once again: 163 . and one will no longer understand what was to be expressed. explicates. And yet the attentive analysis of one of the two must not lose sight of its complement.

the wealth of inhabitant expressions has hardly been exhausted at all. our very approach will have related only one “story” of everyday life among others. I did not know where I was. We have been told over and over again that all capacity to inhabit space in an active way has by now disappeared. In order to make one and the same final discovery—namely. What is expressed is sense: deeper than the relation of causality. I follow it. perhaps. towards where I thought it should rise. of a discourse that reproduces categories that would not in the least be disavowed in the universe that makes a profit from the production of space? Although concerned with fidelity. that. and in the evening.31 164 .O N T H E I M A G I N A R Y G R O U N D O F I N H A B I TA N T E X P R E S S I O N In short. in envy. rather. when I am abroad. beyond ideal representation. our approach has bided its time.30 We have proceeded from the most spatial forms of everydayness to the sketch of a theory of expression. deeper than the relation of representation. Beyond real causality. what is expressed everywhere intervenes as a third term that transforms dualities. under the heading of one and the same fundamental similarity. abandoning itself to the “gray tones [griseurs]” of the everyday. I don’t know why I told this story. the quicker to come to light. When I am abroad in the morning I go to meet the sun. Let us therefore finish up without ending by referring to a few lines from Samuel Beckett that will translate the lived experience of the climate surrounding our own itinerary: Dawn was just breaking. Borne by the inhabitants’ narratives. and thus playing at varying the paths it takes. that inhabitant expression expresses first of all itself—many other approaches would have been possible and they remain so. Living souls. allowing itself almost to be surprised by events. of the time of inhabiting that it has taken pleasure in making apparent. But has inhabitant practice been able already to express itself? Would we not have betrayed its ingenuity in favor. inhabiting power is henceforth impotent. you will see how alike they are. till I am down among the dead. what is expressed is discovered as a third term that makes distinctions infinitely more real and identity infinitely better thought. While the lived experience of inhabiting now gives itself out as expression. I made towards the rising sun. despite its sporadic efforts. I could just as well have told another. I would have liked a sea horizon or a desert one. Perhaps some other time I’ll be able to tell another. that the soul of our cities is dying. Here we are at the end of our change of scenery.

Such a procedure would have no meaning here. Than that given to it by the form and the rhythm of your steps. traffic plans) will have to add up an increasing quantity of parameters and. —Traditional Vedic saying There are conclusions that. put a full stop to the question being treated and offer it up as a finished object.Conclusion A Cosmogenetic Point The space open before you does not have any other measure. restoration. the inhabitants will still be able to “find themselves” within it. our wish is that it would invite one to return to this infinitely more precious and rich text on which ambulatory practices write without their tiring and which they recommence each day upon an urban space that seemed to reject them or remove all signification from them. in ending a book. secure for itself a more and more general mastery of space. any other quality. a preliminary sketch. This book remains a rough draft. it ends nothing. new neighborhoods. On the contrary. If the “constraints” and the “imperatives” in whose name development is carried out are really necessary. the answer is simple. Before formulating this invitation more fully. in our cities beset by an unprecedentedly vast undertaking of planning. we shall take stock [nous ferons le point] of the situation. The singularities 165 . In a way. One of the great concerns of our time is to know for how long. The process of urban production (renovation. the preconception of spatial practices in the form of functional usages would have to keep on growing. for this very reason.

A housing complex can be lived only partially. the answer is undecidable. inhabitant expression will be apparent there or will not. but abstract. we would see that the categories of “use” and of housing [logement] correspond only very partially to our ways of inhabiting. inhabitant expression proposes an entirely different configuration of space. they are reduced in advance. Thus do we believe that concrete is steeped in ideology as well as in economics. a particular way of forming space and qualifying it. taken from within the neigh166 . be it only for the time of conducting an analysis. which are real. We would summarize this way in the following proposition: Planned space is conceived and is achieved only on the basis of a representation of its totality. Lived space seems to become an accident of conceived space. and the degree of rigidity extant in the field of knowledge in which an analysis of spatial practice is conducted. The “real” is the territorial whole and the functional partitions that are arranged therein. entities) have no weight. everything essential is stated. the limits. this reduction is again reduplicated through an epistemological choice that gives out the totality as essential and the fragmentary as accidental or incidental. In another way. the social unit of everyday life is the aggregate. if we wanted the point of view to change. and classified in general terms. Depending on the capacities. codified in the profile of the typical inhabitant. if the requirements of economic imperatives were to be bracketed. not the class or the social group. Indeed. It is hard to see how they could be reconciled. if we were to take into account everyday existence in town not as it is represented but as it is lived. Yet. When a new neighborhood rises from the ground. Let us examine one final example. All the rest is grounded in a globality that is imaginary in nature. There exists but one actual state of fact: the planning imperative of urban space reduces1 the power of inhabitant expression. Not only that. All the rest is but imaginable. The singular “occupants” are to be satisfied with architectural forms and are to satisfy a way of life largely prepared in advance. The production of planned space has its own rhetoric.CONCLUSION lived by inhabitants who are isolated or in small groups (for. Now. These propositions are antithetical. with absences that render the space heterogeneous. The “real” is the presently lived fragment of space. in a discrete manner.

The children no longer had to illustrate. Quite different. No longer do we see those ridiculous stick figures that had been pushed so far back. the interesting deformations peculiar to children’s sense of graphics: a window standing out in a close-up and certain anamorphoses of architecture regularity. Games”—a proposition that was as abstract and reifying as could be and one to which these children from six to eight years old responded to the best of their abilities. shunting into a far-off view what they were living every day. to propose. Everything depends on the way in which the questions are posed. Only two drawings depicted the interiors of the studios of the “Video-Gazette” and the judo classroom. not even under the gallery. which will illustrate this determining factor. none inside the passageway. The “first prize” is described in the following terms by one of the competition’s organizers: Very interesting. and with. with this universe of concrete which seems to be falling to the side in which it is leaning. rather. the buildings blocking out the horizon. and with. Also. nothing within the apartments.CONCLUSION borhood we have studied. It no longer was a matter of representing a totality but. Noteworthy is the fact that all these drawings represented the Arlequin neighborhood as seen from rather far away. How had the organizers of this competition billed the topic? “The New Town. but. of course. rather. the proposed theme was no longer spectacular in character. the grass and the flowers. But no building “interiors” were to be seen. the figures are now quite filled out. drawings done by neighborhood children appeared in the windows of local businesses. of giving voice to a space that was familiar to them and that they drew as they were configuring 167 . During the spring of 1974. It was now aimed at inducing the inhabitants to be more concerned about cleanliness in the public spaces of the neighborhood. to convince. This time.” Other children’s drawings were exhibited in the same storefront windows in late 1979. by way of contrast. these later drawings allow us to glimpse gestures. in front. the expressiveness of their drawings stuck much more closely to everyday lived experience. This was the best “landscape. to account for something. sketches of some lived relationship to this or that part of the space. the Inhabitants.

“dominated.CONCLUSION it every day. or too.” “co-opted. they had to mobilize it. real production of the built world and the preconceptions it induces. however limited in its means as it might appear— ought to underscore. rather. three surprises provoked by the evocation of an inhabitant expression whose discrete existence seemed to us not to signal the obsolescence of a nowcensured power but. in a lucid way. that beside. Our interpretive essay on everyday life does not claim to resolve the contradictions that render urban life difficult. across the very. Would it not be fruitful to accept. to point to the possibility of another interpretation of the urban universe. and beyond an epistemological choice that has always made it its goal to focus back on [recentrer] representations and concepts. is one not likening [assimile] it to an insignificant remainder. the mechanisms for the production of planned space while keeping in mind the psychological and social consequences such mechanisms can entail. Nor is it trying to substitute itself for the kinds of investigations that have been conducted since the mid-sixties by researchers who are worried about the evolution of our world and who have taken great care to dismantle. before. however inaudible. a useless discarded by-product that cannot be assimilated by the present-day system of production and management of space. three main directions begin to take shape. finally. the tenacious persistence of a power of inhabitant expression. to treat as not necessarily fundamental this chronologically primary and spatially dominant instantiated principle we would call the order that proceeds from construction to renting. So. toward the empty and the polysemous? What is most unforeseen and what is most diverting risks shaking the convictions and certainties of the order that reduces the powers of inhabiting. something simply left over? One wonders whether this inhabitant power still exists. They were no longer required to fill in the space. dross. In this sense. when it has been so well demonstrated time and again that it has been reduced.” Perhaps it is sometimes necessary to shift the emphasis. the lived experience of inhabiting might lead us toward the outlying [excentré] and the excessive. But by repeating too often that the lived dimension is scoria. this is not some full stop [point final] 168 . Perhaps a commentary—however modest.

a singular space and a singular time. there are some countryside areas where architecture shows us that building depends on inhabiting. It is itself a modality liable to variations. is characteristic of “advanced” technological societies in which the edifice becomes an object for sale. rather. The kind of edifice that could be called an oeuvre. our understanding of the city would develop differently. implying time. or of what social castes it was the work. an edifice indicated of what people.” building is directly expressive of inhabiting. it is socially oriented (and not merely a support for the juxtaposition of social elements) and open to tension and to conflict. wind.CONCLUSION that we shall be placing at the end of our essay but. rain. It seems that today the domesticity of the home and the monumentality of the palace or of the temple have been reduced and assimilated into the concept of one’s “premises” [immeuble].3 Building is already inhabiting. of what classes. has become a product of the commercial economy. it is qualifying. in a lived way. a cosmogenetic point. 169 . In the past. and sun). indigenous-foreign) are given articulation. a work. We shall broach its movement in three ways. near-far. an object to be filled in. It incorporates ways of being. An Inhabiting without Building The concept of building and the reality it designates have disappeared or are on the way to disappearing. our universal convictions.2 Starting from this point. So. especially. in a healthy way. What is certain is that the disappearance of an act of building as implantation. Reading an eminently enlightening yet still quite descriptive work that is lacking in theoretical pretensions such as Pierre Desfontaines’s L’Homme et sa maison suffices to shake up. as configuration of space on the basis of the forms and functions of an immediate necessity (shelter against the cold. that it is constituted as a space of tensions in which functional necessities (shelter formed in accordance with the region’s climatic conditions) as well as symbolic instantiated principles (earth-sky. diurnal-nocturnal. contrary to the kind of constructing that produces abstract “housing-cells” dimensioned in “ratios. There exist throughout the world some medium-sized towns that are still unscathed by the influence of urbanism and.

” It has become all too obvious that the process of construction always precedes the process of inhabiting or housing. on the one hand. what the economic and functional imperatives of production had implied from the start is treated merely as an unfortunate accident.CONCLUSION Because both bring into play the same articulatory process. Inhabiting is configuring space. the play of transformations brought on by economic considerations is not the only thing at issue. in the representations of the ideology of urbanism. the ways in which one makes use of one’s housing have been preconceived as soon as the urbanistic and architectural project begins. the denial of all genuine mastery4 and the referral of the housing question back to some mysterious and fateful “social mechanisms. The change that has been carried out has taken place through an objectifying representation of housing. Recognition of inhabitant expression thenceforth entails an inevitable corollary we must underscore. The 170 .” excluded from the productive act. Whence a limitation of respective responsibilities: each contributor (urbanist. In this sense. without knowing it. an organization of space. however utopian it might be. Reduced to a “being housed. And every inhabitant produces. financier. and then manager and owner) can avoid his own duty to respond and can hand over to the other “responsible parties” any discontented “occupant” who might contact him. one’s habitat becoming a housing-object. to the end of a long series of distinct sequences that extends from conception (from projectation. Whence. also. properly speaking. the proposition is also reversible. Such an organization is ingenuous. but also indicative of a fundamental power that architectural science merely exploits through the skills of its technical prowess. as one says in the world of urbanism) to the delivery of the product. architect.” Thus. this change has relegated the appearance of the habitat. It has made it possible to think in terms of a standardized product constructed in a repetitive manner. Even more than that. In other words. on the other hand. the concrete act of housing is never taken into account in the production process as a whole. If the power of building has been occulted and the term inhabiting has become a doublet for housing. the lived experience of the inhabitant is ultimately handed over to the vagaries of the “housing market. there is a connaturality between the act of building and that of inhabiting.

more modest and more immediate. one will at least really have to ask oneself one day no longer. “What is housing?” in the sense of mere lodging but. And its potentialities are still exercised in a virtual way in the obscure confrontations between inhabitant expression and constructed space. those who do not have the power to manipulate easily discursive codes. for it has rid itself of lived time. Building is missing-in-action. be it only in order to subvert them.CONCLUSION process that goes from constructing to housing is grounded upon a split. We would say. To point out that every edifice is overdetermined on an everyday basis (that is to say. that is. we would prefer to grant. not dead. The process that goes from inhabiting to building is grounded upon an organic correspondence. rather. It is dead absolutely. those who undergo or suffer the forms of fashion but hardly create them at all. it is already conceptuality. we will offer no backward-looking conclusions. might deconstruct the trivial and too convenient dichotomy that equally dismisses both urbanistic production and the inhabitants. if inhabitant power were recognized as a configurative force and a virtual potentiality of building and if the housing question were posed on the basis of lived modes of inhabiting rather than in the representation of an object to be filled in. In this sense. as soon as its first object is sketched out. as a plausible outcome. It is one that might beneficially upset the instituted categories. self-construction. We are speaking about those for whom utopian syntheses are beyond their ken. rather. “What is inhabiting?” 171 . There is another consequence. But this outcome will remain an exotic dream for most inhabitants of high-density housing complexes. And rather than calling for a return to the past. already fixed in place. or a defect in the perception of the “legibilities” of architecture): this is the sense in which an interpretation of everyday life. If one no longer knows what building is. inhabiting retains its power to configure and to imagine by foiling what is implanted as thetically real in our “modern” cities. as soon as one lays down the first stone. one attentive to its expressive features. that all everyday lived experience convokes the other and the world in each inhabited site—and to refuse to represent this overdetermination as some sort of dysfunction. a semantic mix-up. Cut off from building. that the “modern” is what has just died.

other than through categories familiar to the very actors who produce the built world. between the observed and the observation. that project “would never reach the end of them. When it comes to everyday life. to practices lived upon a group-housing space.” trivializing in the view of scientific knowledge. our investigation. leaving to the narrative of “lived experiences” the expressive form that is peculiar to it.” Must one deduce from this that—setting aside the functional aspect 172 . one that this investigation has not finished “touring around. which has privileged an approach to intermediate sites (walking paths) and a study of details.” Settled into this intermediate realm. and of small variations over time. but that. by inserting within some causal system these sometimes surprising and “savage”-looking everyday banalities? By refusing to stick to a formal ending. be surprising. Should it have found the causes of the “mechanism. which has been examined concretely on a precise “terrain” following a method that is as attentive and faithful as possible to the myriad detours and the many moments of spatiotemporal practices. There really is not a tropism. to the overall metaphorization of inhabiting into a “housing. lingering amid what is intimate and familiar. however. of accidents and irregularities. nevertheless ends up allowing a regulatory system of expression to appear. that our comments would venture no further than this intermediate zone. Before looking for the “whys. finally. the choice of one modal lane limits the transcriptions and betrayals of that at which observation aims.” ought one not allow the “hows” to express themselves in the style that is peculiar to them? It will. does not culminate in a system of primary causes. speaking of inhabiting. Not that the project would fail to culminate in a few propositions. and without which it would have no meaning. our change of scenery does not exit therefrom. and. waiting upon and staying near to these expressions of everydayness. but rather a similarity of nature.” and by grasping modes of living other than through “why” questions. The interpreter is to blend into the everyday and to refrain from making any premature analytic divisions.CONCLUSION An Inhabiting without a “Why?” This question. any hasty abstractions. and perhaps scientifically scandalous.

a logic that is heavy with consequences: It leads to resolving inequalities. we must mention here the formidable question of needs. The logical presuppositions involved authorize a logistics. In the process.” the “users. which for several years has cluttered up research in the social sciences and which barely conceals a return to the old debate between vitalism and mechanism. on the basis of social movements and their dynamic. Social life is abstracted into the notion of need. the most glaring needs are satisfied along the way. Yet.” and. just as people’s practices are reduced to various functions. how are needs apprehended and interpreted? You look at the “masses. and contradictions engendered by capitalism through a vast welfare apparatus [ . in any case.5 This logic practically lays down the answer before the question is asked. in any case. Thenceforth. Moreover. Are needs “natural. 173 . or else products of social change conditioned by the relations of production? Do they refer back to a “deep-seated” desire that takes form in accordance with the conditions of the moment. whereas the “how” intends things.CONCLUSION (housing). which alone is taken into account in the listing of necessary causes (the economic. or else are they historically created? The problematic of needs includes. you extract a social content: needs. at least possible. the power of the giver is reinforced and the necessity of his presence is confirmed. ]. inhabiting has to be understood rather as a movement than as an aesthetic object. if not easy. deprivations. In order to illustrate this radical difference in orientation and to signal at the same time another opening indicated in the modal study of inhabiting. the political)—the everyday practices we have been tailing behind are pointless [gratuits] objects? Will one ascribe to them what Angelus Silesius said of the rose: “The rose is without a why”? Although the poetic nature of the act of configuring space has become apparent to us. people must be able to “inhabit” an individual or collective space. it is averse to the “why.” signs of vital appetites.” because the “why” no longer intends anything but representations. and under its cloak. The abstraction of “functionality” is inserted into a logic that is grounded on the relation of container to contained. every sort of manipulation is. . . It does not suffice to “house” people.

CONCLUSION in the sense of an operational strategy. to advance an understanding that everydayness holds more than a “social behavior” obsessed by the search for its wants and its satisfactions. Thus. and to refer this occulting problematic back to those who are the masters of the question and who have. and it is so as much through the mechanisms of construction as through the ways of defining “housing-objects. a priori. the effect cut off from the cause.6 The rehabilitation of a status for expression in the social sciences may invite one to think in another way.7 with its cohort of (legal. It is new because it is rational to an unprecedented degree. The new conformism passes through the filter of needs: The happy consciousness—the belief that the real is rational and that the system delivers the goods—reflects the new conformism which is a facet of technological rationality translated into social behavior. housing is represented as the product ad extra. Such a way of thinking will always keep one from recognizing that what inhabitant expression expresses first of all is itself. all concrete sociability and lead one to consider the instantiated principle of the collective as a collection of juxtaposed individuals whose unity would reside in the Establishment. over which one no longer has any grasp. economic. which includes anticipations of people’s use. The first advantage of our lingering over the modalities of lived experience and of our pursuing the discovery of them would be to dismiss such abstract objectifications that slice up. sociocultural. produced the answer.” “short-term objectives. and the signified from the signifier. short-circuiting the modal. at the same. Thus.) 174 . The effect always has to be distinct from the cause. and the unstable is equivalent to objectifying inhabiting. In this sense.” and pairs of concepts of the need/satisfaction type by means of which one turns out “household objects” and those ridiculous “subjects” of use that are so many individual props for consumption. the intermediate. etc. There is a way of thinking that is expert in the mechanisms for a domineering sort of production of urban space. to cast into doubt a methodology that separates the content from the container. The logic of urbanistic thought grants only a transitive causality. lived experience would be only the accidental signifier of much more general and essential instantiated principles.

of its conflicts.CONCLUSION establishments. It will be doubted that such a power to imagine—about which one knows only its momentary and fleeting role as an intermediate faculty in perceiving and knowing—might appear as the force by which we do not live the fragmentary as it is given to us. not yet “resolved” possibilities. For. memory of the powers of which it is capable. or alongside. How could the abstract principle of homogenization not be the only way of reading identities and convergences of meaning? And how—opposite. The second advantage of such an approach would be to deliver inhabitant expression to us in the immediacy of its tensions. spiritus phantasticus. “The fear of meaning—and especially of double meaning!—is the major terror of our intellectual pedagogy. whose reveries. this thetic principle—could an imaginary persist in its irreducible power of expression and insist upon proceeding through homology rather than through clear-cut divisions and distinctions? But does not such a surprise also conceal a fear? This would be the fear of the possible sudden emergence of a groundswell that no measuring stick succeeds in gauging and that no reason is certain to be able to contain. only five centuries separate us from a culture in which the imaginary (phantasia. and whose outbursts can be accepted in a pinch as quite natural diversions—as escapades that. from the overflowing nature of a rhetoric of lived inhabiting. yet still disturbing.” Gilbert Durand points out. One will be surprised that an imaginary whose mischievousness. as was said at the time) had been recognized 175 .8 And if the imaginary appears to be the common ground of these excesses. of its not yet reduced. in order to limit onself to the Western orbit. of these double or multiple meanings. from the ambiguity. The devaluation of the imaginary and the will to reduce its force barely conceals a vague. when all is said and done. actually favor the reproduction of the labor force—might overflow its confines and give itself out as the ground of the lived experience of inhabiting. the resulting surprise could verge on perplexity. An Irreducible Imaginary The third surprise will come from the excessiveness.

10 brings into play the pregnancy of archaic space. on the near side of conscious perception as well as on the far side of rational knowledge. at the same time.CONCLUSION as the fundamental intermediary.11 Crossed with the drive for imitation. such an imaginary would nevertheless have more effective value than a merely suffered imaginary or one in which its activity is represented as defenseless and contingent. contiguity. preconceived. This moment. the ornamental drive. these drives nevertheless deteriorate into divisions and fixations: forms and functions are conceptualized separately. It was not so long ago the key to the understanding of the world and of multidimensional man. the deterioration. While thus reduced and desiccated. a spontaneous analysis would not be loath to underscore the unevenness. on which the most creative writers lay stress and whose brevity and limits they regret. on the basis of the lived experience of inhabiting. and distribution. and the drive for order. the imaginary 176 . the imaginary would be liberated in a superfluous sort of way in leisure (otium or opium?). and not of conceptually designed housing. reduced to the domain of productivity. posited in order to figure. The study of everyday walks indicates. and dynamic tension going on in the humblest acts of inhabiting than in the very process that produces the contemporary built world. The conceptual design would exploit the imaginary all more actively as it produces a material reality that occupies the space (and the ground of this space gives itself out as “realestate” reality. implicitly or explicitly imagined when there is a “social project. This points to an opening and to an investigative lead in which. on the contrary. the drive to play. designers of urban space figure into their consumer product the image of a world that implies nothing other than filling in. And yet. The imaginary becomes an instrumental moment in the production of the edified space.” Among inhabitants. “landed” reality) and as the use is anticipated. rather. and the force of the schematism becomes fixed in set schemata. from the conceptual designer’s imaginary to the inhabitant imaginary. The form no longer is configuring but.9 Today’s rejection of an irreducible power of the imaginary manifests itself though the way in which the creative imagination is annexed and is. For whatever they are worth. configuration. that there really is much more creative movement.

as functioning of configured forms and not as simultaneous positing of preconceived functional forms. as essence in actu. result. the world begins in another way. the cosmogenetic point on the basis of which an inhabitant expression still exists and endeavors to fashion its world. As Paul Klee said: Nowhere. from which the study of urban existence could come to consider. The forms in which the dominant powers are set are deadly but fated. Scrupulous conceptual designers bow under the burden of an enormously bad conscience. even the most lucid critics render those who no longer know how to inhabit responsible for those who no longer know how to build.” The imaginary is. too. is the form to be considered as achievement. Everything is still played out in terms of “knowing” and of “conscience. and expression. “The world we have been given is bad.CONCLUSION functionally utilized in the production of laid-out and developed space might be confronted with an imaginary the inhabitant actually lives. in terms of force. “achieved appearance” 177 . in short. In making the universe of everydayness begin on the basis of what is given. and pure signitive relation.” In understanding everyday activity on the basis of its imaginary ground. as becoming. on the other hand.” It is said. positions. ever. And so. what in received ideas are represented to us as forms. and this expressive power of an irreducible imaginary (one ignored for this reason by discourses on construction and housing) would appear as a cosmogenetic point. with or against other worlds. The inhabited world. movement. It is seized as a structuration and not as structure. final term. that the form would be formation and configuration and that. A certain number of received values would then most likely be overturned. the world of manipulated technology is posited as the first cause. but as genesis. as if one were mere “filler. is convoked and reactivated in the realm of the conflictual and not in these falsely homogeneous “fillings-in” wherein each ends up representing himself in solitude and the expletive.12 In offering this passage for the reader’s contemplation. These formulations—namely. It is the strategic point. we shall apply it to the end of the present work in two senses. The form as achieved appearance is a bad and dangerous specter.

opus) to the lived experience of inhabiting than to the production of the built world and by overturning the vice of making all too obvious evaluations. the rhythm of their gaits. the way that turns its back on definitive “terms.14 178 . uncertain project has made its way.CONCLUSION would be a “dangerous specter”—sum up in an aphoristic way our intention here by giving a literally more operative sense (qua oeuvre. the one that opens itself out toward the eccentric.” on established relations. because their variations sidetrack and will still evade our certainties and our self-evident truths. the work becomes articulated “along the way. gained its ground. end up being brought together in the same idea of an oeuvre. a work that is already “along the way” and that calls for other variations. What we have discovered in the lived experience of inhabiting. The initial.” in passing from a uniform gait to varied gaits. inhabitant expression is a far cry from having said its last word. The time of this writing and the modes of inhabiting we had described have already been altered. Here. Faithful to the nature of inhabitant expression. Let us understand in this sense another phrase drawn from the same text by Klee: Through the identity of way and work. we have refused to give an end term [un terme] or a conclusion to it. Because they have the secret power to break up uniformity. In this sense. as elsewhere. The same remark also applies to our own itinerary. We wanted only to propose a transitory and transitive way of formulating the question of inhabiting. the intermediate. and on dogmas.13 Here we are already “along our way” at the invitation of everyday walks grasped in their movement. the paths of expression do indeed seem to lead somewhere. and the ambiguous calls for another future as well as for other investigations. and its end is only temporary. opera. and the way in which we have done it.

which stretches from the layout and development of space to the delivery of housing. and the forces of inhabiting are reduced to representations that are conceptualizable and manipulable. This representation is reproduced even in the general speech patterns of the inhabitants. two different orders. enjoins a representation of both the production of space and the usage of the spatial product.Appendix A Synoptic Table A formal conclusion would have been possible in the form of a synoptic table. The other one. 179 . On the one hand. • everyday details.”) On the other hand. or of inhabiting. The order of constructing-housing. It seems to us that two powers. subsists under the first of these and is grounded on an active sense of inhabitant action. modalities of lived experience. the modalities of inhabitant expression and the representations of constructing-housing stand in contradictory relation to each other. The order of inhabitant expression. are in constant confrontation with each other in everyday life. the order of constructing-housing covers over that of inhabiting and reduces it in two ways: • the constructed product is represented as bringing about housing usage. (And one will have glimpsed in what sense these contradictions can hardly be “resolved. One of these establishes itself through general representations (which are reproduced by the “user” and the “consumer”). We attempt a sketch of such a table here. which is buried and goes unnoticed. is rooted in the lived experience of the inhabitant.

finally. Yet. In that case.APPENDIX A This set of reductionist processes implies the convergence and the identity. Practical Hints In the double-paged tables that follow. that the arrangement of the table. such a table interests us only to the extent that it manifests this ultimate disavowal. or • one “takes a plunge” and one takes the point of view of the order of inhabiting. that the power of inhabitant expression remains irreducible and that. on the conceptual level. each numbered proposition stands in contradictory relation to the proposition bearing the same number on the facing page. In italics. The foregoing can be read in two possible directions. inhabitant expression remains alien to the logic of such a confrontation. Also. in short. Let us note. which is organized into three series for greater “clarity. since it is the most inconceivable one for the logic of the reductionist order (last even-numbered page of the table). and then the habitual process by which one buries the power of inhabiting can be rendered explicit. no attempt to resolve the basic contradictions between the two orders is viable. Either: • one takes the point of view of the reductionist order (the order of constructing-housing). every reading of the table in this second direction would show. In this sense. as well as to the metaphor of synoptic arrangement. one will read the logical and ideological reductions the 180 . of the mode of producing and the mode of thinking producing and usage. one must begin by reading the pages that inventory the principal categories of the reductionist order (odd-numbered pages of the table).” by itself betrays a problematic that does not succeed in ridding itself of the spatial paradigm cluttering up our thought. on account of this fact. The reading can then begin with the third principle of this order of inhabitant expression.

(The indication Reduction.APPENDIX A order of constructing-housing tries to apply to the noteworthy characteristics of the order of inhabiting. refers one back each time to the text in italics that is to be found on the respective odd-numbered page and in the same row.) 181 . which will be found on the even-numbered pages.

The representation of the globality of this space is imaginary in nature. cuts. In deforming the latter. Globality takes on meaning in each concrete articulation of inhabiting. its alienness.APPENDIX A first series : ORDER OF INHABITING First principle: Inhabited space is lived partially. its foreignness. Reduction : 3. in a discrete way (with absences). Reduction : 4. and opacities. Articulating the heterogeneous. it gives itself out as movement of configuration. inhabitant expression lives appropriation through the evocation or convocation of a conflictual sociability. which convokes it and evokes it. The rhythm of everyday life comes from the eventful. also through excesses and through overflows of the fragmented onto the constructed totality. A space is appropriable only on the ground of its strangeness. Reduction : 182 . Inhabited space is configured and marked by eventful memory. and in a heterogeneous way. Reduction : 2. Inhabiting expresses itself through breaks. expressions of this principle 1.

183 . The moments of everyday life are reduced to partial uses. and of mixture. ethnic differences. Themes of integration. of fusion. and as repetition.” Only what arises with at least a minimal form of organization is possible. Housing depends upon a state of planning in which each part receives its rightful place and finds itself juxtaposed to the others by virtue of an abstract delimitation of boundaries and upon a ground of continuity. Themes of transparency. Identification and establishment of a common denominator (spatial homogeneity) for all that can be alien (social differences. in various parts. to territorial assignments related to the abstract identity of the total territory. 2. conceivable. oper ative procedures a nd reductions of inhabiting 1. differences in everyday practices) leads to a process of abstract assimilation that tends to give itself out as real. Leveling of differences through the metaphors of “audible” discourses. and re-presentable. which tends toward closure. as partition within homogeneity. there is an absorption of the overall and primordial event: How will produced space be inhabited when it becomes use-space? 4. In production itself.APPENDIX A on homogenization ORDER OF CONSTRUCTION-HOUSING First principle: The space of the habitat is constructed only on the condition that there is a representation of homogeneity. 3. Appropriation is conceived as juxtaposition of appropriated sites. of the same relation of the subject to the object. Theme of the preconception of “social life. and of the opening of sites. It is handed over to use as a rational and real totality. planned space grants as an event only what is foreseeable. of fusion. The part has meaning only in its relation to the totality that “really” grounds it. In its system.

and to the pregnancy of variable atmospheres. Convocation of the sensorial totality that qualifies a multidimensional climate.APPENDIX A second series : ORDER OF INHABITING Second principle: Space is articulated through time. expressions of this principle 1. to the imaginable. Articulation of retention and protention. Reduction : 4. Reduction : 184 . to repetition in difference. The raw material of a regulatory system of inhabiting appears in those modalities of lived experience that are one’s everyday ways of being in space according to the time. Reduction : 2. — Movement of motor configuration. Articulated through time. — Appearance and disappearance of lived space. Lived time configures space through the possibility of the project and upon a ground of absence. space opens itself up to the possible. to the unforeseeable. Reduction : 3. to motor anticipation.

circulation-withdrawal).” Inductions are inscribed in the architectural forms and the codes of use. — Reduction of configuration into postures (stroboscopic representation). Induction of a repetition of the identical. self-reduction. — Reduction of absence through the filling in of spatial permanency. and “unrealities” of a lived experience of inhabiting are made up for through a preformation of usage in accordance with the succession of contiguous operations. The project becomes fixed in an object. A space of functional uses. Reductions are conveyed through the abstract concepts of professional discourses. substantification of spatiality. definitions of space a nd reductionist corollaries of inhabiting 1. of an abstract anticipation of “social life. — Reduction of modes into concepts. always referable to in terms of spatial simultaneity. consumption-play. 185 . grounded upon conceptual oppositions (leisure-labor. — Isochronic reduction of lived time. The abstract representation of space yields spatiality as raw material. A space to be seen (perceived). 2. — Reduction of the articulation of the movement to a pause and of the articulation between appearance and disappearance into representations of poses and positions.” and of a homogenization of the “social climate. through which each instant has to be equivalent to every other one. 4. capable of being put at a distance. equivocalities.APPENDIX A on abstraction ORDER OF CONSTRUCTING-HOUSING Second principle: Time is structured and mastered through spatiality. always including a variable degree of the spectacular. — Reduction of tension through objectification: distancing “on the opposite side”. The vacuities. 3. A thetic space: space to be “posited” through permanency.

Inhabiting can be grasped in its concrete movement only in the form of an expression. As analyzed in the situation of multiunit housing. Inhabitant expression proceeds through resonances. along with the forms and forces of sociability. and expressed. As mode of inhabiting. Third principle: The order of inhabiting is grounded upon a ternary articulation between expression. etc. walking configurations are as much result as movement.). echos. and vice versa. there is no tautology as between two propositions. In an investigative project. on the one hand. inhabiting expresses itself through a clash between the lived and the given as conceived. Yet. initial meaning as ultimate meaning of this clash. 186 .APPENDIX A third series : ORDER OF INHABITING 1. the lived experience of inhabiting can be grasped only through its expressions and. For. 3. Between the fact that. There is a mutual referral of meanings between different movements over time and in accordance with the modal variations through which they express something and express themselves. public-private. expresser. and pregnancies by which the inhabitant convokes the inhabitant universe. Inhabiting alters the representations of given dualities in space and displaces their signification without denying their existence (outside-inside. the memorable and the recountable are already inscribed in the lived configuration of space. 2. more than a mere form. on the other. expression is given as the nature of the lived experience of inhabiting. what is lived and what of it is expressed are inseparable. They express inhabiting and inhabiting expresses itself in them. the very nature of the lived experience of the space of one’s habitat is a force of expression.

” and “social confrontation. the social. — causal representation. depending upon one’s analysis) or as a contradiction one underscores and attempts to reduce. inductions. finally. it is reduced into the modes that express it and is represented in a binary division that will never allow inhabitant expression’s own force to appear. Reduction of movements to becoming and of forces to forms via: — subject/object division. reductive effects produced by these abstr act divisions 1. which privileges the point of view of objectifying knowledge. Divisions between cause and effect. Reduction of the lived experience of inhabitant expression through the split between signifier and signified: the significations apprehended (as much in the preconception as in the analysis of “social life” as it is given) are polarized around univocal meanings. outside and inside. (The third principle of the order of inhabiting is not reducible as such. The conceivedlived difference can be abstracted in various ways and be represented either as a necessity (causality of a variable nature. on the one hand. on the other. on the one hand. public and private. cut off from the container. signification. memory. — representation in terms of “contradictions” that dissolve the concrete modality through which contraries are lived. and reproductions implied in the first two series are grounded on a logic of binary division. wherein only one relation between two fixed and definite terms is conceived at a time. the individual.” “usage. Inhabiting understood as a housing consecutive to the production of constructing.APPENDIX A on binary division ORDER OF CONSTRUCTING-HOUSING Third principle: The productions. Inconceivable in the dominant code of knowledge and of the production of space. container and contained. becomes an abstract material. the contained (“content analysis”). conceived and lived. 2.” but also “social life. on the other. and. on the other.) 187 .” “realization. lived experience. 3. one applies the same process of division and abstraction: on the one hand. Reduction of the system of inhabiting to a conceived/lived split. perception. individual and social.” “social project.” In an investigation of inhabiting. They become incidental accessories of a representation of signifieds that are regrouped into abstract concepts: “conception.

This page intentionally left blank .

This lexicon provides definitions for the unusual terms that the neighborhood planners used to designate certain sites. It represents the neighborhood at the ground level. This neighborhood map will allow readers to visualize schematically a quite peculiar kind of spatial organization. This neighborhood was constructed between 1969 and 1972 in the New Town Priority Development Area1 of Grenoble. with the most essential information concerning either the basic functions or the “landscaped” features of the space surrounding everyday strolls. Toponymic Lexicon gallery main pedestrian lane that passes underneath the buildings.Appendix B Map and Toponymic Lexicon of the Arlequin Neighborhood The Arlequin neighborhood is the terrain from which the illustrations of walking rhetoric have been drawn. often with new conceptions. France. and lead to certain places that lie beyond yet are still neighboring the gallery (the roof level of the garages. elementary schools. park entrances) sloping segment of the gallery that corresponds to a rise in all the floors of the apartment complex spaces bordering the gallery that are in the shape of the buildings’ characteristic forms (hexagonal module) mezzanines ramp coves 189 . connect to the elevators on this story situated right above street level. Including its various branches. its “linear” measure is nearly a kilometer. pedestrian landings that duplicate the layout of the gallery.

and they regularly branch out into small lobbies that provide access to two or three front doors of individual apartments. These are sometimes quite long. situated in the park silos mounds lake Community Center building and institution comprising the junior high school and neighborhood sociocultural activities 190 . and almost hemispherical in shape. a human-made expanse of water. about fifty meters. half-buried garages whose roofs serve either as gardens or as a location for an elementary school artificial hillocks installed in the park. one-half-meter deep. They are fifteen meters high.APPENDIX B passageways corridors for entry into apartments. covered with grass.


This page intentionally left blank .

Three Decades Later DAVID AMES CURTIS To return to things themselves is to return to that world which precedes knowledge. And this is how you can be walking and falling At the same time. one is never at the thing itself. I wanted you. With each step. Over and over.Afterword Walking Together. or a river is. of which knowledge always speaks. But you’re always falling.” Big Science 193 . “Walking and Falling. —Maurice Merleau-Ponty. And you don’t always realize it. you’re falling. Phenomenology of Perception But the thing is not really observable—there is always a skipping over [enjambement] in every observation. The Visible and the Invisible I wanted you. and in relation to which every scientific schematization is an abstract and derivative sign-language. you fall forward slightly. And I was looking for you. And I was looking for you all day. —Laurie Anderson. But I couldn’t find you. And then catch yourself from falling. —Maurice Merleau-Ponty. as is geography in relation to the countryside in which we have learnt beforehand what a forest. a prairie. I couldn’t find you. And then catching yourself from falling. You’re walking.

DAV I D A M E S CU R T IS On a bright and brisk late September day in 2004. Words like lake did not answer to my promenade past the small but not negligible man-made expanse of water set before me but rather troubled my vision and slowed my pace. the three main mountain ranges surrounding Grenoble. about which you have read here. with its high peaks—a contextual point not brought out in Pas à pas. even though I already knew from the book that these and other ersatz terms devised by planners were surely misleading. each step unsure as I set one foot after the other on an anticipated but unaccustomed slant. We never attempted what I had expected would be an infernal rise in one of the complex’s reputedly treacherous elevators. I had already shaped in my mind a picture of this fascinating housing complex. off in the distance. Jean-François Augoyard kindly offered me a tour of the Arlequin “new town” on the outskirts of his hometown of Grenoble. the path being more a synthetic version of the winding Heidelbergian Philosophenweg than steps up a Mayan temple mount as I had fancied. My preformed image of the site—an outgrowth of my act of translation— began to be confronted by another reality.1 I was surprised to find in the fresh breezes how open and airy it seemed in comparison with the overhang of the impression I was under until then. I realized for the first time how the planners perhaps had fabricated them to mimic visually and physically the environing landscape. which I had known previously as the settings for Jean-Claude Killy’s 1968 Olympic exploits. the one formed as we strolled the grounds. and neither did the “silos” for cars. Augoyard pointed out. climbing one of the three “mounds” (artificial hillocks) described in his book. appear as crushingly high above my slightly bowed head as I had envisioned them in my translation. Once we arrived at the “gallery” of this housing complex on International Style stilts. Having translated this book over the preceding months. Now. but when we did go up an apartment building stairwell. I had to contend not only with the (mild) difficulty of the ascent but also with how that ascent differed from how I had imagined it. But as I struggled up a slope. the “passageway” on the mezzanine level that opened out before me set me off balance as 194 . when I passed by. a quartercentury after he had featured the site in his book Pas à pas.

carefully attempting to set my own “wordprints” into each of the writer’s own and thereby hoping to re-create the same gait. make the same impressions. and Structuralism. the question of background is a particularly rich and varied one. a yeoman in the field. over an imagined yet physically real builtscape I was now traversing unsteadily for the first time and yet had seen rather clearly in my mind’s eye for several months. a moonlighting writer. In the case of Pas à pas. a proletarianized intellectual. pacing. in the interim. for large swaths of postwar French intellectual history (such as that of urban studies. as well as of such thinkers as the existential phenomenologist Maurice Merleau-Ponty. almost trippingly.5 the deconstructionist 195 . and. his background.3 an occasional dabbler. tone.4 the Marxist urbanist Henri Lefebvre. being the casualty. no longer existed as it had three decades before. disturbing neither their sense of flow nor their appearance and yet finding myself trudging over markedly different linguistic ground while attempting to do so. I stood looking at the built configuration that now stands in its place.AF TERWORD it seemed more luminous and less hazardous than I had thought it would be. so did I proceed hesitantly. of reconstruction plans and right-wing budget cuts about which Augoyard filled me in.”2 Just as I had laboriously retraced the steps of Pas à pas in translating the book. linguistics. These choices are not only about the selection of individual words or phrases but also regarding the personality and voice of the author one is translating: his vocabulary. last but not least. rhetoric. the human translator is always faced with choices—pretty much all of them imperfect and not fully satisfactory. or a temporary wetware replacement for the future universal translation machine. phrasing. Finally. the “Maison du quartier. but looking for what could only be sketched out vaguely for me by a few choppy waves of the author’s arms as I sought to transform these rough gestures into a satisfactory translation of a now-departed construction-function: “Community Center. achieve the same depth.” whose name I was still unsure of in translation. Whether he considers himself a great artist. retrospectively quite challenging to catch sight of in its breadth. I was stopped in my tracks by what was not there.

Wohnen. such choices concerning influences—one’s understanding of what other discourses are also speaking through the text—also involve decisions on the translator’s part: determinations as to how and to what extent additional voices intrude upon. Heidegger—author of “Bauen. the translator must not only give the distinct impression of. however.8 a complete understanding of the text under interpretation as well as of what the author of the text himself knew and was thinking about—all of this rendered.6 along with foreign influences and prewar precursors (the ontological phenomenologist Martin Heidegger and his student. not entirely beholden to concepts from the Black Forest philosopher. Augoyard’s urbane language could maneuver through the translation on its own.DAV I D A M E S CU R T IS Jacques Derrida. habiter. penser”)?10 Besides the fact that such expressions as “dweller rhetoric” and “dweller expression” would seem even more clumsy than the distinctive ones ultimately chosen—“inhabitant rhetoric” and “inhabitant expression” for the key terms la rhétorique habitante and l’expression habitante—it seemed to me that. Denken” (in English: “Building.7 Like the rhapsode Ion in the eponymous dialogue written by Plato. habiter. Dwelling. as a final translator’s note in the present volume points out. a key reference for Augoyard. and the philosopher of expression Gilles Deleuze).9 Now. harmonize with. while Heidegger was still a prime reference. or simply accompany the author’s own as well as proposed solutions as to how to give voice to them in another tongue. who himself cites a passage from Being and Time about the temporal manners in which “Dasein goes along its ways. as he did to Choay. only 196 . the last lines of Augoyard’s book pose a clear challenge to a key Heideggerian text—something that may become apparent to the English-speaking reader. Thinking”)—certainly seemed to me. however. To take an illustrative example. in a context one step removed from the original linguistic setting. must be translated as “dwelling” (habiter is indeed the term found in the French translation of Heidegger: “Bâtir. definitely come into play.” Should Heidegger be deemed such an important influence that a major term in the book. but also endeavor as much as possible to achieve in fact. the Freudo-Marxist critic of modern technology Herbert Marcuse—as Françoise Choay rightly notes in her introduction—along with the creator of modern linguistics Ferdinand de Saussure). Indeed.

connote a mobile. (While making no claim to have completely circumnavigated the topic at hand. elsewhere in his tome Augoyard conveys his skepticism about the “static architectural thought” of Le Corbusier. . “A topographical translation. as well as by more or less typified and set patterns of movement in and out of one’s dwelling. Near the outset. since walking is such 197 .AF TERWORD through knowledge of the French translation of the title to Heidegger’s first postwar volume. not “gaits. Augoyard himself has something to say about translation. as expressed in the latter’s “modulor. like any interpretation based on continuities and contiguities. linear correspondences of classical. Holzwege. he writes. for throughout the book Augoyard is more than suspicious of the one-to-one. subsequently rejected.” As it turns out. Such an attitude might at first seem surprising. “everyday walks in an urban setting.) Moreover. while reviewing possible leads. dwelling evokes a lived state over time (associated by Heidegger with building and thinking).” into paradigms for an inhabitant’s lived experience of “everyday comings and goings. for ways of investigating how one might account for quotidian strolls through parts of the city. that relate also to practices offering silent but salient resistance to certain forms of building. dynamic. Saussure-inspired Structuralism. namely.12 Similarly. Paths that lead nowhere. while inhabiting can. univocal.” (Topography had at first seemed likely to provide him with the analytic tools for which he was searching: “For a daily stroll. it should be noted. . and reversible—though not necessarily symmetrical—relationship to home and neighborhood characterized not only by “numerous occasions for pauses and stays” within and beyond one’s domicile but also by excursions and explorations. was then in vogue in Structuralist circles. and does here.” The French title of Holzwege is Chemins qui mènent nulle part. . seemed to us an improper way of accounting for spatial practices as they are lived day to day.”11 the author states with some conviction that he has blazed his own trails well enough and far enough to establish that “the paths of expression do indeed seem to lead somewhere.” which had erected postures. what is more metaphorical than a map?” The related field of topology.) This brief statement is in fact expressive of a broader viewpoint.

The explication.14 for it offers him an alternative to the broad and well-worn path of a traditional scientific-analytic approach designed to discount any “remainder” that cannot precisely be resituated within clear-cut and well-established divisions. full of gaps and in their meandering succession. “better than topographical observation. he explains that the referent for one’s walks is not the simultaneity of a planned spatial whole but. in the view of scientific knowledge. “there is always a ‘remainder’ in analytic operations that involve division. Nevertheless. rather. the imaginary plays a deeply original role in this creation not only of one’s gait but also of the shifting ground upon which that gait is expressed.” As will be fathomed later on.” His turning away from “topographical translation” leads him to assert that “daily strolls . we shall subsequently arrive at the place where these steps. gesture in Augoyard’s own expository movement. will be conceived in an entirely other manner. the language of linguistics. but no longer has any permanency of its own (except in representation and on maps). he asserts that.DAV I D A M E S CU R T IS an apparently straightforward activity and a “step by step” approach. the coexistence of the different instantiated principles involved in everyday life. would therefore seem particularly well matched here. . . at each moment of the stroll. resembles a sort of creation. and oft-repeated. then. Augoyard goes so far as to talk. depending on the occasion. the development in movement of this coexistence. insignificant. belong to that class of overlooked practices that apparently cannot be co-opted by the commercial economy and that are. about the “creative gait of lived space-time.”13 Augoyard opts for the less trodden road. discussing this nontopographical approach to his chosen topic. While conceptions of urban planning. in chapter 2. taken in a usual sense.” Yet here we notice a key. and 198 . As he already warned a few pages earlier. oral expression has appeared to us to mimic quite closely the act of strolling. one that I have myself been at pains to re-create in translation. Indeed. to account for this ambulatory invention of a lived world? Returning to the limits and drawbacks of topography. and through this creation the space into which one has gone takes on this or that quality. How.

as if into indefinitely deep holes. with another one: “This analogy is to be pursued so long as it does not betray the lived quality that is of interest to us and so long as it does not reduce the traces of pedestrian activity to a prosaic linguistic system. seemed most significant. sometimes rather more hewing a new one. He follows up this statement. not the positions taken up in succession. One is reminded here of the lyrics to Laurie Anderson’s Big Science song “Walking and Falling. Sometimes rather more following an existing path. Augoyard does state that “the analogy with graphic expression is unendingly striking. more than a quarter century later. despite an early dismissal of the idea that any “prosaic linguistic system” might account for the creativity of walking practices. reading here (in translation) merely one more instance of a rather outdated fashion in Continental thought. one moves within a space that never tolerates the absolute exclusion of the one or the other.”15 The tightly constructed format of this book—which. resemblance. that has itself become 199 . and analogies may indeed serve as temporary guideposts for understanding ambulatory orientation. now often characterized by undiscerning eclecticism and rampant irresponsibility.” Just as a book is read in company with a motionless (re)writing and is written at the same time that it is read for oneself and for others. his forward motion through and beyond them is quite distinctive and thus worth retracing. that. for it is the movement itself. could have misled one into thinking of it as straightforwardly “systematic” in conception—eventually comes into focus as a sort of endless rocking motion in a continually off-center forward movement. however. Step by Step might as a consequence appear to some readers to embody an early example of the “poststructuralist” texts that began to proliferate in the aftermath of Structuralism’s wholesale discreditation at the time of May ’68. and then righting itself in time for the next step. constantly falling. Are we. according to my reading via translation. but the poetic and the creative recover from the descent into the prosaic and the analytic and then overtake them with each new step.” Mimicry.AF TERWORD the terminology of rhetoric are integral moments of his overall exposition. walking resembles a reading-writing.

to postpone for some time the repetition of our ‘why’ questions and to give free rein to the ‘how’—that is to say.” He goes on to assert that “the essence of collective life in an urban setting is to be defined not only through the lived experience of oppositions of one social group to another. “. when laid-out and developed space finds itself relegated to an accidental modality?”18 It is rather in the elucidation of this “basic ground” and in the scrutiny of “modalities” that we might discover where the author is headed and how far he gets. . .” about which University of Minnesota Press author Cornelius Castoriadis wrote so discerningly?16 One facet of post-Structuralist thought. . for derealization. For. properties [that] cannot be integrated into a systems model that tends toward closure. does indeed surface on several occasions in Augoyard’s book. with a half-dozen uses of the verb deconstruct and its derivatives as well as an enunciation of the concept of “differance” (“this movement. much of anything substantial filling its shoes? Is this another irrelevant hodgepodge of the “French Ideology.” These mentions of deconstruction. With the overturning of the usual terms of analysis employed to describe pedestrian movement. . to substitute a modal type of interpreta200 . which ordinarily is predominant. Early on. can be taken in stride.” Augoyard observes. Jacques Derrida’s. “displays . covers over and deconstructs the visual realm. . .17 “Inhabitant activity. but also by a constant tension between constructed spatiality handed over for use and the rhetorical deconstruction of this space. one notices that they are but one (though several times repeated) step in a trajectory that includes other steps—as when Augoyard speaks of a “constant tension” of which the moment (or movement) of deconstruction is but one term. he asks. Augoyard hypothesizes that “it would be necessary . which is done in favor of the expression of styles of inhabiting.” for example. as retention of the other as other in the same”). however. it may be suggested. “If spatial totalities lose all meaning of their own and are but the occasional material and pretext for deconstruction. what is the field of reference for everyday action? What is the basic ground brought into play by expression. This is the resolutely disruptive function of everyday events and the fundamental role of spatial deconstruction.” “What is heard.DAV I D A M E S CU R T IS increasingly discredited of late—without.

to say the least. in light of Repetition. one is never at the thing itself. the only chapter of Augoyard’s book with an epigram written by someone other than a poet (René Char and Francis Ponge) or an artist (Wassily Kandinsky) is the fourth one. if not downright impossible. a key early work by Søren Kierkegaard.”19 This “modal” emphasis on the “how” over the “why” can be said to be inspired by a phenomenological approach in general—which is characterized by description of experience without reference to causality—and not especially by Derrida’s idiosyncratic commentaries thereon in his discussions of Edmund Husserl.” let alone his student Cratylus’s radicalizing reply that one cannot step into the same river even once.” His “methodological approach” is therefore one “that has chosen the path of modal analysis (one oriented by the ‘how’ rather than by the ‘why’). Merleau-Ponty in effect grants the failure of the entire phenomenological project: “But the thing is not really observable—there is always a skipping over in every observation. is curiously repeated as a “return to things themselves. Merleau-Ponty’s odd return turns out to be disorienting.AF TERWORD tion for a causal type of explanation. “Zu die Sachen selbst” (To the things themselves).”20 What may be gleaned especially from Augoyard’s work is the opportunity. Indeed. and indeed the necessity. 201 . the phenomenologists’ rallying cry. An existential phenomenologist should have understood that such a “return” is. and that observation of things is itself somehow always (already?) deficient22—trips up phenomenology at the level of its deepest.” This implicit set of admissions— that one never gets “to the things themselves. but also indicative of larger trends in postwar Continental thought. which cites Merleau-Ponty’s early philosophical work Phenomenology of Perception (1945). most underlying intention (intentionality and its object) while straddling unsuccessfully a key issue in its overall history but also offering itself to further reflection. in the “Working Notes” to his posthumously published volume The Visible and the Invisible. the first existentialist to have irrevocably chosen to build his shelter outside the Hegelian system. There. at the other end of his philosophical trajectory. exceedingly unlikely. But it should have already been obvious to any philosopher who has read Heraclitus’s twelfth fragment. of closely following movement in words as well as in things and people.” that one must inevitably “skip over” things in order to observe them.21 Indeed. often loosely translated as “You can never step into the same river twice.

25 Of equal significance. Now. after an initial mention of Derridean “differance” the imagination becomes Augoyard’s point of departure for the fifth chapter of his book. though not very successfully. but also “grounded” in what Augoyard will call “the obscure and overflowing aspect of the imaginary”—therefore. to span a gap. “inhabitant expression” is treated as not only “incorporated. with the imagination. and not confined to fixed boundaries. to stride forward or stride toward.24 Such a discovery would be as profound as it is moving: the “point.26 By way of contrast. and here we ourselves are trying to wend our way back to what might be taken as Augoyard’s own winding path through and beyond phenomenological description. There. to step over it.” Remarkably. In this final chapter. is not at point A or point B but in the act of traversing from point A to point B. for observation involves or entails a “skipping over” movement (enjambement). has a literary meaning expressed in English by a direct borrowing from the French. clause. he endeavors to make good on his early promise that walking practices and the act of inhabiting would testify to a creative accomplishment and ongoing force of resistance not wholly reducible to an effect in the preplanned production of space. 202 .” Moreover. But enjambement also.v. Enjamber means to stick one’s leg up.) defines it as “the breaking of a syntactic unit (a phrase. “meaning flows from line to line. we are witnessing here a mutual accompaniment of motion and meaning23 that might even drive us to think that understanding comes in strides of movement rather than settles into fixed positions.” in the Merleau-Pontean sense of embodiment. or sentence) by the end of a line or between two verses. where each linguistic unit corresponds with the line length. enjambement has two main senses. and beyond. as the reader is forced to continue reading after the line has ended. in French. Its opposite is endstopping.DAV I D A M E S CU R T IS One cannot be “at the thing itself” via observation. Enjambement creates a feeling of acceleration. above. spelled “enjambment” or “enjambement. and beyond something. Merleau-Ponty’s unconscious epitaph to phenomenology was jotted down in the “Working Notes” at precisely the place where he was attempting to come to grips. a ground that is as shrouded in darkness as it is slippery.” so to speak. in enjambment. unstable. significantly. and the reader’s eye is pulled forward.” Wikipedia (q.

”27 Augoyard begins his own exposition with Kant’s (re)discovery of it in the Critique of Pure Reason—there. as Augoyard had himself found earlier and now summarizes here his discoveries. “far from being a simple and passive reservoir of images. who “agree on this industrious circulation of the imaginary that defies the apparent distinctions in whose name mental functions are doggedly separated from one another and our psychosomatic entity is torn asunder. . in GrecoWestern thought.” inhabitant expression “renders present what ‘really’ is not yet so. we have preferred a genetic definition of the imaginary.” and allows knowledge to have “concrete application. For him. . which takes on a less restrictive meaning” by comparison.”28 Such a “circulation” takes us back to Augoyard’s initial point of departure: the expressive errantry of walking narratives.AF TERWORD “In anticipating action.” For Augoyard. the present and the absent are tied together in a process of articulation.” gives meaning to “the experience of the world. “the power of the imaginary takes on coherency only at the end of our path.” And yet his approach will be crucial to the outcome: “Instead of a formal definition of the imagination. significantly and mysteriously. he “prefer[s] to designate henceforth such an instantiated principle by the word imaginary. it is by “this same power that the acted and the suffered. “This schematism of our understanding applied to phenomena and their mere form is an art hidden in the depth of the human soul. the latter says.’” For.” This anticipatory capacity to bring into being what is not (yet) introduces the major themes of what have been. Augoyard cites in a note the names Sigmund Freud and Gaston Bachelard. out of place.” Indeed. the true secrets of which we shall hardly ever be able to guess and reveal”—and with Kant’s subsequent hints at an elaboration in the Critique of Judgment. the imagination possesses an activity and a capacity for synthesis” that “literally outstrips the understanding. As antecedents to his own exploration of the imaginary. think without phantasm. “the imaginable overflows the limits of . Aristotle says “Never does the soul ¯s. he says. sensation and motor function.” Closely accompanied along this path by Gilles 203 . in the last book of the treatise Peri psuche There. however. connects “understanding and sensibility. spatial ‘reality.” Instead of imagination. the repeated discovery and covering back over of the imagination since it was first discovered. Kantian imagination.

He concludes that “the imaginary is a domain. inhabiting has to be understood rather as a movement than as an aesthetic object. no matter how long and how deeply she might have dwelt upon the possible meaning of the statement that dwelling could be encapsulated as movement. it is averse to the “why.” Significantly.” and thus the latter ultimately falls short of its own mark. whereas the “how” intends things. a field of action and of passion that spans the whole of our existence in space and in time. The justification for this backtracking is itself methodologi204 . in any case. the word spans translates here the French “traverse. Halfway through his Conclusion—in a section titled “An Inhabiting without a ‘Why?’”—Augoyard’s previously temporary “postpone[ment of] the repetition of our ‘why’ questions” (in order to pose “how” questions that uncover the expressive creativity of walking practices) is waived in favor of a more long-term suspension.DAV I D A M E S CU R T IS Deleuze.” the reader herself would have been stopped in her tracks and unable to proceed. preferring (or enunciating the necessity of) a detour through Renaissance articulations of imagination and expression. in a way. whereas the ‘how’ intends things. It should be noted without delay that. “To the things themselves.” We have trod this ground before and found that we must skip over things in order to observe them:30 observation goes too far for phenomenological intentionality to live up to its motto. But why. Augoyard eschews “theoretical representations” of the role the imaginary plays in human expression. the mobile meaning-creating process of enjambement upon an ever-shifting imaginary ground. Yet. had habiter been translated as “dwelling” instead of as “inhabiting.” Augoyard is articulating. is it said that inhabiting resists “why” questions?29 Temporary postponement becomes indefinite deferral as phenomenological intentionality metamethodologically remakes an entrance: “the ‘why’ no longer intends anything but representations. ascribed to the very nature of inhabiting. Although the poetic nature of the act of configuring space has become apparent to us. we are tempted to inquire here. We never leave its soil.” because the “why” no longer intends anything but representations.

for Heidegger’s “epochal” reading of Cartesianism. is the pleonasm “represented as an object” is itself repeated by Augoyard himself in his Conclusion—in a passage about repetition: 205 . even and perhaps especially when he is challenging one of those voices. The (wholly negative) understanding of “representation” stems here from another of Heidegger’s Holzwege texts. the steps he has taken previously as well as the voices he has heard along the way. as Augoyard says. the placing of an object before a subject and a debased re-presentation in the form of a representational picture (Bild). man will.AF TERWORD cally inspired by a certain view of phenomenology: the one in which “everyday existence in town” is to be investigated. to concern ourselves with représentation’s obvious translation as “representation. intrinsically and always already. why does he have to add als Objekt? It might seem that we are going too far afield. “The Age of the World Picture.”31 Descartes is considered the culprit by his having brought about this “age” in which “subjects” said to represent beings as “objects” triumph as part of an unquestioning technological attitude characterized by wholesale calculation. the ambiguity or reduplication we found in Merleau-Ponty’s “return to the things themselves” and in what. “not as it is represented but as it is lived. meaning real-life or personal experience. he affirms. information on the author’s background. as Heidegger claims.32 Curiously.33 Indeed. given philosophical import primarily by Merleau-Ponty as a way of talking about the subjective side of experience without appearing to indulge in the Cartesian subject–object dualism he had sought to go beyond. in the penultimate published note to this 1938 talk. when Heidegger envisions a time after this age has expired and the attendant overcoming of Western metaphysics is achieved. in a translator’s Afterword. Yet it may prove useful to provide the reader with authorial background information—that is. and that continue to speak within him. no longer represent being as an object (“wenn er das Seiende nicht mehr als Objekt vorstellt”). as we may hear Augoyard doing vis-à-vis Heidegger at the end of Step by Step.” let alone with its usage in a third language not mentioned directly in the translated text. If representation (Vorstellung) is.” Whence this simple binary opposition between lived experience and representation? The former term comes from the late Husserlian notion of the Lebenswelt (life-world) and is expressed in French as le vécu—a general term.

one more inclined to an open-ended ambulatory investigation that takes the Peripatetic Philosopher as its point of departure: What has escaped notice is that the basic ontological Interpretation of the affective life in general has been able to make scarcely one forward step worthy of mention since Aristotle. Heidegger was in a less unilateral and restrictive mood. And it is just as necessary. as he said. For Augoyard. for argument’s sake. It has made it possible to think in terms of a standardized product constructed in a repetitive manner. even if inhabiting.34 Augoyard’s phrase “an objectifying representation” is equally pleonastic. He also accepts the vector of affect or feeling (“the present takes on an affective tonality that differs according to whether the eventuality in question is imagined in a harmful or a favorable light”). can one completely “do without” representations (Vorstellungen) as well as images or pictures (Bilder)? In Being and Time.”36 But once one has rediscovered the imaginary. this lived experience certainly includes intention (understood phenomenologically to embrace also protention and retention). however.37 But there. functioning as a third class of these. is not to be envisioned especially as an “aesthetic object. remains for him lived experience’s direct opposite: “Inhabitant expression lived in space and in time skips causal or rational sequences and does without streams of representations. They sink to the level of accompanying phenomena. one’s habitat becoming a housing-object. the play of transformations brought on by economic considerations is not the only thing at issue. the imperative was to avoid the psychical in order to concentrate on Dasein’s basic affective structure—care (Sorge)—to the 206 . The change that has been carried out has taken place through an objectifying representation of housing. affects and feelings come under the theme of psychical phenomena. On the contrary. If. one accepts Heidegger’s conflation of objectification with representation as such. for reasons we shall explore. It has been one of the merits of phenomenological research that it has again brought these phenomena more unrestrictedly into our sight.”35 Representation.DAV I D A M E S CU R T IS If the power of building has been occulted and the term inhabiting has become a doublet for housing. usually along with ideation [Vorstellungen] and volition.

. the windiness. The Merleau-Pontean thesis of the “primacy of perception” is reaffirmed. of a valuing of one element in the environment that will symbolize and reduplicate in an expressive way the atmosphere in which one is bathed. And in its way of configuring the inhabited space. So.” that is to say.” says Augoyard citing Pierre Sansot. “a ‘reduplication’ of urban sites. . ease of habitation or inhabitant malaise) refers back to the mode of expression. its co-originariness. cultural images.” Thus. social representations. such “focusing” brings about a “symboliz[ation] and reduplicat[ion]” of the basic sensual affects (which supposedly came first. along with and via “focusing” (intention). avoidance or the seeking out of a qualified site. malaise”) combine without difficulty in imagination. desire for shelter) will qualify the lived world in that very moment. dampness. . raininess (coldness. seeking out”) and affect (“ease .” Augoyard. The origin of representation. though it is unclear how. there would be any affects in the first place). . Curiously. as if by a never extinguished resonance. In lived experience. Thus. the “fearfulness. or . “There is. it is especially an “affective tonality” that is retained. “is one example from the world of sound”: 207 . “be even more specific”: Urban atmospheres are born in the crisscrossing of multiple sensations. In inhabitant expression. continues. the mode of expression implies straight off what it endeavors to express. is itself occulted. the wind. and ideological reflexes. and the night hardly have any value of their own. “what is expressed (for example. But what of the representation (the “qualified site”) itself? “Let us. “Here. . we are to begin with “sensations” (aisthe ¯seis). after the fact. intention (“avoidance or .”38 The primary “sensations” and then a focus-induced “affective tonality” are said to. What the inhabitant retains therefrom is the raininess. .” Augoyard proposes. In this immediate experience of the world. the rain.AF TERWORD detriment of considering the world also as will and representation. before some intentional focusing.” It is at this point that representation and image make their reappearance: “This color or that coldness will set the tone for all the rest of the sensations and will even enlist. the affective tonality. “enlist” such Vorstellungen. An everyday ambiance takes on a consistency on the basis of a focusing.

with respect to the “recoiling” Heidegger imputes to Kant when faced with the “bottomless abyss” opened by the discovery of the transcendental imagination. Castoriadis.DAV I D A M E S CU R T IS North African music. for no further traces of the question will be found in any of his subsequent writings. But for certain inhabitants. at the same time. or any of the other sonorous examples the author provides. And perhaps those people are lulled back to sleep with dreams of an unavowed exoticism. there is a suppression of what this question unsettles for every ontology (and for every “thinking of Being”). . by way of contrast. the foremost contemporary philosopher of the imaginary. A new forgetting. . with his Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics (1929). . Why this reduplication that is. that Heidegger reintroduces in his turn and completely on his own—an impressive spectacle—the successive movements of discovery and covering back over that have marked the history of the question of the imagination. a denial of the equiprimordiality of (social) representation and the latter’s inevitable reappearance as merely a secondary quality of lived experience? In between Being and Time and Holzwege. grating elevator noises. The world of lived experience. . covering-over. cannot be construed as a “world of sound” in general. often exacerbates feelings of expropriation. which is heard rising up on hot summer nights and wakes up the inhabitants of one “cove” around midnight.39 No doubt. an indulgent sense of satisfaction that “there’s a party” is awakened at the same time. . In our everyday social world. and effacement of the question of the imagination intervenes. . exceedingly reduplica208 . that it is Heidegger himself who in effect “recoils” after writing his book on Kant. Heidegger published another book. because the “bottomless abyss” would have otherwise eventually upset the ambulatory routine of his daily constitutionals. an ever qualified world. No doubt. Kant himself “recoiled” from the principal and preponderant role he himself had attributed to the Transcendental Imagination in the first edition of the Critique of Pure Reason and subsequently decided to suppress by backtracking in the second edition . Let me simply note here. “North African music”—a “social representation. too.” surely—is experienced just as directly as chirping crickets. . that we owe both the restoration of the question of the imagination as a philosophical question and the possibility of an approach to Kant that breaks with the somnolence and aridity of the neo-Kantians. has commented: No doubt it is to Heidegger. Heidegger’s recoil movement in “The Age of the World Picture” is. .

Notwithstanding the claim that the Greeks were (or we. insofar as his representing [sein Vorstellen] fancies [einbildet] being as the objective [das Gegenständliche] in the world as picture [in die Welt als Bild]. It is also disingenuous.” 209 . graffiti] produce imaginary resonances that are capable of mobilizing the presently lived act. would be)41 attending to Being when allowing beings to appear as they are in a “clearing” via phantasia. The overkill is fatal. when Augoyard says. feeling. phantasizes [phantasiert]. these attenuated replicas would be of a secondary. that is to say. at the very moment he articulates the imaginary in terms of a “spanning. he moves [bewege sich] within the imagination [in der imaginatio]. imagining. however. with respect to the world. who had previously complained. and enfeebled status in comparison with their sensational originals. that of a “picturing as picture” (als Bild einbildet). let alone the idea of a creative imagination at work from the outset. even when it is itself declared to be “capable of mobilizing”. merely reproductive. Its act of representing would be quite literally. for the “insofar as” (insofern) slyly attenuates the otherwise overstated claim that representation is always and everywhere carried out in the form of objectification. we must walk away from this flight from representation once it is recognized that observation never places us at the things themselves.AF TERWORD tive. and that the proclaimed “return” thereto has to itself be revisited. and motor function. representing that Heidegger is able to critique the Cartesian dualism of the “representing Subject” and of that subject’s particular imaginary view of beings as separate objects. “spanning affectivity. once saved by a Heideggerian God. near the start of his chapter on imagination. imaging. however. that to go “to” them is also to go over and beyond them. The end of his eighth appended note reads: “Man as a representing subject [vorstellende Subjekt]. its being is but that of acoustical “resonances” or pale visual copies.” we find that. It was the author himself.”40 The “representing subject” is already a redundancy for Heidegger. that in the history of thought the imaginary has often wrongly been “confined to the production of images. What is imaginary here is produced instead of producing. That is to say. For. it is only in a reduplicative language of picturing. these same symbols [namely.” he himself has returned in fact to the near side of the produktive Einbildungskraft (productive imagination) of Kant’s first Critique.42 Thus.

210 . I very much regretted that I had not read Pas à pas at the time in order to have benefited from his example as a careful listener of his neighbors’ utterances and an attentive companion to them along their peregrinations. in this book. be attributed primarily to Heidegger’s Dasein-centered philosophy but. I believe. to see how he fares in this struggle.44 There are a specificity and a remarkable quality to these investigations. perhaps to lend him a hand here and there from the standpoint of elucidating problems of translation. of an examination of psychical phenomena cannot. His final chapter offers in fact an exceptional elucidation not only of the unsettled imaginary ground of the inhabitants’ expressive lived experience at the Arlequin housing complex but also of that ground’s (almost haunted) subterranean underside. to Augoyard’s own stated and quite understandable reluctance to add to or otherwise countenance a literature that attempts to analyze urban residents’ experiences in purely psychological terms.”43 What struck me as I translated this text was instead how well Augoyard negotiates an intellectual terrain he was not. Surely he is correct that residential housing and comportment are social phenomena that cannot be reduced to psychical contents. rather. Instead. eros. There are indeed many gaps in Heidegger’s thinking. and whose thought draws a blank in the place of polis. by far. and psyche. the first to cross. The “cosmogenesis” of which Augoyard speaks in his Conclusion now inspires the original French editor of the book to talk pertinently in terms of an “anthropogenesis” as well. As a former community and then labor organizer from the early 1980s. Our goal is not to trip up our author but.” thus hinting at a genuine ontological basis for this disturbing and disruptive (one is tempted to say uncanny) human power within the universe. rather. “Here we have the bizarre spectacle of a philosopher talking interminably about the Greeks. And he ends by situating the imaginary as a generative “cosmogenetic point.DAV I D A M E S CU R T IS It is not surprising.45 The absence. almost invariably backed up by narrative speech issuing from the residents themselves. when one is struggling with a rough and formidable predecessor—as the municipally based Augoyard is with the woodsy Heidegger—that one might sometimes stumble or even on occasion be drawn backwards. and it is understandable that Augoyard might eventually fall into a few of them. As Castoriadis remarks about Heidegger.

I have. and a need to communicate. for he was subsequently named a director of research at the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) and became a founder of its CRESSON (Research Center on Sonorous Spaces and the Urban Environment) unit. when he delineates the “industrious circulation of the imaginary. for example. No doubt. “we are hardly talking here about a sociological study in the scientific sense of the term. carefully and closely translated some phrases that in the original French bordered on scientific jargon. nearly displaces the study of “everydayness” at several points in this work. A philosopher by training who became the author of a French state thesis on urbanism that was turned into a volume edited at a prestigious Paris publishing house. . Augoyard’s language expresses a certain science-based rhetoric that cannot be overlooked and should not be misrepresented.” he says. whose Architectural and Urban Ambiances group he leads at the Grenoble School of Architecture. at the same time. a certain conception of “lived experience.AF TERWORD Augoyard appeals directly to Freud. yielding “nychthemeral cycle” and “auditory apparatus. “Daily strolls. that are. insignificant. I believe. technical approach to the study of people’s everyday activities. . professional reasons involved in this complex self-articulation vis-à-vis the sciences.” Yet. There are. some of this distrustful attitude can be traced back to Heidegger’s (and his student Marcuse’s) views on technological thinking. in a way viewed as legitimate. Augoyard directs scientific research and student theses with an eye toward illustrating what traditional scientific approaches leave out and what an 211 . Still today. among others.” Indeed.”47 And of “the descriptive study of everyday comings and goings. on the one hand. on the other. a certain doubt as to the pertinence and benefits of “scientific” studies is evident in this tome.” for example. with its critique of the abstractness of “every scientific schematization.” seen as opposed to Cartesian geometrico-scientific thinking.”46 Similarly. as well as to Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology. in the view of scientific knowledge.” whereas “night and day” and “hearing” would have been the more appropriate “everyday” expressions. We may note that the circumstances surrounding this complex self-articulation continue today. with an audience still often imbued with such an approach. reveal “overlooked practices . Augoyard navigates between a healthy distrust for a purely objective.

by an honest application of what Augoyard himself teaches us about the need to be attentive to everyday walks—and here. in its everyday walking practices. as a matter of fact. especially a different configuration of the hips.50 In this case. I believe. in relation to the aforementioned “nychthemeral cycle. as well as toward their attire and behavior. to a large extent on the cares of women and girls in outlying housing projects who are faced with (often violent and threatening) traditional and often specifically Muslim male attitudes toward their comings and goings.DAV I D A M E S CU R T IS attentive study of people’s actual everyday activities and experiences in an urban environment (especially acoustical ones)48 might reveal.51 The first such event on American soil had just taken place in San Francisco in 1978. from the problem of finding places to rest and sun themselves outside without feeling watched too closely to a sense of imminent danger that is articulated more often (to judge from the available testimony) than is the case with their male counterparts.49 Eros as well as gender considerations do appear largely absent from Step by Step. One could recap this admirable endeavor with Aristotle’s acute observation that it is not the expert maker of an object. It was not until 2003 that a specifically French version of this trend made its appearance—based. but the user thereof. too. who is the best judge of its utility. one is struck by the consistently expressed concerns of female walkers. “Take Back the Night” marches had already been organized by women in several European countries as a response to precisely these sorts of concerns about freedom of movement. Surely. Rereading through the published narrative extracts. especially. however. Augoyard takes passing note of these differences but does not highlight them or provide any specific thematic treatment that would account for such basic and relevant variations. this body is a clothed one. “the body of inhabitant expression” is a gendered one that. This movement took the name “Ni putes. as well as on socially instituted responses to and expressions of power in relation to erotic life and relations. the void could easily be filled. leans on sexed anatomical differences.” By the early 1970s. especially one situated as Grenoble is in the Alps. ni soumises” (Neither whores nor submissive) and eventually mobilized a well-attended national demonstration in the wake of grass212 . In a city located in a Western country. a year prior to Pas à pas.

combining in one large housing project lodgings adapted to a variety of income levels. Indeed. It was a time of policy experimentation. the conservative political forces that had ruled Grenoble in the postwar period were overturned in 1965 by a Socialist-led coalition spearheaded by community associations that sought to reenergize the city via a number of new municipal measures. On the other hand. including the creation of the Arlequin complex. Augoyard reports that the Arlequin. it is a municipally instigated housing policy. and the Arlequin. It would be interesting to apply Augoyard’s interview practices and investigative tools to a site-specific sampling of participants in these marches in order to see how their everyday walks may or may not have been transformed thereby. Similar to what happened in Burlington. now rendered explicit and examinable through carefully scrutinized first-person participant narratives. The polis issue is a bit more complicated. A bit of extratextual historical background information Augoyard shared with me may be of assistance. begun in the late 1960s and completed in the early 1970s. innovative. where a democratic socialist–led election coalition eliminated an entrenched political machine in 1981 and instituted community-trust housing along with many other innovative reforms. that Augoyard pertinently presents as being challenged by “users’” real walking practices. the author lived there with his wife and child. concretely instantiated in actually constructed architectural forms and expressing a certain ideological conception of planning and building with national and global implications. for understandable reasons he himself articulates at the start of his book.AF TERWORD roots organizing and consciousness-raising efforts in largely immigrant and second-generation communities. not the municipality of Grenoble as a whole. On the one hand. open-ended method of interviewing fellow residents made him an active participant-observer who was willing to experiment 213 . was viewed as a “utopian” creation designed to manifest and to support a broader effort to change society. From its inception. His knowledgeable. was planned as one of the city’s showcases. Augoyard’s micromethodology opts for a study of inhabitant narratives in only one strictly delimited part of the city. Vermont.

’” as methodologically contrasted there with more fecund “how” questions. we must mention here the formidable question of needs. . The problematic of needs includes . at least possible. on the basis of social movements and their dynamic. . Augoyard summarizes the results of his own investigations and explores their broader political implications: This logic practically lays down the answer before the question is asked. deprivations. Augoyard quotes an astute comment from former Unified Socialist Party (PSU) presidential candidate and future prime minister Michel Rocard that perfectly illustrates the “being housed” versus “inhabiting” dichotomy so central to the author’s argument: “It leads to resolving inequalities. . conflicts between users and their built environment as well as to reveal an elemental power to resist and to reshape to which the inhabitant practices thus gathered and discussed bear witness. of the misdeeds of a “technological rationality” gone wild makes its explicit appearance in Step by Step. every sort of manipulation is. . It does not suffice to ‘house’ people.” To illustrate these consequences. the power of the giver is reinforced and the necessity of his presence is confirmed. It is here that Marcuse’s critique of “the new conformism” and. The abstraction of “functionality” is inserted into a logic that is grounded on the relation of container to contained. Social life is abstracted into the notion of need. you extract a social content: needs.”52 In relation to the logic of needs. and contradictions engendered by capitalism through a vast welfare apparatus. . In the process.” and. . “In order to illustrate this radical difference in orientation and to signal at the same time another opening indicated in the modal study of inhabiting. the most glaring needs are satisfied along the way.DAV I D A M E S CU R T IS with the latest theoretical techniques and trends in order to bring out. immediately after his declaration that “inhabiting is averse to the ‘why. just as people’s practices are reduced to various functions. in the sense of an operational strategy. which includes anticipations of people’s use. more generally. Augoyard does address political considerations directly in his Conclusion—in fact. and under its cloak. how are needs apprehended and interpreted? You look at the “masses. The logical presuppositions involved authorize a logistics. . 214 .” the “users. people must be able to ‘inhabit’ an individual or collective space. if not easy. in great detail. . Moreover. a logic that is heavy with consequences. Thenceforth.

This narrative written by an autoworker pseudonymously designated as “Paul Romano” and accompanied by a political-intellectual analysis from “Ria Stone” (the political activist and trained philosopher Grace Lee Boggs)55 was later translated 215 . via narratives thereof. R. A certain number of received values would then most likely be overturned. and not of conceptually designed housing. The American “Johnson-Forest Tendency”—led by Trinidad-born revolutionary C. And yet narratives of “everydayness”—especially when opposed (perhaps too unreflectively) to reflective thought and.53 Here is how Augoyard expresses this opportunity made possible by his modal methodological study of everyday lived experience: The study of everyday walks indicates . and which became the Detroit-based Correspondence group— published The American Worker in 1947. to explore inhabitant practices down to the level of “the tiniest gesture made. As a category for study. . and in any case not to one the participants themselves have actually articulated in their narratives. This points to an opening and to an investigative lead in which. however. Augoyard is not the first to have faced this dilemma. more generally.” detecting therein and sketching therefrom a concrete overall form of resistance to a modern objectifying rationality that both upsets one’s usual way of conceiving such a rationality and overthrows that rationality’s own usual conceptions. and this expressive power of an irreducible imaginary (one ignored for this reason by discourses on construction and housing) would appear as a cosmogenetic point. in the sense that they cannot be gleaned directly from residents’ narratives but rather from a certain reading thereof that brings in formulations not expressly articulated by participants themselves in their narratives. to “rationality”54—do not easily lend themselves to a sustainably articulated political response. configuration. L. and dynamic tension going on in the humblest acts of inhabiting than in the very process that produces the contemporary built world.AF TERWORD These critical political considerations are extratextual. the imaginary functionally utilized in the production of laidout and developed space might be confronted with an imaginary the inhabitant actually lives. that there really is much more creative movement. James and Leon Trotsky’s former secretary Raya Dunayevskaya. on the basis of the lived experience of inhabiting. “everyday life” allows one. .

He situated these questions relative to two exemplary texts: Paul Romano’s “The American Worker” and Eric Albert’s “Témoinage: La vie en usine.57 Second. his application of literary techniques of analysis fostered a critical and reflexive approach to these narratives while he himself remained an engaged participant-observer. in the related field of working-class habitation and habitat.DAV I D A M E S CU R T IS into French and serialized by the Socialisme ou Barbarie group in the first eight issues of its review (March 1949 to January 1951). Augoyard’s movement-centered elucidation of narratives of everyday walking practices brought out homologies between words and actions without ever reducing one to the other or prioritizing one over the other. First. . Lefort. “L’Expérience prolétarienne” (Proletarian experience). Augoyard can be said to have made two positive advances. a phenomenologically inspired method for analyzing worker narratives. argued that only workers could know. As the historian of the group Stephen Hastings-King reports. The full project would have relied upon phenomenological procedures (reductions) that were never carried out because. publication and analysis of autobiographical worker narratives. despite the solicitation for writings which frequently appeared in Socialisme ou Barbarie (as well as in related projects like Tribune Ouvrière). and write about.” Lefort used these narratives of worker shop-floor experience . It was Merleau-Ponty’s former high-school philosophy-class student (and later his literary executor) Claude Lefort who proposed. is quite instructive. as primary data in a phenomenological investigation of “the proletarian standpoint. their experience. workers simply did not write.” The goal of this investigation was the isolation and description of the “significations” or games that structured proletarian comportment. in keeping with the group’s anti-Leninism. . Noting the rhetorical basis for any recounting of even the “tiniest gestures. in Socialisme ou Barbarie’s eleventh issue (November 1952).” the author of Pas à pas highlighted a feature that had remained obscure or underthematized in Socialisme ou Barbarie’s uncritical take on workers’ narratives as straightforward and transparent accounts unencumbered by the mediated labor of writing or recounting.56 In relation to this precursor effort.58 And finally. Lefort’s essay posed the theoretical questions to be addressed by Socialisme ou Barbarie’s projected collection. This programmatic text. 216 . he discovered and developed a way of soliciting significant numbers of first-person participant narratives of everyday struggle.

In a French postwar context. to the construction of the whole man. And both of the operative terms in Situationist “psycho-geography” seem alien to Augoyard’s anti-psychological and anti-topological methodological practice. This revolution is nameless. a Marxist philosophical-sociological critic of both rural and urban life. linked. Owing in part to this critique. Lefebvre.” as Not Bored! editor Bill Brown explains. sought to unmask the everyday alienation inherent in a cityscape inundated with rural outcasts and transformed by urban capitalism.”62 What Augoyard contributes is a positive and precise understanding of the role of everyday struggle. as exemplified in people’s actual walking practices within a preplanned built environment. to the category of lived experience—but with a connotation to “everydayness” that seems more positive and actively involved in political and social struggle:60 “Revolution is made everyday despite. in part. the obvious initial reference is to Lefebvre’s three-volume Critique of Everyday Life. And this is precisely what Michel de Certeau picked up and borrowed in his book The Practice of Everyday Life. “when there was. This effort started out. Lefebvre exercised an influence on Situationist International members from 1958 until 1962. like everything springing from lived experience.”59 Raoul Vaneigem’s 1967 text The Revolution of Everyday Life nevertheless testifies to an ongoing Situationist interest in this theme. it would be exceedingly difficult to trace a direct line between Situationist dérive and what we have called the “expressive errantry of walking narratives” studied and revealed in Augoyard’s work.AF TERWORD A few words should also be written about Augoyard’s theme of everydayness in relation to its theoretical precursors as well as to its political implications.”61 Nonetheless. the first volume of which appeared in 1947. as a critique of Being and Time’s conception of the “everydayness” (Alltäglichkeit) of the “they”’s ontologically unaware fallenness. The already established author de Certeau nevertheless turned down a request to preface Augoyard’s 217 . “a nasty falling-out. the specialists of revolution. Nor do either a philosophy of desire or any grand pronouncements figure in Pas à pas. whereas Vaneigem took the time to declare: “The complete unchaining of pleasure is the surest way to the revolution of everyday life. Its explosive coherence is being forged constantly in the everyday clandestinity of acts and dreams. and in opposition to. as in Lefebvre’s work.

Augoyard reported. What is notable is in fact how long they lived at this housing project that was the inspiration for Augoyard’s first book. Augoyard observed. Vandalism was on the rise.) Always a significant presence. and the poor overall economic situation of left-out segments of the population in a deindustrializing Western country had been evident and were taking their toll for many years. The “power of the giver” has withdrawn along with the welfare-state giver. When I visited the Arlequin with Augoyard in September 2004. (My tour began at their new home in a low-rise apartment building at the edges of the Arlequin’s grounds. filled with glue.63 A final contextual note. and extensive vandalism often aimed at symbols and buildings of the state. just as residents had feared. confrontations with police and other authorities. the North African and Muslim communities had grown. before moving out when their child became an adult. which was indebted to Augoyard’s groundbreaking thesis and which received greater attention. one year later. and there were signs of fundamentalism—though. such signs are fleeting and ambiguous: the head of household who might one day be wearing a long beard could and sometimes did cut it off and switch allegiances the next. with mass car burnings. finally decided to move out. and had become more invasive and irrational—door locks. for example.DAV I D A M E S CU R T IS maiden volume before publishing. What are the methodological tools that might be employed today for someone who wishes to address the situation at Arlequin or in other poor and working-class communities in France and elsewhere while still giving direct voice to participants and offering pertinent analysis of their 218 . it was a quite different place from the way it was twenty-five years earlier. Finally. necessitating purchase of new locks—to the point where the Augoyard family. the extensive set of social programs. the situation exploded into violence across France in the fall of 2005. who had been contemplating this move for nearly a decade. The general municipal neglect of such outlying housing projects. and amenities that were conceived as an integral and ongoing part of this showcase housing project had been cut drastically in the interim. services. his own tome. With the intervening installation of a rightwing municipal government. the widespread discrimination suffered by immigrant and second-generation communities in France.

whose dancing and choreography continually teach me the meaning of an existence in movement. to my editors there. for her continued participation in a book project she first made possible more than a quarter-century ago. 219 . to the Augoyard family. investigational leads offered by Step by Step help to advance such an endeavor? It goes beyond the confines of a translator’s afterword to prescribe for the reader what she should make of what has been read in the present volume. My thanks to Catherine Porter.AF TERWORD experiences and ongoing self-activity? In what ways might the methodological contributions and. for their support and their patience. For my part. first Carrie Mullen and then Jason Weidemann. I have confined myself to offering what might be pertinent background information while conveying the problems a translator faces and the reflections he has had in the actual practice of making a text available to persons who will now themselves attempt to inhabit this text critically in another language within the International Republic of Letters. more important. to Françoise Choay. This translation is dedicated to Clara Gibson Maxwell. to Beau David Case. and to Alex Gezerlis. for recommending me for another collaboration with the University of Minnesota Press. my companion on the road of life. for their hospitality and helpful suggestions. for his exemplary librarian research skills. whose kindness and generosity are matched by his keen and critical eye for my literary weaknesses.

This page intentionally left blank .

[Grands ensembles: Large-scale high-rise public housing projects that were built with a sense of urgency at the periphery of major French metropolitan areas during the 1960s in order to provide living quarters for an influx of generally low-income families from a variety of backgrounds. 91–110. trans.] 2. developed by François Delsarte between 1833 and his death in 1871. 1833. it might be intriguing to make reference here to a little known text written by Honoré de Balzac. 221 . See “Sensorial Hyperboles and Anticipations” in chapter 4. 6. See the first page of Step by Step. Beck Verlag.Notes Foreword 1. On the nontrivial character of walking and of taking steps in their twofold relation to man’s animality and to his specificity as a speaking being. contains in embryo the ideas. Mass. and 25 and September 5. 1984). This article. in particular. issues of the review Europe littéraire (and republished by Échoppe in 1992). First Part. 1956. the Application of This Science to the Art of the Dance. “La théorie de la démarche” (Theory of the step)..: Eagle Printing and Binding Co. “Über die Prometheische Scham”). published in the August 15. 4. which Augoyard had not yet read at the time. Pas à pas could be read as a sort of counterpoint to and complement of the analysis Günther Anders offered in the first volume of Die Antiquierheit de Menschen (Munich: C. 3. 5. chapter 7 (“Walking in the City”) of Michel de Certeau’s The Practice of Everyday Life (1980). 1954]). the Influence of Delsarte on American Dance [Pittsfield. the Man and His Philosophy. His Science and His Applied Aesthetics. See.—Trans. Denis (see Ted Shawn’s Every Little Movement: A Book about François Delsarte. H. that constitute the theoretical basis for the school of American modern dance founded by Ted Shawn and Ruth St. Steven Rendall (Berkeley: University of California Press. 18.

See “An Irreducible Imaginary” in the Conclusion. Απορια (aporia): a deadlocked or embarrassing situation that. See François Ascher’s thesis. 364ff. La Ville-Censure. as well as the meticulous and little known analyses of CRESAL (Centre de Recherche et d’Études Sociologiques Appliquées de la Loire. Impasses. Le Fonctionnement de la mobilité résidentielle intra-urbaine (1974). 3. ´ 10. and Les Processus d’évolution des grands ensembles (1974). See the third paragraph of the Conclusion (emphasis added). Such as that of Françoise Lugassy. Contribution à la critique de l’économie urbaine: Essai d’analyse économique de la production d’un élément urbain: le cadre bâti. 1. Conscience de la ville. 2. Jacqueline Palmade. La Question urbaine. See also. in Platonic thought. See Janet. L’évolution de la mémoire et de la notion du temps. 7. Research papers in applied psychosociology that are most aware of this methodological problem write their conclusions in the conditional. and Medam. We are referring here to our detailed methodological study in our thesis. 8. 8. L’Urbanisme. Saint-Étienne) brought together in various research papers. Side Streets 1.NOTES TO CHAPTER 1 7. 222 . Let us cite just three of the many works that have offered assessments of these issues: Choay. 11. See the analyses of and connections between works made by Henri Lefebvre in The Production of Space. “Travers” in Émile Littré’s Dictionnaire de la Langue française. Medam. Contribution à une psychologie de l’espace urban: La Dialectique du logement et de son environnement. 9. Arteries. 9. 4.” 13. 6. Castells.. Ibid. brings up new questions. See “Arteries” in chapter 1. 172. We shall cite only the henceforth classic analysis of Henri Lefebvre in Critique of Everyday Life. Étude exploratoire. 12. such as Production de l’espace urbain et idéologique (1972). and Françoise Couchard. apropos of these examples of hypertely. “Le Pas: Étude de la vie quotidienne dans un habitat collectif à travers la pratique des cheminements. Simondon’s Du mode d’existence des objets techniques. We have heard this attitude voiced often enough and its written expression can be found in Françoise Lugassy’s Le Discours idéologique des architectes et urbanistes. 5. utopies et réalités: une anthologie.

[The name of the bar.” 7. in 1975. “Bar-bu. language obeys the law of economy. . 1984). Several inhabitants have told us how. . —Trans. they have “shown” the Arlequin Gallery as a sort of curiosity to their friends. on a Sunday. “who laughed a lot. 9). 13.” a series of articles first published in 1953. Éléments de linguistique générale. in Grenoble. 10. As Ferdinand de Saussure designated the originary reality of language (Course in General Linguistics. 179). 4. ]” (Peytard and Genouvrier. the place-names are often unexpected or puzzling. [The reference. 12. 9.” is a play on words. France.NOTES TO CHAPTER 2 14. ] is an essentially synchronic notion. 2. An Inhabitant Rhetoric: Figures of Walking 1. In the strictly linguistic sense. These “passageways” are very long corridors that provide access to the apartments. “Polysemy [ . see now Writing Degree Zero and Elements of Semiology.] 6. We have borrowed the names of figures from the classical catalog of tropes or from figures of language. 2. Through polysemy. At the Arlequin complex. The high-density housing complex known as l’Arlequin. The first among the Aristotelian classificatory principles open to the momentary. A somewhat comparable name in English might be something like the “Bearddrinker. Annette Lavers and Colin Smith (London: Jonathan Cape. Linguistique et enseignement du français. In this neighborhood. meaning both bar where one drinks and bearded. it is able to reuse several times the same sign while making its signified vary [ . . .” 11. “Digression” in Émile Littré’s Dictionnaire de la Langue française. the “streets” are arranged under the buildings. of course. “The practical necessities of communication require that the linguistic form be constantly and on all levels redundant” (Martinet. 207). is to Roland Barthes’s “Le Degré zéro de l’écriture. trans.] 5. 14. 3. 8. A lexicon of these names can be found in Appendix B. [Translation of Figure 9: Isabelle—The week of the 13th to the 19th monday Monday morning: 223 .” —Trans. We emphasize: “paths” and not “shortcuts.

Example: ‘the billows’ for ‘the sea’.” 22. I was very hot. in the “Figures of Redundancy” subsection in this chapter. See ibid. I was afraid of getting there late. one after the other. I left at 6:30 p. and I went with a girlfriend to do some sewing. We were sad.NOTES TO CHAPTER 2 I left the “2000” apartment complex to go to the junior high. Émile Littré’s Dictionnaire de la Langue française: “Synecdoche: figure by which one takes the genus for the species. the least for the most. 17. 19. analyzed as an imaginary type of inhabiting in Alain Pessin and Henry-Skoff Torgue’s thesis “Villes imaginaires: Introduction à l’imaginaire urbain” [and now available in book form from Éditions du Champ Urbain (Paris. and on the way I met a lady friend of my mother— Monday afternoon: I went to the junior high school at 2 o’clock. . -and number seventy. in the “Peritopism” subsection of the “Elementary Figures” section in this chapter. I went back to the junior high without any enthusiasm with my girlfriend. (I didn’t really want to go there).. 18. See anaphora.1 by “Longinus”: “elevated expressions follow.m. Sansot. 21. XXXXX I was with a girlfriend. . See the analysis of the hyperbolic mode. A joyous sort of barbarism. 24. 23. in an unbroken succession and in an ascending order.] 15. it would seem. I left. Hillocks laid out within Arlequin Park. or the part for the whole. I went in front of number sixty. I left at 3 o’clock. and I went home. I went home. and here we would find another moment of the barbarous.]. I reentered the junior high. in synecdoche. passing by number 90 with XXXXX 5 girlfriends XXXXX and I XXXXX went out again with a girlfriend to go to my home at number 170. “Hyperbole” in Émile Littré’s Dictionnaire de la Langue française. 27. I left the junior high to go to a girlfriend’s home at number 60. . Poétique de la ville. . The hyperbole lived in one’s walks proceeds like the figure of amplification discussed in On the Sublime 11. for once I went on the Market -Place to take a short^ cut and took the gallery ramp until number 170. I was sick to my stomach for having eaten so fast.” 20. the most for the least. the species for the genus. 16. I take one name for another one. the whole for the part. happy. In metonymy. 1980)—Trans. . . to do that. Excerpt from an interview cited as an example of digression. myself. 224 . in the “Figures of Redundancy” subsection of the “Combinatory Figures” section in this chapter.

225 . 282. one only has to listen to the voices of charlatans and grifters. Yet in the course of a long process of theorization that begins with the arts of thinking of the Renaissance. 281–82. See ibid. the colors of the buildings thus mixing with the greenery of the park. Our most recent research. or strategic lineage of “savage rhetoric” that is conscious of the lively power of speech. The problem “is to describe the code by which narrator and reader are signified throughout the narrative itself. “Introduction to the Structural Analysis of Narratives” (1966). these two instantiated principles were very closely connected. 32. there is a sort of dragon geography as found in the Chinese system of feng shui. See Barthes. as well as to electoral rhetoric. No narrative without a narrator and without a listener. Here we have the transfiguration of the neighborhood. 28. finally. in particular. above. The history of rhetoric shows a progressive disassociation between knowing-how-to-figure and the life of speech. 30. has in no way contradicted these conclusions drawn from an analysis of multiunit housing. From quite far away and in a very modest manner. Insistence on the plural within the singular. 29. rhetoric seems “to lose its voice. In the sense of communication theory. “Closing Statement: Linguistics and Poetics. starting from Petrus Ramus (and the thought of the Port Royal School) and culminating in César Chesneau sieur du Marsais (seventeenth century) and Pierre Fontanier (eighteenth century) and. Mutual presupposition of the I and the You. political. 33.NOTES TO CHAPTER 3 25.. Among the Ancients. squares of nineteenth-century buildings. single-housing units. See. on to linguistics and psychoanalysis (stylistic devices–figures of the Unconscious). An Inhabitant Rhetoric: The Code of Appropriation 1. 35. in the “Figures of Redundancy” subsection in this chapter. “Two Aspects of Language and Two Types of Aphasic Disturbances. another line of descent exists. Very heavy and categorical intonation.” 53–82. the image of which is reflected in the water of the lake. Ibid. 357. One may reread the page from her notebook that was reproduced for our study of metabole. Such a landscape is seen only from the height of the “big mound. a popular.” 358.” 27.. 26. 34.” 3.” However. in order to be convinced of this. Jakobson. which bears on other urban fabrics (old neighborhoods. Jakobson. which characterizes the status of narrative. 31. boulevards).

it is nevertheless said to have the power to branch out into each home via the strange influence of cable transmissions. 5. 15. See the “Figures of Redundancy” subsection of the “Combinatory Figures” section of chapter 2. [Traditionally. The hexagon is the archetypical shape that determines all the angles. Although not occupying much room of its own. 226 . Heading in this direction. 3. The “Video-Gazette” is the name of the sector of activity that manages the neighborhood’s closed-circuit television system and is responsible for localaccess programming. [The phrase no man’s land appears italicized in English in the original French. The “Video-Gazette”—“a sort of spider. 13). See the comparative study of everyday life across four adjacent neighborhoods. or even to mechanical relationships between two protagonists who are external to each other.] 13. 339). See the “Figures of Symmetry” subsection of the “Combinatory Figures” section of chapter 2. See the famous debate about the rhetors in Plato’s Gorgias. —Trans. Without a retention in the minimal unit of temporal experience. —Trans. 6. The “park” does not forsake complicities between the concept of nature. and it finds itself structured by everything that more or less defines this time” (Les Images de la ville. See the figures of avoidance in the “Elementary Figures” section of chapter 2.NOTES TO CHAPTER 3 2. by Jean-François Augoyard and Alain Medam. Such complicities are sealed together in a residual ideology that is preromantic and romantic origin. 12.] 9. 14.” the inhabitants say. Local groupings and other groups are often entirely distinct. or segments of the building-neighborhood. Such would be the originary trace. and the concept of man who has rediscovered a “self” invested with universality. we bring together two statements by Raymond Ledrut: (1) “The connection between social differentiation in the city and the partitioning of space is more or less solid. on the one hand. Stairwell numbers. 11. This is the case of contemporary cities” (L’Espace social et la ville. on the other. See the “Polysemous Figures” subsection of the “Elementary Figures” section of chapter 2. to clearly distinct people in the city. a planning-construction research paper. 7. (2) “The field of urban experience is not a field of significations that belongs to a city in itself. Situations d’habitat et façons d’habiter. This experience is that of a time. “Here the appearing and functioning of difference presuppose an originary synthesis not preceded by any absolute simplicity. 4. 10. children in France have had Wednesday and Saturday afternoons off from school. 16. 8.

See Sansot. The (pure) trace is differance” (Derrida. in order to apprehend what the atmosphere of urban sites might be. the weaving of a fine internal necessity that. 3. See. before all determination of the content. To “mix up [confondre]” space is to scramble its geometrical appearances—but also to greet them with derision. See the “Figures of Redundancy” subsection of the “Combinatory Figures” section of chapter 2. 23. Poétique de la ville. which is constitutive of dialectical movement. in the “Elementary Figures” section of chapter 2. and this book as a whole. See the Hegelian concept of Aufhebung.) 5. which we shall sometimes employ. 62 [I have corrected a simple grammatical error—confusion of singular and plural—in Spivak’s translation. in the “Polysemous Figures” subsection of the “Elementary Figures” section of chapter 2. 19. drawn from Maurice MerleauPonty’s Preface to his Phenomenology of Perception (1945). which was left hanging at the end of the “Differentiating Appropriations” section of this chapter. This would be the term climatic. See anaphora in the “Figures of Redundancy” subsection of the “Combinatory Figures” section of chapter 2. and paralipsis. 20. passim. 22.]). It is not the question of a constituted difference here. (And the term passim will never have been so adequate. As in forests. the existence of animals is read on the basis of the network of traces of their passing: “tracks [passées]. See the “Polysemous Figures” subsection of the “Elementary Figures” section of chapter 2. in particular. On Grammatology. 21. something quite other than a dogmatic formula is needed there. in its discretion. 18. no difference would do its work and no meaning would appear. The Body of Inhabitant Expression 1.” 2. is the opposite of seeming and a model of making-appear. 4. ix. We need several words to designate what the German language says in a single word: Stimmung. of the pure movement which produces difference. and between each word. 17. —Trans. but rather. for. staggered polysemy. See the question of dialectical movement. Let us understand this term in the strong sense it had during the Renais227 . A substantivized adjective would come rather close.NOTES TO CHAPTER 4 without a trace retaining the other as other in the same. what is needed here is at least a book. 4. See the epigraph to the present chapter.

namely. 8. where you have some respite. one’s really facing an air current. It is a matter of a signal rather than of a landmark [repère]. “Parole et silence de la ville. and even more so in the winter. But what could the “urbeme. I don’t look at anything. We understand this term phantasm simply in the sense it had in an old litany of the Catholic ritual that was used for conjuring away the fantastic and demonic manifestations of the night: “Ab omnia phantasmata liber nos Domine”. “There’s basically the wind .” the unit of signification of a language (in the strict sense) of urban affairs. “Let us go further: in a city. Poétique de la ville. . [laughter] against one’s face! From number 130 to number 140. Text reproduced in the “Figures of Redundancy” subsection of the “Combinatory Figures” section of chapter 2. once lived. Sansot. 11. 7. Let us recall the etymology: “bel vedere. 18 and 29. “Pour une nouvelle approche sémiologique de la ville. There is no longer any story (see the 228 . “Anthropologie de l’espace: catalogue ou projet?” in Espaces et Sociétés. If we are to believe certain architectural discourses. people are in a hurry. which a rich merchant wants to live out himself and make someone else live out. “When it rains. 15. A careful analysis would note that. that can be dangerous!” “On account of the wind.” or having the lovely view.. 14. It would be like that fictional sailor’s story. lasting quality. with the cold. a printed sign. A gust of wind like that. 10. 6. but only the residential buildings and the crossing areas. disintegrates into death and incommunicability. except in a few areas. possibly be? (See the articles by Raymond Ledrut. a striking. on elderly people who easily lose their balance. whether it is the lights of the city or the busy passersby” (ibid.NOTES TO CHAPTER 4 sance (in the Latin word character). the junior high school is not to be found there at all. . it’s another restriction. I heard an old lady say that she was afraid to go out in the winter.” Richard Fauque. . 12. which is never random and which gives access to the thing intended.” and Marion Segaud. 13. color is supposed to cancel out what would otherwise be the opacity of concrete facades. but which. In conformity with the theory of the legibility of urban forms—a theory that still seems to be in fashion—the designers wanted the bearing-finding or locating [repérage] function to be operational. something unreal that is posited at the same time as it is exorcized. . who or what has night fever. 16. because she was scared about being bowled over by the wind. what is the sound and what is the echo. 13). especially in winter.” “That wind! .” 9. one never knows what reflects and what is reflected. in the drawings framing this page. is possible only from a distance that leaves the object untouchable. I could care less! At that point. I don’t know anyone any longer!” one inhabitant exclaimed.

.” “The buildings altogether . ] it’s hard to find one’s apartment. Everyone has expressed surprise or incredulity. and. I prefer the rungs. Niko Tinbergen. I don’t like the bands. . [Bursts of laughter. . on this theme and on that of the interdependence between feeling and moving. Then I followed more or less the same paths we had taken on the way out. and Adriaan Kortlandt) and ethologists (Konrad Lorenz. We have often pointed out to the inhabitants that the total route of the gallery covers a good kilometer. [ . . . See the figure of bypassing in the “Elementary Figures” section of chapter 2. phenomenology. which are in the shape of asymmetrical pyramids). where identity wavers from the first step onward: “That night I set out for home. Being and Time. The lake is bluer than blue. we refer the reader. . on the other hand. 19. . it stings less” (the allusion is here to the roofs on the junior high school. The Immortal Story. Leonard Carmichael. . 22. it does not ‘devour the kilometers’. it smells like concrete!” “I don’t like the pointy tops to the junior high school. But paths look differ229 . bringing-close or de-severance is always a kind of concernful Being towards what is brought close and de-severed. The second counts less. It’s really quite something. A pathway which is long ‘Objectively’ can be much shorter than one which is ‘Objectively’ shorter still but which is perhaps ‘hard going’ and comes before us as interminably long” (Heidegger. “This even implies that the pathways we take towards desevered entities in the course of our dealings will vary in their length from day to day. Vom Sinn der Sinne (Berlin: Springer Verlag.] And the building reflected within it! Oh.] 21. . A fragment from one interview: “On a photograph of the gallery. and ethology—Author’s note. . . 2004. . [One of the best arguments against reflexology is to be found in the opening pages of the fundamental and too neglected work of Erwin Strauss. so much can the lived experience of everyday time be alien to topography. As Dasein goes along its ways. For the critique of reflexology. I did not get far. . There are three postcards about the New Town [ . ]. There is a strangeness to the return trip. But it was a start. 17. I like the school from the lake with its honeycomb pattern. as well as to Maurice Merleau-Ponty (Phenomenology of Perception). has broadly inspired perceptual psychology. to the works of embryologists (George Ellett Coghill. Klopfer). which was based on a short story by Isak Dinesen). Peter H. It is the first step that counts. it does not measure off a stretch of space as a corporeal Thing which is present-at-hand. I really had a laugh!” 18. which. to Kurt Goldstein (The Organism: A Holistic Approach to Biology Derived from Pathological Data in Man). 20. . 1935). 140). Here are a few expressions we have heard: “The colors? How to say it? .NOTES TO CHAPTER 4 wonderful 1967 made-for-television medium-length film by Orson Welles. on the one hand.

13): “And the source of coming-to-be for existing things is that into which destruction.’ as he describes it in these rather poetical terms” (Kirk. The Unnameable. 1933–1969. On the illusion of spatial simultaneities. in Molloy. 29. 24. See the “Polysemous Figures” subsection in the “Elementary Figures” section of chapter 2. “The Aleph.” See Klee. “Dream and Existence”).” published in The Aleph and Other Stories. see the third rule of the code of appropriation at the end of the “Territorial Appearance” section of chapter 3.” The preferable definition (in the sense of a seizure of limits via configuration. through it. One female inhabitant from number 60 says. 26. These are the ironic ups and downs of a technological medium that is lived in contradiction to the elevator’s function. It would be the essence and also the secret of time. The Thinking Eye: The Notebooks of Paul Klee. “The Aleph. See the final. “Identität von Weg und Werk. 32. if we are to believe Anaximander’s statement (sixth century BCE) as reported by Simplicius in his Physics (24. Raven. 27. 30. happens ‘according to necessity. Nor does this definition depart from the quite numerical notion of “measure. 33. 23. Molloy. too.” 230 . 31. and have I now forgotten it? Our minds are porous and forgetfulness seeps in. and Schofield. See the fourth rule of the code of appropriation in the “Differentiating Appropriations” section of chapter 3.” 30). Malone Dies. it’s mine.NOTES TO CHAPTER 4 ent. 117–18). I myself am distorting and losing.” 28ff. under the wearing away of the years. when you go back along them” (Beckett. “The little bit of the neighborhood I frequent. See the beginning of the “From Figures to Code” section in chapter 2. 165–66). 25. the face of Beatriz” (Borges. fantastic short story. we rediscover the vertical dimension that is essential in human motor patterns (Binswanger. “Does this Aleph exist in the heart of a stone? Did I see it there in the cellar when I saw all things. death and birth of the impulse (ictus). See the experiment in continuous reportage (seven months running) that was attempted by an American television network on the Loud family in 1971 and the commentary Jean Baudrillard offers in “The Precession of Simulacra. 168. for they pay penalty and retribution to each other for their injustice according to the assessment of time. 34. The Presocratic Philosophers: A Critical History with a Selection of Texts. 28. rather than formal division) will be the one that presided over the art of Gregorian modal music: sequences of bursts (arsis) and rests (thesis).

On the Imaginary Ground of Inhabitant Expression 1. just like that.). .). Or else. 121ff. but also in terms of dynamic capacity). Can one imagine a generative and transformational development plan and architecture? 5. I bring my chair close. Kant. See the section “An Articulatory Process” in chapter 4. Critique of Judgment. to knit.” 37. ]. the meanings of discrete and discreet overlap in one word: discret. We speak of the power of the body in the sense of the evaluation of what it can do (in terms of limits. Notice that I don’t see very much. sites of collective gravitation (because on the walls have been painted the words “pole 1. because I’m small and because the plant stands are high. 277ff. See the expressions of some inhabitants. 123). which proposes some quite valuable prolegomena to the study of existence in concrete situations. [In French.] 2. Part 3.). 38.” 36. The spiritus phantasticus (a term that is nearly untranslatable. As structural grammar becomes with Noam Chomsky “generative and transformational grammar” (Syntactic Structures). what in English appeared as “uncontrollable force of nature” appears as “une force qui défie les calculs. But I keep contact with the outside. 6. Including the First Introduction. like that.” 91ff. as well as before any production of habitat. 7. reported earlier: “this isn’t a spot. the true secrets of which we shall hardly ever be able to guess and reveal” (Critique of Pure Reason. And the view isn’t unpleasant. This power to produce syntheses is analyzed in the famous pages from Kant where he deals with the Schematism (Critique of Pure Reason. —Trans.] 3. because 231 . It seems to be of fundamental importance to weigh this evaluation before any ethology of inhabiting.” —Trans. remain obstinately deserted. “I don’t often look through the window [ . while passing by it. just as Spinoza weighed it at the start of his ethic of “feelings” (that which affects). 5. “Analytic of the Sublime. 39.” Another female inhabitant says. Some sites in the Arlequin neighborhood that planners foresaw would be used as meeting places. near the balcony. “This schematism of our understanding applied to phenomena and their mere form is an art hidden in the depth of the human soul. “You see. in his Ethics (in Complete Works. book 2. [In the French translation of Kandinsky. . because the neighborhood is also a bit my home.NOTES TO CHAPTER 5 35.” “I wouldn’t live there.” “pole 2”). 4.

Mechanical ventilation system for the apartment complex. 15. have articulated Western philosophy. let us simply recall the extreme importance that. 12. See the cascade of exclusions of which the Community Center is the site in the “Differentiating Appropriations” section of chapter 3. depending on the different connotations they 232 . 13. In one stairway. Let us recall the two logical traditions that.” a 124-page mimeographed document. 16. France. On the one hand. 18. In this case. See the Second Rule of the Code of Appropriation at the end of the “Territorial Appearance” section of chapter 3. This film is available at “Grenoble-InformationAnimation. So as not to weigh down our argument. in a kind of thinking that is familiar to us. See Yves Bardin’s short film Quand les poules auront des dents (When the hens will have teeth). Sigmund Freud and Gaston Bachelard granted to this industrious circulation of the imaginary that defies the apparent distinctions in whose name mental functions are doggedly separated from one another and our psychosomatic entity is torn asunder. it grounds. 8. it is the breath that gives life to all things and makes significations speak.NOTES TO CHAPTER 5 it includes ideas that are for us so different. which seeks out the ground of expression. See the “Polysemous Figures” subsection in the “Elementary Figures” section in chapter 2. See the “Polysemous Figures” subsection in the “Elementary Figures” section of chapter 2. See in particular Giordano Bruno’s “La Cena de le Ceneri. and breath of life) manifests itself in two ways. On the other hand. The fantastic and murderous invasion of ferocious hens who take over the Arlequin begins in this film with eggs hatched in the underground areas of the gallery. and the “Appropriation via Dislocation” section in chapter 3. along with their most representative expressions. “Imagination et Nature chez Giordano Bruno. See our master’s thesis. 10.” Grand Place. 11. in the form of the subjectum. The evidence seems quite convincing: the cake pan he was carrying now strangely resembles a colander.” 9. will briefly recall those “traits” of everyday style. Grenoble. 17. Cf. each in its own way. the field that supports all existence. 14. The concrete forms by which one evokes the possible in the present pick up on various traits of everyday life that are already present in figures and appropriations—whence the numerous references to narratives already quoted. someone shot at her son with a rifle. the narrative of one mother. such as those of imaginary power. divine fire. it animates. or else in the metaphorical form of the atrium or the combinatory field of second-order significations (interpretorial reproduction of the immediate meaning of things). the horrible persists through eventful marking. This final reading.

24. Let us refer here to the most memorable source in the history of linguistics. Les Structures anthropologiques de l’imaginaire: Introduction à l’archétypologie générale. 21. the Port Royal Logic. 22. a dominant mode of thinkingproducing was firmly constituted on the basis of a certain way of representing space. or even contradictory. Durand.” 23. Spinoza abandoned the concepts that would immediately denote a status for expression. There is nothing fortuitous. the second reading Gilles Deleuze reconstitutes in his Expressionism in Philosophy: Spinoza (1968). methods of combination bore upon a quite precise status for 233 . stretches from Epicurus to Jan Lukasiewicz). Les Structures anthropologiques de l’imaginaire. and in particular Logique et contradiction and Les Trois Matières. If one wanted to draw up the logic of everyday life. In his Ethics. We refer to the analyses of André Micoud in his mimeographed research report. which has always inspired mistrust. (3) “An Articulatory Process” at the end of chapter 4. it would no doubt be necessary to begin with the covariant of nonexclusive disjunction. 25. See. and those of Jacques Ion and Jean Nizey. 1976). 28. At that time. See the various works of Stéphane Lupasco. 19. the tradition of unpaired values: true. Durand.NOTES TO CHAPTER 5 give to the modality of the possible: the tradition of paired values: true or false (see the dominant scholasticism of the Middle Ages.” This logic of the imaginary has been launched in the field of axiomatic research. Such thinking is scandalous because it is grounded upon a philosophy of immanence. Ibid.. “Symbole. Ferdinand de Saussure’s Course in General Linguistics. in Les Processus d’évolution des grands ensembles (Saint-Étienne: Centre de Recherche et d’Études Sociologiques Appliquées de la Loire [CRESAL]. (2) “Conclusion in the Form of a Bifurcation” at the end of chapter 3. 68. 38. 20. replacing the “either/or” of the logic of the excluded middle with the “and/or. in the same age. Les Nouvelles Formes du refus de la ville (Saint-Étienne: Centre de Recherche et d’Études Sociologiques Appliquées de la Loire [CRESAL]. false. and (4) “Three Powers of the Lived Imaginary” in the present chapter. 1973). Leibniz). about the fact that one would have to go back to the Renaissance to find an openly declared theory of expression and that. 67–69 and 69–70. This status appears only through an almost initiatory reading. Lalande. 27. respectively: (1) “The Poetic Idiom” at the end of chapter 2. 26. neither-true-nor-false (this tradition. We are thinking here of several practices that stretch from the damaging of urban sites to the ironic inversion of their functional significations.

31. 29. just as the world of forms tightly bound in the “canvas” is born of a simple graphic gesture or of a colored point. Expressionism in Philosophy: Spinoza. 1917–1955. Deleuze. The methods of thought production and of fabrication (Ars) were little by little led astray and turned into pure operative instruments subsumed under a binary structure that went on to disjoin identity and difference. but simply some immediately beneficial divisions in which the heterogeneous disguises itself as homogeneous. “The Expelled. a synoptic table that sketches out the varieties of this reductive process. The universe of inhabitant expression is engendered on the basis of discretely lived point-like experiences. the “I think” and the world. On the question of this necessary involvement of tension in the act of building. the great break in urban development and design occurred at the end of the fifteenth century. which is itself the fruit of a break performed on the level of reflection upon the urban object” (interview in Metropolis.] 234 . The break occurred during the second half of the Renaissance. the remarks of Françoise Choay: “I am more and more convinced that in the West. We use this expression that was favored in the Bauhaus aesthetic. which would be split up. as well as a way of making that order reexpress itself. 2. [A later. bilingual edition appeared as Illustrated Notebooks.” into representational space. 3.. Not that the urban space included no organization. the manipulation of which no longer convokes anything expressive. 335. 30. Cf. Beckett.—Trans. no planning. The pictorial metaphor evoked here seems illuminating. but such organization was the product of a set of social practices and not that of a specific practice. the reader is invited to read and reread the pages of Georges Braque’s Cahiers. The representation of space from which the “arts of thinking” drew strength was flattened into “res extensa. 67). 333. . . It is a formal account of the contradictions and reductions that occur between the order of building-housing and the power of inhabitant expression.” 33. Significations—each one referring to the others—made up the way of understanding a cosmic order that expressed itself on its own. in an appendix.NOTES TO CONCLUSION signification. The triad of expression disappeared like an outdated metaphysics. Conclusion: A Cosmogenetic Point 1. We offer. and yet that order still had to be convoked through the medium of streams of significations-expressions. Ibid. Before .

I make explicit here my American prejudice against the International 235 . a recent English-language translation has Off the Beaten Track). [It should be noted. quite well analyzed in Lugassy’s work Le Discours idéologique des architectes et urbanistes. see The Thinking Eye: The Notebooks of Paul Klee. and thus is the opposite of what Augoyard affirms concerning the paths of expression at the close of his book. For this Rocard.] 14.] Appendix B 1.NOTES TO AF TERWORD 4. In the sense in which the one-dimensional false consciousness denounced by Herbert Marcuse as representation of a destiny of productivity did not yet carry weight. 169. “La France en quête d’un avenir. we have borrowed the French translation given by Henri Maldiney at the University of Lyon in 1969 [and then retranslated it into English. Durand. 7. 12. for the available English translation. 143.” 5. See Worringer. Ibid. See chapter 1 of Medam’s La Ville-Censure. www. Marcuse. originally published in German in 1908. which differs somewhat. 9. the bitterness and regrets of a frustrated creativity. See our analysis of the process of conception-production of a high-density housing complex: “Des opérationnels autour de l’Arlequin. that the 1962 French translation of Martin Heidegger’s 1950 volume. 8. was titled Chemins qui mènent nulle part (paths that lead nowhere). 84. broached on that crisp fall day in Grenoble and continued in the present text (placed most appropriately as an Afterword).—Trans. [English translation again somewhat altered to reflect the French translation from the German. One-Dimensional Man. Zone d’urbanisation en priorité (ZUP).cresson. 10. for the reader of the present French-to-English translation.—Trans. Afterword The ambulatory dialogue between author and translator. Cf. has been pursued in an exchange available on the author’s professional Web site. 11. Science de l’homme et tradition: Le Nouvel Esprit anthropologique. Abstraction and Empathy: A Contribution to the Psychology of Style.—Trans].” 6.html. Holzwege (literally: wood trails. 13.

we would prefer to grant. Kathleen Blamey [Cambridge: MIT Press. already fixed in place.” This song includes a sly comment on fictionalized landscaping reminiscent of the Arlequin’s mounds: “You know. rather. nonetheless. and quite intriguing. being reminiscent. which was reinforced by my 2000–2001 residency at Taliesin West at the invitation of the Frank Lloyd Wright School of Architecture. Otherwise. The University of Minnesota Press originally took an interest in translating Pas à pas as an outgrowth from its publication of Lefebvre’s The Urban Experience. There is in Step by Step one late. as a plausible outcome.” Postmodernism. as soon as one lays down the first stone. as soon as its first object is sketched out. who also wrote on the imagination. that the ‘modern’ is what has just died. Jean-François Lyotard’s volume on the postmodern condition. of Cornelius Castoriadis’s 1975 major work The Imaginary Institution of Society (trans. what are all the characters going to fall off of?” I know not whether Anderson ever read Jean Baudrillard on simulacra. 2. And the “plausible outcome” of “self-construction” seems rather alien to postmodern concerns. however. This experience was the reverse of the one Laurie Anderson drolly described in her eponymous song from Big Science (1982) depicting disorientation in a future-dominated builtscape: “Hey Pal! How do I get to town from here? And he said: Well. self-construction. 6. from the existentialist philosopher of an absolute freedom Jean-Paul Sartre. 1998]). take a left at what’s going to be the new sports center.NOTES TO AF TERWORD Style. I think we should put some mountains here. reference to the death of modernity: “Building is missing-in-action. Danto. 4. And rather than calling for a return to the past. not dead. just take a right where they’re going to build that new shopping mall. seems absent from the present volume. even though Augoyard. 3. for it has rid itself of lived time. so far as I can tell. We would say. but it is known that she studied Merleau-Ponty at Columbia with Arthur C. And its potentialities are still exercised in a virtual way in the obscure confrontations between inhabitant expression and constructed space. But not even a hint of influence. You can’t miss it. rather. La Condition postmoderne: Rapport sur le savoir had only come out the same year Pas à pas was published. Like Proust (translator of John Ruskin) or Paul Auster (translator of Pierre Clastres). And I said: This must be the place. go straight past where they’re going to put in the freeway. himself work236 . it is already conceptuality. that is. It is dead absolutely. the term had already existed for decades and was popularized two years earlier in Charles Jencks’s The Language of Post-Modern Architecture. 5. and keep going until you hit the place where they’re thinking of building that drive-in bank.

most proximately. Magmas. in contrast to Augoyard. speaking affirmatively. 10. of Lefebvrean provenance— might nevertheless make one think of that theorist of micropowers. Not to forget a wealth of premodern and early modern influences: as Augoyard notes. with its merely hermeneutic overtones. another author whose work developed in parallel with his during the 1970s: see Castoriadis’s “Complexity. Augoyard’s microscopic study of appropriations and counterappropriations—themselves couched in Saussurean terms of mutually generated difference based on the arbitrariness of the sign but being. Neither does Michel Foucault’s name make an appearance. or admission of. his master’s thesis was written on the topic “Imagination and Nature in Giordano Bruno. about “the power of the imaginary. I have often referred to the latter’s work while translating and reflecting upon the former’s. Jean-Paul Dollé proposes an amalgam of Heidegger (Dollé cites “Bâtir. Yet. On the other hand. penser”) and Lefebvre (he also mentions “the production of space”) as a frame for discussing the fall 2005 riots in France. interprète can mean both “performer” (like Ion) and “interpreter-translator. seems quite inadequate and inappropriate. in The Rising Tide of Insignificancy (The Big Sleep).NOTES TO AF TERWORD ing on the imagination at the time. one never makes a complete tour around the everyday as it is lived. it is hard to imagine Foucault. issue of the Communist newspaper L’Humanité (“Bâtir la ville: le désir de civilisation”). available online starting at: http://notbored. It is indeed fascinating to witness these two intellectual trajectories developing at the same time within the context of postwar French thought. not to say infinite.html. the term interpretation. he fails to take as his point of departure the self-articulating position of the inhabitant-user of this space. It is to be noted that “An 237 . to the extent that one can say that a translation is an artistic re-creation of voices and significations in another tongue. In a “Tribune libre” for the December 28.” 7. nonexhaustiveness is made on several occasions. Augoyard explains in chapter 2: “In any case. History: The Example of the Medieval Town” (1993). habiter. task. I have been helped in my examination of Augoyard’s work by Castoriadis’s own reading of Yves Barel. 9. 11. given the complexity and overlap of the multitude of referrals involved. A nearly impossible. as Augoyard does. had not read this volume. In French.” This apposite claim to.” Nevertheless.” Those who would take Step by Step to be merely a clever text in urban studies or a microanalysis of a particular housing complex would miss a great deal of the philosophical intent and import of this quite remarkable volume. champion of powerlessness. Because of similarities of concerns and an overlap of themes between Augoyard and Castoriadis. 2005.

51. (See. instead. 1988).NOTES TO AF TERWORD Essay on Everyday Walks in an Urban Setting” is the proper English translation of the book’s subtitle. and for Choay’s use of the term habiter when discussing it in relation to Heidegger. now a filmmaker. Also. The obvious reference here is to Marx and Engels’s attack on the irrelevancies of their contemporaries in The German Ideology. as elsewhere. vol. “Everyday Walks in a French Urban Housing Project. “To dwell” has been reserved. along with malls (centres commerciaux). since this book was originally published.” was settled on for the present translation. The author wisely added “apparently” with regard to walking practices’ assumed resistance to co-optation.: Stanford University Press. 17. “pedestrian ways” (generally designated in the States as “walking streets”) devoid of cars that funnel pedestrians and foster shopping in an environmentally more friendly setting. the Flâneur.) 14. org/a/a-zaperri. “Two roads diverged in a wood. to be avoided: “Sometimes rather more following an existing path. from his collection World in Fragments (Stanford. even this mutual exclusion is. of coming to a stop” plus “city dweller” for citadin. one moves within a space that never tolerates the absolute exclusion of the one or the other. and the Beginnings of Mass Culture in New York during the 1910s. “dwelling” connotes meditation on allegedly profound matters. Giovanna Zapperi’s “Marcel Duchamp’s Dandyism: The Dandy. Augoyard immediately and enthusiastically recognized the Anderson lyric reference when I mentioned it to him. thereby “democratizing” (to use an abusive. A compromise subtitle. 12. on an early-twentieth-century artistic transfiguration of these two nineteenthcentury pedestrian figures. while “inhabiting” indicates a mobile bodily practice. 304. An early indication of the limits of a deconstructive approach to walking practices is perhaps contained in the very citation of Derrida’s concept of “differance” (note 16 to chapter 3): “It is not the question of a constituted differ238 . Calif. “The Road Not Taken”).” 15. has been the deployment and proliferation of voies piétonnes. See mentions of the “French Ideology” in “Social Transformation and Cultural Creation” (1979). and I. from Castoriadis’s Political and Social Writings. / I took the one less traveled by. however. 16. journalistic term) and further commercializing the experiences of the Baudelairean dandy and Walter Benjamin’s flâneur.artsetsocietes.html. a major urban planning and design contrivance popularized in France. as in “the possibility of dwelling.” translated by me and available at http://www. As we shall soon see. as well as in “The Movements of the Sixties” (1986). 3 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. / And that has made all the difference” (Robert Frost. 13. 1997). he was familiar with the song on account of his son Erwan. For. sometimes rather more hewing a new one. to translate demeurer and its derivatives. according to Augoyard.

James M. thesis in Merleau-Ponty concerns “The Primacy of Perception and Its Philosophical Consequences. Lest it be thought that I am making a fetish of movement. 239 . Part I. In French. and writer Pol Bury.” It is unclear how such a hypostatized notion of “purity” can account for the messy everydayness of such movement practices. see also my translation of André Balthazar’s text for one of Bury’s catalogs: “Pol Bury or Murmured Slowness. in Husserl himself. 1964). he acknowledges. Martinez. as Stephen HastingsKing points out in his 1999 Cornell University history PhD dissertation. 23. Edie (Evanston. the protentional/retentional terminology stems originally from Edmund Husserl’s 1928 work Phenomenology of Internal Time-Consciousness (based on his 1905–10 lectures) and is an extension of his method of intentional analysis. the work of the late post-Surrealist artist. before all determination of the content.” This 1946 talk.” in Pol Bury. of the pure movement which produces difference. 20. 18.” 192. 22. movement here is to be taken in its Aristotelian sense of change or alteration. by way of contrast. The investigator addresses this problem by asking a “how” question—“How do you walk through your neighborhood. but key. There are two further mentions of deconstruction. A questionable. derived from the “intentionality” thesis developed by his teacher Franz Brentano.” an overlap of significations exploited in particular by Merleau-Ponty. In fact. “Fordism and the Marxist Revolutionary Project: A History of Socialisme ou Barbarie. 9–11. but rather. The (pure) trace is differance. Of course. Plato Cratylus 401d (on Heraclitus) and Aristotle Metaphysics 1010a 13–15 (on Cratylus). and not limited to its Galilean sense alone of local movement. 21. 19. sens means both “meaning” and “direction. what trips do you take?”—in a protentional rather than retentional mode (the interviewees are to provide their answers only after a suitable lapse of time and after having had the actual experience with this question in mind). 24. 1977). including his book Les Horribles mouvements de l’immobilité (Paris: C. La lenteur murmurée (Paris: Galerie Louis Carré. allow me to recommend. ed. forms the eponymous text for The Primacy of Perception and Other Essays. 2004). “comes up right away against a major difficulty”: people’s tendency to forget. This modal methodological approach.NOTES TO AF TERWORD ence here. sculptor. this call was already articulated as a “going back” (“wir wollen auf die ‘Sachen Selbst’ züruckgehen”). Ill. first published in French in 1947. Of note.: Northwestern University Press. of which there are four species. Perhaps Heraclitus’s most famous fragment begins “All things flow” (panta rhei).

nor as too confused a faculty to be able to attain the empire of reason. Each time our ‘imaginary’ capacity has been taken into account as a whole. Merleau-Ponty’s May 1959 Working Note. “Thus. Ill. .” And Augoyard. there is a precipitation or crystallization of the imaginary. On the other hand. since it is there. Alphonso Lingis [Evanston.: Northwestern University Press. of the symbolic matrices” (The Visible and the Invisible followed by Working Notes [1964]. ed. and creating. offers precious indications as to the historical role of the imagination in Renaissance thought. 191–92). See Castoriadis’s “The Discovery of the ¯ Imagination. 27. of the existentials. synthesizing. by not being all actual under the look——but it promises this total actuality. about things not really being observable: “What we call the sensible is only the fact that the indefinite [succession] of Abschattungen precipitates——But. What Merleau-Ponty describes in static or fixed terms as “concretions” and “precipitation or crystallization” could have been rearticulated in mobile terms by extending his metaphor of “enjambment. the contrast with the sensible is therefore not absolute. Kantianism—which.NOTES TO AF TERWORD 25. . did not immediately preoccupy itself with the instantiated principle of the imaginary—nevertheless conferred upon it the threefold role of reproducing. conversely.” begins as follows: “The transcendence of the thing compels us to say that it is plenitude only by being inexhaustible. is what follows the statement just quoted. it was in order to point to its operative function: imagining is the power to connect.” meaningcreation through ongoing strides. 1968]. the imaginary has been considered neither as one of the lower faculties. 26. trans. Augoyard is quite aware of these multiple rediscoveries and successive cover-ups: “Several times in the history of thought. I believe that Augoyard’s book points in this direction. archaic in origin and confined to the production of images. author of that Giordano Bruno thesis. to form existent significations——” And here. that is. Claude Lefort. about which Castoriadis has not written (at least in the extant and posthumous work published so far). titled “Transcendence of the thing and transcendence of the phantasm. too uncultivated and too uncontrolled in its sudden appearances to be a bearer of truth. that it is empty. two centuries ago. The imagination is the medium par excellence. One wonders why Alfred North Whitehead’s process philosophy was not an appropriate reference for Augoyard. still couched in the language of Husserlian phenomenology. The senses are apparatus to form concretions of the inexhaustible. Although he does not present this history as thoroughly and profoundly as Castoriadis does. with the introduction of anticipation as origin of the realization of the real via the imaginary (“render[ing] present 240 .” in World in Fragments. . Aristotle Peri psuches 431a17. non-being. “When we say that—on the contrary—the phantasm is not observable.

” and the terms représen241 . Husserl’s German word for “institution. Martin Joughin [New York: Zone Books. The denigration of representation. Descartes does indeed talk about “represent[ing] my life as in a picture. they would never depart from a climatic pregnancy that never leaves them totally ‘unmotivated. 30. also may be found in a passage from Deleuze that Augoyard quotes: “What is expressed is sense: deeper than the relation of causality. Augoyard explained to me that the mention of Durand in his thesis (and subsequently in his book) was a late addition made after he had learned that Durand would be on the thesis committee. is the sense in saying that inhabiting is motivated (taken here by Augoyard to mean the opposite of “arbitrary”) and yet eschews the “why”? Augoyard is battling against Saussurean-based Structuralism. the entire basis (ground) for Augoyard’s aforementioned “protentional” method of interviewing inhabitants is itself tossed up into the air. founder. The ambulatory act of “skipping over” is not to be confused. And yet this is precisely what his “cosmogenetic point. on linearity and the arbitrariness of the sign: “expression is never carried out according to an arbitrary relation and does not unfold in a single dimension. Expressionism in Philosophy: Spinoza [1968]. in this case tied even more directly to causality.”) And he wishes to challenge Saussurean linguistics. as well as flow from. He also footnotes the work of the philosopher and social theorist Gilbert Durand. of the University of Grenoble II’s Center for Research on the Imaginary. 28. with the high-flying bird’s-eye or God’s-eye view (pensée de survol) MerleauPonty rightly criticized. One finds the lived experience/representation opposition often in Merleau-Ponty’s work. would more plausibly opt. too.” however. But he has yet to reach the vista where the risky possibility of positing the “why” and the metanecessary arbitrariness of creation themselves combine in. 29. self-positing (indeed. This consistent denigration of the “why” is particularly perplexing in light of Augoyard’s insistence that. 32. “however unremarkable our ways of inhabiting might be. In the sixth part of his 1637 Discourse on Method. for a present participle with future implications—motivating—although the imaginary’s interpenetration of action and passion would militate instead for past and present participles combining in an ongoing Stiftung. which is based. in 1966. self-instituting) imaginary that alters itself not just in time but as time. (The “power of the imaginary. rather. we may ask. 1990]. trans. deeper than the relation of representation” (Gilles Deleuze. an unmotivated.NOTES TO AF TERWORD what ‘really’ is not yet so”).’” It is perhaps understandable that the author wishes to view inhabiting not only as “movement” but also as motivated.” But what. could itself eventually generate. 31. 335).” in his Conclusion. and he thereby becomes a champion of expressive creativity. of course. by way of contrast.

where Castoriadis speaks of “a representation in the ‘active’ sense .’” Despite the dubious Heideggerian pronouncement that “representation” would somehow be absent from “lived experience” (instead of their being. and processes to inert and manipulable objects: “the same goes for rationalizing explanations that would yield on the one hand the subject. Here. mutually interpenetrative). Augoyard has no objection in principle to aisthe so long as the feeling of ¯sis.” instead of a static and objective “setting before” (a subject). Many German vor.” Such an understanding and acceptance of imaginary representation could rejoin the meanings of enjambement explored earlier and inspired by Augoyard’s movement-oriented method. 282.” The 242 . neither set theory nor identitary logic operates and that the individual can be opposed to or considered separate from the social sphere only via abstraction: “there is nothing about [inhabitant expression] of a ‘relation’ of part to whole or of a ‘relation’ of the individual to the ‘socius. we can see that. what is truly being contested is subject– object dualism and a specific representational reduction of things. This he does even after his admission that “one is never at the thing itself”! 34. 36. 35. on the other hand the object. . Augoyard goes on to state the important points that. originary positing starting from which every position—as ‘act’ of a subject or ‘determination’ of an object—has being and meaning.NOTES TO AF TERWORD tation and tableau (but also imagination) do appear a number of times in this and other Cartesian works.” but now it appears that what is being contested especially is “objecthood”—which would be condemned for representationalism. on the other hand the world in itself. When this phrase was first cited.” where. . See also the May 1960 Working Note “‘Visual Picture’ ‘representation of the world’ Todo y Nada.” Merleau-Ponty seeks to “generalize the critique of the visual picture into a critique of ‘Vorstellung’” (The Visible and the Invisible followed by Working Notes. it seemed that the operative word was “aesthetic. thanks to the imaginary. See “Merleau-Ponty and the Weight of the Ontological Tradition.” in World in Fragments. 252). Heidegger could just as easily have understood Vor-stellung to mean a “putting forth” of images. Heidegger provides no textual evidence of his own here. inhabiting is understood as movement. in a line of descent from Heidegger’s “The Age of the World Picture. their “placing in advance. That is to say. in the imaginary realm establishing the ground for real life. For his part. on the one hand knowing. 33. that is not placing-something-in-front-of-someone but rather is that by which and in which every placing and every place exist.words have the former two senses. as with Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty. “skips” and “does without” are translations for the French phrase faire l’économie de. people.

” 215–16. 1962).” in Thesis Eleven 49 (May 1997): 45–67. John Marcquarrie and Edward Robinson (New York and Evanston. 140 (emphasis added). 106.C. we have. in Castoriadis’s terminology. 38. Augoyard’s characterization of the imaginary’s “industrious circulation” provides us with the key dynamic phrase for following these otherwise paradoxical movements of redundancy and repetition. which were first sifted out as distinct elements during the fifth century B.: Harper & Row. “The ‘End of Philosophy’?” in Philosophy. Everywhere there is the for-itself there will be representation and image. relate. Ill. see my translation: “The Self-Presupposition of the Origin: Homage to Cornelius Castoriadis. 40. Castoriadis. in ancient terminology: the logico-noetic. The best work on this question is that of the Italian philosopher Fabio Ciaramelli. in ancient Greece. Autonomy. Martin Heidegger.” 37. David Ames Curtis (New York: Oxford University Press. Augoyard’s book is not without its own humor. Let it be noted that Arlequin. In fact. Cornelius Castoriadis. there will be intention. is French for “Harlequin”: the traditional comic character of pantomime theater. 41. “the three characteristics of the for-itself. the thymic. 43.” in World in Fragments. This “never extinguished resonance” also seems to be of Merleau-Pontean provenance. I thank Ciaramelli for pointing me to Heidegger’s “The Age of the World Picture” and helping me to orient myself in relation to that text. The imaginary weaves beneath each present lived experience a ground the imaginary immediately gives to it as world. trans. And the hexagon form of the Arlequin’s basic architectural design recalls France’s general hexagonal shape. If we take Heidegger’s early talk of Vorstellung and add thereto his mentions of “affective life” and “volition” (the latter in its most general sense as the distinctly human form of intention and desire). 146). the name of this housing project. 243 . and all the spaces inhabited. there will be affect. 44. 1991). Being and Time (1928). “The Discovery of the Imagination. and the orectic. “Only a God Can Save Us” is the 1976 title of the posthumously published interview Der Spiegel conducted with Heidegger a decade earlier.NOTES TO AF TERWORD genuine topic at hand for Augoyard is an elucidation of the imaginary via inhabitant expression: “To the extent that everyday life can find meaning qua expression. Heidegger. 39. Politics. 1977).E. the imaginary proposes itself as the essential referent to which the moments of inhabiting. in Holzwege (Frankfurtam-Main: Vittorio Klosterman. “Die Zeit des Weltbildes” (1938). 42. 15. ed. This goes for a bacterium as well as for an individual or for a society” (“The State of the Subject Today.

1995). On the latter. 14:186. Imagination. 46. Reflection” [1991]. he directs the “Ambiances. and poets created cosmogonies and anthropogonies. historians. housing.: Cornell University Press. Grenoble: CRESSON. in metapsychological terms. In light of the originary redundancy of representation. Today. with Henry Torgue. 45. see Castoriadis’s “Aeschylean Anthropogony and Sophoclean Self-Creation of Man” (1991).org/ FTPK. 1992). and residing. His volume Sonic Experience: A Guide to Everyday Sounds.” I do not believe that he ever explicitly explored the significance of its startling redundancy. 49.Y.html. in Figures of the Thinkable (Including Passion and Knowledge).) 47. Augoyard is himself an accomplished musician. of À l’Écoute de l’environnement. N. 1982).” 48. Here and elsewhere I have heightened the point by translating savoir as “scientific knowledge” in order to contrast it with familiar knowledge (connaissance).”) In many ways. Murray Schafer and translated by Andra McCartney and David Paquette. Répertoire des effets sonores (Marseille: Éditions Parenthèses. Step by Step is a lively and witty critique of an entire French way of thinking about building. a savant is a “scientist. In the time of the polis. available online starting at: http://notbored. Despite his scientistic leanings as a medical man and a nineteenth-century offspring of the Enlightenment. at least implicitly. now in World in Fragments. was just published by McGillQueen’s University Press in 2006. Freud managed not only to integrate the imagination (via phantasy) into his psychoanalysis but also to place it. with a Preface by R. (In “Logic. philosophers. not only for representations and for representing as Vorstellungen and Vorstellen but also for representation as re-presentation in representation of an a-representational drive. In French. To account for cosmogenesis as well as anthropogenesis. it might be worthwhile to examine more closely a phrase from Freud. He is the editor of La qualité sonore des espaces habités/Sound Quality in the Living Environment (bilingual acts of a March 1991 colloquium. and the coauthor. When he writes of the Vorstellungsrepräsentanz des Triebes—representation’s representative of the drive—he is providing a useful justification. Castoriadis provides the references in Freud as follows: Gesammelte Werke. political terms and cosmological terms creatively intertwined and interpenetrated within ancient Greek philosophy. his wife a former dancer.NOTES TO AF TERWORD (France is often referred to as “the Hexagon. ambiance” series at Éditions à la croisée. after all. 10:285 = Standard Edition. Dr. See Jean-Pierre Vernant’s 1962 book The Origins of Greek Thought (Ithaca. also edited along with Henry Torgue. at the center of his concerns. Augoyard offered the example of a student of his who spent months studying how people actually go into and out of a commercial center’s revolving 244 . Although Castoriadis knowingly described this phrase as “limpid.

it may nevertheless be noted. It comes before freedom of speech in importance because without it freedom of speech cannot in fact exist. however. Effective output is the result of the struggle that unfolds upon this terrain.. So when women struggle for freedom. A decade earlier. ed.” Given that this statement is itself an instance of speech. Yet we should remain attentive to the salutary emphasis on the importance of unencumbered and unthreatened pedestrian movement that this statement articulates. noting how such practices differ from the designer’s theoretical anticipations thereof. Similarly. even today.vianet. and Oxford: Basil Blackwell. women are not allowed out at night. is not only the history of great pitched union battles.NOTES TO AF TERWORD and fixed doors. 18). Labor power. 50. When I raised this issue with Augoyard near the end of my tour of the Arlequin complex. just as he was preparing to leave the autogestion (self-management)-inspired PSU. he readily admitted that there was a point to what I was saying but it was not possible to analyze these narratives from all perspectives—a point he had already rightly made in general in his book. during each of these seconds. it is also and especially the history that unfolds eight hours a day. has no definite use value that one might grasp independent of this struggle and its effects” (“‘The Only Way to Find Out if You Can Swim Is to Get into the Water’: An Introductory Interview. Rocard. made this astute comment in April 1974. in a 1974 interview summarizing the work of the postwar French revolutionary group Socialisme ou Barbarie (1948–67). one that conforms to the imposed production norms. Castoriadis declares apropos of workers’ gestures: “The history of modern industry. 52. each gesture of the worker has two sides to it. we must start at the beginning by fighting for freedom of movement. so as to lead a minority of its members to join the regrouped French Socialist Party. 1997]. We find at http://crisis. Mass.htm the following excerpt from a “Take Back the Night” statement: “Women are often told to be extra careful and take precautions when going out at night. We must recognize that freedom of movement is a precondition for anything else. It 245 . sixty minutes per hour. In some parts of the world. society today still remains profoundly divided.on. the other combating those norms. David Ames Curtis [Malden. therefore. 53. and that is in fact a basic principle of his “step-by-step” approach that makes no pretense to offering a general overview. in the third point of his programmatic text “Recommencing the Revolution. which we have not had and do not now have.” in The Castoriadis Reader. with its legacy of post–May ’68 politics. the hierarchization between freedom in movement and freedom in speech seems implausible. sixty seconds per minute in production and apropos of production.” Castoriadis had already articulated such gesture analysis in terms of everydayness: “Certainly.

html.NOTES TO AF TERWORD functions against the immense majority of working people. 54. 56. this book strangely makes no explicit reference to his earlier efforts in “L’Expérience prolétarienne. publish. Marcuse explains that this “new conformism” is “new because it is rational to an unprecedented if we do not strive to understand how society’s divisions are concretely being realized at the present hour. “Henri Lefebvre’s The Production of Space. See Grace Lee Boggs. 55. and London: Duke University Press. these people express their opposition to this society with half of each one of their gestures. what forms of reaction and struggle laboring people adopt against the ruling strata and their system. what new kinds of revolutionary activity related to people’s concrete existence and struggle in society and to a coherent and lucid view of the world are possible under these conditions” (ibid. Hastings-King.” Not Bored! 30 (February 1999): 65–76. See Brown’s insightful review. notbored. “Fordism and the Marxist Revolutionary Project. their cre246 . 107). 58. 1998). translated into English by me as Writing: The Political Test (Durham..” Castoriadis had already articulated this more positive understanding of the everyday: “Socialism aims at giving a meaning to people’s life and work. 57.” 176. The present crisis of humanity will be able to be resolved only through a socialist revolution.” instead of examining (through people’s involved everyday struggles against it) the irrationality inherent in modern bureaucratic-capitalist rationalization processes.” 59. also available at http://www. N. But these ideas run the risk of remaining empty abstractions. 2000). at enabling their freedom. These oral and written narratives that Augoyard obtained are not at all to be confused with detached and isolated individual responses to the usual “scientific survey” questions.. how this society functions. In later life. and employ such texts did it succeed in controlling for these texts’ rhetorical origins. In Step by Step’s quotation from One-Dimensional Man. In a 1957 Socialisme ou Barbarie text that forms the second part of a three-part series “On the Content of Socialism. pretexts for sermons or for a blind and spasmodic activism.C. In their everyday lives. This is one of Hastings-King’s critical conclusions about the limitations on Socialisme ou Barbarie’s use of workers’ narratives: in neither Lefort’s 1952 programmatic text advocating phenomenological analysis of such narratives (via eidetic variation) nor in subsequent efforts by the group to solicit. 60. Living for Change: An Autobiography (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Lefort published a collection of essays whose aim was to come to terms with the political aspects of literary texts and the literary aspects of political texts.

ask which were the Fascists and shoot them on the spot.NOTES TO AF TERWORD ativity. masters without slaves recovering a new innocence and gracefulness in living. at reconciling people with themselves and with nature. for example. is now available online. 62. 51. nor will there ever be judges again. It thereby rejoins the most basic goals of the working class in its daily struggles against capitalist alienation. the counterpart to Debord’s The Society of the Spectacle (also from 1967). With perfect composure. the ultimate problem of history is an everyday problem.” Here we see what can result when someone else’s “everyday lived experience” is fetishized into an excuse for not thinking on one’s own and for not exercising responsible judgment. which is where I found this and the following Vaneigem quotations. which accords a positive centrality to everyday life and struggle. by destroying slavery. We don’t want to be judges. Pushed to their ultimate consequences. A translation (by John Fullerton and Paul Sieveking) of this celebrated text. which are notions dependent on exchange and fragmentation. A point Augoyard reiterated to me several times. at http://www. These are not aspirations about some hazy and distant future. 63. Whenever Durruti’s column freed a village. grasped in their full strength. because we will have gobbled them up. and between the group and society. To understand this is to understand that.html. The next revolution will do the same. both in revolutionary struggles and in everyday life. Situationist International founder Guy Debord was certainly familiar with the contents of this key programmatic text.scenewash. but rather the content of tendencies existing and manifesting themselves today. As a member of Socialisme ou Barbarie for a brief period during 1960–61. 247 . these ideas transform our vision of society and the world. 61. but. punishment and torture. emphasis in the original). They modify our conception of theory as well as of revolutionary practice” (The Castoriadis Reader. at creating organic links between the individual and those around him. they would assemble the peasants. The following Vaneigem quotation from The Revolution of Everyday Life allows us to gauge the full distance between that book and Augoyard’s Step by Step: Everyday Walks in a French Urban Housing Project: “The revolution of everyday life will blot out ideas of justice. We have to destroy the enemy. and the most positive aspects of their personality to chainthinker/situationist/vaneigem/rel/roel. To grasp this is also to perceive that socialism is not ‘nationalization’ or ‘planning’ or even an ‘increase in the standard of living. it is to see the tasks of revolutionary theory and the function of the revolutionary organization in an entirely new way.’ Indeed. We know there’ll be no-one to judge us.’ It is to understand that the real crisis of capitalism is not due to ‘the anarchy of the market’ or to ‘overproduction’ or to ‘the falling rate of profit. not judge him. for the worker.

This page intentionally left blank .

———. In G.” 1976. Baudrillard. 1964. Grenoble: Médiathèque du quartier de l’Arlequin. Alain Medam. L’Urbain de l’action. New York: Hill and Wang. “The Precession of Simulacra” (1978). In A Barthes Reader. “Introduction to the Structural Analysis of Narratives” (1966). Christian Bousset. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Barthes. Augoyard.” Master’s thesis.Bibliography Anaximander fragments. Stephen Heath. Augoyard. l’Urbain du savoir à Grenoble. Kirk.” In JeanFrançois Augoyard. Trans.” 1975. and M. Paris: Unité de Recherches Appliquées de l’École spéciale d’architecture. J. 1994. “Le Pas: Étude de la vie quotidienne dans un habitat collectif à travers la pratique des cheminements. ed. 1982. “Des opérationnels autour de l’Arlequin. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Situations d’habitat et façons d’habiter. trans. Le Manteau de l’Arlequin (from December 1973 to May 1974) and L’Arlequin démasqué (starting May 2. Roland. Alain Pessin. Jean. Lyon: Université des Sciences Sociales. Jean-François. François. Grenoble: Unité d’Études et de Recherche “Urbanisation-Aménagement.” 1972. Jean-François. 2d ed. ———. Susan Sontag. and intro. 1974). Arlequin (journal de l’). 249 . and Alain Medam. S.” Grenoble: Unité d’Études et de Recherche “Urbanisation-Aménagement. and Henry-Skoff Torgue. Schofield. 1983. 1976. In Simulacra and Simulation. Ascher. The Presocratic Philosophers: A Critical History with a Selection of Texts. E. Raven. Sheila Faria Glaser. “Contribution à la critique de l’économie urbaine: Essai d’analyse économique de la production d’un élément urbain: le cadre bâti” (thesis). Genoble: Unité d’Études et de Recherche “Urbanisation-Aménagement. “Imagination et Nature chez Giordano Bruno.

Naples and Florence: Tocco-Vitelli. Keith Hoeller. 1988. Braque. 1976. ———. “La Route par les sentiers. 250 . Paris: Maspero. 1985. Syntactic Structures. Molloy (1950). Giordano. 1985. 1917–1955. In Collected Shorter Prose 1945–1980. “The Aleph. ———. Noam.J. Dutton. 1965. “La Cena de le Ceneri. and New York: Calder Publications. from the French in collaboration with the author. “The Expelled. 1972. ———. Illustrated Notebooks. L’Énergie spirituelle (1919). ed. Dream and Existence. Université des Sciences Sociales. ———. Henri. Norman Thomas di Giovanni in collaboration with the author. Trans. Nancy Margaret Paul and W. Trans. L’Enfant ou la quatrième dimension: Le projet pédagogique de la Villeneuve de Grenoble. 1975. London. London: John Calder. Manuel. 1950. The Unnameable. Saint-Étienne: CRESAL. La Question urbaine. Paris: Éditions du Seuil.” Au-dessus du vent. Char. Le Fonctionnement de la mobilité résidentielle intra-urbaine. N.: Humanities Press. 1971. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. Binswanger. Les Équipements socio-culturels et la ville. Castells. Florence: Sansoni. Samuel. In Molloy. Paris: Fondation Maeght. The Hague: Mouton.” In Dialoghi italiani. Malone Dies. Matter and Memory (1896). Henri. Bruno. L’Urbanisme. ———. Claustre. 1961. Atlantic Highlands. Les Nouvelles Formes du refus de la ville. Bergson. In Ludwig Binswanger and Michel Foucault. Interview. New York: E. Les Processus d’évolution des grands ensembles. 1879–91.BIBLIOGR APHY Beckett. ———. 1958. ———. ed. 1972. Jorge Luis. 1933–1969. René. utopies et réalités: une anthologie. Paris: Seghers. P. and trans. 1974. Choay. Chomsky. Cahiers. ———. De imaginum signorum et idearum compositione. 1971. 1967. “Dream and Existence” (1930). Borges. New York: Dover. Grenoble: Centre de recherche et de rénovation pédagogique. CRESAL (Centre de recherche et d’études sociologiques appliquées de la Loire). Saint-Étienne: CRESAL. 1974. SaintÉtienne: CRESAL.” In The Aleph and Other Stories. Georges. New York: Zone Books. Saint-Étienne: CRESAL. Montreuil. Ludwig. Metropolis 6 (May 1974): 65–69. Stanley Appelbaum. Françoise. 1970.” Trans. 1959. Scott Palmer.

Garin. Paris: Tête de feuilles-Sirac. Paris: Gallimard. Pierre. Kant. Trans. Gilbert. Eugenio. ed. 1964. Fundamentals of Language. The Hague: Mouton. Dal Medioevo al Rinascimento: Due saggi. Trans. Production de l’espace urbain et idéologique. 1995. ———. L’Homme et sa maison. Thomas A. N. 1976. Paris: Chabine. Jacques. The Phenomenology of Mind (1807). L’évolution de la mémoire et de la notion du temps. Science de l’homme et tradition: Le Nouvel Esprit anthropologique. Debord. 1960. Sebeok. The Organism: A Holistic Approach to Biology Derived from Pathological Data in Man (1934). 1983. The Thinking Eye: The Notebooks of Paul Klee (1956). Critique of Judgment. 1969. John Marcquarrie and Edward Robinson. ———.: Harper & Row. Baillie. Desfontaines. Ill. Werner S. “Two Aspects of Language and Two Types of Aphasic Disturbances. “Pour une nouvelle approche sémiologique de la ville. Being and Time (1928). Martin. Schultz. Immanuel. Klee. Paul. G. Fauque. Janet. New York: Wittenborn. J. Detroit: Black & Red. F. Husserl. Kurt. 1947. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press.Y. New York: Zone Books. B. Richard. 2d rev. 1972. 1990. New York: Zone Books. Les Structures anthropologiques de l’imaginaire: Introduction à l’archétypologie générale. Trans. Trans. Florence: Sansoni. Pluhar. Trans. Expressionism in Philosophy: Spinoza (1968). Cambridge: MIT Press. Hegel. Ralph Manheim with the assistance of Dr. Ill. Edmund. Critique of Pure Reason. ———. 1966. Roman. 1987.: Harper & Row. Heidegger. Guy. 251 . Charlotte Weidler and Joyce Wittenborn. On Grammatology (1967). Jürg Spiller. Kandinsky. Saint-Étienne: CRESAL. 1956. New York and Evanston. Garden City. Trans. Max Müller. W. Concerning the Spiritual in Art and Painting in Particular (1912). Goldstein. 1972.” In Style in Language. “Closing Statement: Linguistics and Poetics. 1928. Trans. Durand. Boyce Gibson.” In Roman Jakobson and Morris Halle. ed. New York: George Wittenborn. W. 1962. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. The Society of the Spectacle (1967).: Anchor. Pierre. New York and Evanston. Gilles. London: Collier-Macmillan. 350–77. Jakobson. 1975. Including the First Introduction. Trans. Derrida.” Espaces et Sociétés 9 (July 1973): 15–27. 1950. ed. Ideas: General Introduction to Pure Phenomenology (1913). F. 1967. Wassily.BIBLIOGR APHY ———. Martin Joughin. 1962. Paris: Bordas. Deleuze. R.

Henri. “Parole et silence de la ville. Parent. Alain. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. Paris: Larousse. 2 vols. Medam. 1991. 1968. Les Trois Matières. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Phenomenology of Perception (1945). Le Discours idéologique des architectes et urbanistes. “Longinus. 1913. Les Images de la ville. Conscience de la ville. La Ville-Censure. Stéphane. 1970. “Symbole. Trans. Alain. Trans. Paris: Anthropos. 1973. ———. Françoise. 1962. Marcuse. 1969. Pessin. Ledrut. Paris: Unité de Recherches Appliquées de l’École spéciale d’architecture. Jean. Mass.” On the Sublime (Peri upsous). l’imaginaire (research paper). Villeneuve de Grenoble-Echirolles: Objectifs et réalisations. Peytard. Paris: Anthropos. London and New York: Verso. Éléments de linguistique générale. Trans. Trans. Martinet. With Jacqueline Palmade and Françoise Couchard. Paris: Éditions des Deux Mondes. Jean-François. 1947. Lugassy. and Émile Genouvrier. André.BIBLIOGR APHY Klein. 1964. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. Robert. Lefebvre. 1967. Colin Smith. ———. ———. and Henry-Skoff Torgue. 1991. 252 . ———. Paris: Documentation Action concertée des recherches urbaines. Herbert. Maurice. André.: Blackwell. 1977. Paris: Herman. Lupasco. 1970. Paris: Anthropos. Paris: Éditions du Champ Urbain.” In Vocabulaire technique et critique de la philosophie. L’Europe de la Renaissance. “Villes imaginaires: Introduction à l’imaginaire urbain” (thesis). Merleau-Ponty. The Production of Space (1974).” 1976. Contribution à une psychologie de l’espace urban: La Dialectique du logement et de son environnement. Genoble: Unité d’Études et de Recherche “Urbanisation-Aménagement. Paris: Anthropos. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ———. Paris: Colin. 1899.” Espaces et Sociétés 9 (July 1973): 3–14. Rhys Roberts. W. 1962). Critique of Everyday Life (1947. Raymond. 1975. ———. One-Dimensional Man. New York: Humanities Press and London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. L’Espace social et la ville. Linguistique et enseignement du français. John Moore. Étude exploratoire. 1971. Oxford and Cambridge. 1972. Genoble: Société d’Aménagement du département de l’Isère (SADI). ———. 1968. Logique et contradiction. Lalande. La Ville. Donald Nicholson-Smith. 1961–73. and André Chastel. 1980. Paris: Publications de recherches urbaines.

1967. Charles Bally and Albert Sechehaye with the collaboration of Albert Riedlinger. 1973. Saussure. Habitat spectaculaire et misère de la vie quotidienne (thesis). In Complete Works. Francis. Spinoza. 1969. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company. Milan: Riccardi.” Le Monde. Simondon. London: Duckworth. 253 . Sansot. Segaud. Claude. ed. Roy Harris. 2002. 1967. Paris: Gallimard. Rossi. Michael L. Poétique de la ville. Ferdinand de. Clavis universalis: Arti mnemoniche e logica combinatoria da Lullo à Leibniz.BIBLIOGR APHY Ponge. Verdillon. New York: International Universities Press. Wilhelm. “La France en quête d’un avenir. Paris: Klincksieck. et al. Gilbert. Trans. Morgan. “Anthropologie de l’espace: catalogue ou projet?” Espaces et Sociétés 9 (July 1973): 29–38. Grenoble: Unité d’Études et de Recherche “Urbanisation-Aménagement. Marion. 1971. April 19. Rocard. Pierre. Du mode d’existence des objets techniques. 1958. Abstraction and Empathy: A Contribution to the Psychology of Style (1908). Ed. 1974. 1935. Berlin: Springer Verlag. Vom Sinn der Sinne. Course in General Linguistics (1916). Samuel Shirley. 1983. La promenade dans nos serres. Paolo. Straus. Erwin. Michel. Paris: Aubier. Worringer. trans. Ethics.

This page intentionally left blank .

See young people adults. 19–20. 234n2 affectivity/the affective. 28. 35. -in-abeyance. 82. 131. 120. and the present. and suffered.” 10 aesthetics. 57. 25. daytime. 139. 41. 54. spatiotemporal. 161 activity. 228n8. 166. 161. 54. 185. 169. 28. 153. 70–73. 153. 70. 156. 172. and abstention. impromptu. 230n28 Algerians. 154. prolonged. 147. of conjunction. 133. 90. 142. symmetrical. 23. 61. 27. fragmented. 145. 151. 62. 16–17.” the. 151 actors. 118. 29. 28. 226n12 age group. “really. 88. 91. 34. 129. 17. 68. 61. 141–42. 166. 59. pure. 59. 143–44. 133. 91 activity coordinators. 118. 69. 19. 155. social. 183. 52. 184. social. 82. 104. 89. 86. 142. 128. 74. 17. 19–20. 132–34. 3. 156. 161. 128. 113. 151 absence.Index abandonment. 66. 72. 21.” 117. 145–47. 146–48. and submission. 7. 132. 182–83 alternation(s). 92. 89. 80. 166. 23 accidents. 116. 102. 166–67. 49. 123. 128–29. 113–14. 144 “advocacy planning. and passion. 161. 127. 109. 125. collective. 52. 21. 187. 87. 23. 45. 135. 122. sociocultural. 72. 99. 72 ambiance. 145 Agora. of connections. 230n26. 182. 58. See also wind “Aleph. 110. 89. 86–87 air. 117. 137–39. 172 acted: and felt. 127. 35. 34–35. 138. 7. 94–96. 131. 126. 131–34. 71. feverish. 29. 169. 56. 87. 128–34. 158. 57. 147. 111. 190. originary. 133 255 . 142–43. 172–75. Bauhaus. 25 activity areas. 27 adolescents. figured. 67–70. 26. symbolic. 100– 101. 173. 109 abstract observer/subject. 119–20. 156 afternoon. 99 aggregates. See also North Africans alien. 72. 124–25. 102. transitory. 96. 150. 153–55. 54. 156. 131 abstractness. 120. of symmetry. expressive. 100.

official. 153. 156. 158. 122. 178 ambivalence. of space. 41–42. everyday. shared. 175. 98. 178. 45. 5. 86 appropriations. 162. 155. 14 articulation. 106. 230n32 anticipation. 58–59. 31. 124. 108. 56. 78 anxiety. 126. 169–71. 105. 109. 99. 64. 230n27. 51. 141. 96. 79. 128. alien. 143–44. 104. collective. 224n17. 108. dynamic of. sensorimotor. 75. partial. 152. 105. differentiating appropriations arbitrary. competing. common. 90. 150. 61. 232n13 arteries. 167. 162. 103. 44. 170 architecture. 106. private. act of. 223n8. France). 82. 9–10. 94–113. 13–14. 104. 121. code of. of walking. 175. projected/project of. 6 appropriable. pseudoconcept of.INDEX ambiguity. 132. via dislocation. 60. 77. 105. motor. 161. 42. 40. functional. 138. 107. 123. 228n14. 57. 158. 87. asymmetric. 98. 185. 129. 95. motor. 161. 232n10. 101. 90 approach. 34. 224n19 anamorphosis. 153. 97. 109. 74. 79. 79. 61. 7. positive. 85. 94. 12. 115. 127. 86. 184. 57. 132. 122. 149. 16. 15. 165 amplification. 222n10 appellation. 95. dialectic of. 37. 9. 117. 84. 73. 112. 158–59. 48. 66–67. 58. 83–86. 83. 167 anaphora. 140. 109. 141. 156. 111. 136. 80–90. 161. 55. 40–41. 67. 88. 9–10. 59. 93. 182. 172. 231n37. 113–14. 17. 101. 130. 85. 162. 99. 189. 106. 223n13 Arlequin (high-density housing complex in Grenoble. 22. 40. differentiating. 120. 81. 75. of avoidance. See also counterappropriations. 83 artistic. sensorimotor. 78. mutual. 99. 23–24. power of. 127. 102. 82–83. 78. 169–70. 64. 223n1. 26. sidelong. 111. 94. un-. 231n39 Aristotle. 97. 137. 18–19. 151–52. 16. 83. 82–83. 84. 92. of space. 97–98. 230n33. 166–67. 154 256 . 27. 129–34. singularized and particularized. 185. 133–34. 113. 146. 158–60 architects. 133. 163–64. 9. of movement. concrete. 122. 174. 148 Anaximander. 144. 94. 145. 29. combative. 43. 77. 16. 55–56. 93. 3–5. 135. failure of. 155. 109. 82–90. 128. 66 aporias. 223n10. 90. 45 ambulatory configurations. total. 83–84. 117. abstract. 187. 72. memorable. 110. 120. 113. 67. the. 147. 71. 85–86. 152–53. 57. 57. 109. 87. 162. 97. 182–83. force(s) of. 35. 102–3. 102. 89. 111. 120. 109–13. 16. definite and limited. 184–85. 176. See also names/naming apprehension: of places walked. 106. 182. 48. 87. 79.

Leonard. 144. in architectural forms. 77–78. 136. 157. 123. 133–34. See hearing automobiles. 120–24. local. 134. 108. its structuration. 177. taking one’s. 78. 18. 69. 55–56. 234n2 bearings. Gaston. 167–72. 63 cars. 104. 78 attraction. 61. See siege bifurcation. 35. act of. delayed. 163. 39. 118 Bar-bu (bar). 66. everyday. 108. impetus businesses. 82. 187 behaviors. false. 116. See automobiles 257 . 64. See limits breakdowns. 39. 17. 62–63. 61 asyndeton. 56. 104. 228n143 Beckett. 111. 112 Borges. 133–34. 127. 160. 141. 45. social. 126 autonomy. 68. 153. 109. 128 boundaries. 5. Samuel. 26. 229n20 Carroll. 28. 132. 223n5 Bauhaus. 130–31. 176–78. 109. in punctuation. 40 Bachelard. of expression. 31. 82. 58–59. 67. 134. 37. 231n38. 154. 45. 133. 48. 95.INDEX Arts of thinking. 24. 35. 74. 234n1 burst (élan). unforeseen. 122. 15–16. 123–24. division. 232n9 bakery. 150 calmness. 127. 120. 164 becoming. 155–56. 47. 104. 143. 40. 134. 229n19. 33. 74. 90. 117. absolute. 116. of inhabitant expression. 127. 184 attitudes. 97 besieging. 178. 131. 158–59 atmospheres. 31. 33–35. 226n4. 137. 91. 130. social. 159. 24. 116–18. 136. bodily. 162 avoidance. 28. 95. before knowledge. 83. 182. 144 bypassing. 50. 114. 152. 140. 33. 67–74. 147. 108. 45. by variation. signifying and signified. 61. 128. 63. 232nn7–8 building. 234n28 body. 183 asymmetry. variations in. 12. 156. 33–35. 114–15. 23. 34. 64. 39. 47. lived. 61. 17. Lewis. 116–17. 93. 128. 132–34. 139–40. 167 butcher’s shop. 112. 12. 64. 229n21. 108 auditory. 126 binary: distinctions. 41–42. See also rupture Brownian motion. 131. 35. 58. 98–99. 39. 47–48. 160. 33. 116. 234n3 building-housing. 227n4. 88–89. 125. 60. 225n1 assimilation. 127–28. 136. powers of. 187. Jorge Luis. 163. structure. 28–29. See also forward bound. 74. See also passing by café. 90–91. 90. 162. 129. 132. catastrophic. 109. 158. 33. 156. 230n31. 147–48. 48. principle of noncontradiction. 58–59. 8–11. 225n26. 33. 115. 51. 64. 137. Giordano. 170. 136 Bruno. 144 Carmichael. 108. 124. 37. 121–22. 49. 41. 35. in narratives. 150. 31. usual. 72. 174 belonging. 78. 63.

227n3. discursive. 139–42. 105. 155. 95. 41. 183 code(s). 185 climbing. 78–79. 18–19. 172. 164–65. 3. 171. 177. 3. 110. 52. 232n9 citizens. 116–25. 27. 229n22 commerce. 7. 76. 147. 112. 113. 138 cold. 9. 15. 127. 127–28. 11. 159. 143 causality. 149. 79. René. 229n20 coincidentia oppositorium. 228n5. 7 characters. 134. 12–14. 58. 149. 63–64. 37. 163. 44. 12–13. 84. 158–59. graphic. social. 185. 6. 184.INDEX Cartesian era. 153. 158. 129. 26–27. 14. 6. 155. 84. 18. originary. 93–94. 74. 187. social. 103. primary. 157. 169 communication. 9. 157. 156. 49–50. 27. 129 communication theory. 105. 132. 110. 13–14. meta-. 140–41. 172 Char. 55 certainties. 45. 166. 47. 11. 50. 123. 101. 72–74. 54. 49. 72. deep-seated. 225n26. 23. 135. 174. 51. 113 circuits/circulation. 121. of effects. 10–13. 45 Chomsky. 130. 173. transitive. 72. 129. two significations of. rhetorical. 21–22. 234n2 combination(s). 164. 19. 233n28. See young people choice. 6. 79. 164. 116 charting. 172. 107–10. 110. 94. 58. 11. 120. 73 combinatory process. system of. 105. 90. 169. essential or formal. 8 city. 63–64. 5. general. 156–57. 21. 82. 164. 110. 11. through sympathy (Einfühlung). See also appropriations: code of Coghill. 9. 107. 67. George Ellett. 71. 146. 139. basic. 159. 169. See scaling closure. 34. efficient or circumstantial. social. 8. 106. 228n12 city dwellers. 117. 130. 25. 50–52. the. 228n14. 110–11. 153. 106. 156. deliberate. 102. 169. 58–59. 187. 75. 118. 25. spontaneous. 18. non-. 228n8 collective space. 80–81. 29. 131 chronometry. 59–62. 231n39 chronogeneses and chronotheses. 155. 178 change of scenery (dépaysement). 10. of the imaginary. preperceptual. 78 climates. 172 centering. common. 174. 66. 151–53. 133–34. 60. 96. 168. ruling. 107. production. 11. 41. 172. 17. 62–64. César. 185. 13. 169. 231n37 color. 95. Noam. 131. of knowledge. 225n33 258 . 12. 84–88. 110. 103. 171. 43. 151. 225n1 children. 151. 135. 118 class(es). 173 collectivity. first. 24. 232n7 coming and going/returning. 117. climatic. 39. 66. 78. 78. 4. necessary. 12. 159. See maps catastrophe. and effects. 51 cartography. 136. 11. user. 90. 225n35. 119–20. 7–10. 163. 14. 174 causal links. 166. 61. 92. 22 civilization. 97–99. axis of. 9. 105. 229n18. 113. See maps Chesneau. 88. 140. 226n13. 19. 123–25. 75.

187 concrete (building material). 17. 59. 147. 78. 74. 133. 187 conjunctions. 171 consumers. 170. 123. 173. 87. 34. 67–68. 43. 184. walking. 183. 182. 128. 187. 110. 183. 85. 48. 24. 18 connections. 3. 42. 135. and play. 55–56. 235n4 concepts. staggered. 185. 177. 40. re-. 162. 126. 15–16. fundamental. sensorimotor. 125 conceived space. 68 contradiction. 186. 183. 48. 14. 34. 185–87. 187 contextual analysis. 108. 9–10. 12. 68–69. spatial. 154–55. 157. 176–77. 128. 72. 74. 111. 100. 161. 18. 145. 40. 64. 259 . 169. 73.INDEX Community Center. 179–80. operational. 174. eurhythmic. 148–50. 185 containers. 154. 114 consensus. 127. 185. 47. 5. 68. 173–74. 161–62. 128. visual. 19. 230n31. functional. of inhabitant space. 58–59. 190. 166 conception-production. 86. 114. urban. 177. 5. 4. 87. pseudo-. and contained. 76. 108. 20–21. and the lived. 51.” 14. 149. 163. 112. 232n17 community of meaning. 171. 156–57. 168–69. 27. 13. 67. 175. 165. 121. 162. 110. 153. 42. 112–13. 11. 179 constructed space. imaginary. absence of. 108–9. 174. 150. 34. 186. 130. 101. 107 contiguities. 171. 43 connotation. 176. 132–33. atopic. 154. 103. 72. 34. 73–74. 106. 48. social. 154. of one’s walks. 55. 8. 108–9. 156. spatial. self-. 4. 14. 139. 17. 10–11. of everyday sites. 161. 174. and denotation. 187 construction. 8. 134. spatiotemporal. 167. 71. 153. 228n18 conducts. 35. 157 continuities. 187. 137. expressive. lived. social. 17. 166. 157. 163. 169–70. 136–39. spatial. 133. 80. 67–68. 126. 64. 136. 166–67. 155. coordinating. 185. 133–35. 105. absence of. 75. 128. 8. 134. 171 constructing-housing. 39. 88. 176–77. 8. 156. 184–85. 75 configuration. 8. 88. 40. physical. 179–80. 43–44. 101 composition. 70. 75 competition. 228n14. 158. 87. spatiogeometric. 170–71. 183. 99–100. 111 conceptuality. spatial. 98. genesis of. of plenums and vacuums. 120. 31. abstract. 26–27. 159. chronological. 168–71. 129–30. 103. 161. 68. 179 consumption. 128. 52. 157. 63–67. 51–52. 157. of space. 124. 50. 134. 226n3. 103. 186 conflict. 182 confrontation. everyday. 15–16. 134. 27. 63. 43 constructed product. 185. 125–27. expected. 110. 37. pedestrian. 99 constraints. 130. 115. 187 “content analysis. 50. 22. 92–94. 68 connecting route. 166. 63. 176. 11. 35. 136–37. 7. 78. 112. 62. 179–81. 28–29. 93. spatiotemporal. 131. 63.

18. 45. play 260 . 139. 125–26. 109. 98. 120. 176. 234n28. 35. 11. 84. 101–2. 107–9. 160. 234n28. 153. 48–49. 85. 104–5. 91. 66. non-. 17. 11. 59. 234n28 co-optation/unco-optable. 3. 65. 95 differance. 35 cutting through. 186. 234n28. 137. 125. 82–83. 149–53. 234n28. 151. 86–87. 24. 182. 154. 180. 19. 28. 81. 31. 51. qualitative. 105. 159–62. 148. 55. 134–35. 123. See body cosmic. 121. 66. 4. 98 decoding. See also laidout and developed development plans. 111. 128. 115. 114. 165. 18.” 124 creation. 109.235n9 destructuration. 109. 179–80. 144. 235n10. 98 dialectic. 107. 3. 54. 56. 169 design. 49. 160 contraries. 50. 63 daydreaming. 111 derealization. Pierre. 134. the. of space. 151 crisscrossing. 161 convenience. 148 Deleuze. 153. 107. 56. 176–77 design plans. historical. 50. 90. 226–27n16. 24. 163. 35. 169. 85. 56. 95. 146. 29. 129. 189. 58. 121. 158 desertion. 97. 183.INDEX 146. 93. 28. 98–102. 144. 227n16. 51. 71. 231n37 Desfontaines. spatial. 171. 187. 16. 131. 35. 167. 56. 136 difference(s). 120 conversation. 123. 233n27. 105. 172. 183–84. 68. 89. 10. 83. 161. 131. 173. 42. 96. 135. 108–9. time of. 176. See planned spaces diachronism. 113. 175. See also sociocultural cutting across. 168. 154. 134. 7. artistic and technical. 56. 28. 111–12. 84–85. 112. 60. 144. 34. 74. 132. 41. 109. 98. 86. basic.” feeling of being. 23. 110. 177. 101. 157. 24. 88. 234n1. 102 deferred polysemy. 19. 55. 93–95. 105. everyday. “blue. 107. 228n13. 153. 11. 153. 173. ethnic. 121–22. 44. 41. 141. ongoing. 228n7 “crushed. 121. 160. 171. rhetorical. 154. 23–24. 168 corporeal being. and connotation. 182 delays. 140. 108. 15. 87. 6 cosmogenetic point. 29. 64. 120 crossing areas. 131. 127 culture. 179 detours. 15. micro-. 110 details. Gilles. 231n39. 75. 187. 107. conceptual. 113. 156. 155–56. 163. 83. 35. 227nn20–21 diastole and systole. coincidence of. 48 deformation. 177 counterappropriations. 31. 156–57. 150. 109–10 countryside. 138. See planned spaces destiny. 19. 50. 43–44 convocation. 110 deconstruction. 16. 6. 8–9. 169 coves. 135. 128. 172 development. 184. 165. 234n29 denotation. 29. 134. 104–5. 116. 160–62.

101–2. 114 emptiness. 81. 78 “either/or. 33. 25. true-or-false. 234n2 disjunction: exclusive. 52. 110 dissymmetry. 141. 27–29. 228n15. 187. 78. 166. multiple. 39. 148. 55. 112. 19. project of. 48. 21 direction. 7–8. 126. 45. 17. 168. 28. 168. 171 ease. ironic. 176. lack of. 110. 108. 109. 224n15. 261 . 73. 37. 19. among groups. lived. 64–65. 43. 95. 7–8. 7. Gilbert. 141. subjective and assimilative. 110 encounter. 126. 99. 166. of atmospheres. 49. 13. 155. 177 drawing(s). 39 din. 136–38. peritopisms elevators. and children. 173–74 economists. 189. 186 Durand. 16. 106. 131. 88. 187. 133. 40. 168. via rejection. 145. 10. nonexclusive. 88. 47–48. 82. lived. 50. 167. 127. 109. 95. 34. 150. 122. 14–15. paratopism. 96. 106–8. 132. in lived time. 137 discretion. 176. 39. clear-cut. 54. 130. 111. 66 divisions. 175. 174. spatial. 14. 62–64.” 25. forgotten. 162. 118–19. 25. 96 dogs. 109. 117. 228n7 dread. 147. in the present. 178 economics. the outlying. to play. 19. and unease. 145. 230n31. 95. 54. 35. 102. 37. 104–5. 10–14. 60. social. 119. 123. 78. 68–69. 105 differentiation. 87. 230n24 ellipsis. 98. 160. spatial. 233n21. of Meaning. 43–45. de facto. 93–94. 169 domination. 135. of climates. 228n8 elementary figures. 31. for order. 169–70. 157. 129–30. 37. formal. 85. 58. 129. 25. 160. 183 differentiating event. 4. See also daydreaming drive. 54. ornamental. 85–86. See noise directedness. 114. 143–44. 125 divergence. 176. 121. 105. 94. 96. 110. 33. social. 59. 168 enacted figures/process. 108. 61. 182. 61 distance. 29. 82–83. 118. See also nonplaces disorganization. 175 dwelling(s). 20 encoding. 83. 127. 59–61. 127–28 discontinuity. 33–34. 69. 107. digression. 124 eccentric. 226n13 digression. 17–19. 61. 84 emphasis. 20. abstract. everyday. 163–64. 66. 35. 185. 176. 16. 100 domesticity. 234n28. 59. for imitation. 147 dislocation (non-lieu). 80. 94. 79. 143 dysfunctions. 62. 233n21 elderly. and similarities. 176. 132. 121. 24. excessive. 78. 28. 63. 144–45. 112. 132. 123. 40. 91. 107. 98–99. 95. 157 dualisms. See also bypassing. 120–22. 39.INDEX of. 121. 55. 106. 96. 51. 227n4. 31. 61. 95. 141 dreamers. 231n2.

174–75 ethnic differences. 105. unexpected. 140. 100. 182. 107. 135–36. 183 ethnological methods. 137. 132. 157. 183. 19–21. singular. 35. striking. 40. of time. 157 explication. 102. 68. 121. 179. 121. 156. 233n21 everyday sites. 151. 159–64. 88. 104. 174. 157 epic mode. 177. 98. 182–84. 19. 88. 98 envelopment. 163. 146. 149 everyday actions. 79. and complication. 5. exceptional. 18–19. 66. 6. 162–63. 182 eventfulness. 185. 153. 97. 7. favorable. 6. 113 exaggeration. 74. 77 exceptional. 55. 9. 139. 149. 105. 232n14 eventful memory. 114. imagined/imaginary. 122–23. 140 145. 60. 61. dramatic. 149. 149. 108. 112. 117–18. 47. 93. 67. 37. 39. 120–22. 12. 107. 146. 144. derealization of. 185. 66. 122. 171 expansion. 120. 12–13. 175. 186. 148–49. irruptive/irruptive force of. 48. 82. 121. 107. unforeseen. illusory. 125. 153. 4–6. 154–55. 75. 107. 54. 147. 233n21 exclusion. 104–5. 110–11. 28–29. 168. 26 exoticism. 143. 80. 168. 105. 226n3. 164. 149. 90. See also scaling establishment. 159. 40–41. 149. 81. 28. 155 excessiveness. 182 excluded middle. 23–26. 146–47. of the possible. 17. of the future. 132. 57–58. 71. and the imaginary. 146–49. 156. 149. 95. 158 error. “little. 150. unpleasant. 148. 54. 114. 180. 40–42. 99–101. 146. 183 everyday life. 128. 153–58. 103–5. 147–48 explanation. 231n38 eventful marking. 112–13. 118. 34. 120 Epicurus. rationalizing. 159.INDEX 131. 13–14. 61. 233n18 epistemology. 149–50. 82. and the everyday. 161–63. 103–4. 51. 5 ethology. 57. 182 events. 136. 173. 17. 68. 57. 148–49. 114. and contraction. paradoxical status of. 52. 146. 156. 152. 161–63 environment. 151. 95 expectations. 163 262 . sudden. 50. 74. 232n10. 153. 12 evoking. 51. 9. 93. 14–17. principle of. harmful. 88. and the everyday. 160–64. 232n10. 166–68. of meanings. 146. 166. with the other/with others. 144. 106. 25. causal. 229n20. 161–62 expressed. 171–72. 159. 152–53. 123 escalation. 103. 142. 85. 101. 68–69. 177. cyclical. 159. 72–73. 152. 120. 25. 33. 111–12. 109. 136–37. 147. 156. overall. 75. 116. 73 equivocality. 152. 108. 161. 232n17 exhaustiveness. 153. 112 everyday space. 128. 138. 23. 149. the. 77. the.” 149. 48. 5. 100– 101. the. 156–57. 130. 115–18. 57. 168 equivalencies. 45 errancies. 74. 83. 113. 104–5. 58. and implication. 78. 147. 14. 98.

158. 33. 141. 177. 64. 85. 134. 101. 39–43. 231n38. 34. rhetorical. 161. and nearby. 234n28. 37. of inhabitant expression. 140. 159. 105. 103. 71. 148–49. and forms. 175. 33. 84. 164. 106. 20. 175. 63. 24. 106. its context. 168. 149. 171. 119. 167. 105. 50. 132. 140. 13 falling. everyday. 109. 132. 233n28. 134. 228n8. 179. 128. 136. 29. 158 fragmentation. 116. 135. 52. 101. shadowy. 24. 123. 95. 37. 176–77. 31. direct. 26–28. 176–77. 114. 111. 68. 115. of negation. 7. 151–52. rhetorical. 114. 126. 147 figures. rhetorical. 40. 228n8 feelings. 107. exaggerated. 171. 134. 26–28. 67. of appropriation. 137. 27. 25. 234n2 forward bound (élan). 19.” 140 expressionism. 88. 145–48.234n28. 140. 101. 9. 77–78. 109. of the imaginary. 131. 114–16. 119–21 focusing. configurative. 103. 75. 62–63. 187. 131. 126. 9. ambulatory. 147. 98. 167. 75. 63. 68. 110–12. 225n1 filler. 59. 99. graphic. 75. 122. 26.INDEX expressers. 138. spatiotemporal. 177 “filling in. 186–87. 123–25. 143. 66. 42 female inhabitants. 128. discrete and scattered. 144–45 far away. 177–78. 151. 160. excess in. 58–59. ambulatory. 78. 157. 149. 85. significations-. 121 facades. 77. 230n28 formation. 124. 69. 232n10. 98. meta-. 27. 155. 186. 126–28. lexical. 103. 149. 48. 151. 159–64. 72. 119–20. Pierre. 114 expropriation. 137. spatiotemporal.” 4. 15. 153 fearfulness. 143. 138. 94. 175. 103–4. 183 forgetfulness. 73. 34. See alien foresight. 159–63. 108. 149. 144. 156. 175. 114. 156. 61. 86. 185–87. status of/for. 77. 16. 136. 153 fashioning. 111. 47–48. 186. 48. of space. 135 foreign. 94. 95. 131–33. 101–2. 26. 55–56. 108 263 . 123–24. 154. 231n35 fights. 166. 168–69. vague. “they say. 23. 54. unforeseeable. 39. discrete. relations of. 103. 128. 58. See self-expression expression. 57. 161. 124–25. 145. walking. abortive. 225n1 forces. 124. 130. 154. 108–9. 49. 171–72. 92. 233n2. 156. complex. 105–6. 174. 233n28. 162. 65. 4–6. 122–23. 169 fascination. 156. 120 Fontanier. of expression. 39. 124–25 favorableness. imaginary. theory of. 176. 108–9. 106. 185 flight. 43–44. 74. 67–73. 182. 17. 123. 125. 74. 136. 158. 232n10. 20. of the possible. 128. 134. 59. 186 expressing oneself. 156. 143. 148. 161–63. 123. 238n14 factor analysis. 77–78. 113–14. 60.

155. 109. 126. 145–46. 162. 74. 128. Sigmund. 99. uniform. 140. 40. 229n17. 65. 61. 189. 172–73. 165–66. 125. 15–16. 130. of possibility. 92. 150. 35. 55. 131. of absence. 8. 91. 11. of continuity. morpho-. 84. 79. 37. 82–84. 92–93. 27. 56. 141 globalizing. 189. 98. 158. its floor. 169–70. 68–69. 190 gratuitousness. 142. 128. 31. 34. 234n2 getting lost. 156 goals. 8–9. 33–35. 106. 178. 155. 41–42. 167. 140. 62. 14. 142. 64. common. 31. 104. 183 future. 119 Freud. 167. 167. 106 graffiti. 75. 95. 129–31. 37. 55 Goldstein. 232n10. 70. 42. 157. 104 geometricality. of the imaginary. 133. 143. 156 graphics. its layout. 140. 149. outside. 157. 24. 155–56. See falling frequentation. 23. 25. 178. 37. 178 gallery. 90. 138. 15. 167. 143. 97. Kurt. of expression. 142. 124. 176–77. 31. 71. rational. 182. 232n9 functionalism. 189. the. 143. 166. 41–42. 56. synecdoche fusion. varied. 152. 50. 157. 127. spatio-. 157. 17. 82. 45. 33–35. its ceiling/cover. 141. 175–76. 150–51. 156. 75 “gray days” (griseurs). 143–44. 132–33. 65. 161. 29. 108. the. 189. 124. 62. 82. 37. 166. 182–83. chrono-. 227n22. 90. 95–96. 144. 70–71. 154. 150. 22. 145. street-level. 229n20 gossip. sensorial and imaginary. 87. 184. 182–83. 223n1 Gro. 171. 224n14. immediate. 31. 160. 155. 141. 233n20 fundamental figures. 50. 39. 232n7. 49. 43. under. 64. 183. 31. 148. 135–36.INDEX free fall. 80. 141–44. 99. 86. 141 gaps (écarts). 178 gaits. 131. 52. 90. 178. 124. 175. 152. underground areas of. climatic. See also supermarket ground. 153. 130. 55. 107. 111. 135–36. 60. 124 genesis. 133. 159. 139–41. 28. 4–6. 12. 42. 125. 59. 67. 99. 125. 140. 153. 152–53. 125. 126.” 55. 73. 232n13 gangs. 54. 7. 52. 234n2 grass. 136. of walking rhetoric. 156 gaze. 164 Grenoble (France). 54. 81–82. 229n19. 131. 7. 70. 96. 77. 75. spatial. 42. 35. 64–65. unavowed. willingly. 127. 185. 37. 135. 41. 264 . 73. 39. 119–20. 83–85. 122. 87. 15. 106. 33. the. 177. 19. 152. 156. 162. mechanical. spatial. 110. 223n10. 173. 61 functionality. 28–29. See also asyndeton. 185–87. 141 garbage. 19. 189. 121. “commercial. 50–51. 177. 156. creative. 109 gestures. 6.

82. 108. the here: and now. 186. 133. 52. 102. 153 hearing. -trips. See gangs hooligans. 133–34. 116. 132. 91–93. 108. 56. 7. delayed. 187. 136. See rumor Hegel. 9. 12. single. 69. 31.” 18–20. 126. 222n2 Idealism. private. 137. 130. 13. 166. 150. 166. 183. 37. 163. 164. -object. collective. 229n22. 68. 183. 177. abstract. 162. single-unit. See high-density housing complex “how. 95. See infernal. 110. 111. 69. 164. 100. 75. full. 104.INDEX 148–49. 226n13. 133. on.” 42. See also subgroups gymnasium. 105. 98. 12. 186. 124. 101. See amplification hell. 91. 16. 108 homeyness. 131. -object. 105–6. 59. 117. 104–5. 119. 130. 100–101. 158. 175. 154. 229n22. 125 hesitations. 179. 166. 78. 59. 151. 16. 33 habitat. 88 heterogeneity. 224n14. 87–89. 110. 69. 79. 37 Gypsies. 17. 123. 166. 227n21 heightening. 170–74. 147. 122. 123. 114. G. 163. the. 94–96. 24. 109 identity. 39. W. 185. 183. 102. 25. 106–9. 113. 161. 16 hyperbole. 169. 177. 170 housewives. 142. conceptually designed. 145. 231n35. 138 identification. 129–31. 148–49. 144. 8. 129. 171. 11. 22–23. 133. 179–81. 223n1. 60. 224nn18–19. 126–27 high-density housing complex. 176. and there. 232n14 “housed. arriving/leaving/ returning. 168 harmfulness. 45. 3. 109. 99. 226n5 high. See gangs horizontal dimension. multiunit. 185. 231n38. of appropriation. 25. occupying. 234n28 265 . 134. 61. 124. 117. 183. -cells. 224n24 hypertely. 72 home. 108. 183 hearsay. 58. 131. 83. 97–98. 99. 166. 96–97. 150. 88–89. urban. 78. 70–73. 146–48. 183 hoodlums. 174. 225n29. 141. social. 144. 93. 11. 182. and low. 144 homogeneity. 9–10. 56–58. 68. 8 halts. 169. technological. 98. 122. 234n28 hexagon. 110. 49. 131. 185. 163. 34. 104. and difference. 234n28. 235n4 “holes. 31. 147. “at. 171. 183. 167. 49. F. 165. 153. 127 horror. 175. 81–82.” being. spatial. 52. 189. 121. 121. 225n29. and vertical dimension. 78. delivery of. See also inhabitant expression: ground of groups. 71. 45. 9.” 35. 57. 98. 47–48. 132–33. 121–22. 149 housing. 52. 170.. 128. 93. 93. 172–73. See also constructing-housing housing complexes. 93. 156.

72. 155. 180. 175. 166. 156–57. 137–38. and the real. 87. 154–55. 19. visual. 159. 186–87. the. 157. 107.” 157 inductions. 137. 18–19. 115. 78. 117. 150. 12–13. 41. 149 individual. 24. 153. 234n1 inhabitant power. 136 impasses. 148 incidental. 159. 140 174. 160–62. 10–11. 23. 128–29. See body indetermination. 226n14. 120. 139. its dynamic aspect. 130. 149–51. 79. and the “socius. cultural. 114. 153. 133–34. 85. 147. and the collective. 103. 153. 152. 166. 159. 72. 12. 177–80. 106–9. 232n7 immediacy. 68. 114–15. 17 inhabitant expression. 148–50. 155. 121–22. 120. 147–50. 107–8. 101. 233n21. 170. 135–59. 135. 182. 176. 137. convocation of. 98. 140. creative. 148. 129. power of. See pregnancy impressions. 24. 132. 168. 170–71. 157. 164 inhabitant rhetoric. 64. 133–35. 14. 17. lived experience of. the. 118. 78. the. 187 incorporation. 7. 174–75. 187. sensorial. 129. 7. 176. 4. evocation of. 127. 234n2. See also burst. 113.INDEX ideological order. 116. 112. 148. the. 164. 154–55. 158–60. 156–57. theoretical and methodological. ground of. 145. 266 . 232n9. 137–38. 163–64. 11. 153 imagining power. 77. 45. 121–22. 176. the. 107. 147. 138 imagining. 180. 146. 154–55. 173. 72. 160–61. 109. 94. 224n20. 147 imagination. 168. 97. 166. 75. 149. forward bound impregnation. 158–59 inhabitant stochastics. 133. the. 135. devaluation of. 116. 105. 149. 48. 152. 9. 116. and the social. 49. collective. 166. formal definition of. 151. 136 inhabited space. 175–77. 25. 139. 154. 166. 139. diffuse. 149 image patterns. 166. 48 indifference. 157. 150. 140. 137. visual. suffered. 158. 168. 102. 117 immobility. 148 imaginable. 111. 169–74. 152 inhabitant activity. 120. 139. 126. 139. 111–12. 122–23. lived. 155. 92. 9–10. 184 imaginary. 145. 126. irreducible. 177. 108. 44. 111. 142–43. 18. 4. 175. 80. 185. 17. 152. 137. 157. 122. 14 impetus (élan). 182–83 inhabiting. 157. 134. 16. 187. 161. 55–56. 182. everyday. 34. 148. 134–37. exemplary. 118. 74. lived. 164. 159. 187 infernal. 120. 162. 175–77. 152 inhabitable. 153. 14. 129. 108. 152. 103. 135. 75. its dynamism. 157. 158. 132. 15. 171 inhabitant practices. 157. 104. 142. 179 inhabitant content. 115.

159. 183 Kandinsky. 35. See also collectivity. 141. 63. styles of. 57. 174. 225n1. 172. 147. social dimension. 106. 8. objectifying. 186–87. 22. 126. 128–29. 128. 87. 17. 180. 63. 173. without a “why. 103–5. 28. 34. ways of. 110. 175. and building. 178 intervals. 72. 61 Jansenist morality. 155–58. 173 intermediate forms. 176. 143. 177 knowledge. 231n38. 52. 97. 33. 106. 123. heterogeneous. 13. 114. 171. 14. 79–81. 157. science Kortlandt. 169. irrational. rational. 90. 4. 26. 149 irony. symbolic. 136–39. 160–62. 152. 65. 229n20 labor. 229n20 knowing. 139. 108. 185 labor force. 144. imaginary. 156. 184. Peter H. 119. 267 . 175 labyrinthine movement. 82–83. motor act. 103. modalities of. 134 intactness. 66–67. 82. 168. play. 127. 178. 231n1 Kant. 115–16. 147. 141. 96. 18–19. 187. 153. 4. 132. 6. 170. 129. 136. individual. 178. 112. 143 isochronisms. 58. 166. 121 inside. lived experience of. 121. 60. 133. 114. 175–76. 49. Adriaan. 82. 18. 68–69. received. 14. accidental. 64. 175–77. 67. 174. 15–16. lived quality of. 126. 157. modal study of. everyday. 61. 228n7. 40. 13. 55. 154. without building. 119. See gaps interviews. 131. its entrance. time of. 88 injury (injuria). 161. 159. 229n18. the. Immanuel: Kantianism. 135. 174–75. 112. 127. 157. 233n20 irrational. 62. 158. 148. 224n20. 177–78 Klopfer. 166. 168. 96. 185. 151 laid-out and developed: paths. activity of. 99. 155. 60. 147.INDEX 176–87. space. 58 juxtaposition. 231n3 kids. 129. 62. 155. 54. the. 77. 132. 152. 47. 130. 116. 109. 114. 169. See totality intention. 162–64. 138. 230n22. 89. 124. 117. 39.” 172 initiates. Wassily. See young people Klee. 154–55 irreducible. 25. 164. 187. 190. 163. 168. 134. 18. 134 instant. 158. 109. 11. 57. practice of. Paul. 27. 169–71. 87–88. 123 junior high school. 150. imaginary. 42. 56. 20–21. elementary figures. 154. 169. 180 irruptions. the. 133 instantiated principles (instances). 75. 180. the. its lobby. 224n14. 29. 7. threatening. See also epistemology. 137–38. 29.. 88. 186–87 insignificancy. everyday. 149. 20. 185–87. powers of. spatial appearances instating (mise en état). combinatory process.

184–87. fixed. 71–72. 119. 58. 183. See amplification maintenance. of initiates. 88 lived experience. of oppositions. 80. its paradigmatic and syntagmatic axes. 142–43. 17–18. 126. 223nn2–3. of urbanistic thought. 65. 133. 179. 177. 9. of repetition. 225n26. 116. 116. 226n13 Lefebvre.INDEX 135–37. 158 location. spatial. 16. 228n13. 233n21. of everyday life. 148. 231n38. 108. 26 language theory. of binary division. 228n13. 223n11. straight. 113. 232n18. 114. 171. 127. -time. 132. 93. 154. 17. 79. 132 linearities: continuous. 232n12 magnifying. spatiogeometric context. 12. 37. 160. 177. 73 leaps. 173. 146. 92. 157. 64. 233n21. 74 lived space. 222nn5–6 left and right. 180. prose. 149–50. 58. 113. 93. of everyday time. 172. 83. 27. 47–48. 151 “Longinus. 229n19. 233n18 leisure and relaxation. and the given. of the excluded middle. striking. 225n26. of the atmosphere. 80. 185 light. 86. 95. 133. spatial.” 224n19 Lorenz. 170 manipulation. 104. 110. 107. 74. of one’s habitat. 108. 80. 122. 126. 65–67. 73–74. surrounding. organizational. 67–68. 146. 156. 174. 186. 51–52. territorial. 51. 69. 59. 140. toponymic. 167. 59. 82. 26. 9–12. 44. 159–60. 96–97. 179 maps. 91. 129 Ledrut. 51. 83 landscape. 184. 18–22. See readability Leibniz. 152. 71. 88. 15–16. 26–27. narrated. cartographic. 130–32. 81. 85. 115. 189 268 . 120. 69. 27. 67. Jan. 168. Konrad. 27. 120. 60. 233n18 machines. 79. 64. 158. 86. 85. unbroken. of serial articulation. 73. 171 logic. 81 language. 161. corporeal. 121. 146–48. 80. 3–5. 7. 187. 81. 126 legibility. 173. 15. 155. of the imaginary. 14 management. 81. 61. 228n13. 17. 145–46. 137. 75. 78. 123. 228n12 limits. See gaps Le Corbusier. 5. 18–19. 48. 8. 139. 80. 230n31. and walking. spatial. Raymond. 89. 14. 67. of space. 70. 83. 52. 143. everyday. 15 linguistics. poetic. 45. 81. 8. 51. 123. 68. 4. 15. 143. Henri. 107 lakeside. 225n1. 156. 34. everyday. 23. 166. 117. 75. 57. 62. 101. 233n21. 164. 159–60. 176. everyday. 168. 99. 190. 94. 163. 88–89. urban. 229n20 Lukasiewicz. 151–52 malaise: inhabitant. 110. 179. 43. 131. 233n25. parallel. 21. 92. 66. 109–10. 59. meta-. 88. 163. 189. 88. 229n17 landmarks. 80 lodging. 127. 117. 7. indefinite. 55. 72. rectilinear.

17. 96–97. 90. 58. 108. 163. 96. in space. 173. 124–28. 17. 186 memories. 12. See also eventful memory Merleau-Ponty. 180. 14. ephemeral. 75. 104–5. of trips. 113. univocal. 68. boundary. 84 morning. unique. the.INDEX marketplace. 54. 19 memorable. 118. of life/living. 160 monotony. lived. 20–21. 113. 85. the. 187. 116. 65. 83–84. 48. 116. 70. code-producing. 34. 174. 191. 170. 44. lived. 72. 190. lived. 21. 157. 107. 113. 164. 20. 75. 121. 20. of meaning. 99. 87. overall. 5. 17. 95. 131–32. 103. 68. 20. 14. configurative. 172. 144. lived. expressive. 124. 96. 127 motor act. 37. 110.” 119 motility. 177–78. 165 meaning. 152. “lousy. 41. 90. 113. 105. See weather methodology. 103–4. 115. 8. 111. 66–67. 172. 160. 187 mechanical. 5. 128. 133–34. 115. 49. spatial. 81. codes of. 135. 94. of lived experience. 173 modalities and modes. 24. 27. 230n31 names. 35. 15. 50. 132–33. 41. 104–5. 16. 83. 130. loss of. 71. 131. 187. 26 music. of inhabiting. lived. 179. 223n13. 230n24 mounds. 86. concrete. 186–87. of space. 171. everyday. 95. 64–65. 50. spatial. 70 monumentality. 126. 73. 70. 149–50. 73. 145 metaphor. 106 meteorology. 64–65. 229n20. 160–62. general. 19. 98. 25. 180 modulor. 81. 70. 183 metathesis of quality. of thinkingproducing. 90. 269 . 54. 130. 41. 105–7. 91. accidental. 222n9 metonymy. 162. 149. 103 marking. 28. 18–19. 162. 108. 89. 62. 233n18. 136. 99. 122. creation of. of the possible. 48. sensori-. 114. 54–55. Maurice. 229n20 metabolic process. 57. 52. 121 mood. 125. 103. 18. of sites. 125. 148 metamorphosis. 111. perpetual. 116. 39. 157. 13. 60 more and less. 87. 116. 69. 54. 100. 102. of appearance. 105. 174. 185. 162. 233n28 modes of production. 26. 5. 118–19. 138. 112. 133–34. 37. 130. 48. 15–17. proper. 176. 37. act of. 128. creative. 172. 121. 108. 129. 80. 3. 40. 92. 71–72. lived. 138. 23. 111. See also eventful marking mastery. 184. 174. 70. 67. 5. 224n14. 50–51. 80. 111–12. 185. 4. 189 modal analysis. 126. 137. 8. 9. 227n2. 156–57. 156. 169. irruptive. 54. 162. 129 moments. private. 35. 52. 111. 185–87. 114. 10. 105. 184. 121. 119. 137. 116–18. 146. 225n26 movement. 116. of the imaginary. 6. 224n21 mezzanines. 163–64. See machines mediations. of spaces.

162 night. 174 objectivity. 132. 166–67. 39. 71. 103–4. 20. 39. 101. 91–92. 117. 81–82. 164. 173. 60–61. 185. 44. cinematographic. abstract. 140. 150. economy of. new. 107. 78. 57. 24. 19.INDEX vague. 75. 28. 99. 152 neologisms. and day. 42 number 170. 15. 37. 28. 45. 66–71. 33. 228n8 number 140. 115–16. 15–22. 49. 138 New Town. 224n14 numbering. 91. as a whole. 167. 68. 48. anti-. 226n14. 87. 143–45. 151. 158. 79. 230n34 number 70. 172. 118 necessary. 173–74 negation. 152. collective. 96. 170. 160. 122. Tunisians number 10. 51–52. 68 natural world. 92–93. 232n14. 120. 92. 107–8. imminent. 39. 12. 131–32. 7–9. 104. 45. conduct of. 228n9. unfrequented parts of. 66. 226n3–4. 64. 96. extended. 85. 37. 100 270 . 20. abstract. 109–11 neighborhoods. 33 number 40. 152–53. 48–49. 20–21. 186. 229n17 Nicolas of Cusa. 187. 101. 120–21. 65. 90–94. 86. 16. 37. 34–35. 225n26. 139–41. 71. 230n34. everyday. old. 75. 89. 58. 145–46. 81 number 110. 51. 147. 27. 47. 21 obstacles. 145. toponyms narratable. 228n8 number 150. See also place-names. direct. 158. 106. 85. 26. 176. 81 objectification. 145. 88 Neoplatonism. 59–60. 123. 118. 54–57. 49. 118. 40. 154–55. 19. 8. 20–21 narratives. 91. 225nn34–35. 91–92. graphic and chromatic inscription of. 100 observation. mixed. 129. 99. 81. 48. 231n35. 59 number 90. 29. territorial. 119. 21. 91. 124. 148 nonplaces (non-lieux). 224n14 number 100. 59 number 130. 134. 120. 92. 78–81. 21. 123. outer limit of. 189. 95–96. 18. 57. 61. 96. 141. 166. rest of. 170. 65 number 50. 150. 40–42. 172. 81–82. 140–43. 33. 87. 5. 26. See also Algerians. 49. 54. 81. 37. See also dislocation North Africans. 90–91. 232n10. 126 occupation. 137. 84–88. 224n14. 60 number 30. 150–53. 71. the: and the gratuitous. 24–29. 103. and the playful. 47. 117. 152. topographical. 120. 225n29. 156. 96. 81. 33. 103–4. 108. 6. 106. 165–66. 139–40. 127. 152–55. 60 number 20. 126. 164. breaks in. 129. 118 number 60. 133. 92. 224n14 number 80. 228n12. 123. permanent. 169 noise. 127. 148. 106. self-. 103–5. 69. 189. of walks. 96. 67. 25 needs. 120. 136 observational neutrality. 97. 99. 35. 49. 23. 87–89. 35. 101. 5. 129–32.

95. 110. 78. 95. 29. 183. 92. 15. 8. 58–60. 24. 175. 152. 225n26. contradictory. and the general. 97. 117. 67. 65. 95 permanency. 60 other. end of. 54. social. 223n62. 161. 110. 13. 185 oral expression. 3. charted. 126. 123 ownership. 111. 158. 93–94. 73. 105. and the alien. 73 particularization. 108. 42. 129. 110. 61. 101. 226n13 passageways. 123. 164. 48. spatial. 112. 146 Olympic Village. 128 overloading. 33–34. 40. 64–66. 34. 167. 5. 73. 166. 33–34. 234n28 orientation. qualitative. 170. 54. 127. imprecise. 141. 56. 127. 24. 122. dis-. 185. 16 overabundance. 223n9 passing by. and poses. 127 pauses. 154. tactile. the. 49. 20. 19–20. 141. 54. 137. 49. 75. 99. 224n17. 120. 37. 105. 66. 99. 87. 117. 226n14 particularities. 118. 31. 84–86. 123. 171. 229n18 off-track. 90 paralipsis. 85. 119. 100. 111–12.INDEX odors. 139. 172. 153. 66. 57. 123–24. 125. 108. 132. 31. functional. 119. 189–90. 29. 185 271 . 59–60. 164. 143–44. modal. the. 135. 25. 57–58. 26. 131–32. 55. 118. 178. 187. 125. 87. “semi-wild. 101. and stays. 83. conscious. 87–88. 112. 125 periphrasis. of the senses/of sensoriality. 125. 92. 39. and movement. 185. of meaning. 82. 50. 110. 99. 66. 79. 56 pedestrians. 183. 116 peritopisms. 99. 33. 125–26 pathic. 17. 31. 84. 171 outside. 68 ordinary life. 104. 10. 185. 123–25.” 29. “wild. 97. 50–51 overdetermination. of space/spatial. existing. 42. 228n12. 131. 139. 175. 60–61. 85. spatial. 7. 34. 98–99. 132. 67. of space. 58. 121. 98–99. 117. 37. 33–34. feeling of being. lived. 116. 138. 146–47. 122–23. 130. 45. 190. paved. 106. new. 148. 83–84. 96. 15. 42. 128. 94. 149. 65. 191 opposition. 3. 55. 97. 118–19. contrary. 162. 108. 21. 78–81. 64. 91–93. 24. 135. 37. 128. 113. of space. 239n35 outsiders. 17. 108. 156. 129. 25. 104. 33–34. 189. of expression. 161. 50. 170. 68. 134. 33–34. 182. 145–46 organization. the. 15. 137–38. 68. 186–87. 40. 99 partitioning. pre-. 126. 114 overwhelmed. 146. 73. 50. 143. 61–64. 115. 26. 146. 70. the. 28–29. 129. 189 perceptions. 25. 153. 101. 39–40. 231n35 passing through. and accidental. 140. 66. 156. 103. 121 paths. 123–24. 131.” 29. 78–80. 5. 112 overflowing (déborder). 227n19 paratopism. 102. 95 park. 29. 98–99. 18. 176. 39. 75. 68. 102. 91–96. 171.


perplexity, 40, 47, 83, 175 persuasion: art of, 77 phantasia, 175 phantasmagoric, 154 phantasms, 11, 92, 120, 228n9 phenomenological approach, 78, 229n20 pillars, 45, 47–49, 59, 144 place-names, 79–90, 223n14 planned spaces, 3–5, 8–10, 17, 29, 41, 50, 81, 85, 108, 126–27, 135, 153–56, 158–59, 165–66, 168, 183, 226n3, 231n38, 234n28 planners, 28, 52, 189, 231n37 Platonic thought, 222n10, 226n2 play, 25, 31, 34, 50, 52, 54, 66, 92, 126, 176, 185 pleasure, 35, 39, 41, 49, 52, 55, 58, 61, 65, 98, 103, 120, 127, 142, 150, 153, 164 plural forms, 6, 23, 26, 160, 225n34; discrete, 138; limitless, 121; lived, 24; of meanings, 114; and the scattered, 5, 114 poetics, 5, 25, 52, 54, 65, 67, 69, 73–75, 120, 149, 158, 173; everyday, 75; of narration, 75; of space, 55; and the useful, 25 political economy, 11 political scientists, 78 politics, 8, 10, 88, 140, 173, 225n1 polysemy, 40–41, 47–48, 50, 64, 88, 112–13, 127, 140, 146, 154, 159, 168, 223n11; simultaneous, 48. See also staggered polysemy Ponge, Francis, 23, 25 Port Royal: Logic, 233n18; School, 225n1 possibilities, 15, 17, 27, 64, 71, 97,

131, 134, 136–37, 139, 141, 145–53, 156–57, 161, 175, 183, 232n10, 233n18; absent, 156; condition of, 63, 73, 97, 110; convoked, 149–50, 157; evoked, 143, 146, 152–53, 156–57; imagined, 108, 139, 147, 149; and the lived, 139, 151 postponement, 18, 55–56 postures, 43, 61, 129, 185; of attack, 56 powers, 4, 112, 114–15, 123, 125, 133–34, 137–41, 145, 149, 154, 156, 162–63, 168, 170–71, 175; of appropriation, 93; of the body, 133–34, 231n38; of building, 170; buried and unnoticed, 163; to configure, 133, 171; of connection, 137–38; to deform, 134, 163; to develop, 134; excessive, 112, 156, 159; expressive, 162–63, 175, 177; of the giver, 173; of the imaginary, 139, 158, 162, 171, 175–77; of immediacy, 157, 159; of the lived imaginary, 154; to name, 86; to orient otherwise, 128; to produce syntheses, 231n3; to reform, 134; of reversibility, 156–57, 159; to signify, 111; of speech, 93, 225n1. See also imagining power; inhabitant power practices, 6, 18–19, 23, 77, 82–83, 160, 172–73, 233n20; ailing, 25; everyday, 13–14, 19, 85, 109, 154, 159, 173, 183; housing, 13; intermediate, 18–19; lived, 4, 14, 85, 147, 161; pedestrian, 78; pure, 158; urban, 155; walking, 5, 14, 19, 26, 40, 48, 62, 73–74,



81, 102, 112, 165, 233n20. See also social practice; spatial practices preconception, 4, 126, 165, 168, 170, 176–77, 183 pregnancy, 107, 109, 111, 115–16, 124, 147, 160, 186; of archaic space, 12, 176; of atmospheres, 116–17, 184; climatic, 116–17, 159; of the imaginable, 157 premonition, 125, 131, 145, 150 preoccupations, 17, 72, 142; ordinary, 135 presence, 21, 48, 75, 115, 122–23, 128–29, 131–34, 147; collective, 117, 121; immediate, 151; lived, 118 present, the, 20, 59, 71, 113, 126, 129, 131–32, 134, 137–39, 146–51, 152, 156, 161; and the eventual, 148; lived, 126, 128, 134, 139–40, 146, 148, 153, 159; ordinary, 146; and the past, 146; and the possible, 136–37, 139, 145, 147–51, 153, 157, 161, 232n10; “really,” 137 presentiment, 17, 102, 108, 131, 143 present tense, 28, 151 private, the, 19, 89–91, 132, 186–87 produced, the: and the reproduced, 25, 78 produced space, 121, 183 production, 10, 12, 14, 163, 170, 183, 187; artistic, 128; of the built world/edified space, 8, 168, 176–78; of cities, 23; economic, 13–14; of habitat, 10, 134, 231n38; of high-density housing complexes, 22; of images, 137;

planned, 154; of planned space, 5, 166, 168; relations of, 173; of space, 112, 128, 134, 164, 168, 172, 179, 187; technical, 154; urban, 10–11, 165; urbanistic, 171; of urban space, 7–8, 174. See also conceptionproduction; modes of production; productivity productivity, 176, 235n9 projectation, 170 projected, the, 17 projects, 9–10, 71, 80, 85, 96–97, 134, 141, 153, 178, 183, 185; architectural, 9, 170; deferred, 148; of inhabiting, 152–53; initial, 9; of our action, 133; social, 176, 187 properties, 51, 94, 102 property, 9, 89–90, 93 proprioception, 117 prose, 26, 73–74, 114, 158, 163 protention, 20, 130, 133, 184 psychoanalysis, 11, 225n1 psycholinguists, 144 psychology, 12–13, 75, 116, 168; depth, 78; “of faculties,” 123, 137, 154; perceptual, 229n20 psychosociology, 12–13; applied, 222n9 public, the, 9; and the private, 19, 132, 186–87 public life, 69 public services, 18 public spaces, 90, 167 public sphere, 17, 95 public transport, 8 public use, 104 pursuit, 24, 121



qualifiers, 16, 48, 79–80, 99, 113, 117–19, 120, 122, 125, 142, 183; concrete, 89; overall, 141; particular, 89; of sites, 113, 160; of space, 79, 84, 117, 133, 166, 169; of spatial relations, 102 qualitative analyses, 4, 8 qualities, 8, 15, 17, 22–23, 37, 49, 89, 97–98, 100–101, 112, 121, 133, 136, 147, 152, 156; change in, 48; climatic, 119, 122; dreamlike, 108; irruptive, 148; kinesthetic, 125; “of life,” 3; lived, 5, 20, 26, 129; of lived space, 5; of movement, 129; preeminent, 108; present, 147; social, 90–91, 93; tangible, 125; unforeseen, 142; unnoticed, 48. See also metathesis of quality quantification: geometric and economic, 11 quantity, 3–4, 7–8, 63–64, 66, 71 questionnaires and questions, 13, 20–22 rain, 72, 120, 169, 228n10 rambling, 3, 39, 54, 158 ramp, the, 42, 59, 84–85, 127, 150, 189, 224n14 Ramus, Petrus, 225n1 rationality, 23, 25, 37, 52, 61, 123, 135, 154–55, 157, 174, 176, 183; necessitarian, 8; technologybased, 11, 174 rationalization, 126, 157 rats, 143–45 reactivation, 126, 140, 146, 177 readability, 124, 171, 228n13 reading, 5, 10, 12–13, 25–26, 57, 75, 80, 110–11, 145, 158,

160, 225n35; “degree zero” of, 28; “directed,” 13; final, 139, 232n10; initiatory, 233n27; re-, 116, 119, 128, 145, 148; and writing, 25, 40, 57–58, 62–63, 67, 78, 114, 122, 124, 132, 137 “real,” the, 11, 34, 42, 57, 108–9, 117 134, 137, 147, 153–54, 166, 176, 183, 187; as conceived, 128; constructed, 113; material, 176; and rational, 174, 183; and the “unreal,” 117, 137, 146–47, 185 real estate, 8, 10, 176 recognition, 21, 42, 78, 86, 89, 93, 100, 102, 104 recounting. See narratives re-creation: of given spaces and preconceived uses, 126; of space, 90, 128 “Red Square,” 87–89, 103 reductions, 3–6, 19, 23, 67, 80, 92, 113, 128–29, 154, 166, 168–70, 173, 175–76, 179–85, 187, 234n1; self-, 185 redundancy, 50–52, 55–58, 94, 116, 125; hyperbolic, 130 reduplication, 5, 7, 57, 59, 85, 110, 119–20, 142, 144, 156, 166 referential function, 75, 82, 109, 186; field of, 135, 139 referents, 17, 75; essential, 157; social, 75 reflexology, 229n20 refusals and rejections, 28, 40, 69, 78–80, 88, 92–93, 101, 109, 131, 134, 158–59, 165, 176 refuse. See garbage regulars, 81, 87, 93, 152 reimagining, 144–47, 153


remainders, 6, 14, 168 Renaissance, the, 138–39, 162, 225n1, 227–28n5, 233–34n28 renting, 44, 168 repair work, 29, 35, 127 repetition, 4, 5, 7, 25–26, 31, 48, 51–52, 55–56, 58, 60, 68–69, 71, 77–79, 116, 121, 130, 146–48, 152, 170, 183, 185; amplified, 51; collective, 29; in difference, 184; excessive, 148; logic of, 8; rules of, 59; spatial, 105; varied, 34, 54 re-presentable, 183 representational space, 234n28 representations, 4–5, 10–11, 17, 23, 28, 34, 67, 85, 101–2, 135–37, 164, 168, 170–71, 173, 179, 182, 186–87; abstract, 19–20, 185; cartographic, 40; causal, 187; of constructing-housing, 179; dominant, 11, 23, 110; of everyday life, 118; and everyday lived experience, 25, 34, 51, 153–54, 166; general, 179; geometric, 15; graphic, 15, 71; of homogeneity, 183; housing, 170, 174; ideal, 164; of neighborhood design plan, 85; of neighborhood practice, 23; of poses and positions, 185; pure, 91; social, 120; of social space, 112–13; of space, 107, 185, 233–34n28; of the spatial totality, 156; spatiogeometric, 109; streams of, 157; stroboscopic, 185; synchronic, 16, 63; systematic, 111; theoretical, 161; of time, 156; of a totality, 166–67; totalizing, 14; of a trip, 67; of the whole, 98

reproduction, 4, 11, 25, 78, 81, 90, 102, 126–27, 138, 179, 187; symbolic, 56. See also social reproduction repulsion, 29, 39, 55; and fascination, 39, 66 res extensa, 234n28 resistance, 56, 58, 110, 153 resonances, 120, 186; affective, 133; eventful, 113; imaginary, 157; qualitative, 121 retention, 20, 40, 130, 133, 184; of the other as other in the same, 105 return. See coming and going/ returning reversals, 106, 139, 144, 148–49, 156–57, 159–60, 170 rhetoric, 6, 26, 28, 33, 37, 50, 52, 57, 60, 67, 74–75, 77, 110–14, 122, 126, 128, 132, 134, 166, 175, 225n1; ambulatory, 158; art of, 77; classical, 27; electoral, 225n1; everyday, 158; goal of, 77; modern, 75; of one’s walks, 26, 67, 72–75, 98, 100, 111, 114, 133, 152, 159, 189; “savage,” 225n1. See also inhabitant rhetoric rhetors, 226n2 rhythm, 3, 17, 34, 61, 73, 108, 113–14, 129–32, 158, 165, 178; ambulatory, 141; bodily, 132; change in/of, 33, 130; of everyday life, 133, 182; variations in, 61 right. See left and right rubbish. See garbage rules, 79, 110, 135; of the code of appropriation, 90, 94, 97, 101,


105, 109, 111; rational, 154; of repetition, 59; of the whole and its parts, 8 rumor, 82, 106–7, 140–41, 146–47; collective, 107, 142; common, 140 running, 54, 135, 141, 143 rupture, 109, 133, 157. See also breakdowns Sansot, Pierre, 56, 227n4, 120 Saturday, 52, 54, 69, 96, 103, 226n12 Saussure, Ferdinand de, 223n3, 233n25 scaling, 54, 57, 65, 125, 130 scattered, the, 5, 7, 114, 123, 136; and the manifold, 138 schematism, 176, 231n3, 231n5 science, 3, 6, 9, 12, 14, 18–19, 23–24, 26, 76, 110, 112, 160, 172 seasons, 49, 118, 120, 130 seeing. See visual order selection, 27, 63–67, 74, 125; axis of, 73; olfactory, 118 self-expression, 3, 5–6, 19, 40, 112, 114, 130, 162–64, 172, 174, 182, 186, 234n28 semantics, 55, 114, 171 semiology, 78 sensation, 19, 116–25, 128, 132–33, 138, 142, 145, 156, 184; act of, 91 sense. See meaning sensorimotor, 116, 133–34, 136, 162 sequences, 50, 64, 68, 83, 110, 170; bypass, 35; causal or rational, 157; functional, 19; logical, 133, 157; territorial, 73; time, 50

sex, 87 shadows, 23, 39, 75, 142–43; artificial, 120 shelter, 49, 120, 169 shopping, 75, 95, 120 shops, 82 shortcuts, 29, 31, 34, 37, 128, 156, 223n6 side step, 3–4 side streets, 7, 14, 18 sidetracking (déroutant), 24–25, 126, 160, 178 siege, 56, 95, 108, 116 sight. See visual order signals, 66, 123, 146, 148, 228n13 significations, 45, 48, 106, 111–14, 116, 132, 159, 165, 187, 228m13, 232n7, 234n28; attractive, 64; clear, 158–59; competitive play of, 63; excess of, 101; formal, 128; functional, 233n20; latent, 40; lived, 66; manifest, 75; prosaic, 114; question of, 74 signifieds, 6, 14, 57, 67, 76, 78, 100, 111–12, 114, 132, 146, 158–60, 174, 187, 223n11; concrete and everyday, 75; different and unique, 111; well-connected, 111 signifiers, 14, 57, 100, 111–12, 114, 124, 146, 158–60, 174, 187; accidental, 174; arrangement of, 75, 101; pedestrian, 101; predominant, 101; their linear character, 159 signifying, 74, 76, 90, 111–112, 114, 139, 158, 225n35 signitive relation, 177 signs, 23, 80, 110, 123, 146, 150; concrete, 156; discrete, 156; theory of, 159

117. 232n14 statistical data. 78. semantic. 9. 135 step forward. 17. 145. 108. 74–75. 15. 124. 17. 185. and the universal. 77. 233n27 spiritus phantasticus. 3. planned. 77. 42. 145 stairways. 84. 15. 12 sociocultural activities. 225n1 Spinoza. 28. 122. urban. 8. 153. 85. 115. 84. 59. 75. 86 spectacular. 12. 27. 91. art of. 35. 114. socio-. 174. 106. 90–91. 4. 17. 89 sounds. 42–45. 154. 119. 169 social change. 26–27 37. 105. constructed. 84. 161. 114.” 65. 226n4. 234n28 social reproduction.” 170 social movements. 78. “my. 78. 14. 173. 18 staying. 5 socioprofessional categories. 124. 185 spatial practices. 93 sky. 22–23. 60. 35. 7 social groups. 126. and earth. 55. 3. 187 social division. power of. 13. 98. 57. 155. 231n38. 122. 3. 123. 146. 13–14. 165–66. 116. 103. 161–62. topographical. 230n27. new. 173 social practice. 106–7. 231n36. 72. 97. 48. 227n23 staircases. 10. 128. 174. 182 social castes. 3–4 steps. 140. 18. 4. 26–27. 23–24. 5. 231–32n7 spots. 133. 179–80. 156. 5. 79. 155–58. 18. substantification of. figurative. 138. 4. 55 slum areas. 173 social dimension. 5. 77. 125–26. 145. 3. 40. 110. 149. 104. 5. 146. socio-. 190–91 sociology. 13–14. 113. 116. 28. 186. 125–26. 39. 68. 179. planned. 225n1. Angelus. 173–74 social space.INDEX silence. 23. 169 slippages. classical. 16–17. 12. 106. 108. 45. 70. 97.” 86. 45. 175. 83. 37. 83. 89 spatial wholes. 7 smells. See odors sociability. 118. spatial. 54. 190 simultaneity. 112 social sciences. 19. the. 43. 5. See noise space and time. 112–13. See groups: social “socialist myth. 113 singularities. 25–26. 159 social status. See also visiting step by step. 187 “social mechanisms. 120. 64.” 83 staggered polysemy. 144 stairs. 108–10. 115. 68. 148 Silesius. 99. 90. 83–84. 86.” 140 social life. 225n34. 139. 138 “six-hundred-seat room. 58. 185. 48. 80. 172. 102. 185. “dead. 183. 70. 25. 93. 185 speech. 93. and the manifold. 126. 144. 41–42. 128–29. 173 silos. 184–85 spatial appearances. 57. 167. 88. as raw material. 29. 93. of meaning. 12. qualitative. 64. 4. conflictual. 155. 185. 56. the. 75. constructed. 277 . 79–80. 165. 89.

69. 143. 34 syntagma. 225n1 stylistic effects. community of. 135. 74. configuration of. 124. of being. 110. 171 summer. 66 synonyms. 122. 67. 62. 29. 148 suspension points. 223n10 supermarket. 117. 73. 114. 189. See alien Strauss. 129. 77 stylistics. 157. 12. 122. 111. 141. 63. 152–53. 133. 129. 57 steps (of stairs). 145. 55. 146. the. 70. 136 subgroups. 111. radical. ambulatory. 3. 169 symmetry. 128. 109. 56. 74 synthesis. 112. 33. 54. 177.INDEX 61. 79. 122. 141. 134. 232n13. 223n11 syncretisms. 149. 95. the surreal. horizon of. 69. 125. 226n16. 104. binary. 102–3 subjects. 121–22. 224n19 submission. 31. 54. 45. 104–7. residential. 67. 183. 40. 3. 75. 137. 74. universal and abstract. 116. 120. 139. 83. 74. 129. 75. 224n21. 68–69. 35. 13. 138–39. 109. See gaps symbols. 129 synecdoche. 89–90. 79–81. 159. See halts strange. 49. 72. 115. 73–74. 25 substitution. 118. 16. 120. 125 taking a plunge. 68. utopian. 33. 127. collection of. 33. of movement. and objects. 49. 58–59. 98. 156–57. 165. See convocation Sundays. 95–96. 50. 180 tangible. 129 “stylistic devices” (figures de style). 27. of inhabiting. 143. 52. 57. 26. enunciation of. writing of. 129. 64. 174. 17–18. 148. 177. 62–68. 115. 232n7 sublime. 156. 142–43. 115. 130–31. 158–59. poetic. 102 tactile. 231n3. 17–19. 159. 142 synchronic representation. 187. 51–52. 95. 11. 126 swervings. 121. See also underground subversion. everyday. 154. 37 subterranean. 109. 157. 73. 152. 27. 81 syntactic level. 99. narrative. 86. 100. 161. 155–56. 171 systems model. 109. 23 subjectum. 157. 227n3 stopping. 27. 168. 75. 123. paratopic. of walking. 122. 62. 73. 229n20 strolling. 128. 125 Stimmung. 93. wasting of. See also Gro. 114–15. 65. 63. 67. 50. 153. 121. 17. 148. 158. 133. 88 syndeton. 91. 80. 61–62. 147. 33. 157. 61. 83–84. expressive. 68–69. decisive. 128. 149. 6. 232n10. Erwin. 26. 138. pathic. 139. the. 119. 81. daily/everyday. 25. 125 278 . 150 summoning. 172. 115 structure. everyday. 154. 11–13. 122. 61–62. their succession. 137 structuration. act of. 108. 113. 19. of expressing oneself. 115. 29. 234n28 styles. 153. 139. 6. 16.

16. 133–34. permanent. 44 topical assignments. 146 toponyms. 130. 67. 227n16. 16–17. 169. 113. 130. of forms. 234n3. 113. 145 territorial fluidities. 156. 135. 91–98. Niko. of differance. 129. 74. 154. 230n24. 43. 184. 94. 63. 76. 14. 125. 63. 128. urban. 151. 128–29. 62. 74 town. of one’s walk. 28. 229n19. 183. playful. 105. 15. See also placenames topos. 100– 101. 153. 24. 42. 96. 186. 74. mental. 23. lived. imaginary. 182. 161. 92. 225n26 transgression. 174. 17. 8. spatial. 153. 156. 81. 171. 226n16. simultaneous. 114. 17. 80–81. chronometric. 64–66. 88. 165 trailblazing. 29. 123. 19. 77. 164. 124. originary. sensorial. 124 transport. of steps. 106 totality. 28–29. See also space and time tensions. 106. 35. of walking/of a walker. 95. 61. 71. 51. 94. nonchronometric. 177 temporality. 62 top and bottom. 15. 24.INDEX technology. 132–35. 169. 28. 107. and the scattered. 68. 153. 97–98. principle. 142–43 Tinbergen. 279 . 108. 143. 149. 133 thetic. 120. 154. 153 totalization. 123 topography. 127. 48. 146 territory. 115. 133. 154. circumscribed. 150. 115. lived. 123. 96. 22. 31 transfiguration. knowing. 127. 147. 113. 105. 157. urban. 4. 166 traces. 79. 150. 153. 139 transitivity. 150. 166–67. 227n1 traffic. 24. 55. 139 topical position. 50. 90. 124–25. dynamic. and lived parts. never-frequented. 104. 18. 142. 111. 97–98. 156 tone. 120. 171. 146. 156. 113. 64. manipulated. 3–4. 132. 159 trips. 183. 19. 169. and today. 226n16. 176 territorial appearance. 73. 3. diurnal. 166. 120. 140 threats. 16. 43. 111. 162. 131. 147. 226n13. 19. 110. 131. 25. 185 “they. 115. 182. 45 traveling through. rational and real. 229n20 tomorrow. 156. of inhabiting. 133 transmutation. 113. 132–34. 115 tracks. 123. 107. 135. 230n32. 48. pure. 229n19 topology. 184–85. 8. 8. absent. 127 trails. 8–9. 126. 54. 128. 52 tongue. 142 transparency. 24. 10–11. 136. linear representation of. 94. 109–11. 172. 118. 48. 67–68. 29. progressive. 78. 15. 20. 227n1. 95. 137. 128. everyday. 146. 110. 31. diffuse and mobile. 175. 185. 26. affective. 20–21. 15. 91. change in. 94. 52. 183. constructed.” 100. 17. 54. 117. fixed. 158. space. 17. 92. 48. 175.

124 unity. 66–67. 12–14. 146. 64. 174. 132. 176. 3–5. 78. 147. 147. 170–71 vacancy. See maintenance urban development. 123. 110. 135. 4. 78. and unlivable. 47. 82. 184 unimaginable. 227n4. 106. 85–86. 52. 8. 82. the. of pedestrian spaces. 230n24 vicissitude: concept of. 122. 15. 37. 98. 147–48. 165. 120. 226n14 univocality. 39. 152. 172. 165–66. 19. 138. 173. 174. 152–53. 83. 135. 126. 226nn6–7 view. 118. 174. 72. lived. 114. 121. 163 uninhabitable. 136 universality. 130–31. 49. 3–4. 119. 105–6. 127. 152. 118. 147. 139. 159. public. 103. 183 useful. walked. 228n13. 23. 113. practical. 113–14. 148. 138. 8–11. 127. 233n18. 35. 179–80. 39–40. 87. 169–71. 179. 178 Tunisians. 158. 164. 47 vertical dimension. 119. 143. 137. 57. 183. 142. 72. 148. 166. 125. 136. 58–61. the. 174. 78. 232n13. functional.” 86. 54. 145. selfevident.INDEX 42. 138. 143. 124. 25 utopian. 150. macrocollective. 187. everyday. 31. “blank” or hole-. 154. 69–72. 179 use-value. 167 280 . 91. varied. 144. 18. 33. local. seasonal. 6. 152. 142. 80. 5. 150 urbemes. 114. 119. 231n5 unforeseen. 55. 229n22. of meaning. 91–92. 66. 124. 142. 186. 126. 132–33. 120. 98. 34. 75. and false. 187. 63. 13. 20. 130. prosaic. 66. 62. of the spatial product. 154–55. 25 users. 84–86 unpleasantness. codes of. 162. 127. 103. 66. the. 97. 139 “Video-Gazette. 185. 77. 49. 21. 55. day-to-day. 50–52. 40. 10–11. modal. 169. 51–52. 154. 23. 33–34. common. 155. 8. 178. 134. 152. 185. 168. 151. 163. 158. 155. -space. qualitative. See also subterranean understanding. 99. same. 80. 37. 234n28 urban experience. 109–10. 47 unmotivated. 39. everyday. 228n15. 158. 48. 226n13. 29. 176–77. exhaustive. 154 value judgments. 4–9. 17. 168. from afar. and the rural. representations of. 19. deviant. 228n13 use and usage. 231n35 unsayable. 133. 39. 51 truth: and error. 138. 65. 231n35. 104. 141 upkeep. 68 variation. 98. ordinary. See also North Africans underground. See emptiness vacant lots. 185. 167. fictive. 110. 54–56. 145. 121–22. 165. 18. 137. 51. 78. 159 unnameables. 113. 61. 118. of space. 126. 111. 135. quantitative. 99. 124. 116. preconceived.

118–20. 72 way out. lived experience of. 169. 169. 48. 50–51. 17. 71–72. 141. 48 walking. 146. 78–79. 144. 66. 141. 161–62. 98–100. 57. 41. 25. 146–48. 119. 24. See coming and going/ returning ways of being. 39. 139. 124 walkers. 89. 18–19. 75. 72. 142. 133. 172. 189. 26. 15–17. 69 workplaces. 62. 24. 25. 121–23. 109. for the sake of. 156–57. 234n28 Western philosophy. 127. temporality of. 65–67. 85. 114. 135–36. representation of. 109. 154 visual order. 114. 24–29. modes of. 186. 7. 154. 68–70. 67. 128. ways of. 40–43. 139. 99. 96. 108–9. 34. 71. 49. 127–31. 185. with the other. 167. 16. 124. 113. 122 walking through. the: and the fragment. 40. 93. 86. 49.INDEX visiting (le séjour). 64. 229n16 West. 96. 152. expression of. 62–63. 118. 13–14. 17–18. 29. 162. 11–12. 68–69. 226n12 Welles. 72. 55. 112. 71. activity of. 48. 66. 137. 63–64. 128–29. See also air windows. 19. 132. 166. 55. territorial. 96. 132. 169. 178. mood of. everyday practice of. 129. 24. mood of. in time. 224n19. 64–65. 114. 147–49. 159. 155. 83. 52. See also rhetoric: of one’s walks walking alongside. 50. 18–20. 125. 152. 124–25. 137. 58. 122. 19 works. 122. 25–28. 48. 126. 48. 224n21. 62. 85. 55. 80. 103. 24. 178 writing. collective. 35. 50. 47. 74. 176. 128. orientations of. “degree zero” of. 55. 93. 33–35. and the way. See also spatial wholes “why” questions. 117. organization of. 14. 72–73. 116. temporality of. 48. 167. 75. 28. 55–76. 61. 33. 172–73 wind. 64. 98. and recounting. 19–21. 228n8. 42. 121. 19. 152. 165. 47–52. 116. in space. 67. 109. 69. 178 young people. 90. 127. 101. 81. 91. 42. 143–45. 55. 111–14. 73–74. 64. 69–70. 123. 130 workers. 8. 122. 83. 93. 78–81. 58. direction of. 40. rhythm of. 59. 42. 109. 24. 104. 39. Orson. geographic. 77 weather. 103. 113. the. 57. 129 ways of doing. and reading/writing. 45. 94–104. 113. 231n35 winter. 66–67. 74. 226n12 281 . 107. 65. 33. 40. 5. 59. 135–37. 113. 228n8 work. 156. 184. 86–92. 132. 98. 35. 83. 48. 120 Wednesday. 75. 29. 25–26. 33. 71. 8–9. 232n18 whole. 75 ways of expressing. 133. everyday. and the part.

This page intentionally left blank .

books. France. and art catalogs. editor. at the Center for Research on Sonorous Space and the Urban Environment. and citizen activist. . writer. Françoise Choay is professor emeritus of history and theory of urbanism and architecture at the University of Paris VIII and Paris I.Jean-François Augoyard is professor of philosophy and musicology. School of Architecture. His translations and writings have appeared in American. European. and doctor of urban studies. David Ames Curtis is a translator. and Australian journals. Grenoble.