A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 - 2003

1

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines

WHO Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
Sexual and reproductive health of adolescents and youths in Philippines: a review of literature and projects 1995-2002. 1. Sexuality 2. Reproductive medicine 3. Adolescent 4. Philippines ISBN 92 9061 1804 (NLM Classification: WS 462)

The World Health Organization welcomes requests for permission to reproduce or translate its publications, in part or in full. Applications and enquiries should be addressed to the Office of Publications, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland or to the Regional Office for the Western Pacific, Manila, Philippines, which will be glad to provide the latest information on any changes made to the text, plans for new editions, and reprints and translations already available. © World Health Organization 2005 Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the Universal Copyright Convention. All rights reserved. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.

2

A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 - 2003

Table of Contents 1. Review methodology ............................................................. 15
1.1 Overview and objectives .................................................................................15 1.2 Methodology ....................................................................................................16

2. Scope of ARH literature and programmes .......................... 21 3. Status of adolescent reproductive health ............................. 29
3.1 Demographic characteristics ..........................................................................29 3.2 Growth and development ...............................................................................31 3.2.1 Nutrition .................................................................................................31 3.2.2 Menarche .................................................................................................31 3.2.3 Fertility.....................................................................................................32 3.2.4 Sexual experiences .................................................................................32 3.2.5 Marriage ..................................................................................................36 3.2.6 Contraceptive use ...................................................................................37 3.2.7 Early pregnancy ......................................................................................39 3.2.8 Abortion ..................................................................................................41 3.2.9 STI, Reproductive Tract Infections (RTI), HIV/AIDS ...................41 3.2.10 Related issues ........................................................................................42 3.3 Knowledge ........................................................................................................44 3.3.1 Body changes ..........................................................................................45 3.3.2 Pregnancy and fertility...........................................................................45 3.3.3 Contraception and family planning .....................................................46 3.3.4 STI/HIV/AIDS ....................................................................................48 3.4 Attitudes ............................................................................................................51 3.4.1 Premarital sex .........................................................................................51 3.4.2 Marriage ..................................................................................................52 3.4.3 Virginity ...................................................................................................53 3.4.4 Abortion ..................................................................................................53 3.5 Sexual practices ................................................................................................54 3.6 Adolescents’ concerns and needs ..................................................................54 3.6.1 Perceptions of adolescents ...................................................................56 3.6.2 Perceptions of parents ..........................................................................58 3.6.3 Perceptions of service providers .........................................................60 3.7 Factors influencing KAP ................................................................................62 3

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines

4. ARH educational and service interventions......................... 67
4.1 Educational interventions ...............................................................................67 4.1.1 Information, education and training programmes ............................68 4.1.2 Effective approaches .............................................................................74 4.1.3 Effects of educational interventions ...................................................76 4.2 Service Interventions ......................................................................................77 4.2.1 Available services ...................................................................................77 4.2.2 Project sites .............................................................................................80 4.2.3 Services’ impact ......................................................................................80 4.2.4 Sustainability of services .......................................................................81

5. Policy environment ............................................................... 85 6. Summary of findings on the RH status of adolescents....... 91 7. Lessons learned .................................................................... 95 8. Issues and challenges ........................................................... 97 9. Recommendations ................................................................ 99
9.1 Educational interventions ...............................................................................99 9.2 Service interventions .......................................................................................99 9.3 Leadership and governance ............................................................................99 9.4 Role of international organizations ............................................................ 100

Annex 1. Studies/papers on adolescent reproductive health ............................................................. 103 Annex 2. Programs/projects on adolescent reproductive health ............................................................. 125 Annex 3. Adolescent reproductive health-related policies ...... 133 Annex 4. List of key informants .............................................. 135 Annex 5. List of organizations contacted ............................... 137 Annex 6. List of organizations with adolescent reproductive health materials .................................................................. 139 Annex 7. List of organizations with adolescent reproductive health programs .................................................................. 141

4

A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 - 2003

Tables
Table 1 (NATIONAL): List of major researches on ARH ........................................................................18 Table 1 (LOCAL): List of major researches on ARH ........................................................................19 Table 2. Published studies/papers on ARH since 1995 ..................................................21 Table 3. Published studies and funding source since 1995 .............................................22 Table 4. Selected ARH projects since 1995 .......................................................................26 Table 5. Relevant ARH policies ...........................................................................................27 Table 6. Premarital sex (PMS) among youth, YAFS III, 2002 ........................................34 Table 7. Knowledge of the modes of transmission for HIV/AIDS (%) .....................50 Table 8. Results of studies on adolescents’ needs ............................................................55 Table 9. Nature of intervention programmes ...................................................................67

5

........................ Population and sex ratio ...............................................................................................................................................................................29 Figure 2.........Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Figures Figure 1....... Use of protection during sex (Mc-Cann Erickson 2000) ... Types of interventions .........30 Figure 3.38 Figure 4......................................... Number of programs per type of client ...........................................68 Figure 5............. Marital status of adolescents (2000) .........77 6 ............

Education and Communication Institute of Primary Health Care Institute for Social Studies and Action Institute Intra-Uterine Device Knowledge. National Capital Region National Demographic and Health Survey National Demographic Survey Nongovernmental organization National HIV Sentinel Surveillance National Statistical Coordination Board National Statistics Office National Youth Commission 7 . Inc. Inc.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 .2003 Acronyms AGI AHYDP AYHDP AIDS ARH ARMM ASSRC CAR DOH DOST DPF FGD FNRI FP FPS HAIN HIV ICPD IEC IPHC ISSA IUD KAP LGU MIDAS NCR NDHS NDS NGO NHSS NSCB NSO NYC Alan Guttmacher Institute Adolescent Health and Youth Development Program Adolescent and Youth Health Development Program Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Adolescent Reproductive Health Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao Ateneo Social Science Research Center Cordillera Autonomous Region Department of Health Department of Science and Technology Development People’s Foundation. Attitudes and Practices Local Government Unit Mayon Integrated Development Alternatives and Services. Focus Group Discussion Food and Nutrition Research Institute Family Planning Family Planning Survey Health Action Information Network Human Immunodeficiency Virus International Conference on Population and Development Information.

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines PGYTS PMS POPCOM POPED PPRPI RAF RH RTI STI SWS TFR UNFPA UNICEF UP CIDS UPPI WCC WHO YAFS II YAFSS III Philippine Global Youth Survey Premarital Sex Commission on Population Population Education Philippine Population Research for Policy Initiatives Ramon Aboitiz Foundation Reproductive Health Reproductive Tract Infection Sexually Transmitted Infection Social Weather Station Total Fertility Rate United Nations Population Fund United Nations Children’s Fund University of the Philippines Center for Integrative and Development Studies University of the Philippines Population Institute Women’s Crisis Center World Health Organization Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Study II Young Adolescent Fertility and Sexuality Survey II 8 .

Philippines Research Associate. Inc. Christie Suyin Ceres G. (CRHLD). Jacob . Inc. Jihan A. Alejandro R. Inc. Jamoralin Ms. Center for Reproductive Health Leadership and Development. Center for Reproductive Health Leadership and Development. (CRHLD).A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . Inc. (CRHLD). Center for Reproductive Health Leadership and Development. Philippines Research Associate. Center for Reproductive Health Leadership and Development. Digi-Ana P. (CRHLD). Philippines Associate Investigator. Felix Executive Director and Principal Investigator. Philippines 9 Dr. Center for Reproductive Health Leadership and Development. (CRHLD). Llagas Ms. Philippines Associate Investigator. Maria Leny E. Inc. (CRHLD).2003 Acknowledgement The World Health Organization (WHO) – Regional Office for the Western Pacific Region gratefully acknowledges the invaluable contribution to this review of the following: Ms. Philippines Research Assistant. Regina de la Paz-Ingente Dr. San Pedro Ms. Inc. Center for Reproductive Health Leadership and Development.

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines 10 .

The health of adolescents is. At least 17 out of 37 countries and areas in the Region have a median age below 25 years. but the environment to support adolescents has not changed. However. Mongolia. Many of the problems adolescents experience are inter-related and should be regarded in a comprehensive manner. Malaysia. affordable and appropriate reproductive health information and services.* Adolescents and youth make up onefourth of the population in the Western Pacific Region. Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Viet Nam 11 . a key element and an investment for the social and economic progress in the Region. therefore. Republic of Korea. China. Social norms of sexuality have also changed in the past 2 decades and puberty comes 2-3 years earlier over one century. Also families and communities are still unprepared to provide accurate reproductive health information and * Cambodia. Adolescents are vulnerable because they lack knowledge and skills to avoid risky behaviour and lack access to acceptable.2003 Preface T his is one of the reviews on the literature and projects of sexual and reproductive health of adolescents and youths in eight Asian countries. There is still much to be desired in terms of governments’ institutionalization and allocation of funds.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . adjusting to sexual development and protecting their reproductive health are the major challenges for adolescents. Philippines. This is often compounded with environmental disadvantages such as poverty and unemployment.

the reviewers and researchers for your contributions to improving the reproductive health of adolescents and youths. As a result of these reviews. where the importance of adolescent reproductive health was acknowledged. continue to threaten adolescents. the WHO Western Pacific Regional Office provided technical and financial support to several countries to conduct literature and programme reviews. Here. I appreciate the practical and cost-effective use of existing information for increasing awareness of adolescent reproductive health and for improving our work. pregnancy-related complications. Shigeru Omi. sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS. MD. Risks of unwanted pregnancies. Since the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo in 1994.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines services necessary for adolescents. unsafe abortions. countries now have evidence-based information for the development of national policies and strategies for adolescent sexual and reproductive health. many studies and programmes have been carried out by various national and international agencies and nongovernmental organizations. all of which are important elements of Millennium Development Goals (MDG). Ph.D Regional Director WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific 12 . I also would like to express my thanks to the g overnments. In order to assist governments to achieve the objectives of ICPD and MDG.

donor organizations. This review aimed to present information on the reproductive health status of adolescents. ser vice providers. and supplementing it with the Adolescent and Youth Health Policy. To address this gap. this report will help policymakers. These are meant to complement and strengthen the existing efforts being done by the Commission on Population and NGOs. by incorporating ARH in the Department of Health’s Reproductive Health Framework. This is in recognition of the reality that adolescents have a specific set of needs which are different from adults because they are in a period of transition from childhood to adulthood. programs and policies on ARH have already been undertaken by government agencies. the World Health Organization and National Center for Disease Prevention and Control of the Department of Health in collaboration with the Center for Reproductive Health Leadership and Development undertook this review of literature and programs on ARH in the Philippines from 1995-2003. as well as the target clients understand the concrete situation of adolescents. progress of educational and service interventions. who have continuously worked for mainstreaming of ARH concerns. However. and guide them in developing appropriate policy and programme responses.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . lessons learned and issues and challenges. NGOs. 13 . little has been done to integrate available information and share them to the different stakeholders.2003 Introduction The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994 highlighted adolescent reproductive health (ARH) as a priority concern. the academic community and international organizations. especially adolescents. Hopefully. Various studies. Important recommendations are also highlighted in the results of the review. the Philippines has initiated efforts to address the reproductive health needs of its populace. As a signatory to the ICPD Programme of Action. learn from effective approaches and weaknesses.

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines 14 .

15 . Impediments to studying the younger group also included: parents’ objection. Including younger adolescents aged 10 to 14 would have been difficult given the socio-cultural context and the programme interventions. • To determine WHO’s role in facilitating integration of programs on adolescent reproductive health in the Philippines. contraceptive use. most studies and programme interventions for adolescents focused on people aged 15 to 24 years.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . such as early sexual maturity or initiation. such as unwanted pregnancy. changing norms or attitudes. This literature and programme review was conducted to take these considerations into account. and projects.2003 1. sexually transmitted infections (STI) and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). adolescents are 10 to 19 years old. and increasing incidence of abortion. • To assess the evidence of effective policies and interventions as well as the limitations of current policies and interventions. maternal and infant morbidity. and communities’ and churches’ conservative beliefs. service providers’ bias. The objectives of this review were: • To identify the extent of adolescent reproductive health (ARH) problems. Review methodology 1. abortion. and complications resulting from early and unprotected sex. the terms adolescent and youth are used interchangeably in most of the literature. sexuality. • To examine trends in ARH.1 Overview and objectives According to the World Health Organization (WHO). and young people are 10 to 24 years old. The primary reason cited for focusing on this broader age group was their ability to better respond to study questions pertaining to sex. youth are 15 to 24 years old. Consequently. • To assess the needs and gaps in the delivery of ARH care. programmes. In the Philippines.

Also Included in the 1995 to 2000 period were 51 unpublished documents. government agencies. The material was gathered from 65 organizations. Of these.e. organizational reports. modules/handbooks and primers. For the period 1995 to 2003. The material covers a range of ARH topics. studies or programmes (including those published in local language). brochures. studies or programmes of international agencies.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines 1. the published papers included 42 studies and 50 other documents. • official policy (i. from the Department of Health and the Commission on Population or POPCOM). Egypt. A total of 192 local and international documents were included. were also documented by the team. Out of all the materials. such as annual reports. Programs and projects implemented during this period were examined by the research team specifically for this report. and international donor organizations. Policies related to ARH. and information. In sum. 17 were published before 1994 and 92 were published after 1995. • national statistics and survey results. All materials studied were produced after the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo. Key informant interviews were also conducted with 21 programme implementers and researchers from academia. 32 did not have a publication date. and • results of research. evaluation reports.2 Methodology This review was conducted from 20 July to 30 September 2003. nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). newsletters. including: demographic characteristics. Thirty-eight organizations involved in ARH research and programme implementation were contacted. government agencies or NGOs. The process included analyzing published and unpublished studies. Seventeen policies related to ARH were documented. reproductive health . the materials included in the review were: • published results of research. especially those enacted after ICPD. education and communication (IEC) materials. A number of materials published before 16 1995 were also used for comparative analysis.

educational and service interventions. and enrich information gathered from the literature search. attitudes and practices (KAP). NGOs. government agencies. gaps in service delivery. Quantitative and qualitative data on the nature and magnitude of sexuality and related KAPB of young adults at the national and sub-national levels were collected and analyzed. they have been included because they contain insightful infor mation and were completed between 1995 and 2003. Population Institute (UPPI) in partnership with local research institutions in 14 regions. update. their antecedents and manifestations that can be used in various intervention measures to safeguard the health and welfare of the Filipino youth” (YAFS III). the results of YAFS I. geographic. and • key informant interviews to validate. and international organizations with ARH papers. social and cultural influences. However. the surveys aimed “to provide updated information on a broad framework of adolescent sexuality and reproductive health issues. the policy environment. Conducted by the University of the Philippines. Given their magnitude and the importance of their data. effective approaches. One limitation of the review was that 32 documents were not dated and the dates were not verified because of lack of time.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . Another limitation was the scarcity of literature on adolescents between 10 to 19 years old. concerns and needs. 17 . and actions needed to improve ARH. studies. trends among this age group were difficult to establish. YAFS II (1994) and YAFS III (2002) have been used extensively in this review. Please refer to the following table for more information about the research.2003 status. As a result. reports and IEC materials. knowledge. lessons learned. The methods used for the literature search and data collection included: • Internet searches of the websites for international and local organizations that do work on ARH. • library searches in academic institutions.

key informant interviews. interviews Year 1982 Filipino youths Filipino female and male youths 500 10 879 12-21 15-24 Face-to-face survey. sealed envelope method 1993 1994 1200 15-30 1996 NATIONAL Young adults 301 (at least) Women Filipino youths 44 209 900 15-49 13-21 In-depth interviews. focus group discussions (FGDs). participant Observation Survey 1996 2000 2000 2000 18 . interviews Face-to-face interviews.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Table 1 (NATIONAL): list of major researches on ARH Title 1982 Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Survey (YAFS I) 1993 McCann Youth Study 1994 Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Survey (YAFS II) Social Weather Station (SWS)National Youth Commission (NYC) Study on the Situation of Youth in the Philippines Pagnanasa. Pagmamahal: Contextual Factors Affecting Risk-Related Sexual Behavior Among Young Adults in the Philippines 2000 Family Planning Survey 2000 McCann Youth Study State of the Philippine Population Report Respondents Filipino female youth Sample Size 5204 Age Bracket 15-24 Methodology Survey.

injecting 92 Qualitative data drug users.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . key informant interviews Questionnaires 2003 Table 1 (LOCAL): List of major researches on ARH Title First Report on FGD on Reproductive Health Risks of Women and Fertility Decisionmaking in the Philippines Respondents Men and women Sample Size Age Bracket 18-44 Location Methodology Nueva Ecija and Metro Manila FGDs Year 1992 LOCAL Sex workers. injecting drug users and atrisk youth in Cebu M'ranao Youth: Youth 118 Views on Reproductive Health and Sexuality 15-35 Cebu City FGDs and Key 1995 Informant Interviews 15-25 Marawi City and Lanao del Sur FGDs. at-risk relevant to AIDS youth prevention gathered from sex workers. participant observation and Kis 1998 19 .2003 Title 2002 Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Study (YAFS III) Filipino Adolescents in Changing Times Teenage Deliveries in Selected Hospitals in Metro Manila Respondents Filipino female and male youths Sample Size 20 000 Age Bracket 15-27 Methodology Quantitative and qualitative Year 2002 NATIONAL Young people 189 and 13 (key informants) 14-19 Teenage mothers 1020 15-19 and 20-24 FGDs.

Reproductive gatekeepers. care Programmes and religious Services in Iloilo City's leaders.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Table 1 (LOCAL Continued): List of major researches on ARH Title Respondents Sample Size 807 Age Bracket 15-24 Location Methodology Region VII Survey Year 1999 Young adults Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Young Adults in Region VII Adolescents. Health in Negros health. Adolescent parents. interviews FGDs and survey 2001 2001 1350 12-24 La Carlota survey and KIs 2001 City and La Castellaña 15-24 Iloilo City FGDs and KIs 2002 20 . Improving parents. Consolidation and Parents Analysis of Adolescent Sex and Reproductive Health Young adults Love and Desire: Young Filipinos and Sexual Risks Adolescents The Participatory Planning Process: Research Utilization and Plan Formulation for Adolescent Reproductive Health in Southern Leyte Adolescents. health service providers Perceptions and Recommendations 121 12-20 Negros Occidental Survey 1999 639 92 11-20 Baguio City Davao City Survey FGDs 2001 2001 16-24 LOCAL Manila and Iloilo Southern Leyte 364 13-17 participant observation. Reproductive Health teachers. reproductive gatekeepers. Adolescent teachers. Adolescent parents. Public Health System: Stakeholders' Concepts. Health and Family health providers Planning Practices in La Carlota City and La Castellaña Adolescents. providers Occidental Baseline Survey on the High school students KAP of Adolescents and Adults on RH Adolescents.

Metro Manila. Metro Davao. 15 Regions I-XII. Bicol.2003 2. battering & prostitution. needs & problems of adolescents & youth. abuse. Marawi City & Albay 21 . number of papers and geographical sites are summarized in Table 1. abortion. The subjects are high school & college students. The remaining 50 published literatures include organizational reports and IEC materials such as primers. modules. pregnancy.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . documentary review) KAP on sexual & RH. content. Marawi City. perceptions of pregnancy. relationships. socio-demographic profile. cross sectional study. ARMM. as indicated in Table 2. Sexual maturation. Most research funds came from international agencies. representative survey. Zambales. incidence of STI/HIV/AIDS. or a combination of the two. brochures. The study type. menstruation. life histories. Participatory Rapid Appraisal. gender & gender roles. in-depth interviews. parents and service providers. attitudes toward sexual activities. resource books and newsletters. awareness & knowledge of STI/HIV/AIDS. policy & programme responses. violence. Metro Manila. Table 2. but further details of 76 programmes/ projects are contained in Annex 2. intervention study) Qualitative (FGD. and further details of these are presented in Annex 3. Relevant national and local policies related to ARH are described in Table 4. out-of-school youth. Scope of ARH literature and programmes The literatures and programs reviewed include 42 published international. case study. Published studies/papers on ARH since 1995 Study Type Content Number Of Studies Study/ Geographical Sites Quantitative (survey. substance abuse. national and local researches employing either quantitative or qualitative methodology. advocacy & IEC strategies. Some of the projects addressing ARH at the national and local levels are presented in Table 3. Iloilo. data on contraceptive use. education & service interventions. and most of them are local researches. CAR. and Cebu City 15 Bacolod. sexual behaviour. There are also 51 unpublished studies/papers on ARH.

love & Behaviour: relationships. Attitudes & Behaviour: Implications for Workplace-Based Interventions Sex and Sexuality Youth profile. courtship. dating. domestic violence. childbearing. Published studies and funding source since 1995 Funding Source Title Related Information Principal Investigator/ Institutional Affiliation Year Published UNFPA Working Youth's RH Knowledge. knowledge & Knowledge. love relationships. Published studies/papers on ARH since 1995 Study Type Content Number Of Studies Study/ Geographical Sites Combination of quantitative and qualitative studies Organizational reports. residential history. teenage pregnancy. dating. articles Abortion. religion. the Philippines contraceptive use. pregnancy. young adults' definitions of love & views on courtships Adolescent Sexuality in Youth profile. sex. sexual & nonImplications for sexual behaviour Workplace-Based Interventions Health Action Information Network (HAIN) University of the Philippines Population Institute (UPPI) University of the Philippines Population Institute (UPPI) 1998 1999 1996 Trade Union Congress of the Philippines (TUCP) 2003 22 . marriage. STI. sexuality. programme for action. health services. youth-friendly services. contraception. substance use 1994 Young Adult Socio-economic background of Fertility Survey (YAFS adolescents. marriage. KAP of young workers. background information on the youth. Attitudes attitudes on sexual & RH. reproductive health status Sexual initiation. PMS. pre-marital sex (PMS). HIV/AIDS. HIV Working Youth's RH Youth profile. sexual & nonsexual behaviour Trade Union Congress of the Philippines (TUCP) 2003 Sexuality & related concepts. data on dating. knowledge & attitudes on sexual & RH.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Table 2 (Continued). directional plan. dating. brochures. domestic violence 12 Nationwide 50 Nationwide Table 3. orientation papers. incest. fact sheets. modules. demographic & socioII) economic characteristics. sex education. commercial sex. contraceptives. primers.

Philippines (WFS) Al Mujadillah Development Foundation 2000 2000 Unsafe Abortion in the Profile of women with UPPI Philippines: A Threat abortion experience. Body & Soul: Information on adolescent Questions for sexuality.Center for Investigative & Development Studies (UP-CIDS) 2003 HIV/AIDS Country Profile. UCWS. teenage pregnancy..A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 .2003 Funding Source Title Related Information Principal Investigator/ Institutional Affiliation Year Published University Center for Women's Studies (UCWS. includes statistics on adolescents/youth HAIN 2002 2000 Family Planning Survey Data on contraceptive use & family planning services NSO NSO 2000 1995 Baguio City: Highlights Socio-demographic profile of of the 1995 Census of Baguio City including youth Population & adolescents Cebu City: Highlights of the 1995 Census of Population Love in the Time of Ina Morata Socio-demographic profile of Cebu City NSO 1995 Ford Foundation Views on love. gender. Inc. 2001 23 . level of abortion & consequences. practices on courtship & marriage. marriage. domestic violence & incest. RH status to Public Health of these women. UP 2001 Women's Feature Service. M'ranao Youth: Views RH situation of M'ranao youth on RH & Sexuality & adolescents. Tomorrow's Women PMS & views on abortion. sex and experiences UP. romance from the point of view of those who married at a young age. sexuality. UP) & Philippine Center for Population & Development Philippine National AIDS Council (PNAC) & UNAIDSPhilippines National Statistics Office (NSO) Filipino Adolescents in Literature on the psychology Changing Times & culture of adolescent life. Philippines 2002 HIV/AIDS situation in the Philippines. results of key informant interviews (KIIs) on adolescents views on sexuality.

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Table 3 (Continued). link David & Abortion in the between unwanted pregnancy. contraception. challenges & recommendations Urban-rural residence & United Facts about Nations Adolescents from the population distribution. gaps. work status. marriage. values. Lucile Packard Philippines: Being Foundation Illegal Does Not Make contraceptive use & abortion. major problems. National SWS-NYC Study on Youth the Situation of Youth needs & aspirations Commission in the Philippines (NYC) Situation of the Youth Background information on the youth. policy implication it Rare Data on population & families. childbearing. awareness & use of Philippines 1998 contraceptives David & Adult Fertility & Lucile Packard Sexuality Study (YAFS Foundation III 2002) preliminary findings UNICEF Manila Arrested Development: The Level of Discernment of Outof-School Children & Youth UPPI Preliminary findings 2003 UPPI 2001 National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) Social Weather Station (SWS) NYC 2000 1996 1998 Population Council Inc. Bicol education. health & family planning Characteristics. sexuality. 2002 Level of discernment & moral Philippine Action for development of 300 out-ofYouth Offenders school youth & children aged 7 (PAYO) to 18 2002 24 . demographic & socio-economic characteristics & residential history. POPCOM V Women and Men in work. pregnancy. dating. sexuality. childbearing & HIV. major in the Philippines programmes & policies. marital status & Statistical Tables for Programme Planning. Demographic Survey: educational enrolment & Foundation attainment. economic participation. attitudes. Abortion estimates. A nationwide survey conducted in 14 regions. Published studies and funding source since 1995 Funding Source Title Related Information Principal Investigator/ Institutional Affiliation Year Published Socio-economic background of adolescents.

STI. contraception. teen pregnancies. deviance & peers 2001 UP-CIDS-PST 2002 Working with Abused Abuse.UK Pagnanasa.2003 Funding Source Title Related Information Principal Investigator/ Institutional Affiliation Year Published WHO's Global Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS) NSCB UNESCO Regional Clearing House on Popn. sexual behaviour.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . adolescent sexuality. HAIN definitions & attitude toward sexual activities. relationships & sex 1996 Education indicators among youth NSCB 2000 Demographic profile. Pagmamahal: Contextual Factors Affecting Risk-related Behaviour Among Young Adults in the Philippines Functional Literacy. policy & programme response Department of Sociology. University of the Philippines 1999 A Profile of Child & Woman Abuse in the Province of Albay. perceptions of pregnancy. Education & Mass Media Survey (FLEMMS) Communication & Advocacy Strategies on ARH & Sexual Health in the Philippines Genders & gender roles. fertility. 1994-1999 Physical & sexual abuse among Social Action children & adolescents Center-Diocese of Legaspi City UP-CIDS-PST 2000 Trust & Power: Child Abuse on children & Abuse in the Eyes of adolescents the Child & the Parent Integrating ChildCentered Approaches in Children's Work Adolescence. resilience & responding UP-CIDS-PST to challenges Children: From the Lenses of Resilience & Contextualization 2001 25 . Educ & Communictn Children & Youth Foundation of the Philippines Italian Cooperation for Development Save the Children.

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Table 4. of Health Dept. Dept. UNFPA & Dept. Mary's University (SMU) POPCOM Educational & Service Nationwide Dept. AUSAID. of Health Davao City Adolescent Fertility Management Programme Educational & service Baguio City BCYA 26 . Davao Medical Center. British Embassy & ALAKBAY Foundation. Inc. Selected ARH projects since 1995 Project Title Component Intervention Sites Funding Source Implementing Agency Youth in Action for RH & Rights Youth Zone Educational Davao City David & Lucile Packard Foundation Educational & Service Educational Manila & Cebu David & Lucile Packard Foundation Baguio City UNFPA Developing & Mobilizing Peer Educators for ARH SMU-ARH/VAW Programme Educational & service Nueva Vizcaya Adolescent Health & Youth Development Programme (AHYDP) Adolescent & Youth Health & Development Programme (AYHDP) Entertainment for Education Programmes (Enter-Educate) Educational Nationwide UNFPA. of Health Foundation for Adolescent Development (FAD) DKT Philippines. Provincial Government & Regional Population Office UNFPA Development of People's Foundation (DPF) Remedios Aids Foundation. (RAF) Baguio Center for Young Adults. Inc. of Health Educational Metro Manila Frenzy Mobile Outreach Team (FMOT) Women & Children Protection Unit Educational & service Educational & service Metro Manila David & Lucile Packard Foundation. of Health. Inc. UNICEF. John Hopkins University & Program for Appropriate Technology (PATH) David & Lucile Packard Foundation Dept. Inc. (BCYA) St.

Proclamation No. Inc. Exploitation & Discrimination Act discrimination. 603/the Child 10 December 1974 investigation. UNFPA. exploitation & Children Against Child Abuse. Relevant ARH policies Title Subject Date Promotion of the total health. 27 . well-being & 2000 Administrative Order 34-A or Adolescent & Youth Health self-esteem of adolescents & youth by promoting a safe & supportive environment. prosecution & rehabilitation of Youth & Welfare Code youth offenders. Population Center Foundation Levis Strauss. No. building skills & providing services. (KDFI) Table 5. Policy providing information. Rules & regulations on the apprehension. JICA.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . UNICEF La Carlota City David & Lucile & Municipality Packard Foundation of La Castellana TUCP Department of Education & PCPD POPCOM Kabalaka Development Foundation.2003 Project Title Component Intervention Sites Funding Source Implementing Agency Adolescent Programmes on HIV/AIDS Prevention New Horizon's Drop-In Center for Street Children Multi-Service Youth Center Educational Baguio City Philippine HIV/AIDS NGO Support Programme BCYA Educational & service Service Baguio City President Social Fund BCYA Baguio City Baguio City Youth Empowerment Educational to Serve & Grow with Others Family Planning/Family Welfare Programme Youth Sexual & RH Revitalized Guidance Programme Family Planning/RH Programme Teen Circle & Teen Horizon Educational & service Educational Educational Service Educational & service Nationwide POPCOM. providing penalties for its violation. Children & Youth Foundation of the Philippines UNFPA BCYA BCYA TUCP Nationwide Nationwide Nationwide UNFPA UNFPA GOP. R. 7610/Special Protection of Provides for stronger deterrence & special 17 June 1992 protection against child abuse. USAID. & for other purposes.A.

A.A.A. Relevant ARH policies Title Subject Date R. using applicable laws. No. A.A.A. Allocation of 30% from ODA & 6% from local funds to women & gender-sensitive projects & formulation of gender-sensitive programmes including ARH. 8369 1997 City Ordinance 1933 2002 Executive Order No. including NFP. Family Courts Act of 1997 mandating the creation of family courts. Ensuring availability of FP information & services. at appropriate levels adhering to standard of quality care promulgated by the national programme. a special law that names. Establishment of a national comprehensive programme on youth development. Broadening of population policies & programmes beyond FP & a much closer collaboration among development agencies as the primary mechanism to attain the reproductive health approach objective. appropriation of funds & other purposes. Anti-Domestic Violence Ordinance of Cebu City which is the first local measure in the Philippines that penalizes perpetrators of domestic violence & provides protection to victims. defines & penalizesd sexual harassment in the workplace. 6365/Population Act of 1971 R. No. & assigns to these courts the hearing & resolution of domestic violence cases against women & children including adolescents. education or training environment. No. No. 8353 R. Population policies Anti-rape law Rape Victim Assistance & Protection Act Philippine Reproductive Health Program & adopted the ten service elements of RH Philippine AIDS Prevention & Control Act Anti-Sexual Harassment Act of 1995. 307/Implementing of Family Planning Programme at the Local Government Level Administrative Order No. 24/Women & Development Code of Davao City 1998 28 . 43/Reproductive Health Policy R.A. 8504 R. 7877 An Act prohibiting the employment of children below 15 years of age in public & private undertakings. No. 9 November 1994 28 February 1996 15 January 1998 1994 1972 1997 1998 1998 1998 R. 8044/An Act Creating the National Youth Commission R.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Table 5 (Continued). No. 7658 Executive Order No. 8505 Administrative Order 1-A R.A. No.

Its average annual growth rate is 2.000. the Philippines is in the midst of a “youth bulge. The high fertility rate in the past has created a young age structure with the median age at 21 years.” a transitory but important demographic expansion.000 8.000 7.000. This number increased to 85% in 2002 (Raymundo 2002). A survey conducted by the Social Weather Station (SWS) and the National Youth Commission (NYC) in 1997 indicated that six out of 10 Filipino youth reached or finished high school or vocational training. 23% is between the ages of 10 and 19 and 20% are between 15 and 24.000 4. According to the same survey.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 .000. As pointed out by Xenos and Raymundo (1999).000. 75% of 15 to 24 year-olds reached at least the high school level in 1994. Adolescents aged 15 to 19 years old are more likely to live in urban areas than those ages 10 to 14 years. making it one of the fastest growing populations in the Western Pacific Region.000. 24% had some college education and 16% had at most elementary education.000 3.000.5 million (National Statistics Office (NSO) 2000).000 2.36%. As to their educational attainment.2003 3.1 Demographic characteristics The Philippines has a total population of 76. Population and Sex Ratio Female 9. Of this population. Figure 1.000.000 5.000. and this trend is more pronounced among girls than among boys (NSO 2002). Status of adolescents’ reproductive health 3.000 1.000 0 Male 10-14 15-19 20-24 29 .000.000 6.

even when parties between 18 and 21 years old can legally marry. they still need to secure parental consent Figure 2. The YAFS II (1994) reported that 32% of the elementary-educated females were already mothers.04%.4 million or 51. The YAFS II pointed out that more than onequarter of all women began childbearing by age 20 (Balk and Raymundo in Cabigon 1999). POPCOM).Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines It was noted that young females have consistently shown better educational attainment than young males (NYC 1998). According to the Family Code or Related Provisions of Executive Order 209. Out of the 38 million females in the Philippines. men and women can marry when they reach the age of 18. National data also show that more than one third or 36% of young women conceive before marriage (State of the Philippine Population Report 2000. only 13% of college-educated females aged 15 to 24 were mothers (NSO and Macro International 1994. cited in Varga 2003). Marital Status of Adolescents [2000] Below 20 20-24 Entire Population 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% le M ar rie d W id ow ed Se pa ra te d O th er s U nk no w n Si ng Marital Status 30 . however. By contrast. More than half of the female population belongs to the reproductive age group. the total population of women of childbearing ages (15 to 49 years) is 19.

Because of poverty and malnutrition.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 .). It carries with it g reater responsibility. Department of Science and Technology (FNRI-DOST). 31 . 15 June 2002).2. iron loss during menstruation (Talkpoint. claimed that they were living with a partner (Sandoval 2000). 1995). The average marrying age is 23. which is considered to be three out of 10 children (UNICEF as cited in Talkpoint. Data from YAFS II (1994) revealed a slight decline in the number of young women who menstruated before age 13. in females. While data show that more men were employed. The SWS-NYC survey revealed that about six out of 10 Filipino youth are single and about one third are married.” 3.6 for females (Perez et. Based on a 1998 NYC report.2003 (Pangalangan 1995). “Both male and female adolescents have high iron requirements because of developing muscle mass during adolescent growth and. A small proportion.9 for males and 21. “these figures represent an 18% decline among males between 1970 and 1995 and 33% increase among the females” (Xenos and Raymundo 1999). compared to the number recorded in 1982.1 Nutrition Based on the 2000 study of the Food and Nutrition Research Institute. In 1995.44 in 1995) (Diaz in Ogena 1999). however.al. The mean age of menarche in the Philippines. about 12 million youth were either employed or actively looking for employment (POPCOM 2002). 3. about 70% of young Filipino women between ages 13 and 19 became physiologically mature for reproduction (Ogena 1999).2 Growth and development 3. has not changed much (13.d. 33 out of every 100 adolescents among the 11 to 19 age group were underweight and 24 were underweight for their height (Talkpoint. the Philippines ranks fifteenth on the list of countries that have high rates of stunted children. 15 June 2002).2 Menarche Menarche refers to the onset of menstruation. It signals the female body’s reproductive capacity and predisposes the individual to be sexually receptive (Perez n. In 1994.2. 60% of males aged 20 to 24 were in the labor force and 40% of young females were working.32 in 1994 to 13. which signifies a girl’s transition to another stage of the life cycle. 15 June 2002). 2%.

4 Sexual experiences Homosexuality .3% experienced homosexual attraction and 5% were involved in actual homosexual sex. More females than males admitted to samesex attraction (13. Despite this reduction in TFR.).2 million people claimed to have experienced homosexual relations.97 in 1970 to 3.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Reduced age of menarche appears related to early sexual activity.73 in 1996. A 1997 SWS-NYC survey reinforced this observation. This change has been attributed to improvements in food technology. One study suggests that the earlier the onset of menarche. Homosexuality in adolescence has been classified under “identity disorder” (Ladrigo-Ignacio in Ogena 1999).1% in 1992 (Diaz in Ogena 1999).3.6% of single females and 10.2.2.7% of youth aged 15 to 30 or an estimated 1. the younger a woman may be at the age of marriage and the age of first pregnancy (Liboro n. Even with negative connotations.8% of the female respondents reported being involved in homosexual activity. which was two and a half years less than the estimate in 1948 (16. Many people in Philippine society still find it difficult to accept male and female homosexuals. Based on the results. 3. with more males involved in homosexual relations than females (Sandoval 2000). it can be surmised that since the mid-1990s.8% of married females compared to 6.3 Fertility The total fertility rate (TFR) in the Philippines gradually declined from 5. statistics show that young women below 20 years old accounted for 36.2% of single males and 5.5% of married males). 5. Rural areas had higher levels of homosexuality than urban areas. The age of menarche estimated from YAFS I (1982) was 13. only 9. 32 . young adult mothers’ particular contribution to the TFR has increased from about 27% in 1980 to 30% in 1996. By contrast.1% of the male and 1. In less urbanized areas. YAFS III (2002) reported that 5% of sexually active boys had sex with boys and less than 1% of females had sex with other females. Data from the YAFS II (1994) showed that 5.5% engaged in homosexual sex in urban areas (Ogena 1999).2 years).3% of the total births in the country in 1989 and 35. actual homosexual activity was still low compared to homosexual attraction (Padilla in Ogena 1999). Moreover.d. Based on these studies. 10. homosexual activity continues among Filipino youth. 3. However.7% experienced same-sex attraction and 2.

The average age of sexual debut of boys and girls was 18. However. Based on a number of studies. A popular venue for the first sexual encounter was the respondent’s home or his/her partner’s home (Ogena 1999). 55% said that it was something they did not plan. Raymundo and Berja in Cabigon 1999). but they went along with it while 43% said that it was something that they wanted to happen at that time (YAFS III 2002). suggesting that PMS is likely to occur for the first time within committed relationships that may eventually lead to marriage. Similar results were found by the YAFS II (1994). Premarital and early sex. Also. takes place between the ages of 18 to 21. while males are more inclined to have sex with someone they are not romantically involved with. although a segment of the young male population opts for motels. As early as 1981. The majority of those who had PMS said the first sexual encounter was a spontaneous event. unlike the previous survey. Sexual debut.2003 young male adolescents have had a higher rate of homosexual activities than young female adolescents. YAFS II (1994) noted that the 33 .). YAFS I (1982) reported that about 12% of young female adults had engaged in premarital sex. As with the previous findings. the home was where most females had their initial sex encounter with their boyfriends. the number of young adults engaging in PMS has steadily increased. the YAFS II (1994) observed that the first sexual encounter of most male respondents took place in motels with persons they had no romantic attachment to. A 1981 study among female senior college students revealed that almost all of the girls lost their virginity before age 21(Rimando in Perez n. Females have sex with boyfriends or fiancés. Among females. about 21% said they had serious relationships or intimate relationships. while 38. sexual debuts are mostly spontaneous or unplanned events.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 .6% of males said the same (Xenos.d. Among the respondents. Nine of every 10 girls had their first PMS with their boyfriends or fiancés. The sexual encounter often happens in homes. therefore. studies indicated that adolescents were experiencing their sexual or coital debut at a younger age. Sexual debut among adolescents. The YAFS I (1982) found that the median age of first premarital sex (PMS) was about 18 years for young women and 21 years for her male partner.

Premarital sex (PMS) among youth. There is evidence that the PMS among the youth increases with age. This increase indicated that engaging in sex before marriage is becoming more common among young Filipinos.6 million youths aged 15 to 30) (Sandoval 2000:3). and 47% of 25 to 27 year olds were.2 million.4% among single youth compared to a higher 23.9% among ever-married youth. “The percentage of those reporting 34 premarital sex experience is 12.3 million. including males. It was also observed that marital status is significantly associated with PMS. the corresponding figure for 2002 was 23%. 18% of 16 to 18 year-olds had PMS. A study conducted by McCann-Erickson in 2000 found that: 5% of 13 to 15 year-olds had PMS. A gender differential is also noticeable.7 million youths aged 15 to 30) of Filipino youths have engaged in PMS. YAFS III. PMS experience initiates or accelerates the process of marriage” (Xenos.5 million of the 15 to 24 age group had PMS. also reported that about 1. Based on the 1996 survey.” The SWS-NYC survey found in 1996 that 13% (2. who had PMS was 18% or 2. More males (25%) are engaging in PMS than females (11%) (McCann-Erickson 2000). The YAFS III (2002) findings indicated that 12% of 15 to 19 year olds were sexually active. 2002 Age Group % of PMS Prevalence 15-19 20-24 25-27 12 40 47 1997 were similar (Sandoval 2000). In 2001.8 million Filipino males and 670 000 females aged 15 to 24 were sexually active. Before the YAFS III (2002). indicating that somehow. in its State of the Philippine Population Report 2000. The results of the SWS-NYC survey in 1996 and Table 6. 22% of the boys and 8% of the girls . the number rose to 17% (3. In 1997. 40% of 20 to 24 year olds were sexually active. The estimate in 1997 was 2. POPCOM. a ‘repeat’ either with the same partner or with another is more likely.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines number of adolescents aged 15 to 24. The YAFS II (1994) found that while 18% of 15 to 24 year-olds in 1994 had experienced PMS. about 1. Raymundo and Lusterio in Sandoval 2000). YAFS II also noted that the “premarital sexual experience among Filipino youth indicates that generally once one gets initiated to PMS. and 33% of 19 to 21 year-olds had PMS.

Sandoval 2000). The likelihood in urban areas was 23. In 1994. the perception is that “Filipino young adults are quite conservative in terms of prevalence and the timing of their first sex act compared to Western standards. In sum. Cagayan Valley (16%). In 2002. those living in urban areas report higher levels of PMS compared to those in rural areas. Despite the data. Another survey reported that the incidence of sexual intercourse in Metro Manila decreased from 32% in 1992 to only 21% in 2000 (McCann-Erickson 2000). young men’s PMS prevalence was 25% while that of young women was 11%. A look at social status and educational attainment showed that Class C had the highest rate of PMS and those with more education tended to report higher levels of PMS. Males are more likely to engage in PMS. However. Less PMS activity was found among young people from the regions of Western Mindanao (19%). Visayas (18%) and Luzon (14%). Those belonging to Class C or middle class social status showed the highest rate of PMS (30%). the 2002 finding showed that the women’s level of PMS was catching up with that of the men’s. and Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) (12%). The percentage of sexually active young adults increases with age. Mindanao had the highest rate of PMS (24%).” when compared to the PMS prevalence data for unmarried Americans (Ogena 1999). Findings of the YAFS III (2002). revealed that young adults from the NCR and Eastern Visayas posted the highest percentage of PMS experience (35%). Data also indicated that PMS initiates or accelerates the process of marriage. Adolescents with higher education tended to engage in PMS more or report actual experience (McCann-Erickson 2000.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . followed by class AB or upper class (25%) and Class D or lower class (17%). a UPPI press statement on this subject stated that “the premarital sex behaviour of young Filipinos can still be considered conservative when 35 .1% and in rural areas it was 10.7% (Sandoval 2000). Also. It is more likely that urban adolescents will engage in PMS than their rural counterparts will. various studies have showed an increase in the number of youths engaging in PMS. In 2000. followed by the National Capital Region (NCR) (21%). the YAFS III showed that young men consistently had more PMS (35%) than women did (19%). on the other hand. In fact.2003 had had sex at age 18 while 45% of the boys and 18% of the girls had had sex at age 21 (Cabigon 1999).

2.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines compared to the levels found in developed countries and some other countries in the Asian region” (Raymundo 2002). Studies conducted in the late 1960s and 1970s showed that dating was becoming a venue for sexually-related activities.4 for females.).3% and 8. but rather an erotic one. necking or petting are expected in dates.9% “go all the way” on their first date. Dating as venue for sexual activity. This represents about 1. data show that an estimated 34% have multiple sex partners. the rate of teen marriage appears to have declined slightly from a decade earlier (Balk and . respectively” (De Guzman in Ogena 1999). 16. intimacies heightened.6 million of the country’s 15 to 27 yearold population. of the 2117 dating adolescents from nine major ethnic groups. breast.). the majority stated that dating was not just a socializing experience. and genital stimulation. about 5% of dating females and 17% of dating males admitted having gone as far as sexual intercourse with their dates (CYRC (1977) as cited in Perez n. which make modern day dating among the young a source of sexual 36 gratification. 3.7% of respondents engaged in sexual intimacies and 2. And “as dating became a more regular activity among the youth. More than half of males engaging in PMS reported having more than one partner.1%.5 Marriage Although one out of five Filipinos is married by age 19. McCann-Erickson (2000) found that the average age for a youth to go on a one-on-one date was 15.” This showed that adolescents engaged in sexual activities other than intercourse (Perez n.d. Nearly one-third had oral. Experience with multiple sex partners. For instance. “While the majority of sexually active young Filipinos stick to one sexual partner.d.” In this study. This resulted in an increase in the corresponding proportions of the youth engaging in petting and sexual intercourse. “a much earlier study by Abanes (1969) on the dating habits of boys in two big Manila universities reported that sexual intimacies form part of the males’ expectation from dating. most often done in movie houses. Similarly.7 for males and 16. The comparative levels for females was only 9%” (YAFS III 2002). And in a study of 5350 adolescent students from nine ethnic groups. Another study in 1977 revealed that “common forms of intimacies such as kissing. YAFS II (1994) findings suggested that 9.

there is no difference between present and older generations” (Cabigon 1999). POPCOM).A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . Data show that “contemporary Filipino youth are marrying later than their earlier counterparts” (De Guzman in Ogena 1999). only 49% of the youth use protection when having sex. In 1994. The number of years spent as a single person has increased from 24. 1. are unwilling and unprepared to become parents. The 1998 NDS also shows that contraceptive use. and majority of this number.6 years in 1995 among males. Close to half of young women in the Eastern Visayas. This gap is attributed to the differences in gender roles and expectations associated with marriage (Ogena 1999). Central Mindanao and ARMM also marry before age 20.2.2003 Raymundo in Cabigon 1999). YAFS II revealed that of the 2. Males have married later than females by an average of 2.5 years. Condoms are used most often (29%). 3. is low among Philippine teenagers regardless of their residence. Poorer and rural women also marry at younger ages (Balk and Raymundo in Ogena 1999).5 million Filipinos aged 15 to 24 who engage in PMS. and then other devices (4%). About two out of five sexually active adolescent women have an unmet 37 . Among females. Most married youths say that they began their unions either by living-in or by eloping. it has also increased from 22. better-educated women marry later but tend to catch up in terms of number of children with shorter birth intervals” (State of the Philippine Population Report 2000.4 to 24. however. especially of modern methods.8 million do not use any method to prevent pregnancy.6 Contraceptive use Contraceptive use is low among sexually active adolescents. whether they reside in the rural or urban areas or in any of the major islands of the country. 74% or about 1. One researcher observed that “today.1 during the same period.67 million. Over half of less-educated women do so. The Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI 2000) reported that based on the 1998 National Demographic Survey (NDS) more than one in four young women entered their first marriage before age 20. fewer women marry in their teens compared to a generation ago. While less-educated women marry earlier and have more children by age 25. Among the less educated ones. both of which are considered a premarital period (Cabigon 1999). education and region (AGI in Cabigon 1999).8 years in 1980 to 26. In the 1993 McCannErickson study. followed by the pill (11%).

Also. McCann-Erickson (2000) noted that among those who have had sexual intercourse. as seen in the findings of the YAFS III (2002) study. but are more careful in succeeding sexual contacts. condoms (33%) are the most popular followed by pills (10%) and others (7%). Contraceptive use has changed little recently. 78% of sexually active male adolescents have never used a condom (POPCOM 2001). For those who use some form of contraceptive. Young boys are more inclined to use a contraceptive method during their first encounter than subsequent ones. Girls are likely to be unprotected the first time. According to the State of the Philippine Population Report 2000.” The report cited that among sexually active adolescents. The study confirmed previous observations that most sexually active young people are not aware of safe sex practices. As indicated in the Figure 3. 74% do not use any form of contraception. Contraceptive use is higher among boys than among girls. over half (54%) do not use any contraceptives during sex.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines need for contraception regardless of their residence. “many adolescents engage in premarital sex without adequate knowledge of means of avoiding pregnancy and STI. Use of Protection During Sex (McCann-Erickson 2000) 54% 33% 4% 10% 7% Pills Other devices Refused Condom Do not use protection 38 . Only 19% of the respondents used any contraception to protect themselves against the risk of pregnancy or STI the first time they had sex. education or region (Cabigon 1999). About 4% refused to use any contraceptive method.

data from the Philippine Health Statistics show that 8. stated that “a most dramatic change in contemporary Philippine social conditions is the earlier initiation of sexual activity which without guiding knowledge can in turn lead to accidental or unplanned or even unwanted teenage pregnancies” (Perez n. and 13% used pills (YAFS III 2002). pills and withdrawal are the most commonly used contraceptive methods. but are more likely to use contraception in succeeding sexual experiences.6% of total live births (1 437 154) were to younger Filipino women. Among the 25 to 27 year olds. As shown in the YAFS III (2002). In terms of methods commonly used. non-use of contraceptives was highest among the younger ages (15 to 19) at 24%.g. This may be because the majority of first sexual experiences were spontaneous but succeeding sexual episodes were also unprotected. were premaritally conceived (Zablan in Perez n.2. Dr. Notably.6%) of illegitimate births were to women in the same age group (Mataragnon in Perez n.d. Only about a third of young adults who had never married and had PMS used contraception during their sexual initiation.).2003 YAFS III (2002) results.d.). 39% of births to respondents of a KAP survey in Metro Manila were to women aged 15 to 24. 80% of young mothers belonged 39 . 12% among currently married and 11% among those in living-in). only 14% reported using any type of contraception during their first premarital sex experience. Between 1984 and 1988. In sum.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . Condoms. It is common for PMS experiences to be unprotected. In 1977.d.). 62% of women reported that they did not use any contraception during their first sexual experience. Non-use of contraceptives was found to be highest among younger ages. In 1985.d. Aurora Perez. Young women are likely to be unprotected the first time they have sex.7 Early pregnancy In terms of teenage pregnancies. for instance. the reverse is true among males.7%) were to women aged 15 to 19 (Perez n. and over half (54. 40% relied on withdrawal. This was higher than the contraceptive use practice of all categories of youths who are in union (e. Twenty percent of births to married women in 1973. 26% used condoms. Many of these births (6. Associate Professor at the UP Population Institute. 3. the majority of the most recent sex episodes for women (70%) and men (68%) were not protected. contraceptive use is low among the Filipino youth.). while 25% of the males reported the same.

that number increased to four out of 10. half of all 15 to 24 year old mothers resume menstruation. or drunk driving. Rural women start childbearing at younger ages than urban women do (Balk and Raymundo in Cabigon 1999. 40 POPCOM 2000).d. faced a higher risk of teenage pregnancy (State of the Philippine Population Report 2000 ). Also. “One of the major reasons why girls aged 15 to 19 die isn’t drugs. Out-of-school youth. .). estimated to be 5.5 million and mostly concentrated in urban areas. which may result in a rupture and other health complications. Filipino teenage mothers account for 20% of all maternal deaths in the country and 17% of fetal deaths are attributed to teenage mothers” (Tripon 2000). 60% were single and 40% married (Liboro n. The YAFS II (1994) found that more than one-quarter of all women had begun childbearing by age 20 (Balk and Raymundo in Cabigon 1999). but complications related to pregnancy. Early pregnancy is disturbing because of the health problems associated with it. Among less-educated women. Of this. Lesseducated women were more likely to become pregnant during their teen years than their better-educated counterparts (Cabigon 1999). The adolescent female reproductive system may not be fully developed and able to withstand birthing. less-urbanized regions of ARMM. Another problem associated with early pregnancy is having a breech birth. National data also showed that more than one third or 36% of young women conceived before marriage (POPCOM 2000). Western Mindanao and Eastern Visayas have the highest percentage of teenage mothers. findings showed that two out of every 10 young women gave birth before age 20. four months postpartum. which is twice as frequent among teenagers as among the general population (Liboro n. while Metro Manila has the lowest (POPCOM 2000).d. There is a clear relationship between education and pregnancy. Also. Compared with their urban counterparts. making them at risk of becoming pregnant again (Balk and Raymundo in Ogena 1999). The 1998 NDS reported that 20% of females were married by age 19 and nearly 60% were married by age 24.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines to the 17 to 18-year-old age bracket. rural teenagers are twice as likely to become pregnant (11% versus 5%).). alcohol. In a study conducted by the AGI (2000).

sex workers and overseas Filipino workers (HAIN 2002). A 1999 study on STI/RTI found that the prevalence rates of gonorrhea and chlamydia are higher among younger people. Moreover. ‘low and slow.2003 3. indicate high-risk sexual behaviour and poor reproductive and sexual health awareness (HAIN 2002). the incidence of abortion is increasing.2. Also. the Philippines has a relatively low prevalence rate of STI and less than 1% of adults are infected with HIV. Data from the National HIV Sentinel Surveillance (NHSS) showed that 85% of reported infections were acquired through sexual contact and the highest HIV infection rates were found in people aged 20 to 49 years old. In a study of hospital cases of abortion complications. men who have sex with men. In fact. About 47% of infected females are between 20 to 29 years of age and about 38% of infections in males occurred between 30 to 39 years. 1210 were asymptomatic and 586 were AIDS cases.9 STI.’ with estimates of 13 000 infected Filipinos. It is estimated that about 400 000 abortions are performed every year (TUCP 2003).8 Abortion Abortion is illegal in the Philippines. Five groups in the country have been identified as most susceptible to HIV: women. As of December 2002.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . Compared to other countries. such as Zimbabwe. Metro Manila currently has the highest abortion rate and ratio in the country. especially among young men. 17% of women in the reproductive ages of 15 to 44 in Metro Manila have had at least one abortion. Series 2001). but that does not stop it or discussions about it. 41 3.7%.2. HAIN added that the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Philippines has been described by public health experts as . which has an adult infection rate of 33. the HIV/AIDS registry shows that most cases of HIV infection among females happened at a younger age compared to males. Of these infections. Young people are also at risk of serious complications from STI. the cumulative number of reported HIV cases was 1796. young adults. Infection rates among the youth. 36% involve young women (15 to 24 years old). the Philippines has a low rate. Reproductive Tract Infections (RTI). HIV/AIDS According to the Health Action Information Network (HAIN) in its HIV/AIDS Philippine Country Profile 2002. Complications from abortion are one of the leading causes of admission to government hospitals (Philippine Population Research for Policy Initiatives.

indicating that males are more involved in commercial sex than females are. In the YAFS III (2002) data.1% (0. more boys are involved in commercial sex practices. Similarly. 20% have paid for sex and 12% have accepted payment for sex. but the YAFS III (2002) covered both young men and women.2. 1% reported having paid or been paid for a sexual favor. Among Filipino youth. About 10% of the females who had PMS said that their first sexual experience happened without their consent (Ogena 1999). The same research also revealed that 60% of rape survivors were forced . The YAFS II (1994) asked only young women about this. However. 2% of those who had PMS said that their first sexual experience happened against their will.6% versus 2.7 million) had been paid for sex. among the sexually active. Among those with commercial sex experiences. 4. Those with lower education reported higher incidence of being paid for sex than those with higher education (Sandoval 2000). women are vulnerable to abuse.3%) reported using a condom (YAFS III 2002). while 1% of sexually active young men had a similar experience. Experience with abuse and violence.6% had used a condom and only one-third of the males and a much smaller proportion of females (5. Being paid for sex. Among the girls. 30. It is of concern that 60% of 78% of sexually active male adolescents who had never used a condom also admitted to 42 having commercial sex (POPCOM 2000). The Women’s Crisis Center’s document “Feminist Action Research on the Impact of Violence Against Women (VAW) on Women’s Health (1995-1998)” reported that six out of 10 women said they were abused by their partners during their boyfriendgirlfriend relationship. Those living in urban areas reported higher levels of paying for sex (6. however.6%) than those in rural areas.10 Related issues Prostitution/commercial sex. About 4% of young women with sexual experience were forced into it the first time.6% (estimated one million) have paid for sex and 3. Paying for sex tended to be higher in NCR than elsewhere. Also. the findings of YAFS III (2002) found that among sexually active males. relatively few NCR residents reported being paid for sex. More males reported paying for sex and being paid for sex than females. This suggested that even in “not-so-per manent” relationships.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines 3. does not vary significantly according to urban or rural residence (SWS-NYC 1997).

A nationwide.4 million Filipino youth have had sex against their will or had been raped. while 3. Thirty percent of adolescents. in urban areas smoked and 40% of boys and 18% of girls were frequent smokers. a little over half of Filipinos 43 . 21. analysis showed that the gender gap observed in 1994 is slowly narrowing. almost doubling the 1994 figure.7% to 8. While males engaged more in all three behaviours. Also.8% of 11 630 high school student (sophomores to seniors) respondents tried smoking.8% or 1. and 26. Being raped and raping someone do not vary significantly according urban or rural residence. but the survey focused more on increasing risk behaviours among females. school-based 2000 Philippine Global Youth Survey (PGYTS) showed that 42. Nearly half or 46% of the country’s 15 to 24 year old population have tried smoking. A bigger increase in the number of those who tried smoking. representing an 8% increase from the 1994 level (38%). Those with less education reported a higher incidence of being raped and raping someone than those with more education. More males reported having raped someone (Sandoval 2000) than females did. A higher incidence of rape was observed in lower economic classes.5% were likely to start smoking next year. relatively fewer NCR residents reported experiences of being raped compared to those living farther from the nation’s capital (Sandoval 2000). Results showed that smoking. 20% of males have tried using drugs. The proportion of drug use among young females tripled from 1% in 1994 to 3% in 2002. The nationwide survey also revealed that there was a significant increase in the youth’s consumption of alcoholic beverages and use of illegal drugs. “In 1994. The incidence of rape was 3. Substance use.9% in the 22 to 30 age group.0% or 0. the increase in drinking among young people has been mostly among females (65% versus 10% in males).4% among 15 to 16 year olds and increased to 7.2003 into early marriages or live-in arrangements with their assailants.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . drinking and drug use experimentation were on the rise among young Filipinas. The YAFS III (2002) found similar practices. The 1997 SWS-NYC survey revealed that 6.6% were current smokers.6 million reported forcing somebody to have sex with them. Meanwhile. drinking and doing illegal drugs was found among young women (from 17% in 1994 to 30% in 2002). ages 13 to 15. However.

Substance abuse can be a factor in committing violence or showing violent behaviour. which can lead to unwanted pregnancy (Kaufman 2003).3 Knowledge Youth who are in school know more about RH than out-of-school youth do. advertising strategies and promotion of drinking as a social activity (YAFS III 2002). The YAFS III (2002) also found that young females appeared to exhibit better judgment and did not continuously engage in risky behaviours.1 for females (McCann-Erickson 2000).7 among males and 16. For smoking. This increased to 70% in 2002. In sum. Females appear to exhibit better judgment by not continuously engaging in risky behaviours. 58% of those who tried smoking retained the habit. 3. Only 40% of females who tried drinking alcoholic beverages were current drinkers. as factors that contribute to the youth’s relaxed attitude toward sex. the rate of substance abuse among adolescents is rising.2 for females. Smoking and doing illegal drugs appear to be temporary behaviours. compared with 76% of males. jealousy (83. Smoking and doing drugs appear temporary. but not drinking.3%) were cited by 44 battered women as factors that ag gravated or trig gered abusive behaviour (Women’s Crisis Center (WCC) 1995-1998). but drinking is not. Youth drinking is attributed to aggressive marketing. four out of 10 continued the habit while one out of four who experimented with illegal drugs was addicted. Among males. along with peer pressure and mass media. The average age to start drinking alcoholic beverages was 15. With regard to smoking.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines ages 15 to 24 admitted to have tried drinking alcohol. In addition. the gender gap is narrowing as more Filipinas experiment with risky behaviours. whether on a regular or irregular basis.3%) and drug abuse (23. Sixty percent of those who tried drinking alcohol still drink. Drug use among adolescents and young adults almost doubled from 6% who admitted using any form of illegal drugs in 1994 to 11% in 2002” (YAFS III 2002).7 for males and 16. illegal drugs have been identified. The YAFS II (1994) shows that in-school youth also know more about sex and are more realistic in discussing . About 80% of females who smoked a cigarette never picked up the habit. Alcohol (90%). Of those who have tried smoking. the average age was 15. drinking and use of drugs.

Mass media is still considered the most common source of information about sex (Diaz n. growth of Adam’s apple. (DPF) indicated that participants learned about sex from their peers or by viewing X-rated films on television.d. Less common sources are teachers. books. Benares 2001.d. Sex is more prevalent among girls than boys. there was an increased awareness among both females and males about body changes (Zablan 1999). and family. 3. Media includes television. the muscles (Cruz and Diaz 2001.. believed that there is no particular time when women are at greater risk of getting pregnant. Studies conducted in Davao. Some also learned about it from their parents who discussed sex while children were around. advertisements. Southern Leyte. The 1997 baseline survey in Cordillera Autonomous Region (CAR) noted that at least three-quarters of female adolescents and half of male adolescents were aware of changes in their bodies while growing up.1 Body changes Studies conducted in Baguio. magazines. movies. churches. though. are having more sex and more RH problems (Raymundo et al.3. Baguio. and radio.3. and Southern Leyte showed that an average of 40% of adolescents believe that a woman can get pregnant with her first or only sexual intercourse. growth of hair (face and pubis) and firming of . When an IEC programme was implemented in 1997-2000. Zablan 1999). development of breasts and widening of hips. Meanwhile. the most noticeable body changes among young males include the lowering of the voice. Diaz n.2 Pregnancy and fertility The 2000 Family Planning Survey conducted by the National Statistics Office showed that 20% of women aged 15 to 49 did not know when they are fertile during their monthly cycle. Badayos 2001). Only 14% of all women and 26% of those who used the calendar or rhythm method gave the correct answer. One-fifth of all women. focus group discussions (FGDs) conducted in Davao between 2000 and 2001 by Development People’s Foundation Inc. The majority 45 3. With regard to sex education. Out-of-school youth. Kalinga and Ifugao on adolescents’ awareness of body changes during puberty found that young females notice acutely the onset of menstruation. Cabigon and Zablan 2001.2003 it.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . which is the middle of a woman’s cycle. especially females. Apayao. 1999)..

male sterilization and implants (Population Council 2002). Of the married group.3% had used one. Cabigon and Zablan 2001. Benares 2001) When shown a statement that read “a woman should wait at least two years before getting pregnant again. This increase was attributed to an IEC programme that was conducted in the area over a three-year period. diaphragm. About 18% to 50% of adolescents believed that one is more likely to get pregnant seven to 10 days after menstruation.1% and that of adolescents girls increased to 40. did not indicate . 3. but only 19. condom. female sterilization. The results suggest that the programme was more successful in increasing awareness of ovulation among adolescent boys than among adolescent girls.3 Contraception and family planning In the 1998 NDS survey of adolescents. but only 0.8%) than boys (30. married and single. knowledge among adolescent boys increased to 37. Cabigon and Zablan 2001).8%) knew when ovulation was most likely to occur. but their awareness levels are still considered low.1% had used a modern method.3. Only one respondent out of 729 got the right answer. 94. Attitudes and Behavior of Single 46 Adolescents supported these findings. Two studies conducted in Baguio among high school students and barangay youth showed that there was a low level of awareness about when pregnancy is most likely to occur (Cruz and Diaz 2001). The modern contraceptive methods of contraception include the oral contraceptive pill. In 1997 more adolescent girls (37. injections. though. On the other hand. spermicide foam or jelly. The 1999 UPPI study The Impact of the Cordillera Administrative Region IEC Program on the RH Knowledge.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines of them also agreed that a woman cannot get pregnant without having menstruated (Cruz and Diaz 2001.5% of adolescents agreed. More than 60% agreed that “one cannot become pregnant if contraceptives were used” (Cruz and Diaz 2001.4% of 15 to 19 year-old girls who were never married had heard of a modern contraceptive method. About 14% believed that seven to 10 days before menstruation is a high-risk period. By 2000.” 28. Fifty-four percent of the students admitted that they did not know when pregnancy was most likely to occur. intrauterine device (IUD). 96% of females aged 15 to 29 had heard of a modern contraceptive method.9%. men.

male sterilization. Yet. Sterilization 47 . 1996). only 4% are knowledgeable about family planning. The condom was the next best known method (41% to 81%). Knowledge of injectables increased from 54% in 1993 to 89% in 1998. La Carlota. doctors. either before or after sexual intercourse. 1996). According to the NSO’s 2002 Family Planning Survey. Among sexually active men. al. According to the YAFS III (2002).2003 any knowledge of or practice of contraception. The YAFS II (1994) data also indicated that most Filipino adolescents (84%) have heard of at least one family planning method. rhythm and withdrawal. 92% of all males have heard of condoms. However. and La Castellana. regardless of their sexual activity status. The survey also showed that some youth do not understand how to use particular contraceptive methods. Their information sources include teachers. 15 to 19 year olds are much less likely to know of condoms than 20 to 24 year olds. and the media (Raymundo et. there are no age differences in condom knowledge. 27% think that the pill is taken orally. while about 8 out of 10 had heard of injectables. condom and female sterilization. Single men who are sexually active are more likely to know about condoms than married men are. and exposure to urban living are more likely to know about condoms. periodic abstinence and the calendar or rhythm methods were the most popular traditional methods and were used by almost 10% of married women aged 15 to 49. Those with greater education. among the sexually inactive men. The different studies conducted in the said areas revealed that about 41% to 86% of the adolescents surveyed said they had heard of this method. For instance. and some 80% to 90% think it proper for these services to be offered to youth.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . and 17% think that tubal ligation is an object inserted into the female before intercourse (Raymundo et. The pill is the most popular contraceptive method in Baguio. The proportion is higher among sexually active males (98%) than among sexually inactive males (90%). The same survey found that 99% of married women aged 15 to 49 had heard of at least one method of family planning. Nine out of 10 married women knew about the pill. IUD. regular media exposure. It also found that over 90% of adolescents aged 15 to 24 believed that the government should provide FP services. al.

Diaz n. 69% of the adolescent girls who learned about FP methods in school reported that 51.3. Also. No data segregation on the age of the respondents has been done for the survey’s results. the calendar or rhythm method. rhythm and ligation were the least known methods (Ogena 1999. sources of knowledge on family planning for adolescents cannot be determined.d. parents and boyfriends or girlfriends were less common sources (Cruz and Diaz 2001. But information [Editor’s note: that the students received] appears to have been inadequate. Cruz and Diaz 2001. classroom discussions. Benares 2001). Eight out of 10 adolescent girls and five out of 10 boys learned about the female and male reproductive system. female and male sterilization.3% reported that they received this information when they were in the first and fourth years (Zablan 1999). FP methods and STI. condoms and IUD. The majority (65%) could identify at least one STI. Of the 48. Ninety-five percent (95%) of all Filipino youth stated that they had heard of AIDS. Less than half had read about family planning in a newspaper or magazine (44%). Four to five out of 10 adolescent girls and three to four out of 10 adolescent boys reported that they knew about injectables. AIDS was the most . leaflet or brochure (34%).).4 STI/HIV/AIDS According to the YAFS II (1994). poster (44%). injectables.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines procedures. withdrawal. nurses. awareness of AIDS is high. Books. seminars. magazines. withdrawal and breastfeeding (Zablan 1999). A small number of high school students believed that hysterectomy and castration were contraceptive methods (Cruz and Diaz 2001).6% of adolescent boys who had learned about FP in school. the IUD. Diaz n. 42. and the media. A survey conducted in four high schools in Baguio City showed that the most 48 common sources of information on contraceptives were doctors. Seven out of 10 adolescent girls and four to six out of 10 adolescent boys in CAR reported that they knew about the pill. teachers. Therefore. 3.4% received this information while they were in their first and third years in high school.. The NSO’s 2000 survey found that 67% of women had recently heard about family planning on the radio and 71% had seen something about it on television.d. Most adolescents who were exposed to population education said that the subject was integrated in their regular school subjects rather than being taught as a single subject.

gonorrhea. Moreover.d. Most 49 . such as homosexuals and intravenous drug users (Brown and Xenos 1994. Further. Also. Diaz n. Less than 4% of those over the age of 19 were not aware of AIDS. a disease one can get by having sex with someone with a STI or by having multiple sexual partners. cited in HAIN 2003). Other at-risk groups were overseas workers. This survey found that 23% of young people believe it is curable. Knowledge about risk behaviours for contracting HIV/AIDS differed between males and females. those with no regular exposure to media (television. 12% could not identify a single correct mode of transmission (Raymundo and Xenos 1999). and syphilis. drug users and people who receive blood transfusions. Nearly a third of the respondents stated that AIDS may be transmitted by having multiple sexual partners. named by 58% of the respondents. or newspapers) were less likely to be aware of AIDS. As to the modes of transmission. There was a widely-held perception that HIV/AIDS is a problem for certain marginalized groups. Awareness of AIDS and STI was generally high in Baguio (IPHC 2001. More than 20% identified blood transfusions as a non-sexual transmission route.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . followed by gonorrhea (37%).). Adolescents gave the following common definitions: a disease transmitted through sexual intercourse. Only 15% identified sex with a partner of the same sex as a transmission route. However. The most common examples cited were HIV/ AIDS. Findings from the YAFS II (1994) indicated that about 10% of the 15 year olds and 6% of the 16 year olds were not aware of AIDS. The YAFS 2002 found that there is a misconception that AIDS can be cured. An average of 72% of adolescents had heard of STI and HIV/AIDS. Adolescents living in rural areas were less likely to be aware of AIDS than their urban counterparts. the most frequent response (66%) was that it is transmitted by having sex with a prostitute. 60% think that they cannot contract AIDS. Those with an elementary education were less likely to be aware of AIDS than those with a high school or a college education. people with multiple sexual partners and homosexuals were recognized by two out of five respondents as high risk populations. More females than males indicated that commercial sex workers and their partners were especially vulnerable to HIV infection.2003 commonly identified. radio. Cruz and Diaz 2001.

42% of young adults correctly answered that a cure does not exist for HIV/AIDS. Table 7. The majority of the FGD participants also knew that AIDS is incurable and that it cannot be acquired through contact with the belongings of an infected person. They seemed to demonstrate a general awareness of STI and HIV/AIDS and knew that they were vulnerable. flies. youth participants in FGDs conducted in Cebu believed that one should not share needles and syringes or urinate in areas used by infected persons. one should not go near him nor share his food (Ramon Aboitiz Foundation 1995). AIDS can be spread through mosquito bites. A study by Protacio-Marcelino conducted in 2001 (cited in HAIN 2003) found that child sex workers did not have correct information about HIV/ AIDS. Most of them were aware that AIDS cannot be acquired through mosquito bites.72 27. In Cotabato. LEYTE 13-17y/o n=364 Use of condom can spread AIDS. Cruz and Diaz 2001. Regarding the transmission of HIV/ AIDS. Taking antibiotics prior to sexual act can prevent STI/HIV/AIDS. which generally had very high knowledge scores on HIV. monkeys. 10. only about 46% of young adults knew that a person with HIV can still look healthy (Tan and Tomas 1996). Some said that AIDS is manifested as sores in the mouth. only half of young adults aged 16 to 20 answered that mosquitoes cannot transmit HIV/ AIDS. food. If someone has AIDS. In Tacloban. which also had generally high knowledge levels about HIV/ AIDS.22 49 39 51 51 51 38 40 n/a 50 . and that its modes of transmission included homosexuals. In Iloilo. Knowledge of the modes of transmission for HIV/AIDS (%) BAGUIO MODES OF TRANSMISSION 12-15y/o n=639 DAVAO 10-24y/o n=576 S.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines adolescents from Baguio and Davao did not believe that taking antibiotics before having sex would prevent STI. Ramon Aboitiz Foundation 1995). One can acquire AIDS by using public toilets.8 31.3 35. and dogs (Cabigon Adolescents think that AIDS can be transmitted through: and Zablan 2001. They were also aware that one cannot get AIDS by using public toilets. The word “AIDS” evoked strong negative feelings among the children and they were afraid of contracting it.

70% disapproved of sex if there were not an emotional relationship between the parties (Cabigon and Zablan 2001. 3. such as television or movies (64%). The common source of information regarding sex. In Bontoc. and radio (36%). soft drinks and coconut juice or by taking antibiotics as a prophylactic. Based on the available research. Knowledge scores were low if the main source of information was friends. In general. Badayos 2002). Some young sex workers remarked that STI could be treated by a mixture of detergent soap. Benares 2001. Books (39%) were also a main source of information. 51 .1 Premarital sex Most adolescents disagree with having sex prior to marriage.9 out of 15 for HIV facts (Tan and Tomas 1996). contraception and STI was the media. Males are more open to having PMS. Adolescents commonly obtained information about STI from school (68%) and the media.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . magazines (48%).82%). The best known contraceptive methods were the pill and condoms. Cabigon and Zablan 2001). knowledge of STI and HIV/AIDS. as will be mentioned in the following section. marriage. The highest scores occurred if the main source was school lectures and health workers. A number of studies. Cruz and Diaz 2001. especially television. Friends (28%0 and family members (8% to 21%) also provided information to youth (Cruz and Diaz 2001. Moreover. IPHC 2001. Young sex workers continued to rely on advice from friends and peers for information on how to determine if a customer is “clean”. the signs and symptoms of diseases and how to treat and prevent STI (HAIN 2003). misconceptions and inaccurate infor mation were still prevalent.4.2003 However. The majority of them also disapprove of homosexual relations and abortion. virginity and abortion. awareness of male and female body changes during puberty was generally high. tried to examine the attitudes of adolescents towards PMS.4 Attitudes Adolescents generally disapprove of PMS. but place great importance on marrying a virgin (89. 3. but adolescents’ knowledge of pregnancy and ovulation period was relatively low. young adult females who relied primarily on friends had an average correct score of 3. and awareness on the modes of transmission was high. Studies have shown that 60% disagreed even if the couple already had marriage plans.

social and emotional problems that can result from PMS (DPF 2001). the young men did not want to have the responsibility of being a parent. fondling of one’s self (25. and necking or petting (15. Live-in arrangements are sometimes seen as an acceptable alternative because weddings are expensive (UPPI 2002). Parents also said that PMS was shameful. In Davao. However. kissing with the tongue (22.d. 3. Often they wait until they finish high school. Kissing was considered natural during dating.2 Marriage Most young men consider their earning capability before getting married. Marriage was still viewed as the proper venue for sex (Diaz n. Adolescents were not seen as mature enough or financially able to cope with the consequences of PMS (Badayos 2002).2%). al. In Iloilo. Male adolescents looked for simplicity. Females were found to be considering marriage at a younger age than males.” which only 22% admitted to (Conaco et.). This was true for all behaviours except “fondling of one’s self. get a job and save some money.4%s. In an FGD conducted by DPF (2001). participants felt that people should be at least 21 years old to engage in sex. Male and female intercourse was considered permissible only by 13. adolescent girls aged 15 to 24 said that if they engaged in physical intimacies. A baseline survey conducted among young adults aged 11 to 25 in Southern Mindanao (Region 11) found that the following sexual behaviour was 52 considered permissible: holding hands (66. kissing on the lips (38. Adolescents considered age as a primary factor for engaging in sexual activity. This belief was due to concerns about pregnancy and possible physical. adolescents preferred to be subtle.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines FGDs conducted in Southern Leyte indicated that adolescents believed one can have sex if he or she has finished school or has a job (Cabigon and Zablan 2001).2%). (Benares 2001) The mean age was between 20 and 22 years old for engaging in sex and 22 and 24 years old for marriage.7%).4.3%). yet both parties were expected to practice control and set limitations (DPF 2001). responsibility and good character in choosing a partner. then they would have a bad image and become “losyang” (wasted). It generally takes several years before young men are confident enough to start their own families (De Guzman 1996). data showed that they were more sexually active than their attitudes would suggest. In an FGD held in Davao. Young women did .8%). 2003).

while males did not mention intelligence as important for their choice of partner (DPF 2001).6% when a man was concerned (Diaz n. The average Filipino male expects to marry a virgin but also wants to “devirginize” a girl when given the chance (Perez n. However.6%) and boys (4.4%.4 Abortion Only a few adolescent girls (6.9% believed that homosexuals could be good company and 53. Cruz and Diaz 2001).d. Almost 50% said it was unacceptable for a woman not to be a virgin before marriage. Over 70% surveyed thought that having sex with a person of the same sex was not acceptable. Comparable data in the YAFS II (1994) are 78. An ideal family was seen as one which was unified.3 Virginity Seven out of 10 adolescents surveyed say that virginity was an important consideration in one’s choice of a spouse. The earliest preferred age for marriage was 18 and the latest was 45.6%) unconditionally approved of abortion (Zablan 1999). in general.1% respectively. Many adolescents found it unacceptable for women to have extramarital affairs (Zablan 1999.4.d. four out of 10 adolescent girls approved of abortion when the life of the mother was in danger. There was a marked increase in the acceptance of unmarried mothers during the period from 1982 to 1994 (Ogena 1999).4% thought it was alright to be close friends with them (Cruz and Diaz 2001).2003 not mention physical looks as a top priority. The majority of adolescents (80%) disapproved of extramarital affairs.. while 59. 3. 53 .). Still.33%). Zablan 1999). youths perceived unwed mothers as acceptable. but the number decreased to 42. Despite this.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . had a good reputation.2% agreed to the statement that attraction to the same sex was acceptable. girl friends (78.66%). most adolescents felt that the right age for childbearing was 25 years. They also felt that this was the age when males were ready for familial responsibility (Benares 2001). 43. neighbors (62. 75.6%. Diaz n. About 10% approved if the child were deformed or if the pregnancy resulted from incest or rape. responsible family members. The majority of respondents also disapproved of homosexual relations. In the YAFS I (1982).6% and 84. to society (69. 87.. DPF 2001. The preferred number of children was three (Benares 2001). was financially stable and had happy.d.4. There is a double standard. 3.89%).35%) and family (69.

8% (acceptable) versus 33. The approval rate was lower among single men and religious women. 3. It also showed the need for a carefully designed programme of counseling and service delivery with a clear set of principles and guidelines. the practice is still low. such as early marriages.9 million young adults aged 15 to 27 years old have engaged in PMS (YAFS III (2002)). A 2003 study (HAIN) also found that adolescents said abortion was acceptable if the pregnancy endangered the mother’s life (58. young people expressed an openness to using contraception.g. findings of the YAFS III (2002) showed that 23% have had PMS compared to 18% in 1994. The approval rate for induced abortion was very low (4%) due to strong social beliefs. Only 19% of the respondents practiced safe sex or used contraception to protect themselves from STI and unintended pregnancy (YAFS III).5 Sexual practices Although adolescents generally do not approve of PMS. especially in terms of their technical capabilities and attitudes or biases. Young adult men held more liberal attitudes towards induced abortion than women did. 4. In another study conducted in Baguio. Another study in 2002 (YAFS III) showed that the practice of using contraceptive remains low. abortion as taboo and illegal. Most adolescents who had experienced RH problems did not seek medical attention 3. There was also a need for services to prevent the unwanted consequences of sexual activity. This indicates that PMS is becoming more common. It is also worth noting that while many 54 . Cabigon (1999) found similar results. e.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Only a few (5% or less) approved of abortion for reasons of the couple’s economic stability and marital status of the woman or of the child’s father (Zablan 1999). 78% of students said that abortion was considered wrong regardless of circumstances (Cruz and Diaz 2001). According to McCann-Erickson (1993). with condoms being the most commonly used contraceptive. In actual figures.6 Adolescents’ concerns and needs The findings of the YAFS II (1994) suggested that adolescents needed a school curriculum that integrated sex and health education and was more attentive to their concerns. STI and early pregnancies. only 49% of the youth use protection. There was also concern about service providers.3% (not acceptable)).

Many studies. counseling. said that RH information and education was an important service for both parents and adolescents. It is important to recognize that Filipino adolescents are also very concerned about their economic conditions. especially at the local level. youth activities • sex education and IEC programmes 55 . information and counseling Davao • continuing education programme that will provide counseling and strengthen positive values • orientation on sex education and RH for parents • discussion of genderbased violence • improvement of PTA to educate parents on how to educate their children • sex education • government support for youth welfare S. Service providers. however. IEC programmes. Being able to find a steady job and having a good education were also priorities for 98% (SWC-NYC 1996). Results of studies on adolescents’ needs Areas Adolescents Parents Service Providers Negros Occidental • improvement of living conditions and economic circumstances • access to education • parents should have the capacity to educate their children on sex • parents should be more gentle on their approach towards their children • financial and emotional parental support and guidance • catechism in schools. tried to examine the concerns and needs of adolescents as perceived by them. youth aged 15 to 30 considered having a good marriage and family life (98%) as very important in their lives.2003 (Raymundo and Xenos 1999). Moreover. sex education. Leyte Iloilo • ARH programmes/services should include contraceptive provision. Important findings are discussed below. Table 8. their parents and service providers. Parents and service providers attested that economic concern remained at the top of every adolescent’s priority list.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 .

In FGDs with 92 adolescent boys and girls in Davao (DPF 2000-2001).6. These findings may be attributed to a lack of education or awareness about RH.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines 3. Teens said that when parents notice their children drifting away. they should advise them. The 2000 McCann-Erickson study of youth aged 13 to 21 years found that their concern about STI had increased from 48% in 1992 to 56% in 2000.1 Perceptions of adolescents CONCERNS OF ADOLESCENTS STI Substance abuse Living conditions Malnutrition Lack of access to education Poverty Lack of jobs Rape Incest Sexual harassment Teenage pregnancy Early marriage Abortion Juvenile delinquency smoking. malnutrition and alcoholism). lack of access to education. They were mainly concerned with their living conditions (drugs or substance abuse. More than half of the participants said that parents should be gentler in their approach towards their children. however. A study by Benares (2001) tried to determine the RH concerns and problems of adolescents aged 12 to 24 in La Carlota City and Municipality of La Castellana in Negros Occidental. Instead of reprimanding their children. A review of the adolescents’ responses. they said. Parents did not explain the disadvantages of sex or discuss television shows or videos that had sex in them. their answers were related to factors affecting their reproductive health. Those surveyed from classes AB (upper class) and D (lower class) were usually not the ones concerned about contracting STI. heavy 56 CONCERNS OF ADOLESCENTS (continued) Patronage of pornographic materials Youth criminality Multiple partners Bad peer influence Lack of parental guidance Male aggressiveness Bisexuality Homosexuality . they should take the initiative to reach out to them and talk with them (DPF 2001. adolescents said that their parents lacked the capacity to teach them about sex. showed that instead of identifying RH concerns. Benares 2001). and economic circumstances (poverty and lack of jobs).

avoiding reproductive tract infections (RTI) (85. avoiding STI/HIV/AIDS (88.7%). 356 believed that rape was a serious and widespread problem. sex education. or decision-making capabilities in matters of marriage and reproductive health. sports activities. adolescents aged 13 to 18 who participated in a FGD stated the following needs: money. and did not agree on the provision of contraceptives (Badayos 2002).A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . they expressed concern about the following: prevention of early marriage (85. empowerment. and coping with STI/HIV/AIDS (79.8%). Almost as many students (350) said that drug addiction was also a serious problem. handling boyfriend or girlfriend relationships (82. religious leaders) mentioned the same needs except for counseling. coping with unplanned pregnancy (78. health facilities and services for adolescents. Of the 639 high school student respondents in Baguio.2%). and coping with courtship problems (82. Lastly. vices (smoking and drinking) and malnutrition (Cabigon and Zablan 2001). counseling. Key informant interviews and FGDs conducted in Iloilo found that adolescent respondents between the ages of 15 and 24 believed that ARH programmes and services should include providing contraceptives. identify and avoid risky situations (91.8%).4%).8%). self-confidence or personality development.9%).2003 In Southern Leyte. adolescents’ need for information and counseling include reproductive health. and prepare for married life (86. IEC programmes. prevention of abortion (85.1%). Meanwhile. improving relationships with parents (91.3%). Adolescents were also concerned about rape.6%). personal relationships. other stakeholders (parents. When adolescent boys were asked what their problems were.5%). They also said they wanted more information about: strengthening their moral or religious foundation (93. ability to handle illicit drugs (73.9%).9%). they said drug abuse. The RH needs mentioned were: avoiding pregnancy (89%). Adolescents expressed the needs: to develop their self-esteem (92. In Cabigon’s and Zablan’s 2001 study. to say “no” to sex (87. parental guidance.6%). and alternative youth activities such as sports or livelihood trainings. and the interaction of all three needs. Students said that 57 . health providers.7%).1%). and catechism in public schools. sports facilities and equipment.6%). and coping with RTI (79. recognize sexual and reproductive health consequences (80.

abortion (23%). abortion. When asked what should be done to remedy these problems. lack of education. buying pornographic materials and juvenile delinquency (Cruz and Diaz 2001). Their primary reproductive health needs were for more information. parental guidance. and 18% about youth criminality. and male aggressiveness (17%) (Cabigon and Zablan 2001). they indicated the need for wholesome youth activities and involvement of the youth in civic affairs. bisexuality (14%). “easy to get” females (20%). counseling. In summary. They felt that a lack of parental guidance and support and bad peer influence could lead to drug abuse and criminality.2 Perceptions of parents ADOLESCENTS' CONCERNS BY PARENTS Gender-based violence Poverty Drug abuse Teenage pregnancy HIV/AIDS Natural calamities Early marriage Alcoholism Lack of employment In the FGDs conducted by DPF (2001). sexual harassment 58 (20%). Drug addiction (43%) and youth criminality (18%) were also identified as problems. Lesser concerns included homosexuality (16%). 3. sexual behaviour and practices. many respondents cited the need for more financial support (72%) and greater parental emotional support (63%). adolescents’ concerns were the following: poor living conditions. health facilities/services. It was . 30% were concerned about drug addiction. drug addiction. and incest (19%). In the same survey.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines other social problems included teenage pregnancy. rape (22%). STI (22%). STI. Key informants also mentioned drug abuse and youth vandalism as serious problems. financial and parental support.6. and rape. emotional support. Respondents recommended an orientation to sex education and RH for parents. PMS (20%). Their other concerns included: multiple partners among young males (25%) and females (24%). early marriage. About half of the 364 adolescents in the baseline survey that was conducted in Southern Leyte indicated the need for financial and emotional support from their parents. They did not comment on the fathers’ responsibility. sex demanded as proof of love (23%). adolescents in Davao City said mothers were influential in teaching their children about sex. youth activities and youth involvement in the community.

mothers believed that they would be the most reliable source on matters such as sex. The parents said: avoiding high-risk activities. the study identified other perceived threats to youth. strategies and approaches for parents and parents-tobe. To avoid such threats. They also preferred a continuing education programme that would provide counseling and strengthen values (Benares 2001. being more health conscious. Some mothers even consider their nagging about these topics as actual 59 . getting pregnant before marriage (9%).2003 pointed out that parents should be given the opportunity to participate in RH and sex education through non-formal community classes and sessions by government agencies. natural calamities (3%) and early marriage (3%). such as: poverty (51%). such as fast driving. DPF 2001). The parents’ perception of their own role appeared to be mixed. and poverty and lack of employment opportunities (24% each). they identified almost the same issues as the adolescents did (Benares 2001). The issue of gender-based violence arose frequently during interviews conducted in Cebu and Davao.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . specifically those related to RH. diseases such as HIV/AIDS (3%). While most parents felt that RH education was necessary for their children’s well-being. services. Parents thought that the major problems affecting youth were heavy drinking or alcoholism (30%). Interviews conducted in Cebu and Davao indicated that there was a disagreement among them concerning the extent to which they want to be involved and how much information they wished their children to have regarding RH. It seemed that it is sometimes considered socially acceptable to engage in various forms of coercion within marriage and violent reactions of husbands or fathers are not uncommon (Zosa-Feranil 2003). In addition. drug addiction or substance abuse (30% ). substance abuse and similar vices. in Cebu. and adopting safe sexual behaviour. (However. drug abuse (15%). parents were asked what precautionary measures they considered helpful. insecure future in terms of careers (25%). It was also recommended that family welfare agencies review and revise their programmes. Some were worried that it would lead to sexual promiscuity. vehicular accidents (5%). When parents in La Carlota City and the Municipality of Castellana in Negros Occidental were asked about adolescents’ concerns. they did not want to be the ones to impart such information.

sex education. poor eating habits (low food intake.3 Perception of ser vice providers ADOLESCENTS' CONCERNS BY SERVICE PROVIDERS Pregnancy Drug addiction Malnutrition Lack of government Sexual abuse support for the promotion of youth Induced abortion STI welfare Low level of Lack of community initiatives to organize awareness about the youth for civic and sexuality issues religious activities Drug addiction was the consistent problem identified by all stakeholder groups e. lack of sports facilities and social activities) and the lack of community initiatives to organize civic and religious activities for youth (Cabigon and Zablan 2001). service providers identified pregnancy and childbirth. Despite this assistance. sexual promiscuity and family problems. service providers. parents. diarrhea. included: frequent colds. gender-based violence. It was seen as either a cause or result of other issues such as gang problems. adolescents’ concerns and needs include adequate financial support. others suggested a twopronged strategy of education and livelihood opportunities which they believed government and private sectors could provide. according to service providers in Southern Leyte. parents’ education on ARH. sexual relations. induced abortion and STI as problems for adolescents. low 3. Poverty was also mentioned during interviews as one of the major underlying problems facing 60 . and clients interviewed in Iloilo (Badayos 2002). adolescents.g. poor personal hygiene (underarm body odor). sexual malnutrition and sexual abuse. General health problems of adolescents.g. headaches. Respondents were aware that they play a major role in helping adolescents through difficult years. Aside from attending to the physical aspect. a number of health providers said they also provided counseling to some adolescents in need of moral support. Fathers and other elder male family members may assist young men in obtaining sexual experience (Zosa-Feranil 2003)). The service providers observed that nothing significant has been done to address these issues at the community level. youth also needed help from others. and inculcation of positive values.6. From the parents’ perspective. Providers also cited the lack of government support for the promotion of youth welfare (e. Thus while 25% of providers said that they could help adolescents by providing counseling. In the study by Benares (2001).Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines information.

especially since much of their audience is adolescents. but many parents are unprepared for coping with adolescents’ RH needs and concerns. unreliable information about sex. the misconception that taking a bath during menstruation is bad for one’s health). marriage and other RH issues. training on proper parenting (coping with the needs of their children and improving communication with their children). training to be able to educate their children about good RH (Cabigon and Zablan 2001). drug addiction. but some parents were hesitant to provide information for fear that it might lead to sexual promiscuity. providers saw the importance of strengthening ParentTeacher Associations in public schools to promote the role of parents in teaching good hygiene habits and good eating habits and also to turn PTAs into a venue for discussing youth problems. Family is important to adolescents. The Health Action Information Network (2003) also recommended the need to educate the media about HIV/ AIDS so that they could responsibly and accurately report on such issues. and sexuality issues. they emphasized that media personnel need to be educated about ARH to ensure responsible presentation of issues.2003 nutritional level). In Southern Leyte. Parental education could include the following areas: training as role models for their children.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . The providers pointed out adolescents’ poor understanding about RH (i. stressed the need for sex education. and drug abuse (especially marijuana). They either lack the knowledge or are uncomfortable with discussing the issue with their children. Although adolescents want access to contraceptives. 61 . however. Moreover. They knew that adolescents wanted information about pregnancy. Many of the service providers indicated that adolescents’ concerns included poverty.e. All of the providers. They saw the importance of providing proper RH information to adolescents because adolescents’ information sources are not reliable and generally they are not knowledgeable about RH. sexual abuse and improper behaviour during dating and courtship (Cabigon and Zablan 2001). early marriage. service providers were hesitant.

1996).” It is also important to note that “unsupervised homes are the most popular venue for sexual debut of the youth” (Raymundo et. The same held true for female adolescents (Berja 1999). 20% of sexually active males paid for sex and 12. 62 . The YAFS II (1994) found that only 2% of those aged 10 to 14 had The YAFS III (2002) showed an increase in all sexual risks behaviours among adolescents aged 15 to 24 years old compared with levels observed in 1994. Some women had abortions because they already had too many children (14%) or had health problems. The 1998 NDS reported that sexually active males said that education.7 Factors influencing KAP FACTORS INFLUENCING KAP Love Education Civil status Religion Peers Media Parental guidance Residence Economic pressure Traditional beliefs Culture A study in Davao (Sanchez et. adolescents were exposed to risks such as STI and unwanted pregnancy.2% accepted payment for sex. As a result. objection of their partner. It was done to space pregnancies (19%) and to terminate unwanted pregnancy (18%). an increase of one percentage point from 1994 (Raymundo 2002). al) and a review by Perez (1998) found that most of the reasons for induced abortion were economic. Males reported having more PMS. Urban residence and having a partner who was not single and not religious increased by 30% the likelihood of using contraception. 1999). from a low-income family and has tried contraceptive methods and devices. Pangilinan gave the following description of a pregnant teen who opted for an abortion (cited in Perez 1998): “unmarried. lack of knowledge.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines 3. were significant factors in using contraception. Same sex experiences were reported by 5% of sexually active boys. al. with low educational level. specifically population education. Also. The YAFS II survey (1994) found that adolescents were not using contraception because of the spontaneity of the act. or the perception that contraception took the fun out of sex (Raymundo et. al. such as difficulty in childbearing and pregnancy.

A study of gang members in Davao City in eight public high schools found that the common reasons for joining gangs were friendship. being a victim of emotional abuse by a husband. lack of chance for a desirable marriage. peer pressure. HAIN 1996. When young sex workers were interviewed in Sorsogon. love was the main reason for their first sexual experience. early marriage. the percentage almost doubled from 6% to 11% (HAIN 1996). only 8% to 21% cited drugs as the main reason. there was an 8% increase in the number of adolescents who tried smoking. having population education in schools reduced the odds of engaging in PMS by about 70% (Badayos 2002. being a victim of physical abuse during childhood. and a lack of parental guidance or having lenient parents. the tolerance of prostitution in their immediate milieu. In Bontoc.2003 experimented with prohibited drugs.d. peer pressure. 63 . and an unhappy marriage (Ateneo Social Science Research Center 2000). poverty. Gangs were also prevalent in high schools. Tacloban and Cotabato. However.). However. and a broken home. Large earnings and a more interesting life were also factors. From 1992 to 2001.5% who tried drinking were influenced by their peers (Cruz and Diaz 2001). they reported many factors that led them into prostitution: being gang raped. 13% of those aged 15 to 24 had tried using drugs and 74% of them admitted to have been influenced by their friends. Regarding drug use. Precipitating factors. lack of education and infor mation were identified as causes of drug addiction. smoke and use illegal drugs. drug addiction was a reason why some adolescents engaged in sex. According to local government unit (LGU) health representatives. academic support and gaining an identity (Mondragon n. For most adolescents (65%).A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . There was also an increase in drinking. Parents and religious leaders also pointed to drug use as a factor in sexual activity. Even adolescents have cited drugs as a factor that prodded them to have sex for the first time. Lack of parental guidance. maternal prostitution. males were more likely to consume alcohol. De Guzman 1997). Most adolescents said that it was why they took risks. fraternity or sorority initiation. Sixty percent (60%) of those who tried smoking and 54. on the other hand. teenage pregnancy and STI (UNFPA and POPCOM 1995). included: economic pressure. Iloilo. 1997. enticement or persuasion by a pimp or other sex workers. Other reasons given were curiosity. Cruz and Diaz 2001. However.

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Inter views with adolescent girls aged 10 to 15 in Mindanao showed that many of them learned about menstruation from their parents. justice. It is acceptable and expected that Filipino men will be sexually experienced prior to marriage. men were encouraged to be macho and freely exercise their sexuality (GastardoConaco 1992 cited in Brown and Xenos 1994). but parents told them things that had no scientific basis. Tan pointed out the continuing emphasis on female virginity and female subservience to males. Many social and cultural factors combine to shape Filipino adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health. But prior to marriage. Religion also plays a role in sexual behaviour: “the religious influences come mainly in terms of what is forbidden rather than ethical guide-lining that discuss fairness. some traditional beliefs are: “to ensure a minimal menstrual flow. adolescents aged 15 to 24 emphasized how certain social concerns. do not take a bath when one has menstruation. 64 affect adolescents (Zosa-Feranil 2003). … and to prevent malodorous smell of menstruation. “She keeps her virginity as a gift for the man. and responsibility” (Tan. In interviews conducted in Cebu and Davao. They did it for the sake of tradition. a double standard exists for women concerning appropriate sexual conduct before and after marriage. Miralao and Engracia cited in Zosa-Feranil 2003). There is tremendous cultural value placed on virginity before marriage and fertility after marriage. strong clan loyalty and deference to and dependence upon parents and elders (Medina 1999. On the other hand. jump from the third step of the stairs so that menstrual flow will only last for three days. A woman is supposed to be sexually available to her husband whenever he wants.” . UPPI 2002). For example. These include a social system organized around a tight-knit. females can put on the brakes and delay having sex. such as the importance of marriage and childbearing in marriage. jump over a lemon grass plant and be careful not to step on chicken dung or dog’s feces. It is of the utmost importance for a couple to have a child as soon as possible after marriage (Zosa-Feranil 2003). to prevent abdominal pains. While women were encouraged to be virgins until marriage and to be faithful to their husbands within marriage. extended family support networks.” Respondents said they had abided by one or more of these beliefs (Quianzon 2001).

Benares 2001).A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . Many young people are not even aware of the Catholic Church’s stand on FP. Of several choices for the ‘most informative’ sources on RH. The media is considered a major influence on adolescents’ behaviour. adolescents aged 10 to 24 chose television and radio (46%) and newspapers or magazines (44%) above all else. As a result.2003 This emphasis diverts people’s attention away from more important values of sexual responsibility. Studies show that the media has become a surrogate parent for many young people aged 12 to 21 (McCann-Erickson 1993). Zosa-Feranil 2003. adolescents’ views are being distorted. Youth consider the media to be informative and helpful in providing sex education. However. The YAFS II (1994) found that the majority of adolescents believed their religion supported contraceptive use and that their future contraceptive behaviour will be influenced by the teachings of their religion.2%. the 1993 NDS found that condom use for Roman Catholics was 1% and for non-Roman Catholics it was 1. Parents and schools were considered less informative sources (Badayos 2002. he argues. It is also a major source of information for adolescents about sex. but considered pills and IUD sinful. suggesting that religion did not determine condom use (Population Council 2002). They said that condom use was acceptable. This included 67% of all Catholic respondents. 65 . The same was true for the adolescents who admitted using condoms occasionally and said that religion and cultural norms affected their decision to use condoms (HAIN 2003).

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines 66 .

schools and places of work (Osias 1999). or service providers. training and dissemination of IEC materials in communities. guardians. Infor mation and education programmes comprised the bulk of interventions (see Table 8). Very few programmes. and a few are implemented in the workplace. Only four were designed for counselors 67 . Nature of intervention programmes Nature of Intervention Programme Number of Programmes Education (Training/seminar) Services (14 medical & clinical services) Combination of education and services 33 17 26 ARH educational and ser vice interventions are provided by government agencies and NGOs at the national and local levels.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . discussions. Efforts have been taken to create a standardized curriculum on population and sexuality education. The government. Most of them are community-based.2003 4. Most ser vices were provided by NGOs. But NGO work is project-specific and small in scope. 4. with its agencies and resources. but programme implementation is inadequate. POPCOM 2002). trainings. ARH educational and service interventions Table 9. but adolescent health education has yet to be institutionalized. Most of these programmes focused on ARH. sexuality. Thirty-eight (38) out of seventy-six (76) programmes were focused on the youth. and media-based activities. however. and fertility issues. workshops.1 Educational interventions Government agencies and NGOs have provided RH information and education through counseling. catered to parents. Information and education interventions included lectures. which have demonstrated relative success in the small communities and areas where they work. It can not address the problems of accessibility and availability of ARH services in most areas (NYDP 1994. has the potential to provide comprehensive ARH services. some are schoolbased.

and incorporated it in five subject areas: social studies. This was introduced to all levels of formal education. and partners or parents (see Figure 4).1. teachers were trained to use specific teaching materials for the curriculum. Number of Programs Per Type of Client Government Agencies Trainers School Nurses/Guidance and Peer Counselors/Youth Parents/Partners/Youth NGO/Media/Youth AIDS Victims Women and Children Women and Youth 1 Women and Students Women Workers Student Children Adolescents Youth 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 68 . and planning for the future.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines and school nurses. human sexuality and reproduction. whether public or private. through the assistance of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). Figure 4. health. science. responsible parenthood and family planning (UNFPA 1998). There was only one for NGOs. trainers. 4. education and training programmes The government initiated its first ARH programmes more than 30 years ago. mathematics. the initial core areas of POPED were demography. During the start of the programme. and home economics (Berja 1999). delayed marriage. government agencies. One of the major school-based programmes was the Population Education Program (POPED) in 1972 which was implemented through the Department of Education.1 Information. determinants of population change. consequences of population change. Now. Only after a programme review was conducted in 1978 did the focus change to small family size and family welfare.

It also espoused positive life choices. develop strong personal values. POPED changed as well. These consisted of media outreach. With funding from the UNFPA. The programme addressed adolescents and youth in schools and communities. health and education components. make responsible decisions and prepare for responsible adulthood and parenthood. Training modules on “Sexuality. Health and Personally Effective Adolescents (SHAPE)” for peer helpers and parents were produced 69 . “it aim[ed] to strengthen the coordination and monitoring of youth development programmes. Participating local governments in the AHYDP implemented 18 innovative projects to reach youth. peer counseling. It focused on family formation. population structure. child survival or mortality or morbidity. and reproductive heath problems of adolescents aged 15 to 24 years old. There was more active involvement of the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and Technical Education Skills Development Authority (TESDA) in integrating the programme into the curricula of the three levels of the educational system (Berja 1999. The Department of Education tried to strengthen and revitalize the POPED from 1996 to 1999. UNFPA 1998). and fertility regulation (UNFPA 1998). early marriages. Specifically. enhancement of the status and role of women. It addressed teenage pregnancies.2003 In 1986. and support to other programmes and projects. distribution and urbanization. The Commission on Population (POPCOM) also launched its own Adolescent Health and Youth Development Program (AHYDP) in 1995 to 1999 as an example of an inter-agency effort between government and non-government sectors. The programme launched a nationwide IEC campaign called “Hearts and Minds” to reach young Filipinos with messages about preparing themselves for adulthood and parental responsibilities. it sought to prepare the youth for responsible adulthood by addressing ARH needs through its regional offices and other government and non-government agencies that have youth. The AHYDP was drawn based on its predecessors in population education. when the country’s population policy changed.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . create a favorable policy and synchronize training and delivery of IEC and counseling services for the youth” (POPCOM 1999). It supported other adolescent programmes that provided information that would help the youth understand their sexuality. skills training and enhancement. maternal and child health.

Meanwhile.). including reproductive and sexual health issues and concerns. on the other hand aimed to institutionalize the provision of infor mation. In addition to the government programmes. The Youth in Action for Reproductive Health and Rights of the Development of People’s Foundation Inc. The Institute of Women’s Studies (IWS) of St. 70 Saint Mary’s University (SMU) of Nueva Vizcaya has an ARH programme whose components include a teen centre. the Department of Health’s Adolescent and Youth Health and Development Program (AYHDP). lectures. students receive RH information from school and NGO projects.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines and widely utilized (POPCOM 1997). (DPF) in Davao provides trainings. a radio program or “ARH on Air” entitled. SMU has used FP concepts in theology subjects.d. SMU incorporates RH. and HIV/AIDS. “Lovingly Yours. for Health and NonHealth Service Providers and tried to integrate gender sensitivity-training and reproductive health in the secondary school curriculum (Department of Health. This program is different from POPCOM’s AHYDP. courses and .). education and information distribution. One major accomplishment of the university was the integration of ARH into the university’s curriculum (SMU programme paper n. It also developed a training module and facilitator’s guide for the Training Programme on Adolescents. Scholastica’s College provides RH education for women (CWS interview. Meanwhile. which has an orientation activity for incoming freshmen students that includes giving out brochures on women’s rights. the Ateneo de Naga University’s Office of Gender Development (OGD) provides modules for formal and non-formal education and holds seminars. FP and population development issues in their courses and subjects. FP education is also a requirement for graduation.d. and TV and radio advocacies.d.d. reproductive health. Since the 1960s. During the late 1970s. and fora on ARH (OGD brochure n. One project is the University of the Philippines’ Center for Women’s Studies (CWS). symposia. IWS brochure n.). especially in the College of Health Sciences. Community-based ARH programmes focus on leadership training. counseling and clinical services to adolescents and youth.). including those at the elementary and high school levels of the SMU. Lea”. FP and POPDEV were integrated in social science classes. 2003. AYHDP n.

In Davao. MIDAS nd. The Foundation for Adolescent Development (FAD).). workshops. Most NGOs reach out to both in-school and out-of-school adolescents.d. It also has advocacy performances called Anak Gender Watch that feature dances and skits. the non-government group Kaugmaon has come up with its own community theater tour. The Kabalikat ng Pamilyang Pilipino Foundation (Kabalikat) has Kabataan Reproductive Health and Sexuality Education for Street Youth (Kaugmaon nd. This programme is still being implemented. Sexually 71 . Inc. Emotionally. for instance. the Mayon Integrated Development Alternatives and Services. (MIDAS) has a gender and sexuality education and awareness forum for adolescents. seminars and other discussions on ARH outside of school.2003 interactive activities. For the out-of-school youth (OSY). In the Bicol Region. Its main components include ARH. youth empowerment and sustainable development. This programme was developed to address the problems of early marriage and unemployment among out-ofschool youth. the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) implemented the Population Awareness and Sex Education Program (PASE). and peer helping and practical life skills. puppet shows and life-skills building workshops for the youth.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . These components are offered through their regional offices and partner organizations (POPCOM 1997). The centre has IEC materials and a mini library. and has launched a Youth Summit with other organizations (DPF Activity Report 2001). quality family life and responsible parenthood. UNESCO 1999) POPCOM has also initiated trainings. which includes a four-part training module dubbed SHAPE or Sexually Healthy and Personally Effective. Kabalikat n. has a campus-based but out-of-the classroom programme called SEXTERS or Socially. It has a more structured training approach. It collaborated with the Philippine Centre for Population and Development (PCPD). The Department of Social Welfare and Development was asked to prepare OSY economically and socially to cope with their situation so that they could become responsible adults and members of the community. which provided materials and conducted lectures on sexuality. responsible parenthood and populationrelated issues (POPCOM 1996.

safe sex . In 1996. FAD’s Entertainment for Education Programmes were a popular vehicle.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Responsible Teeners. its venues are places frequented by youth. The Family Planning Organization of the Philippines (FPOP) is another NGO that is active in educational interventions. It aimed to provide structured educational activities for in-school and out-of-school youth in Metro Manila and Region IV (POPCOM 1996). 72 had the Pinoy Youth 2000 programme. “Love. NGOs have used innovative educational interventions as well. Marriage and Career” discussed more complex problems with the help of professional guidance counselors (POPCOM 2001). It gives life planning education. Launched in 2001. sexuality and other issues. Sex. five short films. theater plays. There has been an enthusiastic public response and many letters have been written to the station. which will provide leadership and facilitating skills. This is a peer-led activity providing infor mation. has a Frenzy Mobile Outreach Team (FMOT) that caters to urban and semi-urban youth. universities. Reprowatch Youth Edition Newsletter was initiated by the Institute for Social Studies Action (ISSA) to promote awareness of reproductive health issues among adolescents (ISSA interview 2003). In 2002. a communitybased effort designed to alleviate the conditions of disadvantaged youth. communities. Information about STI/HIV/AIDS. Its Teen Health Quarters also provides information and education for youth. and concerts. such as schools. and referrals on adolescent reproductive health. FPOP increases the RH awareness of young people through its on-going Development and Family Life Education for the Youth (DAFLEY) project. “Love Letters Straight from Your Heart” on Davao’s DXBM station. counseling. vocational skills training and on-the-job training and job referrals. FAD produces videos. FAD created three HIV/AIDS videos for young adults. The Options for Living Foundation Inc. Another programme. Usually. DKT Philippines Inc. radio programmes and TV episodes. It introduced a radio programme. FAD made five more teen videos with discussion guides. FAD has also launched a Life Planning Education and Vocational Skills Training Program. Its approach focused on capability building workshops for adolescents. and one MTV video. FMOT provides mobile intervention activities that offer RH information to youth.

Frenzy condoms. IEC materials are developed and consultations are held. DKT also gives away stickers. In 1998 the Remedios AIDS Foundation opened a Youth Zone or youth centre at the Tutuban Mall in the heart of a shopping district in Manila. counseling services are provided. shirts. And they co-produced three radio programmes on women’s rights. The Kabalaka Development Foundation. The Family Welfare Program (FWP) promotes and protects the welfare of 73 .” Under the AHYDP. internet access and films that teach about RH and HIV/ AIDS. This project grew out of a FGD in which the teens said they needed a place to hang out. key chains. are given out free of charge with an explanatory brochure. Inc. (BCYA) worked with the POPCOM and the Population Center Foundation to establish a Multi-Service Youth Center to provide RH education to youth. XYZone. a radio programme. It has an average of 20 to 23 visitors a day. it launched “XYZ for Young Pinoy Woman: A Media Campaign for the Protection and Empower ment of Young Women. The foundation chose a strategic location close to where most youngsters stay. Peer educators are also being trained to teach young people. and a book. Youth leaders are trained. which DKT developed and distributes. and pins to promote safe sexual behaviour (DKT Interview 2003). It launched a magazine supplement called XYZine. In Baguio City. plays. Other NGOs have established youth or teen centres.2003 practices. FMOT uses multimedia tools. for instance. caps.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . It offers seminars. their parents and partner organizations. The Women’s Media Circle created XYZ. (KDFI) in Negros Occidental established the La Carlota Teen Circle and La Castellana Teen Horizon in partnership with the local government through support from the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. such as music and films. and RH are provided. a multi-media campaign for young women largely concentrated in urban and semi-urban areas across the country. has Youth Zone. art exhibits. “Body Talk: The XYZ Guide to Young Women’s Health and Body. The Remedios AIDS Foundation (RAF). the Baguio Center for Young Adults Inc. suicide and sexual harassment (POPCOM 1999). Another Youth Zone was opened in Cebu City (RAF Accomplishment Report 2002). temporary tattoos.” They also produced six one-hour TV programmes that aired on a local station. as well as games and discussions.

1. First. The programme includes dimensions on reproductive health. the TUCP highlighted two major points on the viability of putting up ARH programmes inside workplaces.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines workers and their families through the integration of family welfare concerns at workplaces nationwide. medical and health care. Lee adds that 74 there are limitations to using the school setting. educational institutions and NGOs. The Trade Union Congress of the Philippines (TUCP). hospitals. such as streets. In a study of workplace-based interventions. Likewise. parks.2 million members nationwide. created a Family Planning and Reproductive Health for Young Workers Program. the study says out-of-school youth may be more “susceptible” to sexual risks and are therefore in need of greater support. Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) and made the programme more responsive . communities. It was one of the flagship programmes of the National Youth Commission’s Philippine Medium Term Youth Development Plan for 1999-2004. It also launched the “Hearts and Minds” IEC campaign in 1997. It trains Young Adult Peer Educators (YAPE) to lead interactive discussion sessions and workshops for young workers aged 18 and 24 (Lee 2003). the revitalization of POPED saw the active involvement of the Department of Education. responsible parenthood. POPCOM succeeded in incorporating the AHYDP into the Philippine Population Management Program (PPMP). 4. offices. The Working Youth Center of the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) also provides reproductive health education as part of the Leadership and Productivity Formation Program for young workers. but there is good potential in other venues. which is the country’s biggest labor union with 1. POPCOM implemented 18 innovative projects with the help of participating LGUs and NGOs. and HIV awareness. which according to results of FGDs in pilot areas. the study pointed out that the youth are generally more comfortable dealing with people not part of the school system (Lee 2003). Second. resulted to the youth’s increased knowledge and understanding of ARH (POPCOM 1999).2 Effective approaches Some best practices can be gleaned from the interventions implemented by government agencies. and other alternative spaces that youth frequent.

Teachers indicated improved effectiveness in counseling students (POPCOM 1996). Adolescents have a place where they can access IEC materials on ARH. improved relationships with the opposite sex. the use of multimedia tools like music and films. Local leaders. Other noteworthy examples are the Youth Zone of Remedios Aids Foundation in Manila and Cebu that are based in shopping malls and the Multi-Service Youth Center of BCYA. It caters to urban and semi-urban youth. is also considered an effective approach. a classroom programme to nurture socially. avail of counseling services.2003 to the emerging needs of adolescents (PPMP 2001-2004). together with the Department of Education. The project reported success in giving students skills in selfassertion. and share their talents and skills in addressing their group’s concerns. better knowledge of STI/HIV/AIDS. games. Another approach worth noting in terms of its innovative social marketing strategies is the Frenzy Mobile Outreach Team (FMOT). a Trainers Guide for training potential peer educators has been produced and “school administrators support the programme because they recognize that their students can benefit from the information and counsel provided by enlightened peers” (POPCOM 2002). Through this project. Its main strategy is to train peers to provide information. interact with peers. Teen Centres are potential venues for sustainable educational interventions. of La Carlota City and Municipality of La Castellana have allocated funds for construction of the buildings and operational expenses for its two teen centres. 75 . give-aways and free condoms (DKT Interview 2003). counseling. The Philippine Center for Population and Development (PCPD). also institutionalized a Revitalized Home Guidance Program in 15 division leader schools in 15 regions nationwide. and other aspects of adolescence. dating. courtship. Its mobile intervention activities include creative information materials. and sexually responsible teenagers.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . and referrals on adolescent health and sexuality. get referrals for medical services. emotionally. friendship. for instance. SEXTERS. parents and communities have started to recognize the importance of teen centres to adolescents. The local governments.

3%). which focused on student’s understanding of the concepts. it was difficult to attribute changes in premarital sex behaviour. Moreover. One identified weakness was the lack of guidelines for teaching specific topics. The results of the YAFS II (1994) showed that “the proportion of adolescents who had POPED in school had increased over the years from 50% in 1982 to 62% in 1994”.6%) than adolescent boys were (56. The study found that adolescent girls were more exposed to POPED (80. assessments of some programmes and projects are available. radio. leaflets and comics (Zablan 2000).1. while adolescent boys said they learned from friends (52. For instance. revealed that POPED trained only 20% of the teachers in the country and distributed materials to only 10% of its target audience. The Basic Needs Assessment. However. . 1996). teachers could choose not to discuss topics that they thought were offensive to their faith (POPCOM 1996). In Catholic schools.3 Effects of educational interventions A comprehensive study of the results of different educational interventions has not yet been completed. and that teachers randomly decided when to teach it.9%). which was conducted prior to UNFPA’s Third Country Programme. early pregnancy and decline in fertility directly to population education. debates and symposia were not conducted regularly due to funding constraints. Half of the adolescent girls said that they learned about sex from teachers (50%). Given the limitation of the evaluation design. POPED material did not emphasize sex education and was focused on population issues at the macro and micro levels. for example. but male adolescents were more sexually active. It was also noted that POPED integration failed to be strictly implemented in all specified subjects. poster–making. the IEC Impact Survey in Apayao. Moreover. 76 Activities such as the POPQUIZ. essay writing contests. Kalinga. “POPED was not taught as a separate subject and only 2% of the total 220 school days were spent for it” (POPCOM. and Ifugao provinces showed that adolescents got information about STI/HIV/AIDS from film. Zablan also reported that more females were exposed to RH education than males were. One study revealed that some teachers covered male and female genitalia on charts when teaching human anatomy (Mendoza 1995).Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines 4.

counseling is the most common (see Figure 5).1 Available services Counseling. there was a need to widen the geographic scope of the centres to respond to more young people.g. Based on the findings.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . it is integrated in the overall health programme.2. Of the services provided. 4.art contests. 4. games. but the centres’ activities were limited due to a lack of funds and organization. yet surveys show that the knowledge of adults about RH is very low (Osias 1999). most of them are provided by government health agencies and some NGOs. Usually. Much of the weakness in population education has purportedly been “hampered by adult concerns that knowledge will promote promiscuity among unmarried teens” (Osias 1999). If there are any services. clients became more aware about important issues. dating games) 77 .2003 A study by the Commission on Population (1996) on selected nongovernment youth centres found that teen centres did a satisfactory job of informing young people on ARH. Also.2 Service interventions Most ARH programmes focus on education (see Table 8). Figure 5 Types of Interventions 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 7 11 7 8 3 3 29 14 8 3 48 school curriculum trainings/seminars/workshops radio/TV/ads/films publication internet theater teen center counseling medical/clinical referral others (e. referrals and some medical services are available to youth. The belief that RH education should be left to parents or adults still prevails. State hospitals do not have a specific health programme for adolescents. Counseling is the most common service. Only state hospitals and some clinics offer medical and RH services to youth. followed by referrals and then medical services.

including counseling for adolescents and youth. communicable diseases. mental and emotional well-being. physical. The most popular service is counseling. NGOs and donors launched the Adolescent and Youth Health and Development Program (AYHDP) in 2001.). well-being and self-esteem of young people. it should increase coverage of basic health services. The second programme provides family planning and related services and information. Direct services are then provided at the LGU level. violence against women (VAW). Unmarried adolescents can avail of pre-marriage counseling services (UNESCO. the Department of Health’s programme has 78 addressed issues such as STI. counseling and private sector partnerships. it will establish resource centres or “onestop-shops” for adolescents and youth in each province. NGOs are the other service providers. and disability (AYHDP n. Lastly. The Department of Health had also launched a “Maternal Care Programme” and “Family Planning Programme”. The first seeks to improve the quality of services to reduce morbidity among mothers during pregnancy. The goal of AYHDP is to promote the total health. and substance abuse in 50% of Department of Health hospitals.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines The Department of Health. maternal and child health. Capuchino adds that the Department of Health develops all the materials and disseminates them to regional health offices and local government units. 1999). In this literature review. To complement existing initiatives. It should also establish specialized services for occupational illnesses. delivery and post-partum period. victims of rape and violence. Adolescents are part of their clientele as they serve pregnant mothers who are between the ages of 15 to 49.d. to 70% nationwide. nutrition and abortion. they also provide services through clinics. and it aims to integrate adolescent and youth services into the health delivery system. Although POPCOM’s main focus is training and information. It will address not only ARH but also nutrition. Specifically. POPCOM and other organizations implementing ARH programmes focus more on sexuality and peer education than on medical and clinical services (Capuchino 2003). Based on the Department of Health’s observations. together with other line agencies. education/communication services and motivational campaigns. there were . This is an expanded version of the government’s ARH programme.

The Pag-asa Drop-In Center in Davao provides services for adolescents who live on the streets. provides the same services. pre. has its Tambayan Center for counseling and other services. also provides counseling and medical services as well. some NGOs have also put up youth centres. harassment and rape. Medical services are provided by only a few NGOs. Al-Mujadilah Development Foundation. referral for abortion. Kaugmaon in Davao. This study identified eight teen centres found in different parts of the country. and rectal exams.ph.2003 29 programmes and projects identified that provide counseling services (see Figure 5). Inc. circumcision. childbirths. which are multi-service facilities that provide ARH information and services. The Remedios AIDS Foundation maintains a clinic. the Trade Union Congress of the Philippines (TUCP) has Family Welfare clinics which offer services and counseling within workplaces. FAD’s teenfad. and Cavite. The Women and Child Protection Unit of Davao. These are strategically located in communities or hospitals. Baguio Center for Young Adults. FAD has also established youth centres and health teen quarters in Quiapo. The Mayon Integrated Development Alternatives and Services Inc. Other organizations use the internet as a vehicle for counseling. Santa Ana.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . such as factories (Lee 2003). Caritas Manila’s AIDS hotline. Besides counseling services. to cater to the youth’s needs for counseling and services. the Foundation for Adolescent Development’s Dial-A-Friend. The Tambayan Center for the Care of Abused Children Inc. tubal ligation. This review identified 14 programmes 79 . in Marawi City provides pap smear tests. counseling and referral services. In the workplace. the Family Planning Organization of the Philippines has the Davao Teen Center. an e-mail-a-friend counseling and referral system.and post-natal care. in Albay Province offers clinical. The PCPD. Adolescent Hotline Bicol and Saint Mary’s University’s telephone counseling services offer anonymity to those seeking advice about RH and other questions. and PLAN Philippines offer either counseling or peer counseling and referrals to their clients. breast examination. among other places. The Kabalaka Foundation in Negros has a teen centre for counseling and medical consultation. aside from documenting cases of violence. In Davao. contraceptive methods. Tondo. The Maryknoll Foundation’s Kasambuhay project for out-of-school youth.

Other organizations. for example. but there are 80 difficulties with implementation. have a national scope. very few services can be found which are specifically catering to adolescent reproductive health.2. This study has revealed.3 Services’ impact ARH services have had limited scope in reaching adolescents. the AYHDP programme has not been fully implemented because the Department of Health lacks funding in some regions. Most are community-based and very few are in schools or workplaces. According to an evaluation by POPCOM (1996) of Baguio Center for Young Adults. there seems to be an increase in the number of young people reached by their ARH services. but sell and give condoms to young people.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines and organizations in different parts of the country providing medical services specifically for the youth. 4. . 13 school-based programmes and seven workplace-based ones.2 Project sites Community services mostly provide counseling. Most services are located in urban areas. There are only nine programmes that are based in both schools and communities and only one such programme was found in a shopping mall.2. Cebu Youth Center. Davao Teen Center. POPCOM’s Country Report (2002) found that ARH service coverage is generally low and there are not enough youth centres in the Philippines to meet the need. by contrast. 4. such as DKT Philippines. According to Dr. do not provide direct medical services. Most NGOs offer services in only a few barangays or communities because of lack of funds and human resources. Davao City and Baguio City. Direct implementation and training of community health service providers are the responsibility of the LGUs who often lack the resources to go about it. and the Iloilo Teen Center. and rarely focus on service provisions. This survey found that there are 42 community-based programmes. Clients rated their service operations as satisfactory. The centres were able to meet their clients’ needs as shown by the limited number of cases referred to other agencies (POPCOM 1996). Government programmes. Manila Center for Young Adults. the Teen Information Center in Tarlac. Most of the programs being implemented are information-based or IEC-centered. Capuchino (2003). such as Metro Manila.

Also. the Baguio Center for Young Adults (BCYA). such as FAD’s Manila Center for Young Adults (MCYA). access LGU funds. which was mostly in urban areas. the teen centres’ impact as a whole was lessened because they only reached a limited geographical scope. funds are pulled from ARH to fund other projects that the 81 .A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . reproductive health. for example. the funding amount is small. there are only 14 medical and clinical programmes being provided as based on the programmes surveyed (see Figure 5).2. Though the government provides regular funds to their ARH programmes. Teen centres and counseling services may increase awareness about contraceptives. This gap creates a challenge for adolescents and providers who want to help youth lead healthy reproductive and sexual lives. and La Carlota Teen Center and La Castellana Teen Horizon in Negros Occidental. which is often incorporated into a more general health agenda.4 Sustainability of services Of the ARH services and youth centres that exist in the Philippines. the Cebu Youth Center (CYC). Adolescents in remote places have found it difficult to access ARH services. including condoms. and not depend solely on donor support. Lack of funds hampers NGOs and the government from expanding their services. an assessment of adolescent health care structures found that only 69 of the 106 health facilities provided ARH services (Borja 2001). 4. They were able to diversify their sources of funds. There are more information and education programmes than clinical and reproductive services on ARH being provided by the organizations which has reached 48 based on this study. especially at the LGU level. reaching 29. However. but there are few services available to help adolescents or to contraceptives. These local health services and facilities are not enough to effectively address the needs of adolescents. Most of the services available are those of counseling. it is questionable how many of them are sustainable. Other government projects are given greater priority than ARH. In Cebu. which in the long run will affect their operations. But many NGOs rely on volunteer staff.2003 However. safe sex and risky sexual behaviour. These organizations asked for solicitations from big funding agencies and also from local governments and private individuals (PCPD 1993). Several are strong.

• Both education and service interventions are concentrated in the urban areas. but their supply of contraceptives is very limited. workshops and seminars. the following has been observed. These are the most widely used and most common types of education interventions. although limited in scope. • The few organizations offering services. 82 those that offer only services and those which offer both education and services. for instance. FAD also tapped the resources of the local government in Anabu Cavite and got free office space for its Teen Health Quarters (Berja 1999). information. ARH funds were channeled into the anti-SARS campaign (Capuchino 2003). there will be a total of 43 programmes providing services for the youth. Organizations should find ways to increase and stabilize their resources to continue their ARH programmes. Out of these. while in the service interventions. and counseling on reproductive health. (See Table 8) • Most organizations provide education. • The most innovative projects and programmes. counseling posted 29 (see Figure 5). such as electricity. and 26 programmes offered a combination of education and services. The Kabalaka’s two teen centres have received support from the LGU. there are only 14 medical and health services identified. safe sex. which helps to cover daily expenses. But most of these are counseling. If combined. For instance. during the 2003 SARS outbreak. The Remedios AIDS Foundation. This review found a total of 76 ARH programmes in the country. The review of programmes revealed. . has considered charging a minimal fee for internet service in their centres and forging partnerships with companies to support the project. • Most organizations provide trainings.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines government deems more important or more urgent. and risky sexual behaviour. especially medical ones. there are 48 of such types. In fact. 33 were purely educational. and not medical services. and adolescents in remote areas do not have access to them. Based on the review of education and service interventions. 17 provided services. have difficulty sustaining them because they are donor-dependent. • There are more ARH education and information programmes than there are ARH services in the Philippines.

and very few cater to service providers. 83 .A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . • Most programme focus on adolescents. but they are not yet implemented well at the local level. parents.2003 are being implemented by NGOs. and other ARH partners. Government programmes have the widest reach.

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines 84 .

Its main responsibility revolves around the coordination and monitoring of the implementation of laws and programmes for children. 79. little policy was introduced regarding population. As a result. and c) an increase in women’s use of modern contraception from 2. No. b) the incorporation of population considerations into socio-economic development planning. The 1970s and 1980s were full of political turmoil and martial rule was declared. welfare. The policy’s focus was the provision of family planning services and the reduction of population growth. This act established the National Population Policy. the act was amended through Presidential Decree No. 85 . population became government policy when the Population Act of 1971 or R. The Commission on Population (POPCOM) was created as an attached agency to the National Economic and Development Authority. and development.2003 5. investigation. Some government officials did not approve of the provision to publicly provide Filipinos with contraceptive services. Policy environment In the Philippines. The commission was tasked to carry out the purposes and objectives of the Decree and facilitate the coordination of policies and programmes related to population. It led to the creation of the Council for the Welfare of Children (CWC). major changes have occurred over the years: a) growth of family planning service delivery.9% in 1998 (UNFPA 1999.A. 6365 was enacted in 1972. was enacted in 1974. Despite this opposition. The Child and Youth Welfare Code or Presidential Decree No. an apex agency of the government for children’s protection. Another important policy. The revised act re-emphasized the need to address the high rate of population growth and a national FP programme involving the public and private sectors was started. known as the Revised Population Act of the Philippines.4% in 1968 to 20. the decree provided the rules and regulations on the apprehension. The introduction of the population policy generated various reactions and opinions. This policy was in response to the increase in child abuse. It also imposes criminal liability on parents who cause or encourage the child to lead an immoral or dissolute life. In 1972. Further.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . 603. prosecution and rehabilitation of youth offenders.

during the 1990s. including natural family planning (NFP). No. neglect. In 1994. The act established a comprehensive national programme on youth development and provided for the appropriation of funds. guidelines. The act provided for stronger deterrence and special protection against child abuse. exceptions and conditions for employing children younger than 15 years old. exploitation or discrimination because of a physical or mental disability or condition” (Sec. education or training environment based on the premise that “the state shall value the dignity of every individual. the youth and adolescents were finally recognized by the government as a priority group that had been underserved. the Anti-Sexual Harassment Act of 1995 or R.A. These policies focused more on children and women. After the 1994 International Conference 86 on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo. 7610 was enacted and implemented through the CWC. It is a special law that names. 307. 3). enhance the development of its human resources. No. the Special Protection of Children against Child Abuse.” The emphasis on family planning services was echoed in the 1996 Executive Order No. Closely related to R.A. the country saw the enactment and implementation of several policies related to population and health. regulations.A. to ensure the availability of information and services regarding FP.A. No. 7877 was passed. cruelty. This act provided the rules. defines. 7658. applicants for employment. Exploitation and Discrimination Act or R. students or those undergoing training. exploitation and discrimination as well as penalties. No. Implementing Family Planning. This was enacted in November 1994 and has been implemented at the national level by the CWC. Also. instruction or education. No. 8044 was enacted. at appropriate levels . guarantee full respect of human rights and uphold the dignity of workers. employees. an act creating the National Youth Commission or R.A. It covered “persons below 18 years of age or those over but who are unable to fully take care of themselves from abuse. declares unlawful and penalizes sexual harassment in the workplace. In 1992.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines However. 7610 is the Act Prohibiting the Employment of Children below 15 Years of Age in Public and Private Undertakings or R.

Through these policies the broadening of population policies and programmes beyond family planning was undertaken and a much closer collaboration among development agencies was pushed to attain the reproductive health objectives. the Anti-Rape Law or R. 8369. Closely related was the Administrative Order 1-A (1998). 3815 or the Revised Penal Code. Yet even with such policies.” This adopted the 10 service elements of RH.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . Republic Act 8369 and R. acknowledging that adolescents must be given attention because they are an underserved group.2003 adhering to standard of quality care promulgated by the national programme. it was evident that adolescents remained underserved when it came to the legislative arena. The Philippine Reproductive Health Program was created through this Administrative Order in response to the ICPD’s Programme of Action. 8044 focused on adolescents. which “emphasizes the link between population and sustainable development and recommends a comprehensive approach in for mulating and implementing RH policies and programs. No. Also enacted in 1997 was the Family Courts Act of 1997 or R. but it was the Reproductive Health Policy or Administrative Order No. In 1997. It also recognized marital rape for the first time. 8353 was enacted.A. No. Although some of these policies included youth and adolescents. This act was considered by many to be landmark legislation because it classified rape as a crime against a person under Title Eight of Act No. This was enacted in 1998 to provide for the allocation of 30% from Official Development Assistance funds and 6% from local funds to women and 87 . as applicable to the laws. 24 is one example. It mandated the creation of family courts and assigned to these courts the hearing and resolution of domestic violence cases against women and children including adolescents. A number of local policies were also enacted to complement efforts at the national level as well as ensure that local conditions are acted upon speedily and appropriately.A. 43 (1998) that really paid attention to the youth and adolescents’ reproductive health development. the focus was not on their reproductive health. The Women and Development Code of Davao City or Executive Order No.A. including RH for adolescents. Policy-making was still very focused on women and children.

Concerned about the increasing incidences of rape. modes of transmission. the government enacted the Rape Victim Assistance and Protection Act or R. In recognition of the AIDS problem. task forces and legal protection. which are considered special population groups.A. such as promotion of public awareness about the causes. which defines 88 AIDS and the extent of its gravity. Department of Justice and leading NGOs. means of prevention and control of HIV/AIDS through a comprehensive nationwide educational and information campaign. It is a response to the identified need to develop a health programme that will specifically address the unique needs of adolescents (10 to 19). This act declares the “policy of the state to provide necessary assistance and protection for rape victims through coordination with various agencies and NGOs for the establishment and operation of rape crisis centres in every province and city”. the Anti-trafficking in Filipino Women and Minors Act of 1998 was enacted. 1933 which was passed into law in June 2002 is another example of local policy. This act defines trafficking and “imposes punishment to those who engage in trafficking and ensures that victims are protected. In 1998. It aims to promote the total health. youths (15 to 24) and young people (10 to 24). well-being and . the government passed the Philippine AIDS Prevention and Control Act or R. The Anti-Domestic Violence Ordinance of Cebu City or City Ordinance No.A. and extension of support and full protection of human rights and civil liberties to every person suspected or known to be infected with HIV/AIDS. Department of Interior and Local Government. consequences. The establishment and operation of the crisis centres is spearheaded by the Department of Social Welfare and Development. 8504 (1998). No. 8505 of 1998. This was considered a landmark legislation since it is the first local measure in the Philippines that penalizes perpetrators of domestic violence and provides protection to victims. including ARH. In 2000. Department of Health.” It also provides for measures for victims to be able to start a new life for themselves through counseling and livelihood programmes. the Adolescent and Youth Health Policy (Administrative Order 34-A) was enacted and implemented by the Department of Health at the national level. No.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines to gender-sensitive projects and programmes. The law emphasizes the need for strong state action.

to inform and educate the youth on sexuality and RH concerns. few of whom receive treatment or use medical and family planning services.2003 self-esteem of adolescents and youth by promoting a safe and supportive environment. sexually abused children.” It seeks to improve the health and wellbeing of Filipinos by ensuring their right to RH care and their right to reproductive self-determination. will contribute greatly to the improvement of RH in the country. reproductive tract cancers. high unmet need for family planning. STI. It is a response to certain reproductive health realities: the high rate of maternal and infant mortality. more cases of VAW. have played an important role in drafting the bill as well as including it in public discussions. high incidence of abortion. street children. peri-natal and postnatal care and services for pregnant adolescents. which is national in its scope.). 5. to include education on gender issues and sexual responsibility. particularly legislators at the House of Representatives and Senate.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . A new bill is being discussed at the House of Representatives that would provide for a comprehensive programme on reproductive health. It is also in response to the high incidence of RH problems and sexual activity among the young. particularly ARH because it has special focus on 89 . This is the Reproductive Health Care Act of 2002 (also known as House Bill 4110 or Senate Bill 2325). A provision for adolescent RH programmes and ser vices is also included. more cases of RTI. the differently-abled persons and outof-school youth. This bill if passed into a law. infertility and sexual dysfunction. providing information.f of the RH Care Act: “Develop and undertake reproductive health programs for adolescents…These shall include education of gender roles and values…access to maternal health care. This act. and male RH disorders. gynecological conditions. This proposed bill has a specific focus on youth welfare because it aims to decrease teenage pregnancies.d. and to address young people’s RH needs (PLCPD n. The NGOs and RH advocates from the government. This is reflected in Sec. building skills and providing services. and services geared towards the special reproductive health needs of adolescents including the marginalized. has reached the second hearing at the Committee on Appropriations. and has already been approved at the Committee on Health. including pre-natal.

90 . Thus. until this comprehensive bill is passed. there is tremendous opposition from the Catholic Church and the conservative wing of the Philippine society. the Philippines policy environment will not be conducive to the development of ARH programmes given the sociocultural and economic context. Unfortunately. including legislators. They are lobbying against its passage because they see it as a possible step toward legalizing abortion.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines adolescents.

9 million).1% vis a vis 1. • Young male adolescents have a higher rate of homosexual activity than female adolescents.g. • Average age of sexual debut is 18 years old. Summary of findings on the RH status of adolescents Profile • Of the 76. • An estimated 34% youth have multiple sex partners (1.8 million do not use any contraceptive method. 20% are aged 15-25. Menarche • Mean age at menarche is 13. and 15. Contraceptive use • Contraceptive use is low among sexually active adolescents.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . • Average dating age is 15 years old. • About 10% of girls with PMS experience related that their first sexual experience happened without their consent. Sexual experience • Dating is becoming more a venue for sexual intimacies and activity than for socialization among the youth. 23% belong to the 10-19 age group.2003 6.6 million young people ages 15 to 27). • About 4.5 million adolescents. • Condoms are the most used contraceptive method. e. • PMS experience initiates or accelerates the process of marriage.6% among Filipino youth have been paid for sex. before 20 years old.8%. 74% or about 1. Fertility • A fifth of all women age 15 to 49 did not know when they are fertile during their monthly cycle. • Number of young adults engaging in premarital sex (PMS) has steadily increased over the last decade (23% in 2002 or 4. 91 .6 million or 22% are of reproductive age.44. 5. Marriage • Filipino youth marry at an early age.

• Most cases of HIV infections among females happen at a younger age compared to males.g. 6% in 1994 and 11% in 2002. • Sex is learned from peers. • Six percent (6%) among 78% of sexually active male adolescents who had never used condom admitted to buying commercial sex (males are more likely to pay and be paid for sex). • Young females appear to exhibit better judgment by not continuously engaging in risky behaviours (80% females who ever puffed a cigarette did not develop a habit). • Only 4% young women can be considered knowledgeable on the subject of contraceptives and FP. • In-school youth have more knowledge on RH than out-of-school youth. e. • Majority of those engaged in 92 . • Youths’ consumption of alcoholic beverages and use of illegal drugs has increased. Early pregnancy • One-fourth of all women begin childbearing by age 20. • Less-educated women are more likely to bear children in their teenage years than their better-educated counterparts. Related issues • Increasingly. commercial sex do not use condom. • Over 90% of adolescents aged 15 to STI/RTI/HIV/AIDS • Prevalence rate of gonorrhea and chlamydia are higher among young people. media. • There is a misconception that AIDS can be cured (23% in 2002). • Awareness of AIDS is high (95% of all Filipino youth stated that they have heard of AIDS). • Media is the most common source of information about sex. X-rated films and parents.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines • Youth have poor knowledge of and low use of contraception methods (27% think that the pill must be taken before or after sexual intercourse). About 47% of infected females are between 20 and 29. females are trying risky sexual behaviours (17% in 1994 and 30% in 2002).

2003 24 believe that the government should provide FP services.82% of males would like a virgin bride.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . 93 . • 89. • Adolescents are generally conservative towards PMS and majority disapproved of homosexual relations and abortion (males are more open to PMS).

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines 94 .

A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . • ARH programmes should focus not just on the physical health of the youth. used as research and debate topics and as part of other requirements. which appeal to youth. • Educators’ and providers’ facilitating skills should be improved to work with adolescents. • Government programmes need official endorsement for smooth implementation. For example. but also on their psycho-social health. There are innovative and creative projects that are also cost-effective. DKT Philippines has successfully penetrated the MTV generation through its ads and infomercials. Lessons learned The key lessons learned from implementing ARH programmes come from the literature survey and key informant interviews.2003 7. • In every activity concerning adolescents. They are the closest to adolescents and can provide guidance as needed. • The community and local officials should be educated about the importance of ARH so that they will be more receptive and supportive to the . • Budget limitations must not be seen as an ultimate constraint in implementing activities and programmes on ARH. • Adolescent sexuality and RH concepts should be integrated into the curricula of vocational and technical institutions to reach a wider youth audience. programmes initiated by government agencies and NGOs. They were able to educate without alienating the youth by using hip 95 On programme implementation • ARH can be integrated in the curriculum. • More innovative information strategies should be used. it will be helpful to also get feedback from parents. They must therefore be given knowledge and provided with communication skills. • Parents also need to be involved in ARH. • Adolescents should be informed of the existence of ARH services and where these can be accessed.

B-Be Faithful and C-Condom” in Catholic schools. For example. It may be advantageous to focus on working with the Catholic Church as well as other religious groups. advocacy and cultural activities. • Some Christian churches give limited training to youth and provide sexuality 96 . Leeway must be given because they usually open up weeks after the first contact for help. the “C” was labeled “live life like Christ” instead of “condom”. On strategies/approaches to delivery of services • Peer education is an effective strategy to reach adolescents. adolescents do not open up at once. Adolescents open up more to their peers than to adults or parents. • It is possible to work with Catholic schools in terms of ARH as long as both sides are culturally sensitive. DKT’s infomercials on Frenzy Condoms appear on youth channels such as MTV and appear in youth magazines. families and other teenagers and are actually practicing what they have learned. • It is common for the youth to be uncomfortable the first time they hear about ARH. • If a service provider is effective. education. music and images. • In counseling. • It is easier to mobilize the youth through IEC promotion. then teenage clients pass knowledge on to their friends. These are appropriate avenues because they give them something to do and a way to ask questions.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines language. instead of pushing for the campaign slogan “A-abstinence. but they eventually open up to serious discussions.

This is a big challenge— how to make adults. • Sangguniang Kabataan (SK) projects are mostly focused on sports and infrastructure. the government gives limited funds to ARH because it is just one of the ten elements of RH. Issues and challenges The following are important issues and challenges to implementing ARH programmes. response and readiness of population officers. • When it comes to ARH. rarely on ARH. particularly those residing in rural areas. • Some parents. • There are adults at service points who are not sensitive to adolescents’ needs and feelings. • The Catholic Church is posing tremendous opposition to ARH-related activities and policies. • Generally. do not allow their children to participate in ARH-related activities. such as family planning. • ARH is not a priority among LGUs. and exerting various efforts to influence the parents. Prioritization depends on the needs. • Local officials and barangay officials are often cynical about ARH. • It is difficult to coordinate with LGUs because they are mostly understaffed and have limited budgets. • There is no mechanism for evaluation 97 .2003 8.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . They refuse to acknowledge that ARH-related problems exist. The tendency is to be too dependent on the population officer. particularly service providers. • Only a few NGOs are implementing direct ARH services. It is still under “Reproductive Health. • The Department of Health does not have a protocol or guidelines for adolescents’ accessing direct clinical services. there are usually no takers from NGOs in the provinces. especially the RH Bill 4110. general public and local officials. understand adolescents. They have access to counseling services. They think that ARH is the concern of the Department of Health and other NGOs.” • It is very difficult to mainstream ARH in policies and budgets.

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines

of the implementation of the Department of Health’s AYHD programme. • Often, adolescents don’t want to be seen by other people going into a teen centre, especially if they are teenage pregnant mothers. Hence, it’s hard to convince adolescents to avail of services at the public health facility level. • Currently, there is no Technical Working Group for adolescent health. It would help to have one, particularly for decision-making, but it would also be hard to maintain one without the commitment of people. People won’t get involved unless they are given something in return. • The government is hesitant to take a stand on ARH because it is concerned about the Catholic Church. • NGOs tend to work in isolation and the challenge is to bring them together.

There are more than 150 NGO members in Metro Manila, and the majority works with street children. • There is a need for a national school curriculum that integrates sex and health education and addresses the concerns of young people. • There is no carefully designed programme of ARH counseling and service delivery or guidelines. • Services are needed to prevent unwanted consequences of adolescent sexual activities (early marriages, STI and pregnancies). • The competence of service providers in dealing with adolescents, especially in terms of technical capability and attitude, is insufficient. • There is a need to address the economic conditions of adolescents which affect their daily survival.

98

A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 - 2003

9. Recommendations
The following recommendations are based on the literature review and key informant interviews.

9.2 Service interventions
• Continuous recruitment and training of peer counselors is needed. • Educational and information services should be appropriately matched with services, such as access to contraceptive methods with condoms offered, at the minimum. • Adolescents should receive life skills training to improve their thinking processes and decision-making abilities, to empower them, and make them more participative in community affairs. • Teen centres should be established in every municipality so that youth can avail of services and have a venue for learning more about ARH. • Other venues for ARH programmes should be explored, such as the streets, parks, offices, hospitals and other alternative spaces that youth frequent.

9.1 Educational interventions
• A specific protocol or set of guidelines allowing for the provision of FP and clinical services to adolescents should be formulated by the government together with the NGOs at the national level. • The media should be educated about ARH concerns and issues so that the media will be more responsible and accurate when providing information to youth. • There should be opportunities for vocational skills training and jobs-skill training to assist out-of-school youth. • Parenting education should start early, before children reach adolescence, and become parents themselves. It should also be integrated into the curriculum for ARH. • There should be a real sex education undertaken by different institutions, such as schools, families, and churches because they all reach adolescents.

9.3 Leadership and governance
• At the local level, the knowledge of Sangguniang Kabataan (Youth Council) members should be increased about the need for more youth-oriented projects, 99

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines

including ARH. They should be motivated to use SK funds for ARHrelated projects. • Local funding sources should be explored for ARH projects. Sources could include Parent-Teachers’ Associations (PTAs), companies catering to young people, LGUs, schools, philanthropists, alumni associations, and civic organizations. • There should be careful consideration of how to work with the dominant Catholic Church to address ARH concerns because the Church has institutions that can be used as vehicles for educating parents, youth and providers. • Programme implementors should coordinate and integrate their initiatives to complement each other’s works (to avoid duplication and scattered ARH services). • There should be a comprehensive and integrated ARH programme at the national and policy level to strengthen its implementation, to have a bigger impact and to become sustainable. • There should be strategic business plans to sustain ARH projects even without donor assistance. 100

• LGU-specific research should be conducted, particularly on ARH, so that ARH projects will be more acceptable at the local level. • Adolescents should be trained to become leaders, especially at the National Youth Commission. • There should be advocacy for the formulation of policies at the provincial level that would institutionalize ARH programmes and activities.

9.4 Role of inter national organizations
• There should be greater donor coordination in developing, implementing, monitoring and evaluating ARH programmes to avoid duplication of activities and maximize available resources. The WHO could help facilitate this process. • In undertaking project review or studies that will cut across all countries, international organizations should be more flexible in the framework or format, particularly the indicators that will be used, to allow for the rendering of country-specific experiences without losing the global perspective.

2003 • The WHO can also work with different government organizations/ agencies as well as non-government organizations in facilitating integration of programmes on adolescent reproductive health at the national level. 101 .A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 .

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines 102 .

Qualitative Data Relevant to Aids Prevention Gathered from Sex Workers. and AtRisk Youth in Cebu 6. drug use & injection practices. USAID & Path Foundation. Studies/papers on adolescent reproductive health Title Content Geographical Sites/Focus Metro Manila Iloilo 1. Philippines National Statistics Office (NSO) 1995 Published (part of the Highlights of the 1995 Census of Population) Quantitative NSO 103 . (RAFI) January 1995 Published (part of the Highlights of the 1995 Census of Population) Unpublished Quantitative NSO Qualitative AIDS Surveillance & Education Program. Inc. Cebu CityHighlights of the 1995 Census of Population 3. Marawi CityHighlights of the 1995 Census of Population 5. Injecting Drug Users.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . Issues in Adolescent Sexuality Perceptions on sex.g. Pangalangan (UP College of Law) 1995 Published (part of the Highlights of the 1995 Census of Population) Published Report NSO (Quantitative) Qualitative National Statistics Office (NSO) 1995 Knowledge Metro Cebu & attitudes City related to AIDS & STDs. ethical issues. sexual practices. sexuality & gender Principal Investigator/s Author/s Health Action Information Network Publication/ Published/ Manuscript Unpublished Date 1994-1996 Unpublished Study/ Paper type Qualitative (formal interviews/ FGDs) Funding Source HAIN Sociodemographi c profile of Cebu City Cebu City National Statistics Office (NSO) 1995 4. Elizabeth A. condom use Baguio City Sociodemographic profile of Baguio City Ramon Aboitiz Foundation. legal & policy implications) SocioMarawi City demographic profile of Marawi City Prof. Contextual Factors Affecting Riskrelated Sexual Behavior Among Young Adults in the Philippines 2. Thelma Lee-Mendoza (UP CSWCD) Prof. Baguio CityHighlights of the 1995 Census of Population Discussion on adolescent sexuality & related concerns (e.2003 Annex 1.

effects of VAW on women's lives. health consequences) Teenager's questions about sex.g. ARH-related issues Perceptions of the health risks of contraception & pregnancy. health risks. MARHIA 10. perceptions on the health impacts of the timing of pregnancies. education. Reproductive Health Risks & Fertility Decisionmaking in the Philippines Aurora E. Perceived Health Risks of Contraception & Pregnancy & Risk-taking Behavior of Filipino Men & Women: Do They Differ? Assessment Baguio City & evaluation of program operations (e. rape. variations in perceived reproductive & contraceptive health risks. Facts and Figures on VAW 9. 1995 Unpublished Survey 104 . Baltazar Jan-March 1995 Published News Magazine ISSA June 1995 Unpublished Qualitative Evaluation Project at University of North Carolina Ford Foundation (Manila) Mellon Foundation 11. values & disvalues of children Nueva Ecija Data on Metro Manila timing of pregnancies. Assessment & Evaluation of the Adolescent Fertility Management Program (Nov. contraceptive use Women's Crisis Center 1995-1998 Published Fact sheet David and Lucile Packard Foundation Institute for Social Studies & Action (ISSA) Marie Joy D. childbearing. Arguillas Dec. Biddlecom Marie Joy B. birth intervals. 1995-Dec. Casterline Ann E. networking & referral system) Data on VAW (incest. counseling. 1996) 8.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Title Content Geographical Sites/Focus Principal Investigator/s Author/s Publication/ Published/ Manuscript Unpublished Date 1995-1996 Unpublished Study/ Paper type Report Funding Source 7. Perez John B.

) 1996 Unpublished/ Survey Selected Findings Department Of Health (DOH) POPCOM March 1996 Unpublished Report POPCOM POPCOM VI Buas-Damlag Youth Foundation. Bontoc.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . Tarlac services. Karapatan Rights & ng Bawat responsibilities of Batang Pilipino every child (The Rights of Every Child) 14. perceptions Center in Anao. (BDYFI) HANAS Cooperative March 1996 Unpublished Qualitative Study POPCOM BuasDamlag Youth Foundation. marriage. 1994 Young Adult Fertility Survey (YAFS II) Socio-economic background of adolescents. etc. friendship & dating. reproductive health & HIV 13. “Counselingon-Air” UNICEF 1996 Published Primer UNICEF External Consultants (Michael L. Inc. sex & contraception. Selected Areas about center staff. the relationships.2003 Title Content Geographical Principal Investigator/s Sites/Focus Author/s Nationwide University of the Philippines Population Institute Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Date 1996 Published Nationwide Survey Funding Source David & Lucile Packard Foundation 12. Tan. demographic & socioeconomic characteristics & residential history education. Inc. About…: A concepts of gender Capiz Qualitative Negros & homosexuality.. et. sex & Implementation sexuality of Adolescent Health & Youth Dev't Program. al. Adolescents Adolescent profile in Iloilo Want to Talk Antique Western Visayas. AIDS KAPB practices & behavior Tacloban & Survey: Cotabato as they relate to Findings from HIV/AIDS risk Young Adult Samples 15. impact Iloilo Teen of youth center on Center youth Cebu Teen Center Davao Teen Center 16. attitudes. (BDYFI) HANAS Cooperative 105 . HIV/ Knowledge. pregnancy & childbearing. Iloilo. Evaluation Needs of BCYA of the Multiadolescents that are MCYA Service Youth being addressed by Teen Info Centers in centers. Study in adolescent Preparation for socialization.

needs. Basic Training on Psychosocial Interventions for Street Children Service Providers Needs & potentials of the Filipino Youth. Philippines sexual behavior. practices. et. SWS-NYC Study on the Situation of Youth in the Philippines 20. values. attitudes. Adolescent Health & Youth Dev't Programme: Youth Programs & Projects 18.D. The Social Mapping of Asian Youth At Risk: An Example from the Philippines 22. Ph. gaps. Manila) April 1997 Unpublished Qualitative Needs Assessment (FGDs & interviews) 106 . aspirations & problems POPCOM March 1996 Unpublished Survey POPCOM Social Weather Stations (SWC) April 1996 Published Representative National Youth Survey Commission (NYC) Manual AUSAID & UNICEF Nationwide/ Understanding the street children. De La Salle University. demographic surveys & contraception Deborah Balk. current programs & projects. basic Philippines psychosocial interventions for street children. Sexuality & RH Concerns among CampusBased Adolescents Demographic or compositional changes Nationwide/ Philippines Community & Family Services International (CFSI) & National Project On Street Children (NPSC) Peter Xenos & Corazon Raymundo 1997 Published 1997 Published Paper/ Article Honolulu East-West Center Nationwide/ HIV/AIDS risk. HIV/AIDS Risk in the Philippines: Focus on Adolescents & Young Adults 23. Lee. lifestyles. AHYDP Community Needs Assessment Survey 19. skills enhancement workshop & back home application 21. East-West Center Foundation for Adolescent Dev't Metro Manila Info on young people's relationships. views on getting the right info Romeo B. (Behavioral Sciences. 1997 Published Paper/ Article Honolulu Program on Population. issues & areas for dev't in Adolescent Fertility.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Title Content Geographical Principal Sites/Focus Investigator/s Author/s POPCOM Nationwide Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Date March 1996 Unpublished Report Funding Source POPCOM 17. agencies w/ programs for the youth Nationwide Characteristics. Sexuality and RH care Identified problems Nationwide of the youth. Al.

activities POPCOM V November 1997 Unpublished Information Kit UNFPA Metro Manila Data on sexual abstinence. Ateneo De Manila (for BCYA) 1998 Published Booklet UNFPA (FOR NCRFW) 1998 Unpublished Report BCYA 107 . adult & parents. Trinidad S. social Nationwide 28. Theocharis. Action for Adolescent Health Towards a Common Agenda 25. From Words Data on HIV penetration into to Action Asian & the Pacific Countries Demographic.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . Murray L. Framework for Country Programming for Adolescent Health Main platform. activities & Youth Dev't workplan Programme 1994-1998) Nationwide 29. contraceptive use Romel Saulog Lacson. 1997 Published Quantitative 27. Social Dev't Complex. project Fertility & strategy.2003 Title Content Geographical Principal Sites/Focus Investigator/s Author/s International WHO UNFPA (role of UNICEF donors) Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Date Program Published May 1997 for Action Funding Source WHO 24. local partners & other institutions Women's Feature Service. UNFPA Fourth Country & health sit. sexual behavior & contraception 1997-1998 Published Guide UNDP UNFPA 1998 Unpublished Country Programme UNFPA Baguio City 30. pregnancy risks. Sy. Adolescent Fertility Programme (Support to the & Youth Dev't Programme Adolescent Framework.. Francisco S. knowledge on AIDS. Summary of Results of FGD among youth FGD Results beneficiaries. Theocharis R. Vincent. sex education. Robert Strack. Sexuality reproductive health. workplan. Hearts & Minds: Reaching out to young Filipinos through IEC 26. Adolescent Sexuality. core IEC themes. Correlates of Sexual Abstinence Among Urban University Students in the Phils. Osteria & Pilar Ramos Jimenez HAIN Dec. school counselors. Philippines (Aurora Perez & Penny Azarcon-de la Cruz) Institute of Social Order.

De La Salle University 108 . with the Department of Health Dr. young adults' definitions of love. challenges & recommendations 33. violence & abuse. Issue in the abortion Phils. Rights Too! adolescent pregnancy & early motherhood. Philippines Nationwide UNICEF March 1998 Published Report UNICEF Bukidnon Province Population Council Manila. ethics of abortion 31. major problems. health services.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Title Content Geographical Principal Sites/Focus Investigator/s Author/s Michael L. Situation Of Background information on the The Youth In The Philippines youth. major 1998 programs & policies. the Philippines 36. Tan Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Date 1998 Published Qualitative Funding Source UNFPA Sexuality & related concepts. health & nutrition. gaps. poverty. Male community survey Involvement on RH awareness. Josefina Cabigon. Medium-Term out-of-school youth. Philippines Nationwide NYC 1998 Published Report NYC. Sex and Sexuality Nationwide National Youth Commission (NYC) 1998 Published Situationer Report NYC. Corazon Raymunco. & Zelda Zablan (UPPI) Rosena Sanchez Jose Dante Marcos Eliseo de Guzman Josephine Avila June 1998 Unpublished Report USAID Metro Manila. consequences. Philippine Needs of in-school. HIV/AIDS & other STDs. views on courtship. Abortion as Info on abortion a Public Health experiences of Filipino women. education and child labour Results of 35. mutual understanding (MU) 32. Dr. results of Bukidnon FGDs & interviews Province. Through RH inventory of health Awareness in services. Dr. working & youth Development Plan 1999-2004 with special needs Info on Phil culture 34. Girl Children Have & family. Cebu Nationwide (other articles) June 1998 Published Quantitative Task Force & Qualitative on Social Science & RH. Social Dev't Research Center.

impact of STDs/HIV/AIDS. University of the Philippines (Clarinda Berja) 1999 Published UNESCO Case Study (Documentary Regional Clearing Review) House on Population Education and Communication Annual Report UNFPA UNFPA 1999 Published Data on problems La Carlota affecting the youth & City. Inc. Health & Dev't (Modules 1-9) 40. STDs) Literature on youth. POPCOM 1999 Unpublished Report 1999 Published Report KABALAKA Dev't Foundation. Youth Power. incidence of HIV/AIDS. Inc. Health & Dev't Overview on adolescent health status (e. advocacy & IEC strategies & successful organizations Adolescents & Nationwide Youth Fiscalina AmadoraNolasco 1999 Published Quantitative & Qualitative Foundation for Adolescent Development. Workshop on Adolescent Health 38. Results of FGD (Negros Occidental. teen pregnancies. alcohol & substance use. Inc. contraception. policy & programme responses. 20 21 April 1999) 43. (FAD) 1999 Published Module UNFPA Department of Sociology. Region VII sexuality & sex education. fertility. health & dev't Nationwide Demographic profile. 1999 Annual Report of the Technical & Policy Division 42.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Among Young Adults in Region VII 39. sexual behavior. health service delivery. youth profile (Region VII). Communication & Advocacy Strategies on Adolescent Reproductive & Sexual Health in the Philippines 41. mental health. awareness & knowledge of HIV/AIDS Info on step-by-step methods/processes in conducting trainings on adolescence & related issues such as sexuality. Negros their needs Occidental Youth sit. A Guide for Trainers & Facilitators on Adolescent Sexuality. info on the Adolescent Health & Youth Dev't Programme Nationwide KABALAKA Dev't Foundation.g. STD..2003 Title Content Geographical Principal Sites/Focus Investigator/s Author/s Western World Health Pacific Region Organization Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Date October 1998 Unpublished Report Funding Source WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific 37. UNFPA 109 .

How are the Info on youth's Nimfa B. Understand.etc. ARH sit. Changing? (The values. juvenile POPCOM) & Programs: delinquency. street Dir. education our Nation's & work. PMS. Health Policies children. Adolescent Youth profile. (UPPI) definitions of Research Gaps 'adolescent'. Ph.. Ogena. info Osias Adolescent on violence & abuse. Research on RH Raymundo) of Filipino Youth Title Content Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Date Unpublished Report 1999 Funding Source POPCOM 1999 Published Qualitative 1999 Published Qualitative 1999 Published Quantitative UNFPA January 1999 Unpublished Paper 110 . Raymundo Philippines Peter Xenos conception status. Adolescents: D. etc. Youth & adolescent Nationwide Tomas M.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Geographical Principal Investigator/s Sites/Focus Author/s 44. (Executive Reproductive prostitution. diff. adolescents. Phil. cultures. contraceptive use. childbearing during adolescence. A Review Nationwide UPPI (Grace Of Policies. Experience on sit. D. gender & Young 1970s to sexuality. Shifting media & political Lifestyles of exposure.. ing Filipino Cabigon. expectations.) 47.. 48. Cruz & Programs & Corazon M. substance use. data Nationwide Corazon M.Profile of Josefina V. Current Status & Future Direction 45. Sexuality in the on dating. T. RH Domingo problems. ARH status 1990s 46. Filipino Youth lifestyles. current Advocacy for & policies & programs Practices on Policy & Program Including Genesis. Ph. ARH& Challenges related issues (marriage during adolescence. Lita J.

policies & rights Info on BCYA 52. 3 June. 2001 (Vol. 2) June. Limpao (Al Mujadilah Dev't Foundation) 2000 Published Qualitative & Ford Participatory Foundation (FGDs. AIDS program for Action adolescents. Youth Edition incest. The Impact of The Cordillera Administrative Region IEC Program on the RH Knowledge. Philippines BCYA January 1999 Published News Magazine ISSA July-Dec. Adolescent Articles featuring programs for the Education youth (e. KIIs. Acmad Aminoding B. 1999 Published JulySeptember 2000 Published September 1999 Dec. participant observation 111 . BCYA in programs & Action accomplishments 53. Dec. 1999 (vol.Nationwide Planning Survey tive use (modern & traditional methods). Reprowatch Articles on rape. 51. youth practices Info on safer sex. projects) Institute for Social Studies & Action (ISSA) Health Action Information Network. 4) June 2002 (Vol. in-depth interviews. marriage).A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . 2000 (Vol. Zablan) Publication/ Published/ Manuscript Unpublished Date Published JanuaryDecember 1999 Study/ Paper type Journal Article Funding Source Philippine Social Sciences Review 49.2003 Title Content Geographical Principal Sites/Focus Investigator/s Author/s UPPI (Zelda CAR C. teen Newsletter centers. Berowa Norania M. Attitudes and Behavior of Single Adolescents 50. Newsletter BCYA Newsletter 54. Sexuality domestic violence & incest National Statistics Office Published Quantitative NSO Yasmin Busran-Lao Alma E. Dec.g. women's health. 2000 Family Data on contracep. M'ranao adolescents & young Lanao Del Sur Youth: Views adults. HIV. CPR (Contraceptive Prevalence Rate) & FP services Marawi City RH sit of M'ranao 55. practices on RH & (courtship. 5) 2000 Published Guide (newsletter) HAIN Phils.

education. Women and Men in Bicol Region Physical & sexual abuse among children & adolescents 2000 Published Documentary Children & review Youth Foundation of the Philippines Quantitative POPCOM V Data on population Bicol & families. public order & safety & VAW Baguio City 59. 2000) 60. health & FP. Child Pornography & the Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes-Int'l Young People's Participation Project (ECPATIYPPP) Social Action Province of CenterAlbay Diocese of Legaspi Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Date 2000 Published Report Funding Source ECPATIYPPP 56. Matnog. patterns. econ. Sex Trade in Incidence. Functional Education indicators Nationwide among youth Literacy. Participation. Ateneo de Naga University. Education & Mass Media Survey (flemms) 61. Province of causes & conseMatnog: An Sorsogon quences of Exploratory prostitution among Study adolescents National Statistical Coordination Board 2000 Published BCYA 2000 Unpublished Report UNFPA National Statistics & Coordinating Board (NSCB) Ateneo Social Science Research Center. Changing Our Lives Info on an ECPAT project for Filipino youths 57.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Title Content Geographical Principal Sites/Focus Investigator/s Author/s End Child International Prostitution. work. BCYA First Info on BCYA Annual Report program accomplishments (Sept. 19941999 58. migration. social welfare. Naga City 2000 Published Survey 2000 Unpublished Qualitative National Statistics & Coordinating Board (NSCB) Women's Health & Safe Motherhood ProjectPartnerships Component. A Profile of Child & Woman Abuse in the Province of Albay. public life. agri & agrarian reform. DOH & EU in the Philippines 112 .-Dec.

Street Children Project among children & adolescents 70. Consolidation & Analysis of ASRH FGDs (20002001) 65. Cases Against Women Consultations. Inc. drug abuse. hotline) 63. 14. Body & Soul Questions for Tomorrow's Women 67. stories.g. data on teenage pregnancy. Body & Soul: A Forum reproductive health On Adolescent of adolescents Sexuality 64. training & monitoring Data on VAW cases Davao City Development of People's Foundation (DPF) Women's Feature Service (Philippines). Rights. Women's Feature Service (WFS) Philippines. Soroptimist Data on VAW cases International of Baguio Quarterly Report Metro Manila Baguio City OctoberDecember 2000 Oct.Discussions on how to treat adolescents. sexuality. Inc. counseling. 2000 Published Article David & Lucile Packard Foundation PNP Zamboanga City Police Office PLCPD Unpublished Quarterly Report Soroptimist International of Baguio 113 . Inc. Youth In Action For Reproductive Health & Rights 68. Development of People's Foundation. Cook 2000 Published Views/opinions of Davao City adolescent on sex & RH. (DPF) PNP Zamboanga City Police Office Maria Luisa de Leon-Miranda Soroptimist International of Baguio 2000-2001 Unpublished Report Reproductive (Proceedings) Health. cancer.2003 Title Content Geographical Principal Investigator/s Sites/Focus Author/s FAD Web Publication/ Published/ Manuscript Unpublished Date Published 2000 2002 2003 Study/ Paper type Article/ Report Funding Source 62. views/opinions of parents regarding adolescent sex & RH Info on adolescent sexuality.-Dec. PMS. programs available (e. 15-Nov. AIDS. views on abortion Religion & Nationwide 66.. Rights and Ethics Center for Studies & Training (ReproCen) Report DPF July 2000 Published Quantitative / Qualitative Ford Foundation July 2000 Published Forum Report Ford Foundation Oct-Dec 2000 Unpublished Activity Report Zamboanga City Oct. FP. Articles of Foundation for Adolescent Dev't Youth health sit.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . tive Health. forums. child exploitation. Reproduc. 2000 Unpublished Report STD & pregnancy 69. Ethics & RH rights/policies Law for Health Professionals Rebecca J. family relations.

UPPI RTIS/STD/HIV/ and Ifugao Administrative (Zelda C. AIDS of single Provinces Region (CAR) Zablan) adolescent boys & girls Violeta Articles on girlfriend 73. Health Marcelino pregnancies. IEC activities for 72. Menstrua. battering. Reproductive Health & Dev't Project Book Series 2001 Unpublished Qualitative/ FGDs Rockefeller Foundation 2001 Unpublished Report 2001 Published Situation Analysis Report UN 114 . infant/child mortality. Gender Bautista. violence/sexual abuse.. Alicia child abuse Dimensions Molina. Maricar Savella. abortion) Nationwide 76.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Geographical Principal Sites/Focus Investigator/s Author/s Gerardo A. IEC Impact Development Ifugao prevention & Survey in Foundation. student Violence: Its Rachelle Socio-Cultural prostitution. . Rose D. Maturation: A Davao Case Study in Medical Selected School Schools of Foundation Mindanao Dir.Sexual maturation.g. Nationwide 75. religious Luzon (areas Youth: Demographic orientation.g. Fritzie Ramos. lifestyles outside of NCR but w/in Patterns & Luzon) Attitudinal Visayas. Situation of Filipino Youth maternal death. incest & Layda. Kalinga management of the Cordillera Inc. National Data on youth's 71. Provinces in Apayao. Correlates Mindanao Demographic Apayao. The 2000 Research & Kalinga & adolescents. Prescilla Tulipat Institute of 74. Youth in the Youth health. Sexual Experiences of sexual experiences & Capital Region Sandoval (SWS) Balance mass media the Filipino experience. FGDS UNFPAAECI 2001 Published Qualitative Ford Foundation UCWS Gender. 2000 Unpublished Survey (Quantitative) December 2000 Unpublished Survey & qualitative. STDs. Data on ARH (e. e. Philippines: A policies & programs Review of the Youth Situation and National Policies and Programs Title Content Funding Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Source Date SWS Nov. Primary menstruation tion & Sexual Health Care.

MD.) UP-CIDS-PST (Violeta Bautista. Karen Kunawicz. 77. peer education) La Carlota City & La Castellana in Negros Occidental KABALAKA Dev't Foundation. Inc.2003 Title Content Geographical Principal Sites/Focus Investigator/s Author/s Stella G. Accomplishment Report (Aug. ARH Orientation & Leadership Training” Inputs on sex & gender. marriage. rape & sexual harassment. contraception. Inc. FPDS Anna Leah Sarabia Development of People's Foundation Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Date Published Guide 2001 Funding Source Women's Media Circle Foundation. Working With Abused Children: From the Lenses of Resilience & Contextualization 81. Trust & Power: Child Abuse in the Eyes of the Child & the Parent 80. Nora RodriguezCortez. sexuality. 2 Info guide on lesbianism. et. teen centers. 2001) 82. “Recollection. 17-Nov. Building Young VisionariesCourse 3: Gender-Fair Counseling for ARH & Rights 79. MHA. ARH & rights 2001 Unpublished Manual Development of People's Foundation Abuse on children & Malate. MD. al) 2001 Published Participatory Action Research Italian Cooperation for Development Abuse. de Dios. discussion on laws & rights. adolescents Dakota & Leveriza Streets UP-CIDSPST (Elizabeth Protacio et. Rina JimenezDavid. KABALAKA Dev't Foundation. health services 78. resilience & responding to challenges Metro Manila 2001 Published Save the Qualitative/life story Children-UK interviews ARH-related activities & programs (e. 16. MD. Bodytalk: The XYZ Guide to Young Women's Health & Body Vol. Susan Grace PinedaMercado. Info on Saint Mary's SMU University's (SMU) programs & activities involving the youth SMU 2001 Unpublished Report SMU 115 . 2001 Unpublished Report KABALAK A Dev't Foundation. Inc. RH of adolescents. al. pornography & VAW. Inc.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . STDs & AIDS.g.

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines
Geographical Principal Investigator/s Sites/Focus Author/s 83. Documenta- Info on ARH-related Region II Ana Cecilia activities, programs, Nueva Vizcaya Alejo, Lemuel tion of plans and services PARDEV's Cacho, Englebert Study Tour in Nueva Vizcaya Dator, Dainty San Jose, Ma. Lourdes Kathleen Santos & Jubeth Joy S. Santuyo Info on SMU's Nueva Vizcaya 84. St. Mary's ARH-related University programs, activities & services; ARH data Title Content 85. “Love & Desire: Young Filipinos & Sexual Risks” Discussions on sex, gender, sexuality, courtship, marriage & love Manila Iloilo Michael Tan Ma. Theresa Ujano Batangan Henrietta Espaňola Medecins Sans FrontieresBelgium (in the Phils.' Streetchildren Project) Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Date 2001 Unpublished Report Funding Source

2001

2001

Published (in the Rafael M. Salas Population & Dev't Award 2001) Published

Report

Qualitative

Ford Foundation

Info on streetchildren's ARH concerns (e.g. menarche, sexual debut, pregnancy, substance abuse, STIs, FP; present conditions Abortion estimates, link between unwanted pregnancy, contraceptive use & abortion; policy implications of abortion Data on youth 88. The McCann Youth environment, activity trend Study 2000 89. Abortion in Abortion estimates, the Phils: Being link between illegal does not unwanted pregnancy, contraceptive use & make it rare abortion; policy implications of abortion 86. Research on the RH Problems of Street GirlMothers in Selected Areas of Metro Manila 87. Abortion in the Phils: Being illegal does not make it rare

Pasay Quezon Manila Caloocan

2001

Unpublished

Descriptive

Medecins Sans FrontieresBelgium

Nationwide

UPPI Demographic Research & Dev't Foundation, Inc. McCannErickson Philippines UPPI Demographic Research & Dev't Foundation, Inc.

2001

Published

Quantitative / qualitative

David and Lucile Packard Foundation

Luzon, Visayas & Mindanao Nationwide

2001

Unpublished

Quantitative

McCannErickson David and Lucile Packard Foundation

2001

Published

Quantitative / qualitative

116

A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 - 2003
Title Content Geographical Principal Investigator/s Sites/Focus Author/s International EngenderHealth Funding Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Source Date 2001 Published Article from EngenderHealth the web

90. Key Facts about Adolescents & RH 91. Adolescent & Youth Health & Dev't Program (AYHDP) 92. Unsafe Abortion in the Philippines: A Threat to Public Health

Global statistics on unplanned pregnancies, STDs & reproductive needs Strategic framework for AYHDP; implementing guidelines, workplan 2001-2010 Profile of women w/ abortion experience, RH status of these women, level of abortion, consequences of abortion

All health facility levels

DOH

2001

Unpublished

Manual

DOH

Manila Cebu Davao Tuguegarao

Corazon M. 2001 Raymundo Zelda C. Zablan Josefina V. Cabigon Grace T. Cruz Clarinda L. Berja Writers (Arlyn 2001 G. Verba & Faye A.G. Balanon) Plan Philippines 2001-2002

Published

Quantitative & qualitative

Ford Foundation

93. Childhood Referral system for & Child Rights child abuse cases Study Series including adolescents 94. Plan Info on Plan's Philippines programs for Milestones children aged 6-12 (2001-2002 & 13-17 Annual Report) 95. Medium inclusion of Term Dev't Adolescent Health Plan 2001-2004 & Youth Dev't in (Baguio City) advocacy areas 96. Adolescent Health and Youth Development

Nationwide

Published

Nationwide

Published

Monograph Save the Children (UK) & UP CIDS PST Report Plan Phils.

Baguio City

2001-2004

Unpublished

Plan

Adolescent Nationwide demographic & socio-econ profile, reproductive behavior of adolescents & youths, approaches & lessons learned 97. “Time to Data on RH, ARH Nationwide Act: Needs, and population, Options, Highlights of Decisions,” RH/ARH-related State of the programs in the Phil. Population Phils. Report 2000 98. Youth in Experiences in Davao City Action for RH youth leadership & & Rights advocacy on sexual & Rh & rights, lessons, accomplishments

POPCOM

2001-2004

Published

POPCOM

January 2001

Published

Part of the PPMP Directional Plan 20012004 (Quantitative and qualitative) Report POPCOM

Development of People's Foundation, Inc.

Jan-Oct. 2001 Unpublished

Activity Report

David & Lucile Packard Foundation

117

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines
Title Content Geographical Principal Investigator/s Sites/Focus Author/s ISSA Nationwide Funding Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Source Date Published Booklet David & May 2001 Lucile Packard Foundation

99. Sa Pagdadalaga, Bigyang Pansin Ang Mga Pagbabago Sa Katawan 100. Rapid Impact Evaluation of Kabalaka Development Foundation, Inc. 101. Adolescent Reproductive Health & Family Planning Practices in La Carlota City & La Castellana 102. Baseline Survey on the Knowledge, Attitudes, & Practices of Adolescents & Adults on Reproductive Health 103. Coming of Age Under the Threat of HIV/AIDS: The Experience of Filipino Adolescents 104. The Participatory Planning Process: Research Utilization & Plan Formulation for Adolescent RH in Southern Leyte

Adolescent reproductive & sexual health

Youth development La Carlota & La Castellana, Negros Occidental

External Consultant (Adonis A. Sucalit)

June 2001

Unpublished

Evaluation Report

Kabalaka Development Foundation, Inc.

La Carlota City & Municipality of La Castellana, Negros Occ.

Reasons for Sexual Baguio City Initiation, Contraceptive Use, STD, Substance Use, Violence & Sexual Abuse among students in four high schools Sexual initiation, Nationwide multiple sex partners, commercial sex, invulnerable youth, HIV, same-sex sexual practice Southern Leyte

Business June 2001 Resource Center, University of St. La Salle, Bacolod City (Carmen Peralta-Benares) Division of June 2001 Social Sciences, University of the Philippines, College Baguio

Unpublished

Descriptive- Kabalaka explanatory Development (quantitative Foundation, & qualitative) Inc.

Unpublished

Survey

UNFPA

AIDS Action (Elma Laguna)

JulyDecember 2001

Published

Newsletter

HAIN & Healthlink Worldwide, UK

UPPI (Zelda C. August 2001 Zablan & Josefina V. Cabigon)

118

Funding Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Source Date October 2001 Unpublished CrossSectional Study 2002 Published 2002 Published Quantitative Phil. responding to HIV/AIDS & challenges Title Content 107. awareness & 1998 use of contraceptive methods 108. data on Information Country Profile HIV/AIDS Network Philippines awareness & (HAIN) 2002 prevention. Lu. health risk behaviors. Correlates STD. Among Female sexual abuse Marie Aimee Street Hyacinth Adolescents in Bretana) Drop-In Centers in Davao City 106. info on effects of HIV/AIDS. communiReproductive cation plan on youth Health sexual & reproducChallenges: tive health. health sit. Young Work-Based Adult Peer Reproductive Educators. work Philippines status. HIV/AIDS situation Nationwide Health Action HIV/AIDS in the Phils. childbearing..2003 Geographical Principal Investigator/s Sites/Focus Author/s 105.) Survey United descriptive Nations statistics Foundation 2002 Trade Union Congress of the Philippines (TUCP) Published Article /Annual Report David & Lucile Packard Foundation & UNFPA POPCOM 2002 Unpublished Report POPCOM 119 . marital for Program status. Regina De Diseases substance abuse & La Paz-Ingente. initiatives & best practices Population Council. & youthHealth for the friendly services & Working Youth facilities 109. Philippines Adolescent socioNationwide Country Report econ profile.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . sexuality & Planning. Nat'l Aids Council (PNAC) & United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS in the Phils. physical abuse. lack of (Jetty Jet Rioja Transmitted contraceptive use. Inc. Respond. (UNAIDSPhils. Davao City External of Symptoms multiple sexual Researchers of Sexually partners. policy & programs.. attitudes Nationwide ing to Youth & practices of young Sexual & workers.Knowledge. Facts Urban-rural Nationwide About residence & Adolescents population from the distribution. Demographic educational Survey: enrolment & Statistical Tables attainment.

health & dev't. Talkpoint Data on adolescent Global/local Committee on (Issue Nos. Inc. 57.9 million data on PMS (e. Working Profile of adolescent Metro Manila TUCP workers & sexual & & Metro Youth's Reproductive reproductive health Davao knowledge. RH Population & problems 62) Dev't Foundation. Time of Ina sexuality. Legislators' 115. (PLCPD) Ma.g. Legislators' Committee on Population (PLCPD) 120 . Love in the Views on love. child Welfare of Shattered Lives labor. Demographic consequences young adults Research & have engaged in surrounding first sex. Attitudes. Philippines Protacio-De Approaches in deviance & peers Castro. 4.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Geographical Principal Sites/Focus Investigator/s Author/s UP-CIDS-PST Nationwide/ 110. SB 2325 & HB 4110) Title Content Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Date 2002 Published Documentation report Funding Source Save the Children-UK 2002 Published Survey/ Structured Interview UNFPA 2002 Published Report UNICEF 2002 Published Qualitative Ford Foundation 2002 Unpublished Press Release David & Lucile Packard Foundation 2002 Published Factsheet Ford Foundation 2002 Published Primer Phil. Cecilia De 116. 113. (Elizabeth Child-Centered adolescent sexuality. Dev't practices) PMS Foundation Phil. romance (Zambales) Morata from the point of view of those who married at a young age UPPI & Nationwide 114. Torres Maburol marriage. Sa Totoo Discussion on Los ReyesRH issues (abortion) Lang! (Ang Ferrer Katotohan Tungkol sa RH Care Act. attitudes Health & practices Knowledge. Rebuilding Disabilities. et. sexual abuse & Children exploitation & HIV and Dreams (From State of infections the Filipino Children 2002) Manggahan & Amaryllis T.al) Children's Work 111. ad Behavior: Implications for WorkplaceBased Intervention Council for the Nationwide 112. Integrating Adolescence. gender.

2003 Title Geographical Principal Sites/Focus Investigator/s Author/s Reproductive Discussions on Health. Tabaco City Identified RH problems in the community & policy/legislative actions UPPI & Views/perceptions Nationwide Demographic of youth on morality Research & Dev't Foundation Mary Barby Stakeholders concept Iloilo City Penacerrada of ARH Badayos (De La Salle University) Content Funding Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Source Date Reproductive Report Published 2002 (Proceedings) Health. Adolescent Reproductive Healthcare Programs & Services in Iloilo City's Public Health System: Stakeholders' Concepts. assessment instruments Nationwide Plan Phils. Rights and Ethics Center for Studies & Training (ReproCen) Unpublished Case Study ICOMP 2002 Malaysia 2002 Unpublished Case Study ICOMP Malaysia 117. La Castellana Teen Horizon 119. Development sexuality education Negros Occ. Kabalaka Peer counseling. What Barangay Officials Can Do to Set Up a Child-Friendly Locality July 2002 Unpublished Exploratory Personal Qualitative Graduate Thesis Guidelines for setting up a childfriendly barangay. Kabalaka Peer counseling. The Journal of Reproductive Health. Inc. pre-marriage Training counseling programs (ReproCen) La Castellana. Inc. Rights health seeking and Ethics behavior among Center for young women & Studies & men. Rights & Ethics 118. DSWD DILG Liga ng mga Barangay Council for the Welfare of Children UNICEF NEDA September 2002 Published Booklet UNICEF 121 . La Castellana. Perceptions and Recommendations 123. Foundation. Filipino Youth Seeking Moral Compass February 2002 Unpublished Report April 2002 Unpublished Press Release David & Lucile Packard Foundation 122. La Carlota Teen Circle 120. Development sexuality education Negros Occ. Foundation.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . Barangay Policy Forum (Workshop Outputs) 121.

Working Youth profile. 2002 Unpublished 126. Offenders Paranaque.g. Level of discernCaloocan. RH. Kikay Kit: Kaalama't Impormasyon Sa Katawa't Kalusugan Nating Youth Global and local data 131. commercial sex. 2002 Unpublished Press Release David & Lucile Packard Foundation 129. Filipino young adults see bleak future Dec. dating. (Newsletter) pregnancy.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Title Geographical Principal Sites/Focus Investigator/s Author/s Philippine Manila. advantages & disadvantages UPPI & Young adults losing Nationwide Demographic hope in the future. premarital & early sex. out-of-school (PAYO) Pasay. 2002 Young Adult Fertility & Sexuality Study Dec. contraception) Metro Manila. Arrested Development: The Level of Discernment of Out-of-School Children & Youth 125. 2002 Unpublished Nationwide David & Survey Lucile Packard (Quantita. The youth are not alright Dec. unsafe sex practices UPPI & Nationwide data on youth in a Demographic live-in arrangement. 132. love relationAttitudes & ships. Taguig children & youth & Quezon ages 7 to 18 City UPPI & Nationwide ARH data (risky Demographic sexual behavior) Research & Dev't Foundation UPPI Data on sexuality & Nationwide DRDF RH of Filipino youth. homosexuality.Foundation tive/Quick Results) 127. RH problems such as STDs. ISSA on ARH (e. Research & views of adolescents Dev't on marriage & Foundation living-in. Las Action for ment & moral Youth development of 300 Piñas. 2002 Unpublished Press Release David & Lucile Packard Foundation 128. sexual Behaviour: Implications for & non-sexual behavior WorkplaceBased Interventions 2003 Published Booklet David & Lucile Packard Foundation 2003 Institute For Social Studies & Action (ISSA) Trade Union 2003 Congress of the Philippines (TUCP) & the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) Published Newsletter Ford Foundation Published Survey / UNFPA quantitative 122 . Research & influences on young Dev't adults' lives Foundation Institute For Nationwide Adolescent Social Studies & reproductive & Action (ISSA) sexual health Content Publication/ Published/ Manuscript Unpublished Date September Published 2002 Funding Study/ Paper type Source Survey/ UNICEF Quantitative Manila and qualitative/ in-depth interviews Press Release David & Lucile Packard Foundation 124. abortion. No more weddings for young pinoy Dec. Metro Davao knowledge & Youth's RH attitudes on sexual & Knowledge.

pregnancy & childbearing. residential history. premarital sex & contraceptive use Content ARSH Web Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Date Qualitative Published 2003 (in-depth FGDs & KIIs) Funding Source University Center for Women's Resources & Phil. sex & contraception. the Philippines demographic & Population socioeconomic Institute characteristics. population education. friendship & dating. Filipino Adolescents in Changing Times 134. Case Demographic Philippines Studies Of characteristics. 2003 Published Article (from the Sunday Times) 123 . Jimenez & adolescents' Cherrie Joy F. experiences & views Billedo on sex & sexuality) Includes stories & Center for Nationwide statistics on physical Reproductive & sexual abuse Health among adolescents Leadership & Development. & private Conaco. 2002 Young Adult Fertility & Sexuality Study (YAFSIII) 2003 Preliminary Findings/Press Release Published Nationwide David & Survey Lucille Packard Foundation 136. Cecilia psychology & culture areas. advocacy & IEC lessons learned & guidelines 138.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . public Gastardoof adolescent life. activities on gender province of & RH with youth as Albay target audience 139. (Maria Leny E. 400. Protecting Women & Children: A Handbook on CommunityBased Response to Violence 2003 Published Handbook 135.2003 Title Geographical Principal Investigator/s Sites/Focus Author/s Literature on the Rural & urban Ma. FGDs (e. results of KIIs & schools Carmen C. Inc. Filipino youths truly at risk with more liberal views… 137. reproductive health & HIV Nationwide Perla AragonData on sexual Choudhury debut.g. GAD plan Programs & Albay & budget. marriage. Ma. Felix & Regina De La Paz-Ingente) background of Nationwide University of adolescents. Center for Population & Dev't Ford Foundation 133. ARSH programme responses.000 Data on abortion Nationwide abortions in RP yearly despite ban 2003 Unpublished Report 2003 Published Case Study Report 2003 Unpublished Plan Jan.

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Title Content Geographical Principal Sites/Focus Investigator/s Author/s Fritzie Franchette Ramos Maricar Gay Savella Bicol POPCOM V UPPI & Demographic Research & Dev't Foundation 140. Inc. VIII No. experimental nature of risk behavior Questions of the youth on RH Albay Mayon May 2003 Integrated Dev't Alternatives & Services. Pananaw (Vol. 1) Info on student prostitution Funding Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Source Date University Jan-Mar 2003 Published Article Center for Women's Studies Jan-Mar 2003 March 2003 Published Unpublished Newsletter Press Release POPCOM V David & Lucile Packard Foundation 141. Population Infoclips 142. (MIDAS) Unpublished Report MIDAS 124 . Survey reveals increasing feminization in adolescent risk behaviors 143. Forum on HB 4110 Population data Narrower gender Nationwide gap in risk behaviors.

National based Children UNFPA. contests. and schoolbased National Youth GOP On-going 3. fora. 5th Country Program for Children Government Violence Rescue. communicable diseases. child protection Nutrition. symposia. reproductive health. sexuality. maternal/child health. referral. referral Counseling. neglect. responsible parenthood. Adolescent Hotline 7. resource centers. DOH Completed 4. networks. sexuality. RH. physical/emotional/ mental status. (MIDAS) 2003-2005 Gender. counseling. clinical services. Prevent abuse. Adolescent Program on HIV/AIDS Prevention 8.Bicol based Youth 125 . Eu Mayon integrated Development Alternatives and Services. awareness. Inc. Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Program Bantay Familia. peer education. training and youth camp Education and services for the youth. and reproductive health problems of adolescents Responsible adolescent behavior HIV/AIDS IECradio spots.Baguio City ARH info and based development of adolescent facilitators Adolescents AUSAID. sexuality Teenage pregnancies. and training for health service providers Community. Hospital. Programs/projects on adolescent reproductive health Title Implementor Period of Implementation 2002-2004 Focus Key Features Approaches Location Geographical Target Sites Clients Funding Source Status of Implementation Completed 1.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . repro tract infection. early marriage. Adolescent and Department Youth Health and of Health Development (DOH) Program (AYHDP) 2001-2010 Community. symposia.1999 Fertility. integration of GST in secondary schools. HIV/AIDS Education. GOP 2. exploitation. teenage pregnancy. training Information Community Close coordination with GOs and NGOs in addressing ARH School and Coordination community and program monitoring. info kits. counseling. Adolescent Fertility Management Program BCYA 1995-1996 Alternative education. discussions. violence and discrimination against children Integrate adolescent and youth health services into the health delivery systems Community. centers Generation of Community. on-air counseling and youth camps. counseling. mental health. disability Fertility. referrals. film showing. ARH Medical services. fertility. UNFPA.Baguio City based Youth Philippine Completed HIV/AID S NGO Support Program Philippine On-going Ngo Support Program (Phansup). Adolescent fertility management program Popcom 1983-1992 5. early marriages. publications Phone counseling. parenting classes. Inc. synchronize training and delivery of IEC and services Counseling Community National Youth USAID National Youth 1524 UNFPA Completed 6. Adolescent Commission Health and Youth on Population Development (POPCOM) Program (AHYDP) 1995. BCYA 2002present 1994-1997 Naga City (26 brgys) Youth On-going IEC approach on HIV/AIDS prevention Community. recovery against children and reintegration assistance. training. brochures. one-stopshops.2003 Annex 2.

Davao Teen Center (DAFLEY) Reproductive and sexual health care Face to face or telephone counseling. RH. puppet shows. information.Davao City based Youth On-going 126 . Jose Medical services Schoolbased Fabella Memorial Hospital Adolescent Completed 14. training. responsible teeners) program 12. prevention of STD/HIV/ AIDS Dr. media. health. comics NGO advocacy network. referrals Schoolbased Metro Manila Youth On-going DepEd. counseling. Inc. community theater tour. gender. healthcare promotions. workshops and mini library Information kit. workshop Counseling and medical health services Community. gender-fair healthcare. Domestic violence. referrals. STD/HIV/ AIDS 13. counseling Counseling. primer. Campusbased “SEXTERS” (socially. City 3 years Health Offices RH. 9-12 years old Youth On-going On-going IEC University and communitybased Schoolbased Quezon City Ateneo de Naga Women and RH/VAW On-going University pamphletsStudents Ford Foundation Students On-going 17. sexual harassment Counseling. Counseling for the Youth Kaugmaon Center for Children's Concerns Foundation. enable partners to provide IEC. Crisis management program VAW. Ateneo de Naga University Family Planning Organization of the Philippines (FPOP) ARH 15. networking and advocacy. Health and Welfare. emotionally. Communitybased and adolescentcentered RH project FAD Sexuality Peer-led activities. sexual harassment. media network Education and counseling on AIDS for the youth Strengthening local NGOs in their advocacy role for a genderresponsive RH program School-based and out-of-the classroom program Community. youth UNFPA 11. capability building. networking. Crisis Counseling Services 16. info Information and Community. Grade 4-6 pupils. brochures.Metro Promotion of Manila and based adolescentBatangas centered RH and City responsible sexual behaviors. sexually.Davao based counseling P. services and community organizing RH assessment exam Community. Building Sustainable Advocacy Network for RH PNGOC on Population.Metro Manila based Youth NGO-based National NGO. education. 1998 Population. advocacy. Gomez Elementary School. AIDS Hotline Caritas Manila AIDS 10. CommunityOutreach School Health Programme Department of Health (DOH) 1988 Reproductive health Alliance. IEC. Inc (KCCFI) Center for Women's Studies (CWS) Office of Gender Development. welfare Hotline.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Title Implementor Period of Implementation Focus Key Features Approaches Location Geographical Target Sites Clients Funding Source Status of Implementation On-going 9. rape.

reproductive health Family welfare Training. workshops. (FAD) Reproductive health. radio counseling program Counseling and information Community. and partners on ARH Youth counseling Community. Developing & mobilizing peer educators for ARH 20. Manila AIDS victims On-going Young people's health and sexuality needs and their lifestyle concerns. IEC.2003 Title Implementor Period of Implementation 1988present Focus Key Features Approaches Location Geographical Target Sites Clients Funding Source Status of Implementation On-going 18. (Bcya) Foundation for Adolescent Development. video showing Telephone counseling Awareness for young people. Family Planning/Family Welfare Program 24. and HIV/AIDS Videos. Inc.Davao City based Youth 2000-2003 21. school nurses On-going 25. Inc.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 .. treatment Provide an integrated package of services Using entertainment for education Community QC. Family Welfare Program Trade Union 1984 Congress of the Philippines (TUCP) DOLE Population. policy advocacy Provision of youth-friendly services and facilities Integration of family welfare concerns at the work places Workplacebased National Workers David and On-going Lucille Packard Foundation.Metro communicators based Manila Kimberly On-going Clarke and DepEd Trainers On-going 127 . radio guesting. 1994 Feminine hygiene Training 26.Baguio City based Youth Parents Partners UNFPA On-going Community. gender equality. referral. services. John Hopkins University. theater. including young workers Youth. FAD Entertainment for Education Programs (EnterEducate) 1996 and 2002 Young people's health and sexuality needs and their lifestyle concerns HIV AIDS Training. counseling Training. Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) UNFPA On-going Workplacebased National Workers. testing. Feminine Hygiene Education program DepEd and Kimberly Clarke Phils. radio and TV episodes Community and schoolbased Metro Manila Youth 23. and responsible parenthood Adolescent reproductive health Counseling. inc. Fertility and Sexuality Relationship Education for Adults Responsibility (FEFAR) Christian Children's Funds (CCF) Fertility. parents. workshops. sexuality 5-day training of trainers School Regions Training of school nurses to counsel and lecture on physiological and biological changes of boys and girls Training for Community. Drop-In KPPF AIDS Prevention Center 22.Metro based Manila Youth On-going Counseling. medical clinic. Dial-a-Friend Family Planning Organization of the Philippines (FPOP) Baguio center for young adults. Development and Family Life Education for the Youth (DAFLEY) 19.

National based Multi-media approach in reaching the youth Community and schoolbased Metro Manila Urban youth and semiurban youth SchoolTraining of based guidance and peer counselors in schools in youth counseling for the integration in college guidance programs School Guidance and peer counselors. STD. Community. HIV/AIDS Population awareness Community OSY. RH. Completed USAid. education Integrated RH/FP package in all DOH hospitals. 15-24 On-going RH Maryknoll Foundation Out-of-school youth Counseling School National Promotes secondary/ vocational educ & awareness on RH Community. 2001present ARH. films. STD/HIV/AI DS. FP/RH Program TUCP ARH POPCOM Until 2004 RH. ADNU Sexuality. FP/RH for Young workers 28. Information and Counseling Program on Sexuality for the Young Workers at the Export Processing Zone 33. JICA. contraceptive distribution. FP 29. morality Sexuality Philippine 1983 Center for Population and Development (PCPD) Modules. discussions. music. Integrated Human Resource Development Program for the Youth 35. FP/RH campaign.Metro Counseling Manila services for out. Youth 31.based of-school youth 13-17 years old On-going Out-of-school youth On-going 128 . UNFPA. Integrated Survival and Development of Children 13-17 years old 36. Inc. David and On-going Lucille Packard Foundation. etc. symposia Information and Work-based counseling for young workers Export Processing Zone peer counselors. safe sex practice 30. games. interactive website.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Title Implementor Period of Implementation Focus Key Features Approaches Location Geographical Target Sites Clients Funding Source Status of Implementation 27. and POPCOM ARH.17B) Completed 34. surveys Training Community. sexuality Training. research. RH Revised training curriculum. formal and non formal educ Counseling. Integrated Family Planning and Maternal Health Program OGD. lectures. condoms. ads. video. Human sexuality education 32. services. IEC. Guidance Counselors Training Catholic Educational Association of the Philippines (CEAP). UNICEF. Frenzy Mobile Outreach Team (FMOT) DKT Philippines. dating game Training Workplacebased Provide quality health services National Young Workers 15-24 years old GoP. Kasambuhay DSWDBureau of Child and Youth Welfare PLAN Philippines 2000-2005 Fertility. youth Young workers Government Until 2002 FP.National Raise health status of women based and children by reducing unmet needs for FP services Women and Youth USAID (P3. health clinics Multi-media mobile intervention team.

Bacoor High School.Baguio City based Street Children ARH. vocational skills training. Resource center on ASRH Designed to make life a little better for disadvantaged youth “drop-in. Completed Population Center Foundation President Completed Social Fund 41. Philippine DOH and Population LGUs Management Program (PPMP) 1990-1992 Medical services. Resource center for adolescent health & sexuality Vocational skills of the youth Lectures. infant and maternal mortality. on-thejob training & referral Information. training Information.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . services Provide special needs of street adolescents Community.Local In Center Government Unit (LGU) 44. counseling Peer education. Naic Community Academy & Fair Haven Baptist Youth. Multi-Service Youth Center BCYA Services Provision of services Community.Davao City based Schoolbased Street adolescent Adolescent On-going On-going Improvement of Community. Kabataan Reproductive Health And Sexuality Education For Street Youth 38. video presentations. Support mechanism for peer counseling training. Manila Center for Young Adults Kabalikat Ng Pamilyang Pilipino Foundation (KPPF) Foundation 1984 to for Adolescent present Development (FAD) RH and Sexuality Education IEC. training Community Street Youth HIV-AIDS education & prevention.Metro based Manila Disadvantaged youth On-going Community. group discussions 39.Baguio City based Youth 42.and out-ofschool youth 129 . symposia. counseling and referral Sexuality education. information Iloilo. services and Baguio. Peer PLAN Education Philippines Program 45.Metro access to based manila. Life Planning FAD education and Vocational Skills Training Program 40. training Education & structured activities on sexuality Community & schoolbased Ellenwood church youth members. Relationships 1985-1988 Adolescent Reproductive Health Life planning education. peer counseling. contraception. counseling Provision of services Community. early marriage Understanding sexuality & assumption of responsibilities for sexual behaviors Services. Pinoy Youth 2000 Options for Living Orientation meetings. teenage pregnancy. Davao Youth 46. stand alone.Manila..2003 Title Implementor Period of Implementation Focus Key Features Approaches Location Geographical Target Sites Clients Funding Source Status of Implementation 37. Multi-Service Campaign for Young People PCPD Adolescent health and sexuality. New BCYA Horizon's DropIn Center for Street Children 43. Pag-asa Drop. based Cebu and Baguio 15-24 years old Assistance On-going from POPCOM's AHYDP POPCOM. pregnancy 1997present 2000 Population and reproductive health. life planning educ. counseling. MM 13-20 years old in. multiservice facility” Schoolbased University belt area in Manila College students aged 16-24 On-going Community.

responsible parenthood Family formation. CO. unemployment. maternal and child health. RH Subprogram DOH Institute of 51. fertility Population Educ matls. maternal and child health. 12 and based ARMM School and communitybased UNFPA Training On-going 1998-1999 ARH Discussions Discussion Of Taboo Subjects Like Sex With Young Adults Community. IEC. enhancement of status and role of women. Revitalized Guidance Program DepEd and PCPD 1994 Early marriage. Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) ARH. Mary's 53. resource speakers' pool. ARH/VAW Nueva Vizcaya Program FP. Seminar and Training program Women's Studies.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Title Implementor Period of Implementation 1970s Focus Key Features Approaches Location Geographical Target Sites Clients Funding Source Status of Implementation 47.Regions 2. family life and responsible parenthood Integrate POPED in the curricula of the three levels of the educational system Schoolbased National Youth in schools Completed 130 . Regional Population Office & UNFPA 54. Population Education (POPED) Department of Education (DepEd) 1970spresent 49. SHINE Philippines (Sexual Health Initiatives through Networking and Education) St. Completed 20 July 1999 to present Teen pregnancy prevention. Population awareness and sex education program DSWD and PCPD 48. counseling & policy advocacy Province of Nueva Vizcaya 13-24 years old Provincial On-going Government. outreach.Cagayan De Based Oro 13-25 Yrs Old Care Phils. lectures Preparing osy Community economical and sexually National OSY POPED in formal education Integrating POPED in school curriculum Schoolbased National Students in public and private secondary schools On-going Training Institutionalize a Schoolrevitalized based guidance program in 15 division leader schools in 15 regions Services and education provision Training. sexuality education. HIV/AIDS. gender equity. awareness National Secondary school students and guidance counselors Women and children Women UNFPA On-going 50. RTIs. population. early marriage prevention & STD/HIV/ AIDS prevention ARH on Air. Strengthening and Revitalizing the Population Education Program DepEd. Scholastica's College CARE 52. ARH curriculum integration & teen center POPED SchoolIntegration of based RH issues & concerns in the curriculum. 6. SMUUniversity. FGD Counseling. clinical referrals. 1996-1999 Commission on Higher Education (CHED). St. youth camps. sex education Community. sexuality. population education library. STDs Women's rights Health services.

Baguio City based Community. Women's Health and Safe Motherhood Project 65. women Shelter. Kabalaka Development Foundation. AUSAID.Davao children victims based of abuse and incest Counseling and medical consultation Communitybased lifestyle center for the youth Community. youth development Enhanced multiagency participation in program development Agencybased (LGU/ NGO) National Government agencies UNFPA Completed BCYA 1992 Davao Medical 1997Center (DMC) Present VAWC Training for youth development Medical services and counseling Community. radio RH. value formation. VAW. program development. Young Adult Peer Educators on Youth SRH Women's rights. study tours. etc. Urban Youth Development Program 63. (HASIK) 56. teenage drug abuse Violence against children Support services.2003 Title Implementor Period of Implementation 1986 Focus Key Features Approaches Location Geographical Target Sites Clients Funding Source Status of Implementation On-going 55. ARH.Metro based Manila Abused children On-going Adolescent reproductive health ARH Counseling. upgrading technical capability Training. XYZ 67. workshop Counseling. Teen Health Quarters Tambayan Center for the Care of Abused Children. Teen horizon 60. Inc. IEC. WB.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 .Metro based Manila Workplacebased National Young women Young workers On-going On-going 131 . referral Counseling Web counseling. IEC. capability building National Young workers Completed GoP. EU. medical consultation Medical services. POPCOM. sexuality. counseling. PMT 1994-1998 Fertility.Davao based Youth PLAN Department of Health (DOH) Until 2002 Basic and emergency obstetric care Ensure access to Hospitalquality and based/comcomprehensive munity obstetric care Developing young workers into effective leaders through training Multi-media campaign for young women Peer educators training to reach the youth Workplacebased National Abused women and children Women and babies DMC.Metro issues and based Manila providing support services Youth. Working Youth Center UNFPA.La based Castellana Community Metro Manila Youth Youth On-going 61.5M) On-going 66. and TV program. training Addressing Community. FAD VAW. Tambayan Center 57. Magazine. DOH On-going Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) Women's Media Circle TUCP Leadership Leadership training. early childhood care and development. Teenfad. teen help resources. e-mail-a-friend Trainings. Teen Center/Teen Circle 58. web library.La Carlota based and La Castellana Community.ph Kabalaka FAD ARH ARH Counseling in the community Counseling. Women And Child Protection Unit 64. information and education. ADB. KfW ($128. information Community. networking Medical services Youth Youth On-going 59. counseling Shelter for Community. Inc. medical services. UNFPA Fourth Country Program (Support to the Adolescent Fertility and Youth Development Program) 62. network referral. Support Services for the Youth Harnessing Self-Reliant Initiatives and Knowledge. Inc. evaluation and technical assistance. books Training Sexuality and reproductive health Community.

Barangays Leadership Sasa. skits Film showing. counseling. Development in based Panacan & ARH Bunawan of District II. YOUTH in Action for RH & Rights 2000-2002 Youth involvement in provision of ARH services Youth narrative research. discussions.Baguio City and participation based Youth Levi's Strauss. peer educators' seminar. Youth 2 One LGUs. Youth Empowerment and Development Program Friends Network @ CAR BCYA 1995-1998 Youth development Community. present Inc. medical services. Colleges and Universities. capability building. community participation BCYA 73. (RAF) Workplacebased Mall-based Sexuality/ STD/HIV AIDS education.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Title Implementor Period of Implementation 2001Present Focus Key Features Approaches Location Geographical Target Sites Clients Funding Source Status of Implementation On-going 68. drama & computer-based internet education. Youth Development/ Empowerment/ Participation 72. leadership training. workshop. seminars. art therapy. workshops IEC Film showing. enterprise development. dances. advocacy. peer development. Manila On-going 132 . peer counseling. consultancy Training. partnership Reestablishing partnerships with barangays. fora.Manila awareness based Community. medical ARH advocacy Community. Davao City Information and School and Metro community. CYFP Completed ARH. Youth Group Al-Mujadilah Development Foundation (AMDF) TUCP 1998-2000 Empowerment IEC. plays. community outreach & behavioral skills development IEC National Tutuban Centre. Youth Empowerment to Serve and Grow with Others 74. Youth SRH 76. IEC 70. youth organizing & mobilization. POPCOM Development of People's Foundation (DPF) Adolescent sexuality. youth Young UNFPA Workers 12-19 years old On-going 75. contraceptives Advocacy. Autonomous empowerment based Region and participation Youth empowerment and development School and communitybased Baguio City 15-24 youth David & Completed Lucile leaders Packard Foundation Youth On-going Youth Youth character and capability building. for a.Cordillera Development. leadership Youth CYFP Completed Youth training Community. community and school outreach. agencies. DOH. and human rights FGDs. and organizations Community and schoolbased Cebu Adolescents 69. Youth Zone ARH Promotion of responsible sexual behavior Remedios Aids 1998Foundation. newsletter Training. lectures. networking and referrals. institutions. Youth Corner ISSA ARH 71.Marawi City based Youth leaders.

R.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . & for other purposes Establishment of a national comprehensive program on youth development.A. providing penalties for its violation. 7610/Special Protection of Children Against Child Abuse.A. R. 603/the Child Youth & Welfare Code Subject Population policies Date Enacted 1972 Scope National Implementing Agency POPCOM Status Amended 3. No. 1997 National Supreme Court Being implemented 1998 Davao City City Planning and Development Enacted & Office being implemented 133 . 6365/Population Act of 1971 2.A. 1994 National NYC Being implemented November 9. Exploitation & Discrimination Act 4. 1996 National/ Local Local government units Being implemented October 21. Adolescent reproductive health-related policies Title 1. Proclamation No. Executive Order No. R. 24/Women & Development Code of Davao City Rules & regulations on the apprehension. No. at appropriate levels adhering to standard of quality care promulgated by the national program Family Courts Act of 1997 mandating the creation of family courts. Allocation of 30% from ODA & 6% from local funds to women & gender-sensitive projects & formulation of gendersensitive programs including ARH December 10. investigation. No. A. No. R.2003 Annex 3. & assigns to these courts the hearing & resolution of domestic violence cases against women & children including adolescents. exploitation & discrimination. Executive Order No. 307/Implementing of Family Planning Program at the Local Government Level 7. appropriation of funds & other purposes An Act prohibiting the employment of children below 15 years of age in public & private undertakings Ensuring availability of information & services of FP. R. including NFP. 1994 National Council for the Welfare of Children Being implemented February 28. 8369 8. 8044/An Act Creating the National Youth Commission 5. prosecution & rehabilitation of youth offenders Provides for stronger deterrence & special protection against child abuse. 1974 National Council for the Welfare of Children Being implemented June 17.A. 1992 National Council for the Welfare of Children Enacted & being implemented July 25. 7658/ 6. using applicable laws.

Philippine National Police. DOJ.A. N/A 17. Administrative Order 1-A National National 12. R.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Title 9. and it includes adolescent reproductive health programs National Department of Health Enacted & being implemented Local Local Government Unit Being implemented National N/A Proposal 134 . 8353 11.A. 1998 policies & programs beyond family planning & a much closer collaboration among development agencies as the primary mechanism to attain the reproductive health approach objective. Administrative Order No. Being etc. a special law that names. 7877 14. R. No. 2002 1933 Ordinance of Cebu City which is the first local measure in the Philippines that penalizes perpetrators of domestic violence & provides protection to victims. well-being & selfesteem of adolescents & youth by promoting a safe & supportive environment. implemented DOH Being implemented DOH Being implemented National 13.A. Administrative Order 34A/Adolescent & Youth Health Policy 2000 Promotion of the total health. providing information. City Ordinance Anti-Domestic Violence June 26. implemented Philippine National Police. DOJ. Being etc. 8505 Subject Date Enacted Scope National Implementing Agency Status Rape Victim Assistance & 1998 Protection Act Anti-Rape Law 1997 10. No. R.A. building skills & providing services 16. Reproductive Seeks to improve the Health Care Act of health & well being of 2002/House Bill Filipinos by ensuring their 4110/Senate Bill 2325 right to reproductive health care & their right to reproductive selfdetermination. education or training environment Broadening of population January 15. 8504 Philippine Reproductive 1998 Health Program & adopted the ten service elements of RH Philippine AIDS 1998 Prevention & Control Act Anti-Sexual Harassment Act of 1995. defines & penalized sexual harassment in the workplace. R. No. No. 43/Reproductive Health Policy National DOH Being implemented 15.

Rosa 8. Malou 21. Rayala. Gina 5. Triunfante. Anorico. ISSA IPHC. Moselina. Inc. Quianzon. 7. Minda 16. Gelle. Agnes. Raymundo. Lani 20. Child Protection Nurse Administrative Officer Researcher Program Coordinator Over-all Program Coordinator (YAFSS) Position Ads and Promotions Program Officer for ARH and Gender ARH Coordinator 135 . Ma. Leopoldo 14. Alexandra 9. Christita Cervantes Organization DKT Philippines. Pineda. DMSF UNICEF LIKHAAN DPF IPHC. Nene Kgd. Fortaleza. Joyce 4. Apple 10.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . 6. Den 18. 19. Sevilla. Corazon Dr. Samonte. Balbuena.2003 Annex 4. Imelda Dr. Tin-tin 2. Perpetita 13. Purugganan. Karen 15. de Asis. Mercader. Jusayan. List of key informants Name 1. Mangohig. Yasmin 11. Sylvia 12. Josephine 17. Lao. Auralyn 3. Inc. DMSF ADNU-OGD UPPI DSWD PLAN Philippines MIDAS Health Coordinator Executive Director Executive Director Psychiatrist Director Resident Manager Librarian Executive Director Senior Technical Staff Executive Director Chief. Escuadra. UNFPA HAIN Center for Women’s Studies Bantay Familia (Naga City) WCPU-Bicol Medical Center POPCOM V KDFI ISSA AMDF. Chan.

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines 136 .

36. 21. . 28. 38. Naga City Philippine Legislators’ Committee on Population and Development Philippine Psychiatric Association Remedios AIDS Foundation.. 24. 27. 3. 37. Reproductive Health. 19. 12. 17. 4. Legaspi City Davao Medical Center – Women and Child Protection Unit Department of Health Department of Interior and Local Government Department of Labor and Employment Department of Social Welfare and Development Development of People’s Foundation.2003 Annex 5. Family Planning Organization of the Philippines Foundation for Adolescent Development. Inc. 5. 2. Al-Mujadilah Foundation. 22. 6. 14. 13. 32.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . 35. 18. Rights and Ethics Center for Studies and Training Social Development and Research Center (De la Salle University) Trade Union Congress of the Philippines United Nations Children’s Fund United Nations Population Fund University of the Philippines Population Institute UP Center for Integrative and Development Studies UP Center for Social Work and Community Development UP College of Home Economics Women’s Media Circle 137 . 25. 8. Inc. Davao City DKT Philippines. Inc. . 10. 31. Inc. Legaspi City McCann-Erickson Philippines National Youth Commission Office of Gender Development (Ateneo de Naga University) . 9. 23. 33. 34. 29. 11. Bacolod City Linangan nang Kababaihan Mayon Integrated Development Alternatives and Services. Naga City Center for Women’s Studies Child Protection Unit (Philippine General Hospital) Commission on Population Commission on Population. 26. 20. Inc. Health Action Information Network Institute for Social Studies and Action Institute of Women’s Studies ISIS International Kabalaka Development Foundation. 7. Inc. .. 15. Inc. 30. List of organizations contacted 1. 16. Marawi City Bantay Familia (Naga City) .

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines

138

A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 - 2003

Annex 6. List of organizations with adolescent reproductive health materials
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. AIDS Action Al-Mujadilah Development Foundation , Marawi City Ateneo Social Science Research Center , Naga City Baguio Center for Young Adults, Inc. , Baguio City Bantay Familia , Naga City Buas-Damlay Youth Foundation. Inc. Bureau of Child and Youth Welfare Center for Reproductive Health Leadership and Development, Inc. Center for Women’s Studies Children and Youth Foundation of the Philippines Commission on Population Commission on Population (Region V and VI) Community and Family Services International Council for the Welfare of Children Demographic Research and Development Foundation, Inc. Department of Education Department of Health Department of Social Welfare and Development (Programs and Special Projects Bureau) Development of People’s Foundation, Inc. , Davao City Division of Social Sciences (UP Baguio) , Baguio City DKT Philippines, Inc. End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography & the Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes Engender Health Family Planning Organization of the Philippines Foundation for Adolescent Development, Inc. HANAS Cooperative Health Action Information Network HIGALA Association, Inc. Institute for Social Studies and Action Institute of Primary Health Care , Davao City Institute of Social Order (Ateneo de Manila University) Kabalaka Development Foundation, Inc. , Bacolod City Mayon Integrated Development Alternatives and Services, Inc. , Legaspi City McCann-Erickson Philippines Medecins Sans Frontiers-Belgium National Bureau of Investigation National Project on Street Children National Statistics and Coordination Board

139

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines

39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65.

National Statistics Office National Youth Commission Office of Gender Development (Ateneo de Naga University) , Naga City Philippine Action for Youth Offenders Philippine Legislators’ Committee on Population and Development PLAN Philippines Population Council, Inc. Ramon Aboitiz Foundation, Inc. Reproductive Health Reference and Resource Center Reproductive Health, Rights and Ethics Center for Studies and Training , Manila Sentrong Sigla SMU-ARH VAW Task Force Social Action Center (Diocese of Legaspi) , Legaspi City Social Development Research Center Social Research Office (Ateneo de Davao) , Davao City Social Weather Station Soroptimist International of Baguio , Baguio City Trade Union Congress of the Philippines UNESCO United Nations Children’s Fund , Manila United Nations Population Fund University of the Philippines Population Institute UP Center for Integrative and Development Studies UP Center for Social Work and Community Development Women’s Feature Service Philippines, Inc. Women’s Media Circle World Health Organization

140

33. 21.2003 Annex 7. 3. Inc. . 34. Inc. 10. Family Planning Organization of the Philippines Foundation for Adolescent Development. Inc. 38. 19. Naga City CARE Philippines Caritas Manila Catholic Educational Association of the Philippines Center for Women’s Studies Christian Children’s Fund Commission on Higher Education Commission on Population Davao Medical Center . Baguio City Philippines Center for Population and Development PLAN Philippines Philippine NGO Council on Population. 32. Inc. 37. 18. Marawi City Baguio Center for Young Adults. Mary’s University . 22. Friends Network @ CAR Harnessing Self-Reliant Initiatives and Knowledge. 11. Inc. Davao City DKT Philippines. Bacolod City Kabalikat ng Pamilyang Pilipino Foundation Kaugmaon . 13. Health and Welfare. 14. 25. 23. Baguio City Bantay Familia . 9. 15.. Institute for Social Studies and Action Institute of Women’s Studies Kabalaka Development Foundation. 28. 7. 31. Inc. Health and Welfare Population. 17. 24. Davao City Maryknoll Foundation Mayon Integrated Development Alternatives and Services. 26. Technical Education and Skills Development Authority Trade Union Congress of the Philippines United Nations Population Fund Women’s Media Circle 141 . 35. 6.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . . Legaspi City Options for Living Foundation. Inc. Davao City Department of Education Department of Health Department of Labor and Employment Development of People’s Foundation . 36. 16. 30. 39. 2. 20. . 8. Al-Mujadilah Development Foundation. Inc. 4. Inc. 5. Inc. Remedios AIDS Foundation. 27. 29. List of organizations with adolescent reproductive health programs 1. St. 12. Nueva Vizcaya Tambayan Center for the Care of Abused Children.

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines 142 .

” In Hearts and Minds. “The Journal of Reproductive Health. ed. 2nd Regular Session. 2 May 2003.d. Center for the Prevention and Treatment of Child Sexual Abuse (CPTCSA). 143 . Sentrong Sigla. Women’s Health and Safe Motherhood Project. Stella G. Strengthening its Implementing Structures and Appropriating Funding Therefor.). Vol. An Act Prohibiting the Employment of Children Below 15 Years of Age in Public and Private Undertakings.d.d. __________. “The Reproductive Health Care Act of 2002 (House Bill 4110 and Senate Bill 2325).). “Adolescent Health and Youth Development Program: Reaching out Young Filipinos through Information. December 1997. April 2-3.A. Republic Act 7658. Rights. al. 2054. and Aida Santos. Commission on Human Rights..” Philippines: Women’s Media Circle Foundation. 2.d). (n.). April 5-6. Metro Manila. and Ethics Center for Studies and Training. Manila. 7. et. Muyot.” Davao City. Philippines. and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). Alberto T. Commission on Population (POPCOM). Manuals “When a Young Friend Guides…” A Manual for Peer Councellors for Positive Lifestyle Promotion Prepared through a Writeshop among Peer Counselors. Congress of the Philippines. 7610.” University of the Philippines Manila: Reproductive Health. Section 12. (n.” Midtown Ramada Hotel. and Law for Health Professionals.” Child Rights Center.” Development of Peoples Foundation. and Ethics Center for Studies and Training. 2001. (n.” Midtown Ramada Hotel. Philippines: Reproductive Health. Carlos.” A Paper presented on the occasion of the MIDAS Forum on The Reproductive Health Care Act of 2002. Special Publication Series Number 1. Guides “Building Young Visionaries-Course 3: Gender-Fair Counseling for Adolescent Reproductive Health & Rights. ISSN 16552253. Ethics. Article VIII of R. 1993. Rights. (n. 2001. An Act Establishing an Integrated Population and Development Policy. “Dealing with Sexual Abuse. Amending for this Purpose. Philippines: Center for the Prevention and Treatment of Child Sexual Abuse.2003 References Brochures Women’s Health and Development Program. 2nd Regular Session. 7610 and 7658 and their Implementing Rules and Regulations. December 14-16. 2001. “Reproductive Health. Rights and Ethics.). Philippines: Reproductive Health. Manila. Rights. who are members of the PAG-ASA Youth Association.” (n. Inc. Rights and Ethics Center for Studies and Trainings (ReproCen). “Special Protection of Filipino Children: Republic Act Nos. Special Publication Series Number 2. “Praktikal na Tugon ng Magulang Tungkol sa Sekswal na Pang-aabuso sa Bata. Philippines.. Rebecca J. Lagman –Luistro. Rights. Policies Child Rights Center. “Some Points for Consideration on Participatory and Feminist Research Methodologies (Or When the Twain Shall Meet). Ethics. Commission on Human Rights. 2001. Cecilia O. Commission on Population (POPCOM) and United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA).A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . “Reproductive Health.” Quezon City. and Law for Law Professionals. Senate Bill No. Development of Peoples Foundation.d. Education and Communication. Cielo Krisel. 11th Congress. “Body Talk: The XYZ Guide to Young Women’s Health and Body Vol. (n. Cook. __________.). De Dios.d. “Women Development Code of Davao: A Primer. 2001.

Conducted on April 21. Administrative Order No. Administrative Order No.). “Cebu City: Highlights of the 1995 Census of Population.d. 12th Congress. Office of the Secretary.d.” DOH.). “Baguio City: Highlights of the 1995 Census of Population. and The David and Lucile Packard Foundation. Negros Occidental. Options.d. “Adolescent Fertility Management Program. Inc.December 31. Friends Network.” A Documentation Report on the 144 . 2000.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines __________.d. Quezon City. 2002. and The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). Non-Government. Coordination. 34. “Time to Act: Needs.) Commission on Population (POPCOM).” Baguio Health Department (BHD) and Baguio Center for Young Adults.” In State of the Philippine Population Report 2000. Planning.). __________. Department of Health (DOH). 4110.” “Marawi City: Highlights of the 1995 Census of Population. Commission on Population (POPCOM). Providing Penalties for its Violation. Kabalaka Development Foundation. “Strengthening the Policy. 1st Regular Session.” POPCOM.d. and UP Center for Interactive and Development Studies.d. Inc. Department of Health. Inc. __________. An Act Providing for Reproductive Health Care Structures and Appropriating Funds Therefor.” “Chapter II: Baguio at a Glance. Adolescent & Youth Health (AYH) Policy. Department of Health. and The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA).” “Kabalaka Development Foundation. (BCYA).” “Mayon Integrated Development Alternatives & Services. (BCYA). Manila.d. 1st Regular Session.” Commission on Population (POPCOM). January 2001.” Friends Network VMG. “16th International Day of Kabalaka Development Foundation.. (n. (n. Commission on Population (POPCOM). and Socio-civic Organizations for Youth Empowerment and Development. Philippines. and for Other Purposes. House Bill 4110 and Senate Bill 2325. __________.” In Annual Report. Reproductive Health Policy. House Bill No. and United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA).” Quezon City: Save the Children (UK) Philippines. with the La Castellana Youth Group & Other LGU Representatives. JanuaryOctober 2001.” In PPMP Directional Plan 2001-2004. “Adolescent Health and Youth Development Programme. 24 April 2000. “Handbook on Adolescent and Youth Health & Development Program (AYHDP).). 2001..). __________. Programmes Baguio Center for Young Adults Inc. Metro Manila. “The Reproductive Health Care Act of 2002”.” BCYA. Development of Peoples Foundation Inc. Directions. March 1996. Philippines. (n. (n. La Castellana.). 10 April 2000. Development of Peoples Foundation Inc.: Result of the ‘Focus Group Discussion’ Held at the Senior Citizens Community Center. “Youth in Action: For Reproductive Health & Rights. (n. September – December 2000. 1999 at 2:00 in the Afternoon. (n.: Accomplishment Report for the Period August 17 – November 16.” Baguio City: BHD and BCYA.” In Activity Report.” In The City Report 2000. 7610. Exploitation and Discrimination. Balanon. An Act Providing for Stronger Deterrence and Special Protection Against Child Abuse. Thor G. Philippines. Inc (MIDAS). ed.). “Adolescent & Youth Development. (n. 43. House of Representatives. “Friends Network@CAR: A Network of Government. “Adolescent Reproductive Health: Situationer. and Monitoring of the Adolescent Health and Youth Development Programme (AHYDP). BCYA.4. Inc. “Integrating Child–Centered Approaches in Children’s Work. 1991. “Developing and Mobilizing Reproductive Health (DMPE-ARH): Annual Report September 1 . Program on Psychosocial Trauma and Human Rights. (n.. Republic Act No.d. Manila.

“Violence Against Women and Children Division (VAWCD) (A Primer). __________.” UNICEF. “The Crisis Counseling Service: A Service Catering to Women’s Needs.” Paper presented during the Workshop/Seminar by the UP College of Law. Riverbend Hotel.. (n. 2000: Youth in Action for Reproductive Health and Rights. Philippines. Health Action Information Network (HAIN).” Development of Peoples Foundation. “Fifth Country Programme for Children (CPC V) . Population Institute University of the Philippines (UPPI) and Young Adult Fertility & Sexuality Survey (YAFS II).” Plan. 1.Proposed Strategic Plan for Child Protection: January 2002 to December 2004. “Changing Our Lives (Proceedings). (n. 1999.” In Adolescence Education Newsletter. 2 No.” Paper presented by Dir. (n.” WCC. August 2001.” UCWS. “Changing Our Lives (National Reports).). and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF).” UCWS.2003 House Bill 4110 at the Arcilla Hall. Bureau of Child and Youth Welfare of the Department of Social Welfare & Development during the National Conference on Child Abuse on 17 April 1997 at the Bayview Park Hotel.-Dec. Vol.” University Center for Women’s Studies (UCWS). United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA).” A Paper submitted to the Ford Foundation as Background document for a Study on Abortion and Reproductive Health Among Filipino Women. “Activity Report Oct. “Research Proposals: Sexuality Education in Tertiary and Secondary Schools in the Philippines: Assessment Studies. Marikina City.d. Inc. August 2001. Daraga Albay. 1987. Inc. and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF).” A Report on the Adolescent Health and Youth Development Programme. Bicol University. Manila. Ermita. Statwatch.” “Child Abuse in the Philippines: A Situationer. No.d. Health Profile. Mabini St. 21-25 May 2000. Philippines: Health Action Information Network (HAIN).A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . __________. Commission on Population.). “Filipino Adolescent Sexuality and Reproductive Behavior: Policy and Program Implications.” Quezon City. Marikina City. 2000. Child Pornography and the Trafficking of Children for Sexual Puposes – International Young People’s Participation Project (ECPAT-IYPPP).).” National Bureau of Investigation (NBI). December 1999.” An International Conference on Young People’s Participation Against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children.d. Manila. and The Ford Foundation (FF). Balanon.. “Breaking the Silence: Know Your Rights. “Filipino Youths Truly at Risk: With More Liberal Views…” 2003. and David and Lucile Packard Foundation. Metro Manila: Commission on Population. “The Davao Teen Centre Empowers the Youth of Mindanao. “Plan Philippines Milestones: 2001-2002 Annual Report.d.” A Paper presented by Lourdes G. Rose D. Violence Against Women (VAW).d. 2001 at Citystate Tower Hotel. “POPCOM Whips Training Package Into Shape.” In Adolescence Education Newsletter. Riverbend Hotel. Philippines: ECPAT-IYPPP. (n. 145 .” VAW. 14 February 2001. “PomPom: Child and Youth Prostitution in the Philippines. Women’s Crisis Center (WCC). (n.d. “Facts and Figures. 2.” UPPI and YAFS II. 21-25 May 2000. Marcelino of POPCOM-NCR during the First Family Health Forum on October 2-3. Philippines. Director. Plan.).). Vol. and Women and Men in Bicol Region. End Child Prostitution.). “Adolescent Reproductive Health Profile: Region VII (Central Viscayas). “Health Situation of the Filipino Youth. Perla. 2 May 2003. Reports “Aragon-Choudhury. Development of Peoples Foundation. “Issues in Adolescent Sexuality. “UNFPA Fourth Country Programme: Support to the Adolescent Fertility and Youth Development Programme 1994-1998. Philippines: ECPAT. (n. “Youth Power: Health Development. June 2001. Mandaluyong City. “Bicol Region: General Statistics. 4. IYPPP.” An International Conference on Young People’s Participation Against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children.

” In Pananaw.” In Pananaw. 11-17 December 2002. Education Department. XIII. (n. Inc. “Situation of the Youth in the Philippines 1998.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines PCED Hostel. January 2003. University Center for Women’s Studies. ISSN No.). 22-23 June 1995. Sorsogon: An Exploratory Study. June 1998. “Report of PNP Women’s Children Desk. “Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Among Young Adults in Region VII. Perez. Badayos. “Documentation of PARDEV’s Study Tour in Nueva Viscaya. Research “4.” Naga City: Ateneo Social Sciences Research Center-Ateneo da Naga University. Ana Cecilia. 2000. Philippines.d. Bangkok. Ramos-Jimenez. 27 (1999): 363-398. Amadora-Nolasco. No. Aurora. College of Liberal Arts. Philippines: UP Population Institute and The Demographic Research and Development Foundation. “Philippines Country Report. Philippines: United Nations Children’s Fund. 2000.). 2000. Vol.d. September 2002. RPO5IC#1. ISSN 0117-0163.. De La Salle University. “Abortion in the Philippines: Being Illegal Does Not Make it Rare. al. Health Information and Advocacy (MARHIA). Fiscalina. “Youth in the Philippines: A Review of the Youth Situation and National Policies and Programs.). Vol. __________. 0116-9844. Olive H. et. Philippines: Commission on Population. “Adolescent Reproductive Healthcare Programs and Services in Iloilo City’s Public Health System: Stakeholders’ Concepts. (n. April-July 2003.” The National Youth Commission.).). 8. No. 1998. January-March 1995. 0116-9844. Ateneo Social Science Research Center. ed. XIII. “Teenagers and Their Questions About Sex: When Silence is not Golden.” Fifth Asian and Pacific Population Conference. Social Action Center – Diocese of Legaspi. (n.d. Legazpi City: Commission on Population. and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF).d. “Philippine Medium-Term Youth Development Plan 19992004. and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). “Survivors in The Volcano’s Shadows: A Profile Report of Child and Woman Abuse in the Province of Albay 1994-1999.” Quezon City: Women’s Feature Service (WFS) Philippines. ed. 146 . The National Youth Commission. PNP Women’s and Children’s Desk. Perceptions and Recommendations.” ISIS International. Trade Union Congress of the Philippines (TUCP).” January-December 31. “Setting the Cornerstone for the Promotion of FP/RH Programs In the Workplace. 1. January-March 2003.” In Philippine Population: Research for Policy Initiatives. Ateneo de Naga University. “UP Center for Women’s Studies Celebrates Women’s Month. “Girl Children Have Rights too!” Manila. “Abortion: A Public Health Issue in the Philippines (Research Dissemination Conference). and Social Development Research Center..” In Population Infoclips. Quezon City.” In Annual Report 2002.).” In Medium for the Advancement and Achievement of Productive Rights.” The National Youth Commission. __________.” Manila: Task Force on Social Science and Reproductive Health.” 2001. Series 2003.” Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society. Tripon. ISSN No. (n. 1. University for Women’s Studies. 2001. “Sex Trade in Matnog. July 2002. Alejo. (n.” 2002 Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Study (YAFS III). Mary Barby Penacerrada. “Manila Declaration Calls for Gender-Responsive Local Governance. Vol. No. Vol.” Children and Youth Foundation of the Philippines. “Filipino Adolescent Sexuality and Reproductive Behavior: Policy and Program Implications. 2. Pilar. “Population Data: 1 of 4 Issues. (n.d. “Body and Soul: A Forum on Adolescent Sexuality.d. Inc.” United Nations (UN).” A Graduate Thesis presented to the faculty of the Behavioral Sciences Department. Philippines. Philippines.9 Million Young adults have Engaged in Premarital Sex. Series of 2003. The Institute for Social Studies and Action (ISSA).

al.” In Aids Action (Asia-Pacific Edition). Cabigon. Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health Booklet 1: Demographic Profile. Health Action Information Network (HAIN) and HealthLink Worldwide.” Manila. “Pagnanasa.).” University Center for Women’s Studies and Philippine Center for Population and Development. UP Center for Integrative and Development Studies.). et. Gladys and Maria Ana B. No. “Correlates of Sexual Abstinence Among Urban University Students in the Philippines. 2003. 56.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . al. Clarinda L.” Save the Children UK. “Communication and Advocacy Strategies. and UP CIDS Psychosocial Trauma and Human Rights Program.. and United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). et.” Marawi City: Al Mujadilah Development Foundation (AMDF). Yasmin. “Filipino Adolescents in Changing Times. United Nations Children’s Fund. Vol. Berja. “M’ranao Youth: Views on Reproductive Health and Sexuality. 2001. “Communication and Advocacy Strategies. Mariza N.” Bangkok: UNESCO. Options.” Manila. 4. et. April 1997. Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health: Case Study. __________.. “Filipino Youth Seeking Moral Compass. 2001.” Quezon City: Save the Children Sweden.” University of the Philippines-Baguio. Cynthia E. 1998.” In Press Release. 2003. (n. 1-4.” Health Action Information Network (HAIN). May 2003. and Practices of Adolescents and Adults on Reproductive Health. “HIV and Children. Philippines: Foundation for Adolescent Development. __________. January 2001. Josefina V.d. Marie Joy D. Eliseo A. Ma. “Sexuality & Reproductive Health: Concerns Among Campus-Based Adolescents (Executive Summary). Dominguez. “Contextual Factors Affecting Risk-related Sexual Behavior Among Young Adults in The Philippines. Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality (YAFS III) and the Demographic Research and Development Foundation. Philippines: Trade Union Congress of the Philippines (TUCP) Education Department. July-December 1999. De Guzman.” In International Family Planning Perspectives. Health Action Information Network (HAIN). “Perceived Health Risks of Contraception and Pregnancy and Risk-Taking Behavior of Filipino Men and Women: Do They Differ?” (n. et. “Trust and Power: Child Abuse in the Eyes of the Child and the Parent.” Commission on Population and United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). et. Philippines. Issue 44-45. Diaz. De la Cruz. al. Gastardo-Conaco. 147 . Philippine National Aids Council (PNAC) and United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS in the Philippines (UNAIDS-PHILIPPINES). Lee.” (n. et. Cecilia. “Adolescent Fertility and its Demographic and Social Implications.). Busrao-Lao. Cruz. De Peralta.2003 Baltazar.” Bangkok: UNESCO. ISSN 0017-908X. December 1997. 1998. “Time to Act: Needs. Attitudes. January-December 1999. Commission on Population. “Working With Abused Children: from the Lenses of Resilience and Contextualization. “Sexually Transmitted Diseases & HIV/AIDS in the Philippines Areas for Health Policy and Systems Research. Pagmamahal: Contextual Factors Affecting Risk-related Sexual Behavior Among Young Adults in The Philippines (Executive Summary). Inc. al. “Understanding the Filipino Adolescents: Research Gaps and Challenges. Bautista. 24 September 1998. 2001.). Romeo B. (n.” Health Action Information Network (HAIN). Romeo B. Essential National Health Research Program and Department of Health Philippines. College of Social Science and Philosophy (CSSP).d.. Vol. al. 23. “Working Youth’s Reproductive Health Knowledge. “Abortion Among Young Filipino Mothers: A Secondary Analysis of `Teenage Deliveries in Selected Hospitals in Metro Manila’”. Attitudes and Behaviours: Implications for Workplace-Based Interventions.d. 26 April 2002.” In Philippine Social Science Review. Decisions.” A Paper presented at the FPOP Zamboanga Chapter’s Symposium on Adolescent Fertility. “HIV/AIDS Country Profile Philippines 2002. Nos. 1999.d. Violeta.” In Towards Improved Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR) Monograph Series 1998. Romel S. Lee. “Baseline Survey on the Knowledge. al. June 2001. Lacson.

” Philippines: Population Council.” October 2001. “The McCann Youth Study”. “How are the Filipino Youth Changing?” In Philippine Social Science Review.” Quezon City: UP Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research and Development. Inc. Research Report Series 1994-1. and At-Risk Youth in Cebu. Raymundo.” Institute of Primary Health Care-Davao Medical School Foundation Philippines.” A Paper Presented at the Freesia Room of the Hotel Nikko Manila Garden. and The Family Planning Operations Research (FPOR). “Appreciating Adolescence” In TalkPoint. 60. Inc. Lita. and De La Salle University. Corazon M. et. Nos.). “A Descriptive Study on the Profile of Gang Members in Davao City. Aurora E. Manila. 56. 1999. 30 May 2002. “Menstruation and Sexual Maturation: A Case Study in Selected Schools of Mindanao. Corazon M. Pilar and Celeste Maria V. October 21.d. Inc. Social Development Research Center. and AIDS Surveillance and Education Program.” Sanchez. al. Philippine Legislator’s Committee on Population and Development Foundation.” In Highlights. 2001. “Male Involvement Through Reproductive Health Awareness. Issue No. Marita V. Mondragon. January-December 1999. 15 May 2002. September 2002. Issue No. 15 June 2002. “Arrested Development: The Level of Discernment of Outof-School Children and Youth. “Researching Adolescent Sexuality in the Philippines: 2002 Young Adult Fertility & Sexuality Study (YAFS III). 15 July 2002.) Sucalit.” June 2001. “Gender. Ogena. University of the Philippines Population Institute. Rochelle. Condor. 1993. 2001. Philippines: Philippine Action for Youth Offenders (PAYO) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF).T. 1993.” UP Population Institute and Demographic Research & Development Foundation.). “Qualitative Data Relevant to Aids Prevention Gathered from Sex Workers. 30 July 2002. Issue No. Rosena D. Ramon Aboitiz Foundation. “Adolescent Pregnancy”. Littaua-Quianzon. Bernardo. Manila. “Rapid Impact Evaluation of Kabalaka Development Foundation. Perez. Vol. “Correlates and Symptoms of Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among Female Street Adolescents in Drop-In Centers in Davao City. (n. Rights and Ethics (Special Edition): Proceedings of a Presentation of Studies. College of Social Science and Philosophy (CSSP).d. 1999.” Manila. “The Journal of Reproductive Health. (n. “Adolescent Sexuality in the Philippines. eds.. 57. (RAFI).” December 1995. Philippines. Issue No. Josephine. 1-4...” (n. Jetty Jet Rioja.” An Action Research on the Reproductive Health Problems of Street Girls-Mothers in Selected Areas on Metro Manila. Inc. et. Issue No.” University of the Philippines Population Institute (UPPI). Makati City.” HIGALA Association. al. Aurora E. “Adolescent Sexuality in the Philippines. October 1993. Lu. Injecting Drug Users. Raymundo. (RAFI). June 1998.” Quezon City: University of the Philippines Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research and Development.” Manila: Asia Pacific Network of the International Forum for Health and Social Science. “Sustainability and Institutionalization: the Experience of the Multi-Service Youth Centers (A Case Study). 148 . (PLCPD). the Philippines: An Intervention Study. Ramos-Jimenez. “First Report on the Focused Group Discussions on Reproductive Health Risks of Women and Fertility Decision Making in the Philippines. 61. April 13. “Portrait of the Filipino as a Youth: The Metro Manila Findings. Sexuality and Reproductive Health in the Philippines: Participatory Research in Sexuality and Reproductive Health.d. Nimfa B.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Liboro. “MSF-Belgium in the Philippines’ Street Children Project. Palma-Sealza. al. Women’s Voices in Health Care. Bukidnon Province. Philippine Action for Youth Offenders (PAYO). 30 June 2002. Inc. et. “Reproductive Health Risks and Fertility Decision–Making in the Philippines. “Abortion and Reproductive Health Among Filipino Women in Davao. 1993.” Ramon Aboitiz Foundation. ed. McCann-Erickson Philippines. (n.). Perez. 59. 58. East-West Center Population and Health Studies. Reyes. Adonis A. McCann-Erickson Philippines. 62. Inc.d.. Department of Health. Issue No. September 1994..

“The Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in China: A Survey of Literature and Projects from 1995-2002. Philippines: University Center for Women’s Studies University of the Philippines. “A Review of Social and Behavioral Studies Related to HIV/AIDS in the Philippines. Health Action Information Network (HAIN) and HealthLink Worldwide.” Manila.” World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region.. World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region. October 15-November 14. April 1996.” Demographic Research and Development Foundation. (n. Population Institute. 2000. 2.d.. “Facts About Adolescents From the Demographic and Healthy Survey . Valenzuela.). Reproductive Health. Josefina V. 1998. University of the Philippines. “Questions for Tomorrow’s Women. Vol. July-December 2001. Rosena D. and Cabigon. “Filipino Yong Adults See Bleak Future” (Press Release) from 2002 Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Study (YAFS III). and The Demographic and Development Foundation. Tan. April. Michael L. Zablan. Inc. and Development Project Book Series. Center for Studies and Training (ReproCen).” Demographic Research and Development Foundation.. Inc. (n. 2001. and The David and Lucile Packard Foundation. (DRDF). “Teen-Age Deliveries in Selected Hospitals in Metro Manila. (n. “Young People at Risk. “Cases Against Women. Issue 52-53. (n.. Philippines: Women’s Feature Service (WFS) Philippines.d. Demographic Research and Development Foundation.).” A paper prepared for presentation at the Workshop on Current Issues in Adolescent Sexuality in the Philippines. et. Philippines). Amanda V. 1992. Inc. Philippines: Health Action Information Network (HAIN).” University of the Philippines Population Institute. 8. “Young Adult Fertility & Sexuality Study II (Second of a Series).” Philippine National Police (PNP). ed..” In The Philippine Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2001. Michael L.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . al. Xenos.” In Aids Action (Asia-Pacific Edition). Philippines: University Center for Women’s Studies Foundation.). Inc.” University of the Philippines Population Institute and Demographic Research and Development Foundation. Zelda C. Olive H.” (n.. Population Council.d. “Women and Men in Bicol Region 2000. Inc. Research (Survey) “2002 Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Study III (Quick Results and List of Variables). 2002. “Issues and Research Relating to Adolescent Sexuality in Asia. “The 2000 IEC Impact Survey in Apayao.d. United Nations Population Fund and Women’s Health Research Consortium Project. and Dissemination. Sanchez. 2002 Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Study (YAFS III). Vol. __________. No.)..Statistical 149 . Rights and Ethics. Inc. October 1994. Kalinga and Ifugao Provinces.). University of the Philippines Population Institute.” In Body & Soul. December 10-11.2003 “SWS-NYC Study on the Situation of Youth in the Philippines. University of the Philippines: Reproductive Health. “TwinHeads: In Population Training. Tripon. 1. Zelda C. Inc.” Social Weather Stations. et. December 2000. Quezon City. ISSN 0017-908X. No.d. “Sex and Sexuality. Inc. Peter.” Health Action Information Network (HAIN). 2002. “The Youth are Not Alright. al. Zamboanga City. Tan. “Research and Advocacy of Women’s Reproductive Health: A Case in Davao City.” Zamboanga City Police Office.” University of the Philippines Population Institute (UPPI). “Love and Desire: Young Filipinos and Sexual Risks. 6. Research.” In Press Release. November 1995. __________.. “HIV/AIDS KAPB Survey: Findings from Young Adult Samples.P. Research (Stat) National Statistical Coordination Board (Regional Unit V. and U.” Quezon City. “The Participatory Planning Process: Research Utilization and Plan Formulation for Adolescent Reproductive Health in Southern Leyte. Zablan. July 2000. University of the Philippines Population Institute.” In Gender.June 1982.

d.htm) Viewed: 9/1/2003. “The McCann Youth Study 2000 Edition: A Synopsis. “Children Protection in the Philippines: Facts and Figures.chilldprotection. “Survey Reveals Increasing Feminization in Adolescent Risk Behaviors: Smoking. March – April. McCann-Erickson Philippines. (file://A:\News%202. 1993. 2002. “Action for Adolescent Health: Towards a Common Agenda. 1997.org. “Asian Families at Crossroads: Child Exploitation at Alar ming Level. Ancheta. and U. United Nations Population Fund.htm) Viewed: 9/ 1/2003. May 2001. UNICEF. Rodrigo G.” (file://A:News%203.” (file://A:\artic%20fr%20fad%205. “E-Mail-A-Friend (EMAF). Inc.” (Press Release) from 2002 Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Study (YAFS III). Population and Development. Brown. file:// A:\Library%20(Fad%20Resources)%20Answers%20to%20those%20Sex%20Question…] Viewed: 9/1/ 2003.ph/factsfigures/ index. Sandoval. Demographic Research and Development Foundation. “Reduce Growth Rate to Control Poverty. “The Reproductive Health of Adolescents: A Strategy for Action.” [file:// A:\Library%20(NonFAD%20Resources)%20Myths%20and%200Facts%20about%20D…] Viewed: 9/1/ 2003. Garon. Shanghai. “HIV/AIDS in Asia. “Face to Face Counseling.. “We Want Parents to Teach Us About Sexuality – Youth.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Tables for Program Planning: Philippines 1998. Inc. 1989. (http://virtual-asia.” Geneva.). Castro. “Myths and Facts About Drug Abuse.htm) Viewed: 9/1/2003 Buban. Drinking.P.” [file:// A:\Library%20(Fad%20Resource)%20YOUTH%20HEALTH%20SITUATION%20A…] Viewed: 9/1/ 2003.. (n.” (file://A:\Face%20to%20Face%20Counseling.” (http://www. 150 . “The Narrative Research Method: Studying Behavior Patterns of Young People – By Young People. “Bicol Statistics. Switzerland: World Health Organization. The Strategic Planning Department.” World Population Report. “Basic Facts About Cervical Cancer. UNFPA.” Virtual Philippines.” World Health Organization. Websites AFP.htm) Viewed: 9/1/2003.com). 2.htm) Viewed: 9/1/2003. Joanna.” (file://A:\All%20About%20FAD. Role of Donors “Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health” In Catalogue 2000 No. Gerardo A.” [file:// A:\teenfad_ph%20(%20A%20Project%20of%20the%20Foundation%20for%20Adoles…)] Viewed: 9/1/ 2003.” (file://A:\Email-A-Friend. __________. __________. FAD Library. Tim. “Sexual Experiences of the Filipino Youth: Demographic Patterns and Attitudinal Correlates. “All About FAD.” FAD Library.” A paper presented at the International Symposium on Reproductive Health Research and Policy Issues of Adolescent and Unmarried Young Adults. Bob.” (file:// A:\artic%20fr%20fad%202. The Strategic Planning Department. “A Project of the Foundation for Adolescent Development (FAD).” In The McCann Youth Study 2000 Edition: In Partnership with GMA-7. 19-21 October 2000.htm) Viewed: 9/1/2003. Charles E.” WHO. McCann-Erickson Philippines.htm) Viewed: 9/1/ 2003.” Healthy Body.” Geneva: World Health Organization. “Youth. and Drug Use Experimentation on the rise among young Filipinos.html) Viewed: 12/2002.htm) Viewed: 9/1/2003. “Peace Between Parents and Teenagers. “Youth Health Situation: A Growing Gap. China. (file://A:\artic%20fr%20fad%206. Population Institute.” New York: Population Council.

“The Skinny on Nikki: A Battle with Anorexia./body_pmnp.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 .” (http://www. Sheryl..” (file://A:\artic%20fr%20fad.gsld.” [file:// A:\Library%20(Fad%20Resources)%20First%20Person%20The%20Skinny%20on%2…] Viewed: 9/1/ 2003 151 .jp/user/prof/pfotsubos/intraWEB/ WBGender/genderex/Previe.. “Teen Voice Button Rules & Proper Use. “Philippines: Country Gender Profile.nagoyauac.” (file://A:\FAD%20Library.htm) Viewed: 9/1/2003.ht) Viewed: 6/23/01. Linus Velasco. Tiu.2003 Milagroso. “Passive Family Planning.” (file://A:\artic%20fr%20fad%207. “Winning the Battle Within.htm) Viewed:9/1/2003.htm) Viewed: 9/1/2003.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful