A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 - 2003

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Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines

WHO Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
Sexual and reproductive health of adolescents and youths in Philippines: a review of literature and projects 1995-2002. 1. Sexuality 2. Reproductive medicine 3. Adolescent 4. Philippines ISBN 92 9061 1804 (NLM Classification: WS 462)

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A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 - 2003

Table of Contents 1. Review methodology ............................................................. 15
1.1 Overview and objectives .................................................................................15 1.2 Methodology ....................................................................................................16

2. Scope of ARH literature and programmes .......................... 21 3. Status of adolescent reproductive health ............................. 29
3.1 Demographic characteristics ..........................................................................29 3.2 Growth and development ...............................................................................31 3.2.1 Nutrition .................................................................................................31 3.2.2 Menarche .................................................................................................31 3.2.3 Fertility.....................................................................................................32 3.2.4 Sexual experiences .................................................................................32 3.2.5 Marriage ..................................................................................................36 3.2.6 Contraceptive use ...................................................................................37 3.2.7 Early pregnancy ......................................................................................39 3.2.8 Abortion ..................................................................................................41 3.2.9 STI, Reproductive Tract Infections (RTI), HIV/AIDS ...................41 3.2.10 Related issues ........................................................................................42 3.3 Knowledge ........................................................................................................44 3.3.1 Body changes ..........................................................................................45 3.3.2 Pregnancy and fertility...........................................................................45 3.3.3 Contraception and family planning .....................................................46 3.3.4 STI/HIV/AIDS ....................................................................................48 3.4 Attitudes ............................................................................................................51 3.4.1 Premarital sex .........................................................................................51 3.4.2 Marriage ..................................................................................................52 3.4.3 Virginity ...................................................................................................53 3.4.4 Abortion ..................................................................................................53 3.5 Sexual practices ................................................................................................54 3.6 Adolescents’ concerns and needs ..................................................................54 3.6.1 Perceptions of adolescents ...................................................................56 3.6.2 Perceptions of parents ..........................................................................58 3.6.3 Perceptions of service providers .........................................................60 3.7 Factors influencing KAP ................................................................................62 3

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines

4. ARH educational and service interventions......................... 67
4.1 Educational interventions ...............................................................................67 4.1.1 Information, education and training programmes ............................68 4.1.2 Effective approaches .............................................................................74 4.1.3 Effects of educational interventions ...................................................76 4.2 Service Interventions ......................................................................................77 4.2.1 Available services ...................................................................................77 4.2.2 Project sites .............................................................................................80 4.2.3 Services’ impact ......................................................................................80 4.2.4 Sustainability of services .......................................................................81

5. Policy environment ............................................................... 85 6. Summary of findings on the RH status of adolescents....... 91 7. Lessons learned .................................................................... 95 8. Issues and challenges ........................................................... 97 9. Recommendations ................................................................ 99
9.1 Educational interventions ...............................................................................99 9.2 Service interventions .......................................................................................99 9.3 Leadership and governance ............................................................................99 9.4 Role of international organizations ............................................................ 100

Annex 1. Studies/papers on adolescent reproductive health ............................................................. 103 Annex 2. Programs/projects on adolescent reproductive health ............................................................. 125 Annex 3. Adolescent reproductive health-related policies ...... 133 Annex 4. List of key informants .............................................. 135 Annex 5. List of organizations contacted ............................... 137 Annex 6. List of organizations with adolescent reproductive health materials .................................................................. 139 Annex 7. List of organizations with adolescent reproductive health programs .................................................................. 141

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A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 - 2003

Tables
Table 1 (NATIONAL): List of major researches on ARH ........................................................................18 Table 1 (LOCAL): List of major researches on ARH ........................................................................19 Table 2. Published studies/papers on ARH since 1995 ..................................................21 Table 3. Published studies and funding source since 1995 .............................................22 Table 4. Selected ARH projects since 1995 .......................................................................26 Table 5. Relevant ARH policies ...........................................................................................27 Table 6. Premarital sex (PMS) among youth, YAFS III, 2002 ........................................34 Table 7. Knowledge of the modes of transmission for HIV/AIDS (%) .....................50 Table 8. Results of studies on adolescents’ needs ............................................................55 Table 9. Nature of intervention programmes ...................................................................67

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....................... Population and sex ratio ......Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Figures Figure 1......77 6 ................ Types of interventions .................................................... Marital status of adolescents (2000) ........ Use of protection during sex (Mc-Cann Erickson 2000) .......................................................................29 Figure 2.............................................30 Figure 3...................................................................................68 Figure 5......38 Figure 4............... Number of programs per type of client ...............

A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 .2003 Acronyms AGI AHYDP AYHDP AIDS ARH ARMM ASSRC CAR DOH DOST DPF FGD FNRI FP FPS HAIN HIV ICPD IEC IPHC ISSA IUD KAP LGU MIDAS NCR NDHS NDS NGO NHSS NSCB NSO NYC Alan Guttmacher Institute Adolescent Health and Youth Development Program Adolescent and Youth Health Development Program Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Adolescent Reproductive Health Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao Ateneo Social Science Research Center Cordillera Autonomous Region Department of Health Department of Science and Technology Development People’s Foundation. Focus Group Discussion Food and Nutrition Research Institute Family Planning Family Planning Survey Health Action Information Network Human Immunodeficiency Virus International Conference on Population and Development Information. National Capital Region National Demographic and Health Survey National Demographic Survey Nongovernmental organization National HIV Sentinel Surveillance National Statistical Coordination Board National Statistics Office National Youth Commission 7 . Inc. Education and Communication Institute of Primary Health Care Institute for Social Studies and Action Institute Intra-Uterine Device Knowledge. Attitudes and Practices Local Government Unit Mayon Integrated Development Alternatives and Services. Inc.

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines PGYTS PMS POPCOM POPED PPRPI RAF RH RTI STI SWS TFR UNFPA UNICEF UP CIDS UPPI WCC WHO YAFS II YAFSS III Philippine Global Youth Survey Premarital Sex Commission on Population Population Education Philippine Population Research for Policy Initiatives Ramon Aboitiz Foundation Reproductive Health Reproductive Tract Infection Sexually Transmitted Infection Social Weather Station Total Fertility Rate United Nations Population Fund United Nations Children’s Fund University of the Philippines Center for Integrative and Development Studies University of the Philippines Population Institute Women’s Crisis Center World Health Organization Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Study II Young Adolescent Fertility and Sexuality Survey II 8 .

San Pedro Ms. (CRHLD). Christie Suyin Ceres G. (CRHLD). Llagas Ms. Inc. (CRHLD). Philippines 9 Dr. Digi-Ana P. Inc. Inc. Philippines Research Associate.2003 Acknowledgement The World Health Organization (WHO) – Regional Office for the Western Pacific Region gratefully acknowledges the invaluable contribution to this review of the following: Ms. (CRHLD). Philippines Research Associate.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . Felix Executive Director and Principal Investigator. (CRHLD). Center for Reproductive Health Leadership and Development. Maria Leny E. Philippines Research Assistant. Regina de la Paz-Ingente Dr. Jamoralin Ms. Inc. Alejandro R. Center for Reproductive Health Leadership and Development. Philippines Associate Investigator. Center for Reproductive Health Leadership and Development. Inc. Jihan A. (CRHLD). Philippines Associate Investigator. Center for Reproductive Health Leadership and Development. Inc. Jacob . Center for Reproductive Health Leadership and Development. Center for Reproductive Health Leadership and Development.

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines 10 .

Social norms of sexuality have also changed in the past 2 decades and puberty comes 2-3 years earlier over one century. affordable and appropriate reproductive health information and services. This is often compounded with environmental disadvantages such as poverty and unemployment. Many of the problems adolescents experience are inter-related and should be regarded in a comprehensive manner.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . At least 17 out of 37 countries and areas in the Region have a median age below 25 years. China.* Adolescents and youth make up onefourth of the population in the Western Pacific Region. adjusting to sexual development and protecting their reproductive health are the major challenges for adolescents. a key element and an investment for the social and economic progress in the Region. The health of adolescents is. Philippines. therefore. However. Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Republic of Korea. Mongolia. Viet Nam 11 .2003 Preface T his is one of the reviews on the literature and projects of sexual and reproductive health of adolescents and youths in eight Asian countries. Adolescents are vulnerable because they lack knowledge and skills to avoid risky behaviour and lack access to acceptable. Malaysia. Also families and communities are still unprepared to provide accurate reproductive health information and * Cambodia. but the environment to support adolescents has not changed. There is still much to be desired in terms of governments’ institutionalization and allocation of funds.

Shigeru Omi. sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS. Risks of unwanted pregnancies. countries now have evidence-based information for the development of national policies and strategies for adolescent sexual and reproductive health.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines services necessary for adolescents. unsafe abortions. the reviewers and researchers for your contributions to improving the reproductive health of adolescents and youths. MD.D Regional Director WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific 12 . In order to assist governments to achieve the objectives of ICPD and MDG. Here. continue to threaten adolescents. many studies and programmes have been carried out by various national and international agencies and nongovernmental organizations. I appreciate the practical and cost-effective use of existing information for increasing awareness of adolescent reproductive health and for improving our work. Ph. As a result of these reviews. pregnancy-related complications. all of which are important elements of Millennium Development Goals (MDG). I also would like to express my thanks to the g overnments. Since the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo in 1994. the WHO Western Pacific Regional Office provided technical and financial support to several countries to conduct literature and programme reviews. where the importance of adolescent reproductive health was acknowledged.

This review aimed to present information on the reproductive health status of adolescents. These are meant to complement and strengthen the existing efforts being done by the Commission on Population and NGOs. programs and policies on ARH have already been undertaken by government agencies. the academic community and international organizations. especially adolescents.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . this report will help policymakers. lessons learned and issues and challenges. Hopefully. ser vice providers. little has been done to integrate available information and share them to the different stakeholders. progress of educational and service interventions. by incorporating ARH in the Department of Health’s Reproductive Health Framework. Important recommendations are also highlighted in the results of the review. Various studies. donor organizations. learn from effective approaches and weaknesses. NGOs.2003 Introduction The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994 highlighted adolescent reproductive health (ARH) as a priority concern. the Philippines has initiated efforts to address the reproductive health needs of its populace. However. 13 . This is in recognition of the reality that adolescents have a specific set of needs which are different from adults because they are in a period of transition from childhood to adulthood. who have continuously worked for mainstreaming of ARH concerns. the World Health Organization and National Center for Disease Prevention and Control of the Department of Health in collaboration with the Center for Reproductive Health Leadership and Development undertook this review of literature and programs on ARH in the Philippines from 1995-2003. and guide them in developing appropriate policy and programme responses. To address this gap. As a signatory to the ICPD Programme of Action. and supplementing it with the Adolescent and Youth Health Policy. as well as the target clients understand the concrete situation of adolescents.

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines 14 .

The primary reason cited for focusing on this broader age group was their ability to better respond to study questions pertaining to sex. most studies and programme interventions for adolescents focused on people aged 15 to 24 years. service providers’ bias. • To determine WHO’s role in facilitating integration of programs on adolescent reproductive health in the Philippines. abortion. Review methodology 1. and communities’ and churches’ conservative beliefs. This literature and programme review was conducted to take these considerations into account.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . and young people are 10 to 24 years old. Consequently. maternal and infant morbidity. changing norms or attitudes. and complications resulting from early and unprotected sex. Including younger adolescents aged 10 to 14 would have been difficult given the socio-cultural context and the programme interventions. the terms adolescent and youth are used interchangeably in most of the literature. • To examine trends in ARH. such as early sexual maturity or initiation. • To assess the needs and gaps in the delivery of ARH care. programmes.2003 1. contraceptive use. Impediments to studying the younger group also included: parents’ objection. In the Philippines. sexually transmitted infections (STI) and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). 15 . and increasing incidence of abortion. • To assess the evidence of effective policies and interventions as well as the limitations of current policies and interventions.1 Overview and objectives According to the World Health Organization (WHO). The objectives of this review were: • To identify the extent of adolescent reproductive health (ARH) problems. such as unwanted pregnancy. youth are 15 to 24 years old. and projects. sexuality. adolescents are 10 to 19 years old.

the published papers included 42 studies and 50 other documents. from the Department of Health and the Commission on Population or POPCOM). 32 did not have a publication date. Policies related to ARH. especially those enacted after ICPD. including: demographic characteristics. newsletters. • national statistics and survey results. reproductive health . Thirty-eight organizations involved in ARH research and programme implementation were contacted. organizational reports. such as annual reports. government agencies or NGOs. the materials included in the review were: • published results of research. evaluation reports. A total of 192 local and international documents were included. In sum.2 Methodology This review was conducted from 20 July to 30 September 2003. 17 were published before 1994 and 92 were published after 1995.e. brochures. • official policy (i. were also documented by the team. The material covers a range of ARH topics. and • results of research. and information. nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). studies or programmes (including those published in local language). Programs and projects implemented during this period were examined by the research team specifically for this report. A number of materials published before 16 1995 were also used for comparative analysis. Out of all the materials. All materials studied were produced after the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo. The process included analyzing published and unpublished studies. The material was gathered from 65 organizations. Key informant interviews were also conducted with 21 programme implementers and researchers from academia. Of these. modules/handbooks and primers. For the period 1995 to 2003. education and communication (IEC) materials. and international donor organizations.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines 1. Seventeen policies related to ARH were documented. Egypt. government agencies. studies or programmes of international agencies. Also Included in the 1995 to 2000 period were 51 unpublished documents.

geographic. Population Institute (UPPI) in partnership with local research institutions in 14 regions. and international organizations with ARH papers.2003 status. the policy environment. • library searches in academic institutions. and enrich information gathered from the literature search. attitudes and practices (KAP). trends among this age group were difficult to establish. lessons learned. and actions needed to improve ARH.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . Another limitation was the scarcity of literature on adolescents between 10 to 19 years old. Please refer to the following table for more information about the research. effective approaches. Quantitative and qualitative data on the nature and magnitude of sexuality and related KAPB of young adults at the national and sub-national levels were collected and analyzed. As a result. The methods used for the literature search and data collection included: • Internet searches of the websites for international and local organizations that do work on ARH. Conducted by the University of the Philippines. the results of YAFS I. 17 . update. social and cultural influences. Given their magnitude and the importance of their data. their antecedents and manifestations that can be used in various intervention measures to safeguard the health and welfare of the Filipino youth” (YAFS III). However. concerns and needs. NGOs. government agencies. reports and IEC materials. YAFS II (1994) and YAFS III (2002) have been used extensively in this review. educational and service interventions. One limitation of the review was that 32 documents were not dated and the dates were not verified because of lack of time. studies. they have been included because they contain insightful infor mation and were completed between 1995 and 2003. knowledge. gaps in service delivery. the surveys aimed “to provide updated information on a broad framework of adolescent sexuality and reproductive health issues. and • key informant interviews to validate.

interviews Face-to-face interviews.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Table 1 (NATIONAL): list of major researches on ARH Title 1982 Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Survey (YAFS I) 1993 McCann Youth Study 1994 Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Survey (YAFS II) Social Weather Station (SWS)National Youth Commission (NYC) Study on the Situation of Youth in the Philippines Pagnanasa. interviews Year 1982 Filipino youths Filipino female and male youths 500 10 879 12-21 15-24 Face-to-face survey. Pagmamahal: Contextual Factors Affecting Risk-Related Sexual Behavior Among Young Adults in the Philippines 2000 Family Planning Survey 2000 McCann Youth Study State of the Philippine Population Report Respondents Filipino female youth Sample Size 5204 Age Bracket 15-24 Methodology Survey. key informant interviews. participant Observation Survey 1996 2000 2000 2000 18 . sealed envelope method 1993 1994 1200 15-30 1996 NATIONAL Young adults 301 (at least) Women Filipino youths 44 209 900 15-49 13-21 In-depth interviews. focus group discussions (FGDs).

at-risk relevant to AIDS youth prevention gathered from sex workers.2003 Title 2002 Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Study (YAFS III) Filipino Adolescents in Changing Times Teenage Deliveries in Selected Hospitals in Metro Manila Respondents Filipino female and male youths Sample Size 20 000 Age Bracket 15-27 Methodology Quantitative and qualitative Year 2002 NATIONAL Young people 189 and 13 (key informants) 14-19 Teenage mothers 1020 15-19 and 20-24 FGDs. key informant interviews Questionnaires 2003 Table 1 (LOCAL): List of major researches on ARH Title First Report on FGD on Reproductive Health Risks of Women and Fertility Decisionmaking in the Philippines Respondents Men and women Sample Size Age Bracket 18-44 Location Methodology Nueva Ecija and Metro Manila FGDs Year 1992 LOCAL Sex workers.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . participant observation and Kis 1998 19 . injecting drug users and atrisk youth in Cebu M'ranao Youth: Youth 118 Views on Reproductive Health and Sexuality 15-35 Cebu City FGDs and Key 1995 Informant Interviews 15-25 Marawi City and Lanao del Sur FGDs. injecting 92 Qualitative data drug users.

Adolescent parents. health service providers Perceptions and Recommendations 121 12-20 Negros Occidental Survey 1999 639 92 11-20 Baguio City Davao City Survey FGDs 2001 2001 16-24 LOCAL Manila and Iloilo Southern Leyte 364 13-17 participant observation. care Programmes and religious Services in Iloilo City's leaders. Adolescent parents. Health in Negros health. interviews FGDs and survey 2001 2001 1350 12-24 La Carlota survey and KIs 2001 City and La Castellaña 15-24 Iloilo City FGDs and KIs 2002 20 . Adolescent teachers. providers Occidental Baseline Survey on the High school students KAP of Adolescents and Adults on RH Adolescents. Health and Family health providers Planning Practices in La Carlota City and La Castellaña Adolescents. Consolidation and Parents Analysis of Adolescent Sex and Reproductive Health Young adults Love and Desire: Young Filipinos and Sexual Risks Adolescents The Participatory Planning Process: Research Utilization and Plan Formulation for Adolescent Reproductive Health in Southern Leyte Adolescents.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Table 1 (LOCAL Continued): List of major researches on ARH Title Respondents Sample Size 807 Age Bracket 15-24 Location Methodology Region VII Survey Year 1999 Young adults Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Young Adults in Region VII Adolescents. Reproductive Health teachers. Public Health System: Stakeholders' Concepts. reproductive gatekeepers. Reproductive gatekeepers. Improving parents.

Table 2. and most of them are local researches. violence. Metro Davao. CAR. brochures. incidence of STI/HIV/AIDS. sexual behaviour. Participatory Rapid Appraisal. Some of the projects addressing ARH at the national and local levels are presented in Table 3. and further details of these are presented in Annex 3. education & service interventions. attitudes toward sexual activities. parents and service providers. but further details of 76 programmes/ projects are contained in Annex 2. socio-demographic profile. gender & gender roles. substance abuse.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . case study. Relevant national and local policies related to ARH are described in Table 4. abortion. awareness & knowledge of STI/HIV/AIDS. battering & prostitution. or a combination of the two. policy & programme responses. documentary review) KAP on sexual & RH. as indicated in Table 2. Iloilo. abuse. Bicol. intervention study) Qualitative (FGD. national and local researches employing either quantitative or qualitative methodology. relationships. Published studies/papers on ARH since 1995 Study Type Content Number Of Studies Study/ Geographical Sites Quantitative (survey. Metro Manila. in-depth interviews. content. representative survey. Most research funds came from international agencies. There are also 51 unpublished studies/papers on ARH. resource books and newsletters. modules. Scope of ARH literature and programmes The literatures and programs reviewed include 42 published international. The study type. The remaining 50 published literatures include organizational reports and IEC materials such as primers. The subjects are high school & college students. ARMM. life histories. menstruation. perceptions of pregnancy. data on contraceptive use. needs & problems of adolescents & youth. and Cebu City 15 Bacolod. Marawi City. Zambales. advocacy & IEC strategies.2003 2. Marawi City & Albay 21 . out-of-school youth. Metro Manila. number of papers and geographical sites are summarized in Table 1. 15 Regions I-XII. Sexual maturation. pregnancy. cross sectional study.

sexual & nonsexual behaviour Trade Union Congress of the Philippines (TUCP) 2003 Sexuality & related concepts. STI. Attitudes attitudes on sexual & RH. contraception. Attitudes & Behaviour: Implications for Workplace-Based Interventions Sex and Sexuality Youth profile. domestic violence 12 Nationwide 50 Nationwide Table 3. pre-marital sex (PMS). brochures. modules. programme for action. dating. youth-friendly services. marriage. sex. HIV Working Youth's RH Youth profile. sexuality. love & Behaviour: relationships. data on dating. dating. contraceptives. Published studies and funding source since 1995 Funding Source Title Related Information Principal Investigator/ Institutional Affiliation Year Published UNFPA Working Youth's RH Knowledge. demographic & socioII) economic characteristics. knowledge & Knowledge. teenage pregnancy. residential history. directional plan. commercial sex. incest. background information on the youth. pregnancy. religion. orientation papers. primers. health services. PMS. Published studies/papers on ARH since 1995 Study Type Content Number Of Studies Study/ Geographical Sites Combination of quantitative and qualitative studies Organizational reports. marriage.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Table 2 (Continued). domestic violence. reproductive health status Sexual initiation. KAP of young workers. fact sheets. substance use 1994 Young Adult Socio-economic background of Fertility Survey (YAFS adolescents. young adults' definitions of love & views on courtships Adolescent Sexuality in Youth profile. childbearing. the Philippines contraceptive use. dating. love relationships. knowledge & attitudes on sexual & RH. HIV/AIDS. articles Abortion. sex education. courtship. sexual & nonImplications for sexual behaviour Workplace-Based Interventions Health Action Information Network (HAIN) University of the Philippines Population Institute (UPPI) University of the Philippines Population Institute (UPPI) 1998 1999 1996 Trade Union Congress of the Philippines (TUCP) 2003 22 .

marriage. sexuality. 2001 23 . sex and experiences UP.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . Inc. Philippines (WFS) Al Mujadillah Development Foundation 2000 2000 Unsafe Abortion in the Profile of women with UPPI Philippines: A Threat abortion experience. Tomorrow's Women PMS & views on abortion. results of key informant interviews (KIIs) on adolescents views on sexuality.Center for Investigative & Development Studies (UP-CIDS) 2003 HIV/AIDS Country Profile. UP) & Philippine Center for Population & Development Philippine National AIDS Council (PNAC) & UNAIDSPhilippines National Statistics Office (NSO) Filipino Adolescents in Literature on the psychology Changing Times & culture of adolescent life. UCWS. romance from the point of view of those who married at a young age. M'ranao Youth: Views RH situation of M'ranao youth on RH & Sexuality & adolescents. gender.. RH status to Public Health of these women. Philippines 2002 HIV/AIDS situation in the Philippines. Body & Soul: Information on adolescent Questions for sexuality. UP 2001 Women's Feature Service. includes statistics on adolescents/youth HAIN 2002 2000 Family Planning Survey Data on contraceptive use & family planning services NSO NSO 2000 1995 Baguio City: Highlights Socio-demographic profile of of the 1995 Census of Baguio City including youth Population & adolescents Cebu City: Highlights of the 1995 Census of Population Love in the Time of Ina Morata Socio-demographic profile of Cebu City NSO 1995 Ford Foundation Views on love. level of abortion & consequences. domestic violence & incest. teenage pregnancy. practices on courtship & marriage.2003 Funding Source Title Related Information Principal Investigator/ Institutional Affiliation Year Published University Center for Women's Studies (UCWS.

Lucile Packard Philippines: Being Foundation Illegal Does Not Make contraceptive use & abortion. childbearing & HIV. contraception. awareness & use of Philippines 1998 contraceptives David & Adult Fertility & Lucile Packard Sexuality Study (YAFS Foundation III 2002) preliminary findings UNICEF Manila Arrested Development: The Level of Discernment of Outof-School Children & Youth UPPI Preliminary findings 2003 UPPI 2001 National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) Social Weather Station (SWS) NYC 2000 1996 1998 Population Council Inc. economic participation. marital status & Statistical Tables for Programme Planning. sexuality. Published studies and funding source since 1995 Funding Source Title Related Information Principal Investigator/ Institutional Affiliation Year Published Socio-economic background of adolescents.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Table 3 (Continued). work status. pregnancy. policy implication it Rare Data on population & families. gaps. health & family planning Characteristics. Abortion estimates. National SWS-NYC Study on Youth the Situation of Youth needs & aspirations Commission in the Philippines (NYC) Situation of the Youth Background information on the youth. demographic & socio-economic characteristics & residential history. marriage. sexuality. attitudes. dating. 2002 Level of discernment & moral Philippine Action for development of 300 out-ofYouth Offenders school youth & children aged 7 (PAYO) to 18 2002 24 . major in the Philippines programmes & policies. POPCOM V Women and Men in work. challenges & recommendations Urban-rural residence & United Facts about Nations Adolescents from the population distribution. Demographic Survey: educational enrolment & Foundation attainment. major problems. link David & Abortion in the between unwanted pregnancy. A nationwide survey conducted in 14 regions. values. childbearing. Bicol education.

2003 Funding Source Title Related Information Principal Investigator/ Institutional Affiliation Year Published WHO's Global Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS) NSCB UNESCO Regional Clearing House on Popn. relationships & sex 1996 Education indicators among youth NSCB 2000 Demographic profile. perceptions of pregnancy. Pagmamahal: Contextual Factors Affecting Risk-related Behaviour Among Young Adults in the Philippines Functional Literacy. resilience & responding UP-CIDS-PST to challenges Children: From the Lenses of Resilience & Contextualization 2001 25 . sexual behaviour. Education & Mass Media Survey (FLEMMS) Communication & Advocacy Strategies on ARH & Sexual Health in the Philippines Genders & gender roles. teen pregnancies. Educ & Communictn Children & Youth Foundation of the Philippines Italian Cooperation for Development Save the Children.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . fertility. University of the Philippines 1999 A Profile of Child & Woman Abuse in the Province of Albay. deviance & peers 2001 UP-CIDS-PST 2002 Working with Abused Abuse. policy & programme response Department of Sociology. STI. 1994-1999 Physical & sexual abuse among Social Action children & adolescents Center-Diocese of Legaspi City UP-CIDS-PST 2000 Trust & Power: Child Abuse on children & Abuse in the Eyes of adolescents the Child & the Parent Integrating ChildCentered Approaches in Children's Work Adolescence. contraception. HAIN definitions & attitude toward sexual activities. adolescent sexuality.UK Pagnanasa.

John Hopkins University & Program for Appropriate Technology (PATH) David & Lucile Packard Foundation Dept. UNICEF. of Health Educational Metro Manila Frenzy Mobile Outreach Team (FMOT) Women & Children Protection Unit Educational & service Educational & service Metro Manila David & Lucile Packard Foundation. of Health Davao City Adolescent Fertility Management Programme Educational & service Baguio City BCYA 26 . Inc. (RAF) Baguio Center for Young Adults. Mary's University (SMU) POPCOM Educational & Service Nationwide Dept. British Embassy & ALAKBAY Foundation. AUSAID. Provincial Government & Regional Population Office UNFPA Development of People's Foundation (DPF) Remedios Aids Foundation. (BCYA) St. Inc. UNFPA & Dept. of Health. of Health Foundation for Adolescent Development (FAD) DKT Philippines. Inc. Inc. Davao Medical Center.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Table 4. Selected ARH projects since 1995 Project Title Component Intervention Sites Funding Source Implementing Agency Youth in Action for RH & Rights Youth Zone Educational Davao City David & Lucile Packard Foundation Educational & Service Educational Manila & Cebu David & Lucile Packard Foundation Baguio City UNFPA Developing & Mobilizing Peer Educators for ARH SMU-ARH/VAW Programme Educational & service Nueva Vizcaya Adolescent Health & Youth Development Programme (AHYDP) Adolescent & Youth Health & Development Programme (AYHDP) Entertainment for Education Programmes (Enter-Educate) Educational Nationwide UNFPA. of Health Dept. Dept.

(KDFI) Table 5. Relevant ARH policies Title Subject Date Promotion of the total health. well-being & 2000 Administrative Order 34-A or Adolescent & Youth Health self-esteem of adolescents & youth by promoting a safe & supportive environment. Children & Youth Foundation of the Philippines UNFPA BCYA BCYA TUCP Nationwide Nationwide Nationwide UNFPA UNFPA GOP. & for other purposes. Proclamation No.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . Exploitation & Discrimination Act discrimination. Policy providing information. Population Center Foundation Levis Strauss. 7610/Special Protection of Provides for stronger deterrence & special 17 June 1992 protection against child abuse. JICA. 603/the Child 10 December 1974 investigation. R.2003 Project Title Component Intervention Sites Funding Source Implementing Agency Adolescent Programmes on HIV/AIDS Prevention New Horizon's Drop-In Center for Street Children Multi-Service Youth Center Educational Baguio City Philippine HIV/AIDS NGO Support Programme BCYA Educational & service Service Baguio City President Social Fund BCYA Baguio City Baguio City Youth Empowerment Educational to Serve & Grow with Others Family Planning/Family Welfare Programme Youth Sexual & RH Revitalized Guidance Programme Family Planning/RH Programme Teen Circle & Teen Horizon Educational & service Educational Educational Service Educational & service Nationwide POPCOM. USAID. 27 . UNFPA.A. UNICEF La Carlota City David & Lucile & Municipality Packard Foundation of La Castellana TUCP Department of Education & PCPD POPCOM Kabalaka Development Foundation. building skills & providing services. Inc. providing penalties for its violation. Rules & regulations on the apprehension. prosecution & rehabilitation of Youth & Welfare Code youth offenders. No. exploitation & Children Against Child Abuse.

Allocation of 30% from ODA & 6% from local funds to women & gender-sensitive projects & formulation of gender-sensitive programmes including ARH.A. using applicable laws. No. 8044/An Act Creating the National Youth Commission R. 24/Women & Development Code of Davao City 1998 28 .A. appropriation of funds & other purposes. No. 7658 Executive Order No. Broadening of population policies & programmes beyond FP & a much closer collaboration among development agencies as the primary mechanism to attain the reproductive health approach objective. No. including NFP.A. defines & penalizesd sexual harassment in the workplace. No. education or training environment.A. 8505 Administrative Order 1-A R. Population policies Anti-rape law Rape Victim Assistance & Protection Act Philippine Reproductive Health Program & adopted the ten service elements of RH Philippine AIDS Prevention & Control Act Anti-Sexual Harassment Act of 1995. No.A. at appropriate levels adhering to standard of quality care promulgated by the national programme.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Table 5 (Continued). No. 6365/Population Act of 1971 R. 8353 R. Relevant ARH policies Title Subject Date R. 8504 R. 9 November 1994 28 February 1996 15 January 1998 1994 1972 1997 1998 1998 1998 R. 43/Reproductive Health Policy R.A. A. Establishment of a national comprehensive programme on youth development. No. 7877 An Act prohibiting the employment of children below 15 years of age in public & private undertakings. Ensuring availability of FP information & services. Family Courts Act of 1997 mandating the creation of family courts. Anti-Domestic Violence Ordinance of Cebu City which is the first local measure in the Philippines that penalizes perpetrators of domestic violence & provides protection to victims.A. 307/Implementing of Family Planning Programme at the Local Government Level Administrative Order No. a special law that names. & assigns to these courts the hearing & resolution of domestic violence cases against women & children including adolescents. 8369 1997 City Ordinance 1933 2002 Executive Order No.

Status of adolescents’ reproductive health 3. A survey conducted by the Social Weather Station (SWS) and the National Youth Commission (NYC) in 1997 indicated that six out of 10 Filipino youth reached or finished high school or vocational training.000. 75% of 15 to 24 year-olds reached at least the high school level in 1994.5 million (National Statistics Office (NSO) 2000).000 8. Adolescents aged 15 to 19 years old are more likely to live in urban areas than those ages 10 to 14 years.000 0 Male 10-14 15-19 20-24 29 . The high fertility rate in the past has created a young age structure with the median age at 21 years. 23% is between the ages of 10 and 19 and 20% are between 15 and 24.000 5.000 7. As pointed out by Xenos and Raymundo (1999). Figure 1.000.000 1. and this trend is more pronounced among girls than among boys (NSO 2002).1 Demographic characteristics The Philippines has a total population of 76. making it one of the fastest growing populations in the Western Pacific Region.000.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 .000. This number increased to 85% in 2002 (Raymundo 2002). Population and Sex Ratio Female 9. Its average annual growth rate is 2.000. the Philippines is in the midst of a “youth bulge. According to the same survey.000.36%. 24% had some college education and 16% had at most elementary education.000 3.2003 3.000 4.000.000.000 6.000.” a transitory but important demographic expansion. Of this population. As to their educational attainment.000 2.

POPCOM). National data also show that more than one third or 36% of young women conceive before marriage (State of the Philippine Population Report 2000. they still need to secure parental consent Figure 2. Marital Status of Adolescents [2000] Below 20 20-24 Entire Population 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% le M ar rie d W id ow ed Se pa ra te d O th er s U nk no w n Si ng Marital Status 30 . The YAFS II pointed out that more than onequarter of all women began childbearing by age 20 (Balk and Raymundo in Cabigon 1999). even when parties between 18 and 21 years old can legally marry. only 13% of college-educated females aged 15 to 24 were mothers (NSO and Macro International 1994.4 million or 51. More than half of the female population belongs to the reproductive age group.04%. Out of the 38 million females in the Philippines. According to the Family Code or Related Provisions of Executive Order 209. the total population of women of childbearing ages (15 to 49 years) is 19. men and women can marry when they reach the age of 18. By contrast. The YAFS II (1994) reported that 32% of the elementary-educated females were already mothers.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines It was noted that young females have consistently shown better educational attainment than young males (NYC 1998). however. cited in Varga 2003).

). In 1995. in females.9 for males and 21. the Philippines ranks fifteenth on the list of countries that have high rates of stunted children. however. Based on a 1998 NYC report. The mean age of menarche in the Philippines. 60% of males aged 20 to 24 were in the labor force and 40% of young females were working. “these figures represent an 18% decline among males between 1970 and 1995 and 33% increase among the females” (Xenos and Raymundo 1999). 3. compared to the number recorded in 1982. about 12 million youth were either employed or actively looking for employment (POPCOM 2002). 33 out of every 100 adolescents among the 11 to 19 age group were underweight and 24 were underweight for their height (Talkpoint.” 3. Department of Science and Technology (FNRI-DOST).1 Nutrition Based on the 2000 study of the Food and Nutrition Research Institute. Data from YAFS II (1994) revealed a slight decline in the number of young women who menstruated before age 13.32 in 1994 to 13. claimed that they were living with a partner (Sandoval 2000). The average marrying age is 23. 1995). which signifies a girl’s transition to another stage of the life cycle. A small proportion. It signals the female body’s reproductive capacity and predisposes the individual to be sexually receptive (Perez n.2 Menarche Menarche refers to the onset of menstruation. In 1994. 15 June 2002). about 70% of young Filipino women between ages 13 and 19 became physiologically mature for reproduction (Ogena 1999). Because of poverty and malnutrition.2. The SWS-NYC survey revealed that about six out of 10 Filipino youth are single and about one third are married.al. which is considered to be three out of 10 children (UNICEF as cited in Talkpoint. 15 June 2002).6 for females (Perez et.2003 (Pangalangan 1995).2. 15 June 2002). 2%.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . While data show that more men were employed. iron loss during menstruation (Talkpoint. 31 .d. “Both male and female adolescents have high iron requirements because of developing muscle mass during adolescent growth and.2 Growth and development 3.44 in 1995) (Diaz in Ogena 1999). has not changed much (13. It carries with it g reater responsibility.

YAFS III (2002) reported that 5% of sexually active boys had sex with boys and less than 1% of females had sex with other females. Despite this reduction in TFR.3 Fertility The total fertility rate (TFR) in the Philippines gradually declined from 5.2% of single males and 5.3. By contrast. Many people in Philippine society still find it difficult to accept male and female homosexuals. only 9. 3. young adult mothers’ particular contribution to the TFR has increased from about 27% in 1980 to 30% in 1996. This change has been attributed to improvements in food technology.8% of married females compared to 6.2 million people claimed to have experienced homosexual relations. actual homosexual activity was still low compared to homosexual attraction (Padilla in Ogena 1999). Homosexuality in adolescence has been classified under “identity disorder” (Ladrigo-Ignacio in Ogena 1999).Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Reduced age of menarche appears related to early sexual activity.3% of the total births in the country in 1989 and 35.7% of youth aged 15 to 30 or an estimated 1. More females than males admitted to samesex attraction (13. the younger a woman may be at the age of marriage and the age of first pregnancy (Liboro n. Even with negative connotations. with more males involved in homosexual relations than females (Sandoval 2000). it can be surmised that since the mid-1990s. Based on the results. 3.2 years). 32 . Moreover.2.d.97 in 1970 to 3.2. Data from the YAFS II (1994) showed that 5. 5. However. One study suggests that the earlier the onset of menarche.8% of the female respondents reported being involved in homosexual activity. The age of menarche estimated from YAFS I (1982) was 13.6% of single females and 10.). Based on these studies.1% of the male and 1. Rural areas had higher levels of homosexuality than urban areas.1% in 1992 (Diaz in Ogena 1999).3% experienced homosexual attraction and 5% were involved in actual homosexual sex. statistics show that young women below 20 years old accounted for 36.73 in 1996.5% engaged in homosexual sex in urban areas (Ogena 1999).5% of married males).4 Sexual experiences Homosexuality .7% experienced same-sex attraction and 2. In less urbanized areas. which was two and a half years less than the estimate in 1948 (16. A 1997 SWS-NYC survey reinforced this observation. 10. homosexual activity continues among Filipino youth.

Raymundo and Berja in Cabigon 1999). Females have sex with boyfriends or fiancés. suggesting that PMS is likely to occur for the first time within committed relationships that may eventually lead to marriage. The average age of sexual debut of boys and girls was 18. Premarital and early sex. The sexual encounter often happens in homes. Sexual debut among adolescents.). although a segment of the young male population opts for motels.d. therefore.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . The YAFS I (1982) found that the median age of first premarital sex (PMS) was about 18 years for young women and 21 years for her male partner. studies indicated that adolescents were experiencing their sexual or coital debut at a younger age. Nine of every 10 girls had their first PMS with their boyfriends or fiancés. takes place between the ages of 18 to 21. the home was where most females had their initial sex encounter with their boyfriends. As early as 1981. YAFS I (1982) reported that about 12% of young female adults had engaged in premarital sex. Also. Among females. while 38. the YAFS II (1994) observed that the first sexual encounter of most male respondents took place in motels with persons they had no romantic attachment to. Based on a number of studies. Among the respondents. A popular venue for the first sexual encounter was the respondent’s home or his/her partner’s home (Ogena 1999). 55% said that it was something they did not plan. However.2003 young male adolescents have had a higher rate of homosexual activities than young female adolescents.6% of males said the same (Xenos. A 1981 study among female senior college students revealed that almost all of the girls lost their virginity before age 21(Rimando in Perez n. about 21% said they had serious relationships or intimate relationships. Similar results were found by the YAFS II (1994). sexual debuts are mostly spontaneous or unplanned events. As with the previous findings. while males are more inclined to have sex with someone they are not romantically involved with. but they went along with it while 43% said that it was something that they wanted to happen at that time (YAFS III 2002). the number of young adults engaging in PMS has steadily increased. unlike the previous survey. Sexual debut. YAFS II (1994) noted that the 33 . The majority of those who had PMS said the first sexual encounter was a spontaneous event.

In 1997. The estimate in 1997 was 2. also reported that about 1. 40% of 20 to 24 year olds were sexually active.2 million.4% among single youth compared to a higher 23. 22% of the boys and 8% of the girls . Premarital sex (PMS) among youth. YAFS III. It was also observed that marital status is significantly associated with PMS. the corresponding figure for 2002 was 23%.9% among ever-married youth. the number rose to 17% (3. In 2001. a ‘repeat’ either with the same partner or with another is more likely. Before the YAFS III (2002).3 million. The YAFS II (1994) found that while 18% of 15 to 24 year-olds in 1994 had experienced PMS. YAFS II also noted that the “premarital sexual experience among Filipino youth indicates that generally once one gets initiated to PMS. including males. A gender differential is also noticeable. 2002 Age Group % of PMS Prevalence 15-19 20-24 25-27 12 40 47 1997 were similar (Sandoval 2000). who had PMS was 18% or 2. in its State of the Philippine Population Report 2000. This increase indicated that engaging in sex before marriage is becoming more common among young Filipinos. Raymundo and Lusterio in Sandoval 2000). and 33% of 19 to 21 year-olds had PMS.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines number of adolescents aged 15 to 24.5 million of the 15 to 24 age group had PMS. and 47% of 25 to 27 year olds were. The results of the SWS-NYC survey in 1996 and Table 6. More males (25%) are engaging in PMS than females (11%) (McCann-Erickson 2000). indicating that somehow.6 million youths aged 15 to 30) (Sandoval 2000:3). “The percentage of those reporting 34 premarital sex experience is 12.” The SWS-NYC survey found in 1996 that 13% (2. 18% of 16 to 18 year-olds had PMS. Based on the 1996 survey. about 1. A study conducted by McCann-Erickson in 2000 found that: 5% of 13 to 15 year-olds had PMS. The YAFS III (2002) findings indicated that 12% of 15 to 19 year olds were sexually active.7 million youths aged 15 to 30) of Filipino youths have engaged in PMS.8 million Filipino males and 670 000 females aged 15 to 24 were sexually active. There is evidence that the PMS among the youth increases with age. POPCOM. PMS experience initiates or accelerates the process of marriage” (Xenos.

Findings of the YAFS III (2002). It is more likely that urban adolescents will engage in PMS than their rural counterparts will. Despite the data. the perception is that “Filipino young adults are quite conservative in terms of prevalence and the timing of their first sex act compared to Western standards. In fact. revealed that young adults from the NCR and Eastern Visayas posted the highest percentage of PMS experience (35%).7% (Sandoval 2000). Data also indicated that PMS initiates or accelerates the process of marriage. Also. Mindanao had the highest rate of PMS (24%). In 2000. The likelihood in urban areas was 23. young men’s PMS prevalence was 25% while that of young women was 11%.” when compared to the PMS prevalence data for unmarried Americans (Ogena 1999). However. Another survey reported that the incidence of sexual intercourse in Metro Manila decreased from 32% in 1992 to only 21% in 2000 (McCann-Erickson 2000). Visayas (18%) and Luzon (14%). Sandoval 2000). A look at social status and educational attainment showed that Class C had the highest rate of PMS and those with more education tended to report higher levels of PMS.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . The percentage of sexually active young adults increases with age. a UPPI press statement on this subject stated that “the premarital sex behaviour of young Filipinos can still be considered conservative when 35 . various studies have showed an increase in the number of youths engaging in PMS.1% and in rural areas it was 10. followed by the National Capital Region (NCR) (21%). followed by class AB or upper class (25%) and Class D or lower class (17%). and Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) (12%). In 2002. In sum. Males are more likely to engage in PMS. on the other hand. those living in urban areas report higher levels of PMS compared to those in rural areas. the YAFS III showed that young men consistently had more PMS (35%) than women did (19%). In 1994. Less PMS activity was found among young people from the regions of Western Mindanao (19%). Adolescents with higher education tended to engage in PMS more or report actual experience (McCann-Erickson 2000.2003 had had sex at age 18 while 45% of the boys and 18% of the girls had had sex at age 21 (Cabigon 1999). the 2002 finding showed that the women’s level of PMS was catching up with that of the men’s. Cagayan Valley (16%). Those belonging to Class C or middle class social status showed the highest rate of PMS (30%).

Studies conducted in the late 1960s and 1970s showed that dating was becoming a venue for sexually-related activities. Dating as venue for sexual activity.” In this study. most often done in movie houses. but rather an erotic one. Another study in 1977 revealed that “common forms of intimacies such as kissing. “While the majority of sexually active young Filipinos stick to one sexual partner. the majority stated that dating was not just a socializing experience. 3.7 for males and 16. This represents about 1.1%.2. and genital stimulation. Nearly one-third had oral. The comparative levels for females was only 9%” (YAFS III 2002).4 for females. More than half of males engaging in PMS reported having more than one partner.9% “go all the way” on their first date. the rate of teen marriage appears to have declined slightly from a decade earlier (Balk and . data show that an estimated 34% have multiple sex partners. YAFS II (1994) findings suggested that 9.7% of respondents engaged in sexual intimacies and 2. which make modern day dating among the young a source of sexual 36 gratification. Experience with multiple sex partners.5 Marriage Although one out of five Filipinos is married by age 19. Similarly. respectively” (De Guzman in Ogena 1999). For instance. 16.” This showed that adolescents engaged in sexual activities other than intercourse (Perez n.). And in a study of 5350 adolescent students from nine ethnic groups.3% and 8. McCann-Erickson (2000) found that the average age for a youth to go on a one-on-one date was 15.). “a much earlier study by Abanes (1969) on the dating habits of boys in two big Manila universities reported that sexual intimacies form part of the males’ expectation from dating. necking or petting are expected in dates. breast. intimacies heightened. of the 2117 dating adolescents from nine major ethnic groups.d. This resulted in an increase in the corresponding proportions of the youth engaging in petting and sexual intercourse.d. about 5% of dating females and 17% of dating males admitted having gone as far as sexual intercourse with their dates (CYRC (1977) as cited in Perez n.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines compared to the levels found in developed countries and some other countries in the Asian region” (Raymundo 2002). And “as dating became a more regular activity among the youth.6 million of the country’s 15 to 27 yearold population.

especially of modern methods. Over half of less-educated women do so. The Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI 2000) reported that based on the 1998 National Demographic Survey (NDS) more than one in four young women entered their first marriage before age 20.1 during the same period. and majority of this number. Data show that “contemporary Filipino youth are marrying later than their earlier counterparts” (De Guzman in Ogena 1999). better-educated women marry later but tend to catch up in terms of number of children with shorter birth intervals” (State of the Philippine Population Report 2000. Males have married later than females by an average of 2. The 1998 NDS also shows that contraceptive use. One researcher observed that “today. Condoms are used most often (29%).2.8 years in 1980 to 26. only 49% of the youth use protection when having sex. however. In 1994. there is no difference between present and older generations” (Cabigon 1999). The number of years spent as a single person has increased from 24. 74% or about 1. Close to half of young women in the Eastern Visayas. Poorer and rural women also marry at younger ages (Balk and Raymundo in Ogena 1999). fewer women marry in their teens compared to a generation ago.2003 Raymundo in Cabigon 1999). YAFS II revealed that of the 2. is low among Philippine teenagers regardless of their residence.5 years. whether they reside in the rural or urban areas or in any of the major islands of the country.67 million. POPCOM). About two out of five sexually active adolescent women have an unmet 37 . education and region (AGI in Cabigon 1999). 3.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . Among the less educated ones. it has also increased from 22.4 to 24. both of which are considered a premarital period (Cabigon 1999). Central Mindanao and ARMM also marry before age 20. and then other devices (4%). While less-educated women marry earlier and have more children by age 25.6 years in 1995 among males. followed by the pill (11%). In the 1993 McCannErickson study.5 million Filipinos aged 15 to 24 who engage in PMS. 1. are unwilling and unprepared to become parents. Among females.6 Contraceptive use Contraceptive use is low among sexually active adolescents. This gap is attributed to the differences in gender roles and expectations associated with marriage (Ogena 1999).8 million do not use any method to prevent pregnancy. Most married youths say that they began their unions either by living-in or by eloping.

but are more careful in succeeding sexual contacts. “many adolescents engage in premarital sex without adequate knowledge of means of avoiding pregnancy and STI. For those who use some form of contraceptive. 74% do not use any form of contraception. Girls are likely to be unprotected the first time. Only 19% of the respondents used any contraception to protect themselves against the risk of pregnancy or STI the first time they had sex.” The report cited that among sexually active adolescents. Contraceptive use has changed little recently. Use of Protection During Sex (McCann-Erickson 2000) 54% 33% 4% 10% 7% Pills Other devices Refused Condom Do not use protection 38 . Also. condoms (33%) are the most popular followed by pills (10%) and others (7%). According to the State of the Philippine Population Report 2000. McCann-Erickson (2000) noted that among those who have had sexual intercourse.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines need for contraception regardless of their residence. as seen in the findings of the YAFS III (2002) study. education or region (Cabigon 1999). 78% of sexually active male adolescents have never used a condom (POPCOM 2001). Contraceptive use is higher among boys than among girls. The study confirmed previous observations that most sexually active young people are not aware of safe sex practices. Young boys are more inclined to use a contraceptive method during their first encounter than subsequent ones. As indicated in the Figure 3. About 4% refused to use any contraceptive method. over half (54%) do not use any contraceptives during sex.

Twenty percent of births to married women in 1973. Dr.). contraceptive use is low among the Filipino youth. while 25% of the males reported the same. 39% of births to respondents of a KAP survey in Metro Manila were to women aged 15 to 24.). In sum. Only about a third of young adults who had never married and had PMS used contraception during their sexual initiation.2003 YAFS III (2002) results. and over half (54. Associate Professor at the UP Population Institute.7%) were to women aged 15 to 19 (Perez n. Aurora Perez.6% of total live births (1 437 154) were to younger Filipino women. Notably. stated that “a most dramatic change in contemporary Philippine social conditions is the earlier initiation of sexual activity which without guiding knowledge can in turn lead to accidental or unplanned or even unwanted teenage pregnancies” (Perez n. and 13% used pills (YAFS III 2002). Condoms. non-use of contraceptives was highest among the younger ages (15 to 19) at 24%. In terms of methods commonly used. 80% of young mothers belonged 39 . As shown in the YAFS III (2002). It is common for PMS experiences to be unprotected. This may be because the majority of first sexual experiences were spontaneous but succeeding sexual episodes were also unprotected. In 1977. 3. pills and withdrawal are the most commonly used contraceptive methods. 12% among currently married and 11% among those in living-in).). Many of these births (6. This was higher than the contraceptive use practice of all categories of youths who are in union (e.d. but are more likely to use contraception in succeeding sexual experiences.7 Early pregnancy In terms of teenage pregnancies. In 1985. 26% used condoms.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 .).d. Among the 25 to 27 year olds.2. 40% relied on withdrawal. were premaritally conceived (Zablan in Perez n. the reverse is true among males. 62% of women reported that they did not use any contraception during their first sexual experience.6%) of illegitimate births were to women in the same age group (Mataragnon in Perez n. for instance.d. Between 1984 and 1988.d.g. the majority of the most recent sex episodes for women (70%) and men (68%) were not protected. only 14% reported using any type of contraception during their first premarital sex experience. Young women are likely to be unprotected the first time they have sex. data from the Philippine Health Statistics show that 8. Non-use of contraceptives was found to be highest among younger ages.

Rural women start childbearing at younger ages than urban women do (Balk and Raymundo in Cabigon 1999. rural teenagers are twice as likely to become pregnant (11% versus 5%). In a study conducted by the AGI (2000). four months postpartum. 40 POPCOM 2000). but complications related to pregnancy. 60% were single and 40% married (Liboro n. less-urbanized regions of ARMM.). Out-of-school youth. Lesseducated women were more likely to become pregnant during their teen years than their better-educated counterparts (Cabigon 1999). Compared with their urban counterparts. Of this. Early pregnancy is disturbing because of the health problems associated with it.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines to the 17 to 18-year-old age bracket. alcohol. that number increased to four out of 10. half of all 15 to 24 year old mothers resume menstruation. Also. “One of the major reasons why girls aged 15 to 19 die isn’t drugs. There is a clear relationship between education and pregnancy. faced a higher risk of teenage pregnancy (State of the Philippine Population Report 2000 ). National data also showed that more than one third or 36% of young women conceived before marriage (POPCOM 2000). which may result in a rupture and other health complications. The YAFS II (1994) found that more than one-quarter of all women had begun childbearing by age 20 (Balk and Raymundo in Cabigon 1999). making them at risk of becoming pregnant again (Balk and Raymundo in Ogena 1999). findings showed that two out of every 10 young women gave birth before age 20. Filipino teenage mothers account for 20% of all maternal deaths in the country and 17% of fetal deaths are attributed to teenage mothers” (Tripon 2000). Another problem associated with early pregnancy is having a breech birth. Western Mindanao and Eastern Visayas have the highest percentage of teenage mothers.5 million and mostly concentrated in urban areas.). while Metro Manila has the lowest (POPCOM 2000). Among less-educated women. . which is twice as frequent among teenagers as among the general population (Liboro n. The 1998 NDS reported that 20% of females were married by age 19 and nearly 60% were married by age 24.d. estimated to be 5. or drunk driving. Also.d. The adolescent female reproductive system may not be fully developed and able to withstand birthing.

Reproductive Tract Infections (RTI). About 47% of infected females are between 20 to 29 years of age and about 38% of infections in males occurred between 30 to 39 years. Complications from abortion are one of the leading causes of admission to government hospitals (Philippine Population Research for Policy Initiatives. As of December 2002. the Philippines has a low rate. such as Zimbabwe. Moreover.2003 3. It is estimated that about 400 000 abortions are performed every year (TUCP 2003). Compared to other countries. In a study of hospital cases of abortion complications. indicate high-risk sexual behaviour and poor reproductive and sexual health awareness (HAIN 2002). Five groups in the country have been identified as most susceptible to HIV: women. young adults.’ with estimates of 13 000 infected Filipinos. the HIV/AIDS registry shows that most cases of HIV infection among females happened at a younger age compared to males. Young people are also at risk of serious complications from STI. 1210 were asymptomatic and 586 were AIDS cases. ‘low and slow. Data from the National HIV Sentinel Surveillance (NHSS) showed that 85% of reported infections were acquired through sexual contact and the highest HIV infection rates were found in people aged 20 to 49 years old. men who have sex with men. Of these infections.2.7%.8 Abortion Abortion is illegal in the Philippines. especially among young men. In fact. the incidence of abortion is increasing. Infection rates among the youth. Also. the cumulative number of reported HIV cases was 1796. but that does not stop it or discussions about it. HIV/AIDS According to the Health Action Information Network (HAIN) in its HIV/AIDS Philippine Country Profile 2002. HAIN added that the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Philippines has been described by public health experts as . A 1999 study on STI/RTI found that the prevalence rates of gonorrhea and chlamydia are higher among younger people.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . the Philippines has a relatively low prevalence rate of STI and less than 1% of adults are infected with HIV. Series 2001). 17% of women in the reproductive ages of 15 to 44 in Metro Manila have had at least one abortion.9 STI. 41 3. sex workers and overseas Filipino workers (HAIN 2002). which has an adult infection rate of 33.2. 36% involve young women (15 to 24 years old). Metro Manila currently has the highest abortion rate and ratio in the country.

6% had used a condom and only one-third of the males and a much smaller proportion of females (5. Among those with commercial sex experiences.1% (0. About 10% of the females who had PMS said that their first sexual experience happened without their consent (Ogena 1999).6% (estimated one million) have paid for sex and 3. but the YAFS III (2002) covered both young men and women. More males reported paying for sex and being paid for sex than females. does not vary significantly according to urban or rural residence (SWS-NYC 1997). The Women’s Crisis Center’s document “Feminist Action Research on the Impact of Violence Against Women (VAW) on Women’s Health (1995-1998)” reported that six out of 10 women said they were abused by their partners during their boyfriendgirlfriend relationship.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines 3. however. This suggested that even in “not-so-per manent” relationships. It is of concern that 60% of 78% of sexually active male adolescents who had never used a condom also admitted to 42 having commercial sex (POPCOM 2000).2. Among the girls. 2% of those who had PMS said that their first sexual experience happened against their will.6%) than those in rural areas. 20% have paid for sex and 12% have accepted payment for sex.6% versus 2. The same research also revealed that 60% of rape survivors were forced . women are vulnerable to abuse.3%) reported using a condom (YAFS III 2002). Similarly. 1% reported having paid or been paid for a sexual favor. Experience with abuse and violence. However. the findings of YAFS III (2002) found that among sexually active males. while 1% of sexually active young men had a similar experience. relatively few NCR residents reported being paid for sex. Being paid for sex. more boys are involved in commercial sex practices.10 Related issues Prostitution/commercial sex. Also. Among Filipino youth. Those living in urban areas reported higher levels of paying for sex (6. Those with lower education reported higher incidence of being paid for sex than those with higher education (Sandoval 2000). 4. Paying for sex tended to be higher in NCR than elsewhere. indicating that males are more involved in commercial sex than females are. About 4% of young women with sexual experience were forced into it the first time. The YAFS II (1994) asked only young women about this. 30.7 million) had been paid for sex. among the sexually active. In the YAFS III (2002) data.

While males engaged more in all three behaviours. Meanwhile. drinking and drug use experimentation were on the rise among young Filipinas. Being raped and raping someone do not vary significantly according urban or rural residence. The incidence of rape was 3.2003 into early marriages or live-in arrangements with their assailants.8% of 11 630 high school student (sophomores to seniors) respondents tried smoking. 20% of males have tried using drugs. Results showed that smoking.0% or 0. The 1997 SWS-NYC survey revealed that 6. relatively fewer NCR residents reported experiences of being raped compared to those living farther from the nation’s capital (Sandoval 2000). the increase in drinking among young people has been mostly among females (65% versus 10% in males).5% were likely to start smoking next year. Nearly half or 46% of the country’s 15 to 24 year old population have tried smoking. More males reported having raped someone (Sandoval 2000) than females did. and 26.6 million reported forcing somebody to have sex with them. A nationwide. “In 1994. 21. A bigger increase in the number of those who tried smoking. school-based 2000 Philippine Global Youth Survey (PGYTS) showed that 42. but the survey focused more on increasing risk behaviours among females. representing an 8% increase from the 1994 level (38%). almost doubling the 1994 figure. ages 13 to 15. Thirty percent of adolescents. Those with less education reported a higher incidence of being raped and raping someone than those with more education. analysis showed that the gender gap observed in 1994 is slowly narrowing.8% or 1. The nationwide survey also revealed that there was a significant increase in the youth’s consumption of alcoholic beverages and use of illegal drugs.6% were current smokers. The proportion of drug use among young females tripled from 1% in 1994 to 3% in 2002.4 million Filipino youth have had sex against their will or had been raped. Substance use. in urban areas smoked and 40% of boys and 18% of girls were frequent smokers. Also.4% among 15 to 16 year olds and increased to 7.7% to 8. However. a little over half of Filipinos 43 .9% in the 22 to 30 age group. A higher incidence of rape was observed in lower economic classes.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . drinking and doing illegal drugs was found among young women (from 17% in 1994 to 30% in 2002). while 3. The YAFS III (2002) found similar practices.

Only 40% of females who tried drinking alcoholic beverages were current drinkers. Females appear to exhibit better judgment by not continuously engaging in risky behaviours. but not drinking. the average age was 15. The average age to start drinking alcoholic beverages was 15.3 Knowledge Youth who are in school know more about RH than out-of-school youth do. drinking and use of drugs. Youth drinking is attributed to aggressive marketing. In sum. jealousy (83.3%) were cited by 44 battered women as factors that ag gravated or trig gered abusive behaviour (Women’s Crisis Center (WCC) 1995-1998). but drinking is not. 3. 58% of those who tried smoking retained the habit. Smoking and doing drugs appear temporary. compared with 76% of males. The YAFS III (2002) also found that young females appeared to exhibit better judgment and did not continuously engage in risky behaviours. The YAFS II (1994) shows that in-school youth also know more about sex and are more realistic in discussing .3%) and drug abuse (23.2 for females. the rate of substance abuse among adolescents is rising. Substance abuse can be a factor in committing violence or showing violent behaviour. In addition. illegal drugs have been identified. Alcohol (90%). Of those who have tried smoking. which can lead to unwanted pregnancy (Kaufman 2003).1 for females (McCann-Erickson 2000). whether on a regular or irregular basis. as factors that contribute to the youth’s relaxed attitude toward sex. Among males. Smoking and doing illegal drugs appear to be temporary behaviours.7 for males and 16.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines ages 15 to 24 admitted to have tried drinking alcohol. Drug use among adolescents and young adults almost doubled from 6% who admitted using any form of illegal drugs in 1994 to 11% in 2002” (YAFS III 2002). advertising strategies and promotion of drinking as a social activity (YAFS III 2002).7 among males and 16. the gender gap is narrowing as more Filipinas experiment with risky behaviours. four out of 10 continued the habit while one out of four who experimented with illegal drugs was addicted. along with peer pressure and mass media. Sixty percent of those who tried drinking alcohol still drink. About 80% of females who smoked a cigarette never picked up the habit. This increased to 70% in 2002. For smoking. With regard to smoking.

When an IEC programme was implemented in 1997-2000.3. Kalinga and Ifugao on adolescents’ awareness of body changes during puberty found that young females notice acutely the onset of menstruation. One-fifth of all women.d. Benares 2001. Media includes television.d. The majority 45 3.. With regard to sex education. and radio. magazines.3. believed that there is no particular time when women are at greater risk of getting pregnant. Apayao. Diaz n.2 Pregnancy and fertility The 2000 Family Planning Survey conducted by the National Statistics Office showed that 20% of women aged 15 to 49 did not know when they are fertile during their monthly cycle. which is the middle of a woman’s cycle. development of breasts and widening of hips. The 1997 baseline survey in Cordillera Autonomous Region (CAR) noted that at least three-quarters of female adolescents and half of male adolescents were aware of changes in their bodies while growing up. Some also learned about it from their parents who discussed sex while children were around. though. books. the most noticeable body changes among young males include the lowering of the voice. there was an increased awareness among both females and males about body changes (Zablan 1999). are having more sex and more RH problems (Raymundo et al..2003 it. movies. Southern Leyte. Less common sources are teachers. Baguio. growth of Adam’s apple.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . (DPF) indicated that participants learned about sex from their peers or by viewing X-rated films on television. and family. Only 14% of all women and 26% of those who used the calendar or rhythm method gave the correct answer. the muscles (Cruz and Diaz 2001. Badayos 2001). 1999). and Southern Leyte showed that an average of 40% of adolescents believe that a woman can get pregnant with her first or only sexual intercourse. Studies conducted in Davao. growth of hair (face and pubis) and firming of . advertisements. Mass media is still considered the most common source of information about sex (Diaz n. churches. Sex is more prevalent among girls than boys. Meanwhile. 3. especially females. Cabigon and Zablan 2001. Out-of-school youth.1 Body changes Studies conducted in Baguio. Zablan 1999). focus group discussions (FGDs) conducted in Davao between 2000 and 2001 by Development People’s Foundation Inc.

3. Two studies conducted in Baguio among high school students and barangay youth showed that there was a low level of awareness about when pregnancy is most likely to occur (Cruz and Diaz 2001). condom. Cabigon and Zablan 2001).1% had used a modern method. 3. but only 0. Attitudes and Behavior of Single 46 Adolescents supported these findings. On the other hand. Cabigon and Zablan 2001.3% had used one. diaphragm.8%) knew when ovulation was most likely to occur. 96% of females aged 15 to 29 had heard of a modern contraceptive method. though. The 1999 UPPI study The Impact of the Cordillera Administrative Region IEC Program on the RH Knowledge.9%. male sterilization and implants (Population Council 2002).Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines of them also agreed that a woman cannot get pregnant without having menstruated (Cruz and Diaz 2001. did not indicate . but their awareness levels are still considered low. The results suggest that the programme was more successful in increasing awareness of ovulation among adolescent boys than among adolescent girls. intrauterine device (IUD). This increase was attributed to an IEC programme that was conducted in the area over a three-year period.1% and that of adolescents girls increased to 40. injections. men. The modern contraceptive methods of contraception include the oral contraceptive pill. Fifty-four percent of the students admitted that they did not know when pregnancy was most likely to occur. 94.4% of 15 to 19 year-old girls who were never married had heard of a modern contraceptive method.3 Contraception and family planning In the 1998 NDS survey of adolescents.” 28.8%) than boys (30. knowledge among adolescent boys increased to 37.5% of adolescents agreed. By 2000. In 1997 more adolescent girls (37. Only one respondent out of 729 got the right answer. Of the married group. female sterilization. spermicide foam or jelly. About 14% believed that seven to 10 days before menstruation is a high-risk period. About 18% to 50% of adolescents believed that one is more likely to get pregnant seven to 10 days after menstruation. Benares 2001) When shown a statement that read “a woman should wait at least two years before getting pregnant again. More than 60% agreed that “one cannot become pregnant if contraceptives were used” (Cruz and Diaz 2001. married and single. but only 19.

among the sexually inactive men.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . condom and female sterilization. The YAFS II (1994) data also indicated that most Filipino adolescents (84%) have heard of at least one family planning method. and La Castellana. and 17% think that tubal ligation is an object inserted into the female before intercourse (Raymundo et. The same survey found that 99% of married women aged 15 to 49 had heard of at least one method of family planning. It also found that over 90% of adolescents aged 15 to 24 believed that the government should provide FP services. IUD. 27% think that the pill is taken orally. and the media (Raymundo et. According to the YAFS III (2002). al. Knowledge of injectables increased from 54% in 1993 to 89% in 1998. Their information sources include teachers. Single men who are sexually active are more likely to know about condoms than married men are. male sterilization. and some 80% to 90% think it proper for these services to be offered to youth. For instance. Nine out of 10 married women knew about the pill. According to the NSO’s 2002 Family Planning Survey. Yet. The proportion is higher among sexually active males (98%) than among sexually inactive males (90%). doctors. The different studies conducted in the said areas revealed that about 41% to 86% of the adolescents surveyed said they had heard of this method. while about 8 out of 10 had heard of injectables. regardless of their sexual activity status. there are no age differences in condom knowledge. La Carlota. The survey also showed that some youth do not understand how to use particular contraceptive methods. 1996). Among sexually active men. either before or after sexual intercourse. and exposure to urban living are more likely to know about condoms. 1996). rhythm and withdrawal. 92% of all males have heard of condoms. Sterilization 47 . Those with greater education. periodic abstinence and the calendar or rhythm methods were the most popular traditional methods and were used by almost 10% of married women aged 15 to 49. The condom was the next best known method (41% to 81%). regular media exposure. 15 to 19 year olds are much less likely to know of condoms than 20 to 24 year olds. However. al.2003 any knowledge of or practice of contraception. The pill is the most popular contraceptive method in Baguio. only 4% are knowledgeable about family planning.

and the media. Benares 2001).. 3. The majority (65%) could identify at least one STI. condoms and IUD. the calendar or rhythm method. Most adolescents who were exposed to population education said that the subject was integrated in their regular school subjects rather than being taught as a single subject.4 STI/HIV/AIDS According to the YAFS II (1994). Four to five out of 10 adolescent girls and three to four out of 10 adolescent boys reported that they knew about injectables. A small number of high school students believed that hysterectomy and castration were contraceptive methods (Cruz and Diaz 2001). Cruz and Diaz 2001.6% of adolescent boys who had learned about FP in school.3% reported that they received this information when they were in the first and fourth years (Zablan 1999).4% received this information while they were in their first and third years in high school. Diaz n. seminars. injectables. withdrawal and breastfeeding (Zablan 1999). Less than half had read about family planning in a newspaper or magazine (44%). teachers. Diaz n. Books. 69% of the adolescent girls who learned about FP methods in school reported that 51. Seven out of 10 adolescent girls and four to six out of 10 adolescent boys in CAR reported that they knew about the pill. the IUD. classroom discussions. Therefore. FP methods and STI. parents and boyfriends or girlfriends were less common sources (Cruz and Diaz 2001.d. poster (44%). Also. leaflet or brochure (34%).). magazines. A survey conducted in four high schools in Baguio City showed that the most 48 common sources of information on contraceptives were doctors. nurses. 42. Ninety-five percent (95%) of all Filipino youth stated that they had heard of AIDS. Eight out of 10 adolescent girls and five out of 10 boys learned about the female and male reproductive system. The NSO’s 2000 survey found that 67% of women had recently heard about family planning on the radio and 71% had seen something about it on television. But information [Editor’s note: that the students received] appears to have been inadequate. sources of knowledge on family planning for adolescents cannot be determined.3.d. Of the 48. female and male sterilization.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines procedures. AIDS was the most . rhythm and ligation were the least known methods (Ogena 1999. withdrawal. awareness of AIDS is high. No data segregation on the age of the respondents has been done for the survey’s results.

people with multiple sexual partners and homosexuals were recognized by two out of five respondents as high risk populations. gonorrhea. 60% think that they cannot contract AIDS.d. An average of 72% of adolescents had heard of STI and HIV/AIDS. Adolescents gave the following common definitions: a disease transmitted through sexual intercourse. As to the modes of transmission. Nearly a third of the respondents stated that AIDS may be transmitted by having multiple sexual partners. radio. those with no regular exposure to media (television. More females than males indicated that commercial sex workers and their partners were especially vulnerable to HIV infection. Diaz n. named by 58% of the respondents. such as homosexuals and intravenous drug users (Brown and Xenos 1994.). Further. and syphilis. More than 20% identified blood transfusions as a non-sexual transmission route.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . Most 49 . Cruz and Diaz 2001. a disease one can get by having sex with someone with a STI or by having multiple sexual partners. The most common examples cited were HIV/ AIDS. the most frequent response (66%) was that it is transmitted by having sex with a prostitute. The YAFS 2002 found that there is a misconception that AIDS can be cured.2003 commonly identified. Only 15% identified sex with a partner of the same sex as a transmission route. This survey found that 23% of young people believe it is curable. Findings from the YAFS II (1994) indicated that about 10% of the 15 year olds and 6% of the 16 year olds were not aware of AIDS. Less than 4% of those over the age of 19 were not aware of AIDS. Knowledge about risk behaviours for contracting HIV/AIDS differed between males and females. drug users and people who receive blood transfusions. cited in HAIN 2003). Adolescents living in rural areas were less likely to be aware of AIDS than their urban counterparts. followed by gonorrhea (37%). Awareness of AIDS and STI was generally high in Baguio (IPHC 2001. or newspapers) were less likely to be aware of AIDS. Also. Other at-risk groups were overseas workers. 12% could not identify a single correct mode of transmission (Raymundo and Xenos 1999). Those with an elementary education were less likely to be aware of AIDS than those with a high school or a college education. However. Moreover. There was a widely-held perception that HIV/AIDS is a problem for certain marginalized groups.

AIDS can be spread through mosquito bites. They were also aware that one cannot get AIDS by using public toilets. youth participants in FGDs conducted in Cebu believed that one should not share needles and syringes or urinate in areas used by infected persons. LEYTE 13-17y/o n=364 Use of condom can spread AIDS. If someone has AIDS. one should not go near him nor share his food (Ramon Aboitiz Foundation 1995). In Tacloban. monkeys. only about 46% of young adults knew that a person with HIV can still look healthy (Tan and Tomas 1996). and that its modes of transmission included homosexuals. Taking antibiotics prior to sexual act can prevent STI/HIV/AIDS. The majority of the FGD participants also knew that AIDS is incurable and that it cannot be acquired through contact with the belongings of an infected person. Most of them were aware that AIDS cannot be acquired through mosquito bites.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines adolescents from Baguio and Davao did not believe that taking antibiotics before having sex would prevent STI. which generally had very high knowledge scores on HIV. and dogs (Cabigon Adolescents think that AIDS can be transmitted through: and Zablan 2001. which also had generally high knowledge levels about HIV/ AIDS. Some said that AIDS is manifested as sores in the mouth.72 27. food. Ramon Aboitiz Foundation 1995). 10. 42% of young adults correctly answered that a cure does not exist for HIV/AIDS. One can acquire AIDS by using public toilets. Regarding the transmission of HIV/ AIDS. In Iloilo.22 49 39 51 51 51 38 40 n/a 50 .3 35. flies. only half of young adults aged 16 to 20 answered that mosquitoes cannot transmit HIV/ AIDS. In Cotabato. Knowledge of the modes of transmission for HIV/AIDS (%) BAGUIO MODES OF TRANSMISSION 12-15y/o n=639 DAVAO 10-24y/o n=576 S.8 31. Cruz and Diaz 2001. A study by Protacio-Marcelino conducted in 2001 (cited in HAIN 2003) found that child sex workers did not have correct information about HIV/ AIDS. The word “AIDS” evoked strong negative feelings among the children and they were afraid of contracting it. Table 7. They seemed to demonstrate a general awareness of STI and HIV/AIDS and knew that they were vulnerable.

misconceptions and inaccurate infor mation were still prevalent. marriage. Males are more open to having PMS. such as television or movies (64%). Benares 2001. Badayos 2002). The common source of information regarding sex. and radio (36%). Adolescents commonly obtained information about STI from school (68%) and the media. 51 . young adult females who relied primarily on friends had an average correct score of 3. IPHC 2001. Based on the available research.1 Premarital sex Most adolescents disagree with having sex prior to marriage. soft drinks and coconut juice or by taking antibiotics as a prophylactic. Moreover. especially television. 3. In general. Studies have shown that 60% disagreed even if the couple already had marriage plans. virginity and abortion. awareness of male and female body changes during puberty was generally high. as will be mentioned in the following section. Cabigon and Zablan 2001). Cruz and Diaz 2001. magazines (48%). Some young sex workers remarked that STI could be treated by a mixture of detergent soap. tried to examine the attitudes of adolescents towards PMS.82%). 3. contraception and STI was the media. knowledge of STI and HIV/AIDS. but adolescents’ knowledge of pregnancy and ovulation period was relatively low. Young sex workers continued to rely on advice from friends and peers for information on how to determine if a customer is “clean”.4 Attitudes Adolescents generally disapprove of PMS.9 out of 15 for HIV facts (Tan and Tomas 1996). Books (39%) were also a main source of information. and awareness on the modes of transmission was high. but place great importance on marrying a virgin (89. Knowledge scores were low if the main source of information was friends.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . The majority of them also disapprove of homosexual relations and abortion. The highest scores occurred if the main source was school lectures and health workers. The best known contraceptive methods were the pill and condoms. Friends (28%0 and family members (8% to 21%) also provided information to youth (Cruz and Diaz 2001. In Bontoc.2003 However. the signs and symptoms of diseases and how to treat and prevent STI (HAIN 2003).4. A number of studies. 70% disapproved of sex if there were not an emotional relationship between the parties (Cabigon and Zablan 2001.

In an FGD held in Davao. Male adolescents looked for simplicity. Females were found to be considering marriage at a younger age than males. fondling of one’s self (25. kissing with the tongue (22. then they would have a bad image and become “losyang” (wasted). 2003). Adolescents considered age as a primary factor for engaging in sexual activity. al. Live-in arrangements are sometimes seen as an acceptable alternative because weddings are expensive (UPPI 2002). This was true for all behaviours except “fondling of one’s self.” which only 22% admitted to (Conaco et. (Benares 2001) The mean age was between 20 and 22 years old for engaging in sex and 22 and 24 years old for marriage. and necking or petting (15.3%). Parents also said that PMS was shameful. This belief was due to concerns about pregnancy and possible physical. Marriage was still viewed as the proper venue for sex (Diaz n. In Davao. the young men did not want to have the responsibility of being a parent. kissing on the lips (38. 3.). It generally takes several years before young men are confident enough to start their own families (De Guzman 1996).4.4%s. social and emotional problems that can result from PMS (DPF 2001). A baseline survey conducted among young adults aged 11 to 25 in Southern Mindanao (Region 11) found that the following sexual behaviour was 52 considered permissible: holding hands (66.2%). yet both parties were expected to practice control and set limitations (DPF 2001). adolescents preferred to be subtle.8%).2%).7%). Kissing was considered natural during dating. Male and female intercourse was considered permissible only by 13. get a job and save some money. responsibility and good character in choosing a partner.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines FGDs conducted in Southern Leyte indicated that adolescents believed one can have sex if he or she has finished school or has a job (Cabigon and Zablan 2001). However. data showed that they were more sexually active than their attitudes would suggest.2 Marriage Most young men consider their earning capability before getting married.d. adolescent girls aged 15 to 24 said that if they engaged in physical intimacies. In Iloilo. participants felt that people should be at least 21 years old to engage in sex. Often they wait until they finish high school. Adolescents were not seen as mature enough or financially able to cope with the consequences of PMS (Badayos 2002). In an FGD conducted by DPF (2001). Young women did .

66%).6%) and boys (4. The majority of respondents also disapproved of homosexual relations. youths perceived unwed mothers as acceptable.. Zablan 1999).6%.4%.d.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . In the YAFS I (1982).89%). Still.d.4.6%) unconditionally approved of abortion (Zablan 1999).3 Virginity Seven out of 10 adolescents surveyed say that virginity was an important consideration in one’s choice of a spouse. Almost 50% said it was unacceptable for a woman not to be a virgin before marriage. 87.9% believed that homosexuals could be good company and 53. The majority of adolescents (80%) disapproved of extramarital affairs. 75. About 10% approved if the child were deformed or if the pregnancy resulted from incest or rape.4% thought it was alright to be close friends with them (Cruz and Diaz 2001). There was a marked increase in the acceptance of unmarried mothers during the period from 1982 to 1994 (Ogena 1999). The earliest preferred age for marriage was 18 and the latest was 45. 43. There is a double standard. Over 70% surveyed thought that having sex with a person of the same sex was not acceptable.2% agreed to the statement that attraction to the same sex was acceptable. 53 . had a good reputation.33%). Despite this. They also felt that this was the age when males were ready for familial responsibility (Benares 2001).6% and 84. four out of 10 adolescent girls approved of abortion when the life of the mother was in danger. Cruz and Diaz 2001).2003 not mention physical looks as a top priority. responsible family members. neighbors (62.4. while males did not mention intelligence as important for their choice of partner (DPF 2001). However. The average Filipino male expects to marry a virgin but also wants to “devirginize” a girl when given the chance (Perez n. girl friends (78. 3.4 Abortion Only a few adolescent girls (6. Comparable data in the YAFS II (1994) are 78.. Diaz n. Many adolescents found it unacceptable for women to have extramarital affairs (Zablan 1999. while 59.).1% respectively. but the number decreased to 42. DPF 2001. in general. to society (69. An ideal family was seen as one which was unified. 3.d. The preferred number of children was three (Benares 2001). most adolescents felt that the right age for childbearing was 25 years.35%) and family (69.6% when a man was concerned (Diaz n. was financially stable and had happy.

such as early marriages. 3.g. The approval rate for induced abortion was very low (4%) due to strong social beliefs. The approval rate was lower among single men and religious women. Only 19% of the respondents practiced safe sex or used contraception to protect themselves from STI and unintended pregnancy (YAFS III). e. the practice is still low. It also showed the need for a carefully designed programme of counseling and service delivery with a clear set of principles and guidelines. Young adult men held more liberal attitudes towards induced abortion than women did.8% (acceptable) versus 33.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Only a few (5% or less) approved of abortion for reasons of the couple’s economic stability and marital status of the woman or of the child’s father (Zablan 1999).9 million young adults aged 15 to 27 years old have engaged in PMS (YAFS III (2002)). Cabigon (1999) found similar results. It is also worth noting that while many 54 . This indicates that PMS is becoming more common. with condoms being the most commonly used contraceptive. 78% of students said that abortion was considered wrong regardless of circumstances (Cruz and Diaz 2001). A 2003 study (HAIN) also found that adolescents said abortion was acceptable if the pregnancy endangered the mother’s life (58. Most adolescents who had experienced RH problems did not seek medical attention 3. Another study in 2002 (YAFS III) showed that the practice of using contraceptive remains low. young people expressed an openness to using contraception. findings of the YAFS III (2002) showed that 23% have had PMS compared to 18% in 1994. In actual figures.6 Adolescents’ concerns and needs The findings of the YAFS II (1994) suggested that adolescents needed a school curriculum that integrated sex and health education and was more attentive to their concerns.3% (not acceptable)). abortion as taboo and illegal.5 Sexual practices Although adolescents generally do not approve of PMS. There was also concern about service providers. especially in terms of their technical capabilities and attitudes or biases. 4. There was also a need for services to prevent the unwanted consequences of sexual activity. only 49% of the youth use protection. STI and early pregnancies. In another study conducted in Baguio. According to McCann-Erickson (1993).

Table 8. Many studies. youth activities • sex education and IEC programmes 55 . tried to examine the concerns and needs of adolescents as perceived by them. Results of studies on adolescents’ needs Areas Adolescents Parents Service Providers Negros Occidental • improvement of living conditions and economic circumstances • access to education • parents should have the capacity to educate their children on sex • parents should be more gentle on their approach towards their children • financial and emotional parental support and guidance • catechism in schools.2003 (Raymundo and Xenos 1999).A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . said that RH information and education was an important service for both parents and adolescents. information and counseling Davao • continuing education programme that will provide counseling and strengthen positive values • orientation on sex education and RH for parents • discussion of genderbased violence • improvement of PTA to educate parents on how to educate their children • sex education • government support for youth welfare S. It is important to recognize that Filipino adolescents are also very concerned about their economic conditions. Service providers. Being able to find a steady job and having a good education were also priorities for 98% (SWC-NYC 1996). Leyte Iloilo • ARH programmes/services should include contraceptive provision. especially at the local level. Moreover. youth aged 15 to 30 considered having a good marriage and family life (98%) as very important in their lives. their parents and service providers. Important findings are discussed below. however. counseling. IEC programmes. sex education. Parents and service providers attested that economic concern remained at the top of every adolescent’s priority list.

they said. Instead of reprimanding their children. Benares 2001). The 2000 McCann-Erickson study of youth aged 13 to 21 years found that their concern about STI had increased from 48% in 1992 to 56% in 2000. A study by Benares (2001) tried to determine the RH concerns and problems of adolescents aged 12 to 24 in La Carlota City and Municipality of La Castellana in Negros Occidental.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines 3. These findings may be attributed to a lack of education or awareness about RH. Parents did not explain the disadvantages of sex or discuss television shows or videos that had sex in them. however. adolescents said that their parents lacked the capacity to teach them about sex. they should advise them. and economic circumstances (poverty and lack of jobs). Those surveyed from classes AB (upper class) and D (lower class) were usually not the ones concerned about contracting STI.6. A review of the adolescents’ responses. showed that instead of identifying RH concerns. heavy 56 CONCERNS OF ADOLESCENTS (continued) Patronage of pornographic materials Youth criminality Multiple partners Bad peer influence Lack of parental guidance Male aggressiveness Bisexuality Homosexuality . lack of access to education. their answers were related to factors affecting their reproductive health. they should take the initiative to reach out to them and talk with them (DPF 2001. They were mainly concerned with their living conditions (drugs or substance abuse. More than half of the participants said that parents should be gentler in their approach towards their children. In FGDs with 92 adolescent boys and girls in Davao (DPF 2000-2001). Teens said that when parents notice their children drifting away. malnutrition and alcoholism).1 Perceptions of adolescents CONCERNS OF ADOLESCENTS STI Substance abuse Living conditions Malnutrition Lack of access to education Poverty Lack of jobs Rape Incest Sexual harassment Teenage pregnancy Early marriage Abortion Juvenile delinquency smoking.

and prepare for married life (86.4%). and alternative youth activities such as sports or livelihood trainings.5%). Lastly. and coping with courtship problems (82. they expressed concern about the following: prevention of early marriage (85.9%). recognize sexual and reproductive health consequences (80.7%). they said drug abuse.1%). sports facilities and equipment.2003 In Southern Leyte. handling boyfriend or girlfriend relationships (82. adolescents aged 13 to 18 who participated in a FGD stated the following needs: money. and did not agree on the provision of contraceptives (Badayos 2002).1%).A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . identify and avoid risky situations (91. vices (smoking and drinking) and malnutrition (Cabigon and Zablan 2001). 356 believed that rape was a serious and widespread problem.2%).6%). to say “no” to sex (87. They also said they wanted more information about: strengthening their moral or religious foundation (93. avoiding STI/HIV/AIDS (88. The RH needs mentioned were: avoiding pregnancy (89%). Adolescents expressed the needs: to develop their self-esteem (92. Adolescents were also concerned about rape. sex education. coping with unplanned pregnancy (78.6%). religious leaders) mentioned the same needs except for counseling. or decision-making capabilities in matters of marriage and reproductive health. ability to handle illicit drugs (73. and the interaction of all three needs. improving relationships with parents (91. prevention of abortion (85. personal relationships. and catechism in public schools.7%). Meanwhile. parental guidance. adolescents’ need for information and counseling include reproductive health. Key informant interviews and FGDs conducted in Iloilo found that adolescent respondents between the ages of 15 and 24 believed that ARH programmes and services should include providing contraceptives.8%). empowerment. avoiding reproductive tract infections (RTI) (85.6%). IEC programmes. health facilities and services for adolescents.8%). Students said that 57 .9%). and coping with RTI (79. sports activities. health providers. Almost as many students (350) said that drug addiction was also a serious problem.3%). When adolescent boys were asked what their problems were. other stakeholders (parents. counseling.9%).8%). In Cabigon’s and Zablan’s 2001 study. and coping with STI/HIV/AIDS (79. Of the 639 high school student respondents in Baguio. self-confidence or personality development.

drug addiction. Respondents recommended an orientation to sex education and RH for parents. 30% were concerned about drug addiction. parental guidance. adolescents in Davao City said mothers were influential in teaching their children about sex. It was . sexual harassment 58 (20%). In summary. They did not comment on the fathers’ responsibility. In the same survey.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines other social problems included teenage pregnancy. youth activities and youth involvement in the community. Lesser concerns included homosexuality (16%). and rape. financial and parental support. abortion (23%). and male aggressiveness (17%) (Cabigon and Zablan 2001). Their other concerns included: multiple partners among young males (25%) and females (24%). “easy to get” females (20%). abortion. When asked what should be done to remedy these problems. STI (22%). adolescents’ concerns were the following: poor living conditions. emotional support. lack of education. health facilities/services. bisexuality (14%). About half of the 364 adolescents in the baseline survey that was conducted in Southern Leyte indicated the need for financial and emotional support from their parents. and incest (19%). sexual behaviour and practices. Key informants also mentioned drug abuse and youth vandalism as serious problems. and 18% about youth criminality. sex demanded as proof of love (23%). buying pornographic materials and juvenile delinquency (Cruz and Diaz 2001). Drug addiction (43%) and youth criminality (18%) were also identified as problems. counseling. rape (22%). many respondents cited the need for more financial support (72%) and greater parental emotional support (63%). they indicated the need for wholesome youth activities and involvement of the youth in civic affairs. 3. STI.6.2 Perceptions of parents ADOLESCENTS' CONCERNS BY PARENTS Gender-based violence Poverty Drug abuse Teenage pregnancy HIV/AIDS Natural calamities Early marriage Alcoholism Lack of employment In the FGDs conducted by DPF (2001). They felt that a lack of parental guidance and support and bad peer influence could lead to drug abuse and criminality. PMS (20%). Their primary reproductive health needs were for more information. early marriage.

vehicular accidents (5%). specifically those related to RH. When parents in La Carlota City and the Municipality of Castellana in Negros Occidental were asked about adolescents’ concerns. mothers believed that they would be the most reliable source on matters such as sex. natural calamities (3%) and early marriage (3%). (However. They also preferred a continuing education programme that would provide counseling and strengthen values (Benares 2001. Interviews conducted in Cebu and Davao indicated that there was a disagreement among them concerning the extent to which they want to be involved and how much information they wished their children to have regarding RH. It was also recommended that family welfare agencies review and revise their programmes. drug addiction or substance abuse (30% ). such as: poverty (51%). While most parents felt that RH education was necessary for their children’s well-being. in Cebu. In addition. they identified almost the same issues as the adolescents did (Benares 2001). The issue of gender-based violence arose frequently during interviews conducted in Cebu and Davao. The parents said: avoiding high-risk activities. Parents thought that the major problems affecting youth were heavy drinking or alcoholism (30%). insecure future in terms of careers (25%).A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . drug abuse (15%). they did not want to be the ones to impart such information. parents were asked what precautionary measures they considered helpful. strategies and approaches for parents and parents-tobe. To avoid such threats. getting pregnant before marriage (9%). and poverty and lack of employment opportunities (24% each). the study identified other perceived threats to youth. Some were worried that it would lead to sexual promiscuity.2003 pointed out that parents should be given the opportunity to participate in RH and sex education through non-formal community classes and sessions by government agencies. Some mothers even consider their nagging about these topics as actual 59 . substance abuse and similar vices. It seemed that it is sometimes considered socially acceptable to engage in various forms of coercion within marriage and violent reactions of husbands or fathers are not uncommon (Zosa-Feranil 2003). diseases such as HIV/AIDS (3%). being more health conscious. such as fast driving. The parents’ perception of their own role appeared to be mixed. services. DPF 2001). and adopting safe sexual behaviour.

according to service providers in Southern Leyte. adolescents’ concerns and needs include adequate financial support. adolescents. poor eating habits (low food intake. Thus while 25% of providers said that they could help adolescents by providing counseling. poor personal hygiene (underarm body odor). sexual promiscuity and family problems. low 3. sex education. Providers also cited the lack of government support for the promotion of youth welfare (e. gender-based violence. Fathers and other elder male family members may assist young men in obtaining sexual experience (Zosa-Feranil 2003)). and clients interviewed in Iloilo (Badayos 2002). induced abortion and STI as problems for adolescents.g.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines information. sexual malnutrition and sexual abuse. lack of sports facilities and social activities) and the lack of community initiatives to organize civic and religious activities for youth (Cabigon and Zablan 2001). Respondents were aware that they play a major role in helping adolescents through difficult years. and inculcation of positive values. Aside from attending to the physical aspect. service providers. General health problems of adolescents. It was seen as either a cause or result of other issues such as gang problems. headaches. From the parents’ perspective. parents. The service providers observed that nothing significant has been done to address these issues at the community level. diarrhea.g.6. In the study by Benares (2001). included: frequent colds.3 Perception of ser vice providers ADOLESCENTS' CONCERNS BY SERVICE PROVIDERS Pregnancy Drug addiction Malnutrition Lack of government Sexual abuse support for the promotion of youth Induced abortion STI welfare Low level of Lack of community initiatives to organize awareness about the youth for civic and sexuality issues religious activities Drug addiction was the consistent problem identified by all stakeholder groups e. a number of health providers said they also provided counseling to some adolescents in need of moral support. youth also needed help from others. parents’ education on ARH. Poverty was also mentioned during interviews as one of the major underlying problems facing 60 . service providers identified pregnancy and childbirth. sexual relations. others suggested a twopronged strategy of education and livelihood opportunities which they believed government and private sectors could provide. Despite this assistance.

A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . service providers were hesitant. and sexuality issues. 61 . training to be able to educate their children about good RH (Cabigon and Zablan 2001). In Southern Leyte. Although adolescents want access to contraceptives.e. but some parents were hesitant to provide information for fear that it might lead to sexual promiscuity. Many of the service providers indicated that adolescents’ concerns included poverty. training on proper parenting (coping with the needs of their children and improving communication with their children).2003 nutritional level). The Health Action Information Network (2003) also recommended the need to educate the media about HIV/ AIDS so that they could responsibly and accurately report on such issues. especially since much of their audience is adolescents. They saw the importance of providing proper RH information to adolescents because adolescents’ information sources are not reliable and generally they are not knowledgeable about RH. The providers pointed out adolescents’ poor understanding about RH (i. drug addiction. providers saw the importance of strengthening ParentTeacher Associations in public schools to promote the role of parents in teaching good hygiene habits and good eating habits and also to turn PTAs into a venue for discussing youth problems. All of the providers. marriage and other RH issues. the misconception that taking a bath during menstruation is bad for one’s health). Family is important to adolescents. they emphasized that media personnel need to be educated about ARH to ensure responsible presentation of issues. They knew that adolescents wanted information about pregnancy. sexual abuse and improper behaviour during dating and courtship (Cabigon and Zablan 2001). but many parents are unprepared for coping with adolescents’ RH needs and concerns. They either lack the knowledge or are uncomfortable with discussing the issue with their children. Parental education could include the following areas: training as role models for their children. Moreover. early marriage. and drug abuse (especially marijuana). stressed the need for sex education. unreliable information about sex. however.

The 1998 NDS reported that sexually active males said that education. or the perception that contraception took the fun out of sex (Raymundo et. It was done to space pregnancies (19%) and to terminate unwanted pregnancy (18%).” It is also important to note that “unsupervised homes are the most popular venue for sexual debut of the youth” (Raymundo et. from a low-income family and has tried contraceptive methods and devices. 62 . Some women had abortions because they already had too many children (14%) or had health problems. lack of knowledge. objection of their partner. As a result. Males reported having more PMS. specifically population education. Also.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines 3. 1999). 20% of sexually active males paid for sex and 12. Urban residence and having a partner who was not single and not religious increased by 30% the likelihood of using contraception.7 Factors influencing KAP FACTORS INFLUENCING KAP Love Education Civil status Religion Peers Media Parental guidance Residence Economic pressure Traditional beliefs Culture A study in Davao (Sanchez et. such as difficulty in childbearing and pregnancy. Same sex experiences were reported by 5% of sexually active boys. Pangilinan gave the following description of a pregnant teen who opted for an abortion (cited in Perez 1998): “unmarried. 1996). al) and a review by Perez (1998) found that most of the reasons for induced abortion were economic. al. The same held true for female adolescents (Berja 1999). an increase of one percentage point from 1994 (Raymundo 2002). al. adolescents were exposed to risks such as STI and unwanted pregnancy. with low educational level. The YAFS II (1994) found that only 2% of those aged 10 to 14 had The YAFS III (2002) showed an increase in all sexual risks behaviours among adolescents aged 15 to 24 years old compared with levels observed in 1994. The YAFS II survey (1994) found that adolescents were not using contraception because of the spontaneity of the act.2% accepted payment for sex. were significant factors in using contraception.

only 8% to 21% cited drugs as the main reason. Even adolescents have cited drugs as a factor that prodded them to have sex for the first time. the tolerance of prostitution in their immediate milieu. Cruz and Diaz 2001. love was the main reason for their first sexual experience. HAIN 1996. peer pressure. A study of gang members in Davao City in eight public high schools found that the common reasons for joining gangs were friendship. smoke and use illegal drugs. Parents and religious leaders also pointed to drug use as a factor in sexual activity. When young sex workers were interviewed in Sorsogon. 63 . on the other hand. However. Tacloban and Cotabato. enticement or persuasion by a pimp or other sex workers. According to local government unit (LGU) health representatives. From 1992 to 2001.d. teenage pregnancy and STI (UNFPA and POPCOM 1995). the percentage almost doubled from 6% to 11% (HAIN 1996). However.2003 experimented with prohibited drugs. Lack of parental guidance. peer pressure. and an unhappy marriage (Ateneo Social Science Research Center 2000). Iloilo. In Bontoc. lack of education and infor mation were identified as causes of drug addiction. being a victim of physical abuse during childhood. drug addiction was a reason why some adolescents engaged in sex.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 .). There was also an increase in drinking. Most adolescents said that it was why they took risks. poverty. Sixty percent (60%) of those who tried smoking and 54.5% who tried drinking were influenced by their peers (Cruz and Diaz 2001). fraternity or sorority initiation. maternal prostitution. For most adolescents (65%). Gangs were also prevalent in high schools. However. Regarding drug use. 13% of those aged 15 to 24 had tried using drugs and 74% of them admitted to have been influenced by their friends. lack of chance for a desirable marriage. being a victim of emotional abuse by a husband. included: economic pressure. Large earnings and a more interesting life were also factors. males were more likely to consume alcohol. and a broken home. early marriage. 1997. there was an 8% increase in the number of adolescents who tried smoking. academic support and gaining an identity (Mondragon n. having population education in schools reduced the odds of engaging in PMS by about 70% (Badayos 2002. De Guzman 1997). and a lack of parental guidance or having lenient parents. Other reasons given were curiosity. they reported many factors that led them into prostitution: being gang raped. Precipitating factors.

adolescents aged 15 to 24 emphasized how certain social concerns. It is of the utmost importance for a couple to have a child as soon as possible after marriage (Zosa-Feranil 2003). jump from the third step of the stairs so that menstrual flow will only last for three days.” . Miralao and Engracia cited in Zosa-Feranil 2003).” Respondents said they had abided by one or more of these beliefs (Quianzon 2001). Tan pointed out the continuing emphasis on female virginity and female subservience to males. On the other hand. While women were encouraged to be virgins until marriage and to be faithful to their husbands within marriage. such as the importance of marriage and childbearing in marriage. Religion also plays a role in sexual behaviour: “the religious influences come mainly in terms of what is forbidden rather than ethical guide-lining that discuss fairness. It is acceptable and expected that Filipino men will be sexually experienced prior to marriage. But prior to marriage. men were encouraged to be macho and freely exercise their sexuality (GastardoConaco 1992 cited in Brown and Xenos 1994). They did it for the sake of tradition. UPPI 2002). but parents told them things that had no scientific basis. some traditional beliefs are: “to ensure a minimal menstrual flow. to prevent abdominal pains. For example. extended family support networks. and responsibility” (Tan. In interviews conducted in Cebu and Davao. There is tremendous cultural value placed on virginity before marriage and fertility after marriage. jump over a lemon grass plant and be careful not to step on chicken dung or dog’s feces. A woman is supposed to be sexually available to her husband whenever he wants. strong clan loyalty and deference to and dependence upon parents and elders (Medina 1999. justice. a double standard exists for women concerning appropriate sexual conduct before and after marriage. do not take a bath when one has menstruation. “She keeps her virginity as a gift for the man. females can put on the brakes and delay having sex.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Inter views with adolescent girls aged 10 to 15 in Mindanao showed that many of them learned about menstruation from their parents. Many social and cultural factors combine to shape Filipino adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health. … and to prevent malodorous smell of menstruation. These include a social system organized around a tight-knit. 64 affect adolescents (Zosa-Feranil 2003).

he argues. Parents and schools were considered less informative sources (Badayos 2002. Of several choices for the ‘most informative’ sources on RH. the 1993 NDS found that condom use for Roman Catholics was 1% and for non-Roman Catholics it was 1. adolescents aged 10 to 24 chose television and radio (46%) and newspapers or magazines (44%) above all else. Zosa-Feranil 2003. Many young people are not even aware of the Catholic Church’s stand on FP. Benares 2001).2003 This emphasis diverts people’s attention away from more important values of sexual responsibility. The same was true for the adolescents who admitted using condoms occasionally and said that religion and cultural norms affected their decision to use condoms (HAIN 2003). They said that condom use was acceptable.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 .2%. adolescents’ views are being distorted. Studies show that the media has become a surrogate parent for many young people aged 12 to 21 (McCann-Erickson 1993). As a result. This included 67% of all Catholic respondents. It is also a major source of information for adolescents about sex. However. suggesting that religion did not determine condom use (Population Council 2002). Youth consider the media to be informative and helpful in providing sex education. The media is considered a major influence on adolescents’ behaviour. but considered pills and IUD sinful. The YAFS II (1994) found that the majority of adolescents believed their religion supported contraceptive use and that their future contraceptive behaviour will be influenced by the teachings of their religion. 65 .

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines 66 .

with its agencies and resources. Most of them are community-based. which have demonstrated relative success in the small communities and areas where they work. catered to parents. workshops. Most of these programmes focused on ARH. The government. It can not address the problems of accessibility and availability of ARH services in most areas (NYDP 1994. however. and media-based activities. or service providers. Most ser vices were provided by NGOs. Very few programmes. but adolescent health education has yet to be institutionalized. some are schoolbased. ARH educational and service interventions Table 9. Information and education interventions included lectures. Thirty-eight (38) out of seventy-six (76) programmes were focused on the youth.2003 4. training and dissemination of IEC materials in communities. and fertility issues. but programme implementation is inadequate. But NGO work is project-specific and small in scope. Efforts have been taken to create a standardized curriculum on population and sexuality education. sexuality. Nature of intervention programmes Nature of Intervention Programme Number of Programmes Education (Training/seminar) Services (14 medical & clinical services) Combination of education and services 33 17 26 ARH educational and ser vice interventions are provided by government agencies and NGOs at the national and local levels. has the potential to provide comprehensive ARH services. and a few are implemented in the workplace.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . POPCOM 2002). schools and places of work (Osias 1999). guardians. discussions. Infor mation and education programmes comprised the bulk of interventions (see Table 8). 4. Only four were designed for counselors 67 . trainings.1 Educational interventions Government agencies and NGOs have provided RH information and education through counseling.

trainers. delayed marriage. science. through the assistance of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA).Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines and school nurses. teachers were trained to use specific teaching materials for the curriculum.1 Information. health. There was only one for NGOs. Figure 4. whether public or private. Number of Programs Per Type of Client Government Agencies Trainers School Nurses/Guidance and Peer Counselors/Youth Parents/Partners/Youth NGO/Media/Youth AIDS Victims Women and Children Women and Youth 1 Women and Students Women Workers Student Children Adolescents Youth 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 68 . Only after a programme review was conducted in 1978 did the focus change to small family size and family welfare. government agencies. mathematics. 4. During the start of the programme. and home economics (Berja 1999). education and training programmes The government initiated its first ARH programmes more than 30 years ago. consequences of population change. Now. determinants of population change. and planning for the future.1. human sexuality and reproduction. responsible parenthood and family planning (UNFPA 1998). This was introduced to all levels of formal education. One of the major school-based programmes was the Population Education Program (POPED) in 1972 which was implemented through the Department of Education. and partners or parents (see Figure 4). and incorporated it in five subject areas: social studies. the initial core areas of POPED were demography.

it sought to prepare the youth for responsible adulthood by addressing ARH needs through its regional offices and other government and non-government agencies that have youth. The programme launched a nationwide IEC campaign called “Hearts and Minds” to reach young Filipinos with messages about preparing themselves for adulthood and parental responsibilities. Participating local governments in the AHYDP implemented 18 innovative projects to reach youth. and fertility regulation (UNFPA 1998). population structure. skills training and enhancement. It also espoused positive life choices. These consisted of media outreach. and support to other programmes and projects. Training modules on “Sexuality. It addressed teenage pregnancies. The programme addressed adolescents and youth in schools and communities. The Department of Education tried to strengthen and revitalize the POPED from 1996 to 1999. maternal and child health. It supported other adolescent programmes that provided information that would help the youth understand their sexuality. and reproductive heath problems of adolescents aged 15 to 24 years old. With funding from the UNFPA. It focused on family formation. when the country’s population policy changed. health and education components. peer counseling. Specifically. The Commission on Population (POPCOM) also launched its own Adolescent Health and Youth Development Program (AHYDP) in 1995 to 1999 as an example of an inter-agency effort between government and non-government sectors. enhancement of the status and role of women. POPED changed as well. develop strong personal values. The AHYDP was drawn based on its predecessors in population education. distribution and urbanization.2003 In 1986. early marriages. create a favorable policy and synchronize training and delivery of IEC and counseling services for the youth” (POPCOM 1999). “it aim[ed] to strengthen the coordination and monitoring of youth development programmes. make responsible decisions and prepare for responsible adulthood and parenthood. UNFPA 1998). Health and Personally Effective Adolescents (SHAPE)” for peer helpers and parents were produced 69 .A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . child survival or mortality or morbidity. There was more active involvement of the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and Technical Education Skills Development Authority (TESDA) in integrating the programme into the curricula of the three levels of the educational system (Berja 1999.

Meanwhile. Community-based ARH programmes focus on leadership training. The Youth in Action for Reproductive Health and Rights of the Development of People’s Foundation Inc. and fora on ARH (OGD brochure n. FP and population development issues in their courses and subjects. IWS brochure n. Lea”. SMU has used FP concepts in theology subjects. and TV and radio advocacies. This program is different from POPCOM’s AHYDP. The Institute of Women’s Studies (IWS) of St. FP and POPDEV were integrated in social science classes. reproductive health. Meanwhile. FP education is also a requirement for graduation.).). “Lovingly Yours. SMU incorporates RH. Scholastica’s College provides RH education for women (CWS interview. (DPF) in Davao provides trainings. One project is the University of the Philippines’ Center for Women’s Studies (CWS). Since the 1960s. 70 Saint Mary’s University (SMU) of Nueva Vizcaya has an ARH programme whose components include a teen centre. In addition to the government programmes. During the late 1970s. AYHDP n. symposia. lectures.d.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines and widely utilized (POPCOM 1997).d. education and information distribution. including those at the elementary and high school levels of the SMU.). on the other hand aimed to institutionalize the provision of infor mation. It also developed a training module and facilitator’s guide for the Training Programme on Adolescents. the Ateneo de Naga University’s Office of Gender Development (OGD) provides modules for formal and non-formal education and holds seminars. for Health and NonHealth Service Providers and tried to integrate gender sensitivity-training and reproductive health in the secondary school curriculum (Department of Health. counseling and clinical services to adolescents and youth.). especially in the College of Health Sciences. courses and . and HIV/AIDS. students receive RH information from school and NGO projects. which has an orientation activity for incoming freshmen students that includes giving out brochures on women’s rights.d. 2003.d. including reproductive and sexual health issues and concerns. the Department of Health’s Adolescent and Youth Health and Development Program (AYHDP). One major accomplishment of the university was the integration of ARH into the university’s curriculum (SMU programme paper n. a radio program or “ARH on Air” entitled.

Sexually 71 . Kabalikat n. It also has advocacy performances called Anak Gender Watch that feature dances and skits. and peer helping and practical life skills. MIDAS nd. which provided materials and conducted lectures on sexuality. the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) implemented the Population Awareness and Sex Education Program (PASE). The Foundation for Adolescent Development (FAD). puppet shows and life-skills building workshops for the youth. workshops. The Department of Social Welfare and Development was asked to prepare OSY economically and socially to cope with their situation so that they could become responsible adults and members of the community. The centre has IEC materials and a mini library. Most NGOs reach out to both in-school and out-of-school adolescents. quality family life and responsible parenthood. responsible parenthood and populationrelated issues (POPCOM 1996. Emotionally. UNESCO 1999) POPCOM has also initiated trainings. for instance. The Kabalikat ng Pamilyang Pilipino Foundation (Kabalikat) has Kabataan Reproductive Health and Sexuality Education for Street Youth (Kaugmaon nd. In Davao. This programme is still being implemented. which includes a four-part training module dubbed SHAPE or Sexually Healthy and Personally Effective. These components are offered through their regional offices and partner organizations (POPCOM 1997).A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . the non-government group Kaugmaon has come up with its own community theater tour. seminars and other discussions on ARH outside of school. and has launched a Youth Summit with other organizations (DPF Activity Report 2001). This programme was developed to address the problems of early marriage and unemployment among out-ofschool youth.2003 interactive activities. has a campus-based but out-of-the classroom programme called SEXTERS or Socially. the Mayon Integrated Development Alternatives and Services. youth empowerment and sustainable development. It collaborated with the Philippine Centre for Population and Development (PCPD). (MIDAS) has a gender and sexuality education and awareness forum for adolescents. Inc. For the out-of-school youth (OSY). In the Bicol Region.d.). Its main components include ARH. It has a more structured training approach.

counseling. and concerts. Marriage and Career” discussed more complex problems with the help of professional guidance counselors (POPCOM 2001). FAD created three HIV/AIDS videos for young adults. FAD made five more teen videos with discussion guides. vocational skills training and on-the-job training and job referrals. FAD’s Entertainment for Education Programmes were a popular vehicle. The Options for Living Foundation Inc. 72 had the Pinoy Youth 2000 programme. sexuality and other issues.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Responsible Teeners. NGOs have used innovative educational interventions as well. In 2002. a communitybased effort designed to alleviate the conditions of disadvantaged youth. theater plays. five short films. which will provide leadership and facilitating skills. “Love. In 1996. FAD has also launched a Life Planning Education and Vocational Skills Training Program. FAD produces videos. It introduced a radio programme. has a Frenzy Mobile Outreach Team (FMOT) that caters to urban and semi-urban youth. universities. “Love Letters Straight from Your Heart” on Davao’s DXBM station. Reprowatch Youth Edition Newsletter was initiated by the Institute for Social Studies Action (ISSA) to promote awareness of reproductive health issues among adolescents (ISSA interview 2003). This is a peer-led activity providing infor mation. Sex. Usually. Launched in 2001. DKT Philippines Inc. The Family Planning Organization of the Philippines (FPOP) is another NGO that is active in educational interventions. Information about STI/HIV/AIDS. its venues are places frequented by youth. FMOT provides mobile intervention activities that offer RH information to youth. safe sex . such as schools. FPOP increases the RH awareness of young people through its on-going Development and Family Life Education for the Youth (DAFLEY) project. It gives life planning education. Another programme. Its approach focused on capability building workshops for adolescents. and one MTV video. Its Teen Health Quarters also provides information and education for youth. and referrals on adolescent reproductive health. radio programmes and TV episodes. It aimed to provide structured educational activities for in-school and out-of-school youth in Metro Manila and Region IV (POPCOM 1996). There has been an enthusiastic public response and many letters have been written to the station. communities.

(BCYA) worked with the POPCOM and the Population Center Foundation to establish a Multi-Service Youth Center to provide RH education to youth. Youth leaders are trained. and RH are provided. a radio programme. In 1998 the Remedios AIDS Foundation opened a Youth Zone or youth centre at the Tutuban Mall in the heart of a shopping district in Manila.2003 practices. for instance. temporary tattoos. counseling services are provided. shirts. Other NGOs have established youth or teen centres. and a book. caps. It has an average of 20 to 23 visitors a day. And they co-produced three radio programmes on women’s rights.” Under the AHYDP. XYZone. This project grew out of a FGD in which the teens said they needed a place to hang out. as well as games and discussions. and pins to promote safe sexual behaviour (DKT Interview 2003). It launched a magazine supplement called XYZine. It offers seminars. which DKT developed and distributes. Peer educators are also being trained to teach young people. has Youth Zone. plays. (KDFI) in Negros Occidental established the La Carlota Teen Circle and La Castellana Teen Horizon in partnership with the local government through support from the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. In Baguio City. are given out free of charge with an explanatory brochure. Another Youth Zone was opened in Cebu City (RAF Accomplishment Report 2002). internet access and films that teach about RH and HIV/ AIDS. Frenzy condoms. Inc. The Kabalaka Development Foundation. suicide and sexual harassment (POPCOM 1999). such as music and films. key chains. “Body Talk: The XYZ Guide to Young Women’s Health and Body. IEC materials are developed and consultations are held. DKT also gives away stickers. their parents and partner organizations. FMOT uses multimedia tools. the Baguio Center for Young Adults Inc. The foundation chose a strategic location close to where most youngsters stay. The Family Welfare Program (FWP) promotes and protects the welfare of 73 . it launched “XYZ for Young Pinoy Woman: A Media Campaign for the Protection and Empower ment of Young Women.” They also produced six one-hour TV programmes that aired on a local station.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . The Remedios AIDS Foundation (RAF). a multi-media campaign for young women largely concentrated in urban and semi-urban areas across the country. art exhibits. The Women’s Media Circle created XYZ.

created a Family Planning and Reproductive Health for Young Workers Program. parks. It also launched the “Hearts and Minds” IEC campaign in 1997. The Working Youth Center of the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) also provides reproductive health education as part of the Leadership and Productivity Formation Program for young workers.2 million members nationwide. medical and health care. POPCOM implemented 18 innovative projects with the help of participating LGUs and NGOs. which is the country’s biggest labor union with 1. the TUCP highlighted two major points on the viability of putting up ARH programmes inside workplaces. Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) and made the programme more responsive . the study says out-of-school youth may be more “susceptible” to sexual risks and are therefore in need of greater support. First. resulted to the youth’s increased knowledge and understanding of ARH (POPCOM 1999). the study pointed out that the youth are generally more comfortable dealing with people not part of the school system (Lee 2003). The programme includes dimensions on reproductive health. The Trade Union Congress of the Philippines (TUCP). such as streets. the revitalization of POPED saw the active involvement of the Department of Education. Second. In a study of workplace-based interventions. Lee adds that 74 there are limitations to using the school setting.2 Effective approaches Some best practices can be gleaned from the interventions implemented by government agencies. educational institutions and NGOs. but there is good potential in other venues. hospitals. responsible parenthood. communities. and other alternative spaces that youth frequent. which according to results of FGDs in pilot areas. and HIV awareness. offices.1. It was one of the flagship programmes of the National Youth Commission’s Philippine Medium Term Youth Development Plan for 1999-2004. 4. Likewise. POPCOM succeeded in incorporating the AHYDP into the Philippine Population Management Program (PPMP).Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines workers and their families through the integration of family welfare concerns at workplaces nationwide. It trains Young Adult Peer Educators (YAPE) to lead interactive discussion sessions and workshops for young workers aged 18 and 24 (Lee 2003).

improved relationships with the opposite sex. interact with peers. 75 . emotionally. get referrals for medical services. Adolescents have a place where they can access IEC materials on ARH.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . of La Carlota City and Municipality of La Castellana have allocated funds for construction of the buildings and operational expenses for its two teen centres.2003 to the emerging needs of adolescents (PPMP 2001-2004). The Philippine Center for Population and Development (PCPD). dating. courtship. games. Other noteworthy examples are the Youth Zone of Remedios Aids Foundation in Manila and Cebu that are based in shopping malls and the Multi-Service Youth Center of BCYA. and share their talents and skills in addressing their group’s concerns. avail of counseling services. Local leaders. The project reported success in giving students skills in selfassertion. Teachers indicated improved effectiveness in counseling students (POPCOM 1996). the use of multimedia tools like music and films. SEXTERS. give-aways and free condoms (DKT Interview 2003). and referrals on adolescent health and sexuality. together with the Department of Education. Teen Centres are potential venues for sustainable educational interventions. a classroom programme to nurture socially. better knowledge of STI/HIV/AIDS. is also considered an effective approach. and other aspects of adolescence. Another approach worth noting in terms of its innovative social marketing strategies is the Frenzy Mobile Outreach Team (FMOT). Its main strategy is to train peers to provide information. parents and communities have started to recognize the importance of teen centres to adolescents. also institutionalized a Revitalized Home Guidance Program in 15 division leader schools in 15 regions nationwide. Its mobile intervention activities include creative information materials. The local governments. It caters to urban and semi-urban youth. a Trainers Guide for training potential peer educators has been produced and “school administrators support the programme because they recognize that their students can benefit from the information and counsel provided by enlightened peers” (POPCOM 2002). and sexually responsible teenagers. Through this project. counseling. friendship. for instance.

The Basic Needs Assessment. but male adolescents were more sexually active. One study revealed that some teachers covered male and female genitalia on charts when teaching human anatomy (Mendoza 1995). essay writing contests. Moreover. it was difficult to attribute changes in premarital sex behaviour. . for example. 76 Activities such as the POPQUIZ. The results of the YAFS II (1994) showed that “the proportion of adolescents who had POPED in school had increased over the years from 50% in 1982 to 62% in 1994”. Half of the adolescent girls said that they learned about sex from teachers (50%). POPED material did not emphasize sex education and was focused on population issues at the macro and micro levels. In Catholic schools. Zablan also reported that more females were exposed to RH education than males were. leaflets and comics (Zablan 2000). 1996).6%) than adolescent boys were (56. while adolescent boys said they learned from friends (52. “POPED was not taught as a separate subject and only 2% of the total 220 school days were spent for it” (POPCOM. assessments of some programmes and projects are available. One identified weakness was the lack of guidelines for teaching specific topics.3%).1. early pregnancy and decline in fertility directly to population education. Moreover. which was conducted prior to UNFPA’s Third Country Programme. The study found that adolescent girls were more exposed to POPED (80. the IEC Impact Survey in Apayao. Kalinga. which focused on student’s understanding of the concepts. It was also noted that POPED integration failed to be strictly implemented in all specified subjects. poster–making. and Ifugao provinces showed that adolescents got information about STI/HIV/AIDS from film. radio.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines 4. revealed that POPED trained only 20% of the teachers in the country and distributed materials to only 10% of its target audience. and that teachers randomly decided when to teach it. Given the limitation of the evaluation design. debates and symposia were not conducted regularly due to funding constraints. teachers could choose not to discuss topics that they thought were offensive to their faith (POPCOM 1996). However.9%). For instance.3 Effects of educational interventions A comprehensive study of the results of different educational interventions has not yet been completed.

most of them are provided by government health agencies and some NGOs. games. The belief that RH education should be left to parents or adults still prevails. Figure 5 Types of Interventions 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 7 11 7 8 3 3 29 14 8 3 48 school curriculum trainings/seminars/workshops radio/TV/ads/films publication internet theater teen center counseling medical/clinical referral others (e.2 Service interventions Most ARH programmes focus on education (see Table 8). there was a need to widen the geographic scope of the centres to respond to more young people. 4. dating games) 77 . but the centres’ activities were limited due to a lack of funds and organization. counseling is the most common (see Figure 5). clients became more aware about important issues.art contests. Only state hospitals and some clinics offer medical and RH services to youth. Of the services provided. Much of the weakness in population education has purportedly been “hampered by adult concerns that knowledge will promote promiscuity among unmarried teens” (Osias 1999). Usually. it is integrated in the overall health programme. referrals and some medical services are available to youth. State hospitals do not have a specific health programme for adolescents. Based on the findings. 4.2.g. If there are any services. Counseling is the most common service. yet surveys show that the knowledge of adults about RH is very low (Osias 1999).2003 A study by the Commission on Population (1996) on selected nongovernment youth centres found that teen centres did a satisfactory job of informing young people on ARH. followed by referrals and then medical services. Also.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 .1 Available services Counseling.

maternal and child health. communicable diseases.d. counseling and private sector partnerships. Adolescents are part of their clientele as they serve pregnant mothers who are between the ages of 15 to 49. POPCOM and other organizations implementing ARH programmes focus more on sexuality and peer education than on medical and clinical services (Capuchino 2003). they also provide services through clinics. The Department of Health had also launched a “Maternal Care Programme” and “Family Planning Programme”.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines The Department of Health. NGOs are the other service providers. well-being and self-esteem of young people. and disability (AYHDP n. Lastly. Although POPCOM’s main focus is training and information. delivery and post-partum period. In this literature review. it should increase coverage of basic health services. nutrition and abortion. violence against women (VAW). education/communication services and motivational campaigns. physical. Direct services are then provided at the LGU level. it will establish resource centres or “onestop-shops” for adolescents and youth in each province. The first seeks to improve the quality of services to reduce morbidity among mothers during pregnancy. there were . This is an expanded version of the government’s ARH programme. and it aims to integrate adolescent and youth services into the health delivery system.). It should also establish specialized services for occupational illnesses. It will address not only ARH but also nutrition. 1999). To complement existing initiatives. NGOs and donors launched the Adolescent and Youth Health and Development Program (AYHDP) in 2001. The goal of AYHDP is to promote the total health. The most popular service is counseling. Based on the Department of Health’s observations. Unmarried adolescents can avail of pre-marriage counseling services (UNESCO. to 70% nationwide. victims of rape and violence. The second programme provides family planning and related services and information. the Department of Health’s programme has 78 addressed issues such as STI. including counseling for adolescents and youth. and substance abuse in 50% of Department of Health hospitals. together with other line agencies. Capuchino adds that the Department of Health develops all the materials and disseminates them to regional health offices and local government units. mental and emotional well-being. Specifically.

and PLAN Philippines offer either counseling or peer counseling and referrals to their clients. to cater to the youth’s needs for counseling and services.2003 29 programmes and projects identified that provide counseling services (see Figure 5). the Family Planning Organization of the Philippines has the Davao Teen Center. some NGOs have also put up youth centres. Santa Ana. The Pag-asa Drop-In Center in Davao provides services for adolescents who live on the streets. an e-mail-a-friend counseling and referral system. Other organizations use the internet as a vehicle for counseling. the Trade Union Congress of the Philippines (TUCP) has Family Welfare clinics which offer services and counseling within workplaces. The Women and Child Protection Unit of Davao. and rectal exams. Caritas Manila’s AIDS hotline. also provides counseling and medical services as well. This study identified eight teen centres found in different parts of the country. The Mayon Integrated Development Alternatives and Services Inc. Kaugmaon in Davao. childbirths. In the workplace. circumcision. referral for abortion. aside from documenting cases of violence. Adolescent Hotline Bicol and Saint Mary’s University’s telephone counseling services offer anonymity to those seeking advice about RH and other questions. such as factories (Lee 2003). FAD has also established youth centres and health teen quarters in Quiapo. The Tambayan Center for the Care of Abused Children Inc. Baguio Center for Young Adults. counseling and referral services. The Remedios AIDS Foundation maintains a clinic. FAD’s teenfad. Al-Mujadilah Development Foundation. which are multi-service facilities that provide ARH information and services.ph. Medical services are provided by only a few NGOs. among other places. breast examination. in Albay Province offers clinical. In Davao. contraceptive methods. Inc. tubal ligation. has its Tambayan Center for counseling and other services. pre. The PCPD. The Kabalaka Foundation in Negros has a teen centre for counseling and medical consultation. Besides counseling services. provides the same services. This review identified 14 programmes 79 . Tondo. harassment and rape. The Maryknoll Foundation’s Kasambuhay project for out-of-school youth. These are strategically located in communities or hospitals. the Foundation for Adolescent Development’s Dial-A-Friend. in Marawi City provides pap smear tests.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 .and post-natal care. and Cavite.

The centres were able to meet their clients’ needs as shown by the limited number of cases referred to other agencies (POPCOM 1996).2. Most NGOs offer services in only a few barangays or communities because of lack of funds and human resources. the AYHDP programme has not been fully implemented because the Department of Health lacks funding in some regions. There are only nine programmes that are based in both schools and communities and only one such programme was found in a shopping mall. Clients rated their service operations as satisfactory. According to Dr. Most of the programs being implemented are information-based or IEC-centered. and the Iloilo Teen Center. by contrast. Most services are located in urban areas. Capuchino (2003). but sell and give condoms to young people. . Government programmes.2. This survey found that there are 42 community-based programmes.3 Services’ impact ARH services have had limited scope in reaching adolescents. Davao Teen Center. Direct implementation and training of community health service providers are the responsibility of the LGUs who often lack the resources to go about it. and rarely focus on service provisions. 4. 13 school-based programmes and seven workplace-based ones. very few services can be found which are specifically catering to adolescent reproductive health. there seems to be an increase in the number of young people reached by their ARH services. Davao City and Baguio City. do not provide direct medical services. 4. but there are 80 difficulties with implementation. POPCOM’s Country Report (2002) found that ARH service coverage is generally low and there are not enough youth centres in the Philippines to meet the need.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines and organizations in different parts of the country providing medical services specifically for the youth. such as Metro Manila. Other organizations. Manila Center for Young Adults. This study has revealed. have a national scope. According to an evaluation by POPCOM (1996) of Baguio Center for Young Adults. Most are community-based and very few are in schools or workplaces.2 Project sites Community services mostly provide counseling. the Teen Information Center in Tarlac. Cebu Youth Center. for example. such as DKT Philippines.

They were able to diversify their sources of funds. which was mostly in urban areas. the funding amount is small. This gap creates a challenge for adolescents and providers who want to help youth lead healthy reproductive and sexual lives. Teen centres and counseling services may increase awareness about contraceptives. Other government projects are given greater priority than ARH. which in the long run will affect their operations.2003 However. However. it is questionable how many of them are sustainable. including condoms. there are only 14 medical and clinical programmes being provided as based on the programmes surveyed (see Figure 5). which is often incorporated into a more general health agenda. There are more information and education programmes than clinical and reproductive services on ARH being provided by the organizations which has reached 48 based on this study. the Cebu Youth Center (CYC). Adolescents in remote places have found it difficult to access ARH services.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . In Cebu. an assessment of adolescent health care structures found that only 69 of the 106 health facilities provided ARH services (Borja 2001). Lack of funds hampers NGOs and the government from expanding their services. but there are few services available to help adolescents or to contraceptives. access LGU funds. Also. Several are strong. Though the government provides regular funds to their ARH programmes. These local health services and facilities are not enough to effectively address the needs of adolescents. reproductive health. 4. funds are pulled from ARH to fund other projects that the 81 . especially at the LGU level.4 Sustainability of services Of the ARH services and youth centres that exist in the Philippines. reaching 29. Most of the services available are those of counseling.2. the teen centres’ impact as a whole was lessened because they only reached a limited geographical scope. such as FAD’s Manila Center for Young Adults (MCYA). safe sex and risky sexual behaviour. and not depend solely on donor support. and La Carlota Teen Center and La Castellana Teen Horizon in Negros Occidental. But many NGOs rely on volunteer staff. the Baguio Center for Young Adults (BCYA). These organizations asked for solicitations from big funding agencies and also from local governments and private individuals (PCPD 1993). for example.

and risky sexual behaviour. although limited in scope. during the 2003 SARS outbreak. there are 48 of such types. Based on the review of education and service interventions. information. such as electricity. there are only 14 medical and health services identified. 33 were purely educational. • Most organizations provide trainings. Organizations should find ways to increase and stabilize their resources to continue their ARH programmes. counseling posted 29 (see Figure 5). safe sex. which helps to cover daily expenses. the following has been observed. For instance. The Kabalaka’s two teen centres have received support from the LGU. have difficulty sustaining them because they are donor-dependent. ARH funds were channeled into the anti-SARS campaign (Capuchino 2003). But most of these are counseling. there will be a total of 43 programmes providing services for the youth. (See Table 8) • Most organizations provide education. but their supply of contraceptives is very limited. 17 provided services. • There are more ARH education and information programmes than there are ARH services in the Philippines. If combined. workshops and seminars. The Remedios AIDS Foundation. has considered charging a minimal fee for internet service in their centres and forging partnerships with companies to support the project. FAD also tapped the resources of the local government in Anabu Cavite and got free office space for its Teen Health Quarters (Berja 1999). Out of these. and counseling on reproductive health. • The few organizations offering services. and adolescents in remote areas do not have access to them. while in the service interventions. . This review found a total of 76 ARH programmes in the country. • The most innovative projects and programmes. The review of programmes revealed. • Both education and service interventions are concentrated in the urban areas. 82 those that offer only services and those which offer both education and services. for instance. especially medical ones. and 26 programmes offered a combination of education and services. These are the most widely used and most common types of education interventions.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines government deems more important or more urgent. and not medical services. In fact.

parents. but they are not yet implemented well at the local level. Government programmes have the widest reach.2003 are being implemented by NGOs. and other ARH partners.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . and very few cater to service providers. • Most programme focus on adolescents. 83 .

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines 84 .

known as the Revised Population Act of the Philippines. an apex agency of the government for children’s protection.9% in 1998 (UNFPA 1999. the act was amended through Presidential Decree No. major changes have occurred over the years: a) growth of family planning service delivery. Some government officials did not approve of the provision to publicly provide Filipinos with contraceptive services.4% in 1968 to 20.2003 5. This act established the National Population Policy. The introduction of the population policy generated various reactions and opinions. investigation. Its main responsibility revolves around the coordination and monitoring of the implementation of laws and programmes for children. Despite this opposition. The Child and Youth Welfare Code or Presidential Decree No. The revised act re-emphasized the need to address the high rate of population growth and a national FP programme involving the public and private sectors was started.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . The Commission on Population (POPCOM) was created as an attached agency to the National Economic and Development Authority. 603. It led to the creation of the Council for the Welfare of Children (CWC). The commission was tasked to carry out the purposes and objectives of the Decree and facilitate the coordination of policies and programmes related to population. The policy’s focus was the provision of family planning services and the reduction of population growth. It also imposes criminal liability on parents who cause or encourage the child to lead an immoral or dissolute life. population became government policy when the Population Act of 1971 or R. welfare. little policy was introduced regarding population. Policy environment In the Philippines. As a result. prosecution and rehabilitation of youth offenders. b) the incorporation of population considerations into socio-economic development planning. the decree provided the rules and regulations on the apprehension. and c) an increase in women’s use of modern contraception from 2.A. This policy was in response to the increase in child abuse. was enacted in 1974. No. and development. 85 . 79. Another important policy. Further. In 1972. The 1970s and 1980s were full of political turmoil and martial rule was declared. 6365 was enacted in 1972.

enhance the development of its human resources.A.A. The act provided for stronger deterrence and special protection against child abuse. No. Exploitation and Discrimination Act or R. an act creating the National Youth Commission or R. 7610 was enacted and implemented through the CWC. at appropriate levels . Closely related to R. exploitation and discrimination as well as penalties.A. This was enacted in November 1994 and has been implemented at the national level by the CWC. Also. 7610 is the Act Prohibiting the Employment of Children below 15 Years of Age in Public and Private Undertakings or R. No. cruelty. regulations. to ensure the availability of information and services regarding FP. exceptions and conditions for employing children younger than 15 years old. the Special Protection of Children against Child Abuse. The act established a comprehensive national programme on youth development and provided for the appropriation of funds.” The emphasis on family planning services was echoed in the 1996 Executive Order No. No. In 1992. No. exploitation or discrimination because of a physical or mental disability or condition” (Sec. the country saw the enactment and implementation of several policies related to population and health. 8044 was enacted. It covered “persons below 18 years of age or those over but who are unable to fully take care of themselves from abuse. In 1994. guidelines. the youth and adolescents were finally recognized by the government as a priority group that had been underserved. It is a special law that names. No. applicants for employment. education or training environment based on the premise that “the state shall value the dignity of every individual. neglect. during the 1990s. defines. This act provided the rules. declares unlawful and penalizes sexual harassment in the workplace. the Anti-Sexual Harassment Act of 1995 or R. 7658. 7877 was passed. instruction or education. employees.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines However. guarantee full respect of human rights and uphold the dignity of workers.A. Implementing Family Planning. 307. These policies focused more on children and women. students or those undergoing training.A. including natural family planning (NFP). After the 1994 International Conference 86 on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo. 3).

The Philippine Reproductive Health Program was created through this Administrative Order in response to the ICPD’s Programme of Action.A. It mandated the creation of family courts and assigned to these courts the hearing and resolution of domestic violence cases against women and children including adolescents. A number of local policies were also enacted to complement efforts at the national level as well as ensure that local conditions are acted upon speedily and appropriately. 24 is one example. In 1997. Also enacted in 1997 was the Family Courts Act of 1997 or R. Through these policies the broadening of population policies and programmes beyond family planning was undertaken and a much closer collaboration among development agencies was pushed to attain the reproductive health objectives.” This adopted the 10 service elements of RH. as applicable to the laws.2003 adhering to standard of quality care promulgated by the national programme. 8353 was enacted. Although some of these policies included youth and adolescents. which “emphasizes the link between population and sustainable development and recommends a comprehensive approach in for mulating and implementing RH policies and programs. It also recognized marital rape for the first time.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . Republic Act 8369 and R. 8044 focused on adolescents. 3815 or the Revised Penal Code.A. Closely related was the Administrative Order 1-A (1998). Policy-making was still very focused on women and children. No. 43 (1998) that really paid attention to the youth and adolescents’ reproductive health development. No. 8369. This was enacted in 1998 to provide for the allocation of 30% from Official Development Assistance funds and 6% from local funds to women and 87 . This act was considered by many to be landmark legislation because it classified rape as a crime against a person under Title Eight of Act No. including RH for adolescents. The Women and Development Code of Davao City or Executive Order No. acknowledging that adolescents must be given attention because they are an underserved group. the focus was not on their reproductive health. the Anti-Rape Law or R.A. it was evident that adolescents remained underserved when it came to the legislative arena. Yet even with such policies. but it was the Reproductive Health Policy or Administrative Order No.

means of prevention and control of HIV/AIDS through a comprehensive nationwide educational and information campaign. This was considered a landmark legislation since it is the first local measure in the Philippines that penalizes perpetrators of domestic violence and provides protection to victims.A. Department of Justice and leading NGOs. It aims to promote the total health. In 1998. No. consequences. well-being and . In 2000. which defines 88 AIDS and the extent of its gravity. the government enacted the Rape Victim Assistance and Protection Act or R. Department of Health. 8504 (1998). It is a response to the identified need to develop a health programme that will specifically address the unique needs of adolescents (10 to 19). This act declares the “policy of the state to provide necessary assistance and protection for rape victims through coordination with various agencies and NGOs for the establishment and operation of rape crisis centres in every province and city”. which are considered special population groups. No. task forces and legal protection. 1933 which was passed into law in June 2002 is another example of local policy. The establishment and operation of the crisis centres is spearheaded by the Department of Social Welfare and Development. This act defines trafficking and “imposes punishment to those who engage in trafficking and ensures that victims are protected. Department of Interior and Local Government. including ARH.” It also provides for measures for victims to be able to start a new life for themselves through counseling and livelihood programmes. The Anti-Domestic Violence Ordinance of Cebu City or City Ordinance No. the Anti-trafficking in Filipino Women and Minors Act of 1998 was enacted. and extension of support and full protection of human rights and civil liberties to every person suspected or known to be infected with HIV/AIDS. In recognition of the AIDS problem.A. Concerned about the increasing incidences of rape. the government passed the Philippine AIDS Prevention and Control Act or R. such as promotion of public awareness about the causes. The law emphasizes the need for strong state action. youths (15 to 24) and young people (10 to 24). the Adolescent and Youth Health Policy (Administrative Order 34-A) was enacted and implemented by the Department of Health at the national level. 8505 of 1998. modes of transmission.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines to gender-sensitive projects and programmes.

and services geared towards the special reproductive health needs of adolescents including the marginalized. building skills and providing services. This proposed bill has a specific focus on youth welfare because it aims to decrease teenage pregnancies. more cases of RTI. A new bill is being discussed at the House of Representatives that would provide for a comprehensive programme on reproductive health. sexually abused children. This is the Reproductive Health Care Act of 2002 (also known as House Bill 4110 or Senate Bill 2325). reproductive tract cancers. peri-natal and postnatal care and services for pregnant adolescents. gynecological conditions. high unmet need for family planning. It is a response to certain reproductive health realities: the high rate of maternal and infant mortality. to include education on gender issues and sexual responsibility.f of the RH Care Act: “Develop and undertake reproductive health programs for adolescents…These shall include education of gender roles and values…access to maternal health care. have played an important role in drafting the bill as well as including it in public discussions. This bill if passed into a law. STI.2003 self-esteem of adolescents and youth by promoting a safe and supportive environment. few of whom receive treatment or use medical and family planning services. A provision for adolescent RH programmes and ser vices is also included. It is also in response to the high incidence of RH problems and sexual activity among the young. particularly legislators at the House of Representatives and Senate. including pre-natal. This act. high incidence of abortion. which is national in its scope.d. will contribute greatly to the improvement of RH in the country.).” It seeks to improve the health and wellbeing of Filipinos by ensuring their right to RH care and their right to reproductive self-determination. and has already been approved at the Committee on Health. 5. to inform and educate the youth on sexuality and RH concerns. the differently-abled persons and outof-school youth. and to address young people’s RH needs (PLCPD n. infertility and sexual dysfunction. has reached the second hearing at the Committee on Appropriations. more cases of VAW. street children. particularly ARH because it has special focus on 89 .A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . The NGOs and RH advocates from the government. and male RH disorders. providing information. This is reflected in Sec.

Thus.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines adolescents. the Philippines policy environment will not be conducive to the development of ARH programmes given the sociocultural and economic context. until this comprehensive bill is passed. They are lobbying against its passage because they see it as a possible step toward legalizing abortion. Unfortunately. there is tremendous opposition from the Catholic Church and the conservative wing of the Philippine society. including legislators. 90 .

74% or about 1. e.6% among Filipino youth have been paid for sex. Menarche • Mean age at menarche is 13. • Average dating age is 15 years old. • About 10% of girls with PMS experience related that their first sexual experience happened without their consent.5 million adolescents. before 20 years old. • Young male adolescents have a higher rate of homosexual activity than female adolescents. 20% are aged 15-25. • Number of young adults engaging in premarital sex (PMS) has steadily increased over the last decade (23% in 2002 or 4. Sexual experience • Dating is becoming more a venue for sexual intimacies and activity than for socialization among the youth. Marriage • Filipino youth marry at an early age. 91 . 5.6 million or 22% are of reproductive age. Summary of findings on the RH status of adolescents Profile • Of the 76.8%. • PMS experience initiates or accelerates the process of marriage. • An estimated 34% youth have multiple sex partners (1. Contraceptive use • Contraceptive use is low among sexually active adolescents.2003 6.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . • About 4.1% vis a vis 1.6 million young people ages 15 to 27). • Condoms are the most used contraceptive method. Fertility • A fifth of all women age 15 to 49 did not know when they are fertile during their monthly cycle. and 15.8 million do not use any contraceptive method. 23% belong to the 10-19 age group.9 million).44.g. • Average age of sexual debut is 18 years old.

• Sex is learned from peers. • Most cases of HIV infections among females happen at a younger age compared to males. • Majority of those engaged in 92 . • Young females appear to exhibit better judgment by not continuously engaging in risky behaviours (80% females who ever puffed a cigarette did not develop a habit). • There is a misconception that AIDS can be cured (23% in 2002). X-rated films and parents. 6% in 1994 and 11% in 2002. • Six percent (6%) among 78% of sexually active male adolescents who had never used condom admitted to buying commercial sex (males are more likely to pay and be paid for sex). media. • Media is the most common source of information about sex. • Less-educated women are more likely to bear children in their teenage years than their better-educated counterparts. e. About 47% of infected females are between 20 and 29.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines • Youth have poor knowledge of and low use of contraception methods (27% think that the pill must be taken before or after sexual intercourse). Early pregnancy • One-fourth of all women begin childbearing by age 20. • Only 4% young women can be considered knowledgeable on the subject of contraceptives and FP. females are trying risky sexual behaviours (17% in 1994 and 30% in 2002). • Awareness of AIDS is high (95% of all Filipino youth stated that they have heard of AIDS). • In-school youth have more knowledge on RH than out-of-school youth. • Over 90% of adolescents aged 15 to STI/RTI/HIV/AIDS • Prevalence rate of gonorrhea and chlamydia are higher among young people.g. Related issues • Increasingly. commercial sex do not use condom. • Youths’ consumption of alcoholic beverages and use of illegal drugs has increased.

A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 .82% of males would like a virgin bride.2003 24 believe that the government should provide FP services. 93 . • 89. • Adolescents are generally conservative towards PMS and majority disapproved of homosexual relations and abortion (males are more open to PMS).

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines 94 .

DKT Philippines has successfully penetrated the MTV generation through its ads and infomercials. but also on their psycho-social health. it will be helpful to also get feedback from parents. • Adolescents should be informed of the existence of ARH services and where these can be accessed. • In every activity concerning adolescents. • The community and local officials should be educated about the importance of ARH so that they will be more receptive and supportive to the . They were able to educate without alienating the youth by using hip 95 On programme implementation • ARH can be integrated in the curriculum. • Parents also need to be involved in ARH. • Adolescent sexuality and RH concepts should be integrated into the curricula of vocational and technical institutions to reach a wider youth audience. • Budget limitations must not be seen as an ultimate constraint in implementing activities and programmes on ARH. used as research and debate topics and as part of other requirements. which appeal to youth. • More innovative information strategies should be used.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . • Educators’ and providers’ facilitating skills should be improved to work with adolescents. There are innovative and creative projects that are also cost-effective. They must therefore be given knowledge and provided with communication skills. • Government programmes need official endorsement for smooth implementation. programmes initiated by government agencies and NGOs. Lessons learned The key lessons learned from implementing ARH programmes come from the literature survey and key informant interviews. They are the closest to adolescents and can provide guidance as needed.2003 7. For example. • ARH programmes should focus not just on the physical health of the youth.

• Some Christian churches give limited training to youth and provide sexuality 96 . education. but they eventually open up to serious discussions. Adolescents open up more to their peers than to adults or parents. adolescents do not open up at once. These are appropriate avenues because they give them something to do and a way to ask questions. For example. DKT’s infomercials on Frenzy Condoms appear on youth channels such as MTV and appear in youth magazines. advocacy and cultural activities. families and other teenagers and are actually practicing what they have learned. instead of pushing for the campaign slogan “A-abstinence. then teenage clients pass knowledge on to their friends. B-Be Faithful and C-Condom” in Catholic schools. music and images. the “C” was labeled “live life like Christ” instead of “condom”. On strategies/approaches to delivery of services • Peer education is an effective strategy to reach adolescents. • It is common for the youth to be uncomfortable the first time they hear about ARH.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines language. Leeway must be given because they usually open up weeks after the first contact for help. • In counseling. • If a service provider is effective. • It is easier to mobilize the youth through IEC promotion. • It is possible to work with Catholic schools in terms of ARH as long as both sides are culturally sensitive. It may be advantageous to focus on working with the Catholic Church as well as other religious groups.

Prioritization depends on the needs. there are usually no takers from NGOs in the provinces.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . • Sangguniang Kabataan (SK) projects are mostly focused on sports and infrastructure. rarely on ARH. They have access to counseling services. • The Department of Health does not have a protocol or guidelines for adolescents’ accessing direct clinical services. and exerting various efforts to influence the parents. • Some parents. particularly those residing in rural areas. • ARH is not a priority among LGUs.” • It is very difficult to mainstream ARH in policies and budgets. The tendency is to be too dependent on the population officer. They think that ARH is the concern of the Department of Health and other NGOs. It is still under “Reproductive Health. • When it comes to ARH. • Generally. This is a big challenge— how to make adults. They refuse to acknowledge that ARH-related problems exist. understand adolescents. the government gives limited funds to ARH because it is just one of the ten elements of RH. • Local officials and barangay officials are often cynical about ARH. general public and local officials. • The Catholic Church is posing tremendous opposition to ARH-related activities and policies. response and readiness of population officers. such as family planning. do not allow their children to participate in ARH-related activities. Issues and challenges The following are important issues and challenges to implementing ARH programmes. • Only a few NGOs are implementing direct ARH services. particularly service providers.2003 8. especially the RH Bill 4110. • There is no mechanism for evaluation 97 . • There are adults at service points who are not sensitive to adolescents’ needs and feelings. • It is difficult to coordinate with LGUs because they are mostly understaffed and have limited budgets.

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines

of the implementation of the Department of Health’s AYHD programme. • Often, adolescents don’t want to be seen by other people going into a teen centre, especially if they are teenage pregnant mothers. Hence, it’s hard to convince adolescents to avail of services at the public health facility level. • Currently, there is no Technical Working Group for adolescent health. It would help to have one, particularly for decision-making, but it would also be hard to maintain one without the commitment of people. People won’t get involved unless they are given something in return. • The government is hesitant to take a stand on ARH because it is concerned about the Catholic Church. • NGOs tend to work in isolation and the challenge is to bring them together.

There are more than 150 NGO members in Metro Manila, and the majority works with street children. • There is a need for a national school curriculum that integrates sex and health education and addresses the concerns of young people. • There is no carefully designed programme of ARH counseling and service delivery or guidelines. • Services are needed to prevent unwanted consequences of adolescent sexual activities (early marriages, STI and pregnancies). • The competence of service providers in dealing with adolescents, especially in terms of technical capability and attitude, is insufficient. • There is a need to address the economic conditions of adolescents which affect their daily survival.

98

A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 - 2003

9. Recommendations
The following recommendations are based on the literature review and key informant interviews.

9.2 Service interventions
• Continuous recruitment and training of peer counselors is needed. • Educational and information services should be appropriately matched with services, such as access to contraceptive methods with condoms offered, at the minimum. • Adolescents should receive life skills training to improve their thinking processes and decision-making abilities, to empower them, and make them more participative in community affairs. • Teen centres should be established in every municipality so that youth can avail of services and have a venue for learning more about ARH. • Other venues for ARH programmes should be explored, such as the streets, parks, offices, hospitals and other alternative spaces that youth frequent.

9.1 Educational interventions
• A specific protocol or set of guidelines allowing for the provision of FP and clinical services to adolescents should be formulated by the government together with the NGOs at the national level. • The media should be educated about ARH concerns and issues so that the media will be more responsible and accurate when providing information to youth. • There should be opportunities for vocational skills training and jobs-skill training to assist out-of-school youth. • Parenting education should start early, before children reach adolescence, and become parents themselves. It should also be integrated into the curriculum for ARH. • There should be a real sex education undertaken by different institutions, such as schools, families, and churches because they all reach adolescents.

9.3 Leadership and governance
• At the local level, the knowledge of Sangguniang Kabataan (Youth Council) members should be increased about the need for more youth-oriented projects, 99

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines

including ARH. They should be motivated to use SK funds for ARHrelated projects. • Local funding sources should be explored for ARH projects. Sources could include Parent-Teachers’ Associations (PTAs), companies catering to young people, LGUs, schools, philanthropists, alumni associations, and civic organizations. • There should be careful consideration of how to work with the dominant Catholic Church to address ARH concerns because the Church has institutions that can be used as vehicles for educating parents, youth and providers. • Programme implementors should coordinate and integrate their initiatives to complement each other’s works (to avoid duplication and scattered ARH services). • There should be a comprehensive and integrated ARH programme at the national and policy level to strengthen its implementation, to have a bigger impact and to become sustainable. • There should be strategic business plans to sustain ARH projects even without donor assistance. 100

• LGU-specific research should be conducted, particularly on ARH, so that ARH projects will be more acceptable at the local level. • Adolescents should be trained to become leaders, especially at the National Youth Commission. • There should be advocacy for the formulation of policies at the provincial level that would institutionalize ARH programmes and activities.

9.4 Role of inter national organizations
• There should be greater donor coordination in developing, implementing, monitoring and evaluating ARH programmes to avoid duplication of activities and maximize available resources. The WHO could help facilitate this process. • In undertaking project review or studies that will cut across all countries, international organizations should be more flexible in the framework or format, particularly the indicators that will be used, to allow for the rendering of country-specific experiences without losing the global perspective.

2003 • The WHO can also work with different government organizations/ agencies as well as non-government organizations in facilitating integration of programmes on adolescent reproductive health at the national level. 101 .A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 .

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines 102 .

(RAFI) January 1995 Published (part of the Highlights of the 1995 Census of Population) Unpublished Quantitative NSO Qualitative AIDS Surveillance & Education Program. Contextual Factors Affecting Riskrelated Sexual Behavior Among Young Adults in the Philippines 2. sexual practices. ethical issues. USAID & Path Foundation. condom use Baguio City Sociodemographic profile of Baguio City Ramon Aboitiz Foundation. Cebu CityHighlights of the 1995 Census of Population 3. Pangalangan (UP College of Law) 1995 Published (part of the Highlights of the 1995 Census of Population) Published Report NSO (Quantitative) Qualitative National Statistics Office (NSO) 1995 Knowledge Metro Cebu & attitudes City related to AIDS & STDs.g. Inc. Thelma Lee-Mendoza (UP CSWCD) Prof. Qualitative Data Relevant to Aids Prevention Gathered from Sex Workers. Studies/papers on adolescent reproductive health Title Content Geographical Sites/Focus Metro Manila Iloilo 1. Baguio CityHighlights of the 1995 Census of Population Discussion on adolescent sexuality & related concerns (e. sexuality & gender Principal Investigator/s Author/s Health Action Information Network Publication/ Published/ Manuscript Unpublished Date 1994-1996 Unpublished Study/ Paper type Qualitative (formal interviews/ FGDs) Funding Source HAIN Sociodemographi c profile of Cebu City Cebu City National Statistics Office (NSO) 1995 4. Issues in Adolescent Sexuality Perceptions on sex. drug use & injection practices. and AtRisk Youth in Cebu 6.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . legal & policy implications) SocioMarawi City demographic profile of Marawi City Prof. Elizabeth A.2003 Annex 1. Injecting Drug Users. Marawi CityHighlights of the 1995 Census of Population 5. Philippines National Statistics Office (NSO) 1995 Published (part of the Highlights of the 1995 Census of Population) Quantitative NSO 103 .

health risks. values & disvalues of children Nueva Ecija Data on Metro Manila timing of pregnancies. health consequences) Teenager's questions about sex. Facts and Figures on VAW 9. rape. education. Perez John B.g. 1995 Unpublished Survey 104 . effects of VAW on women's lives. Casterline Ann E. Biddlecom Marie Joy B. Assessment & Evaluation of the Adolescent Fertility Management Program (Nov. birth intervals. variations in perceived reproductive & contraceptive health risks. childbearing. networking & referral system) Data on VAW (incest. ARH-related issues Perceptions of the health risks of contraception & pregnancy. MARHIA 10. contraceptive use Women's Crisis Center 1995-1998 Published Fact sheet David and Lucile Packard Foundation Institute for Social Studies & Action (ISSA) Marie Joy D. counseling. 1995-Dec. Baltazar Jan-March 1995 Published News Magazine ISSA June 1995 Unpublished Qualitative Evaluation Project at University of North Carolina Ford Foundation (Manila) Mellon Foundation 11. perceptions on the health impacts of the timing of pregnancies.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Title Content Geographical Sites/Focus Principal Investigator/s Author/s Publication/ Published/ Manuscript Unpublished Date 1995-1996 Unpublished Study/ Paper type Report Funding Source 7. 1996) 8. Arguillas Dec. Perceived Health Risks of Contraception & Pregnancy & Risk-taking Behavior of Filipino Men & Women: Do They Differ? Assessment Baguio City & evaluation of program operations (e. Reproductive Health Risks & Fertility Decisionmaking in the Philippines Aurora E.

AIDS KAPB practices & behavior Tacloban & Survey: Cotabato as they relate to Findings from HIV/AIDS risk Young Adult Samples 15. Study in adolescent Preparation for socialization. al. attitudes. sex & contraception. Iloilo. the relationships. perceptions Center in Anao. impact Iloilo Teen of youth center on Center youth Cebu Teen Center Davao Teen Center 16. Tan. friendship & dating.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . Evaluation Needs of BCYA of the Multiadolescents that are MCYA Service Youth being addressed by Teen Info Centers in centers. (BDYFI) HANAS Cooperative March 1996 Unpublished Qualitative Study POPCOM BuasDamlag Youth Foundation. demographic & socioeconomic characteristics & residential history education. reproductive health & HIV 13. Selected Areas about center staff. HIV/ Knowledge. About…: A concepts of gender Capiz Qualitative Negros & homosexuality. Inc. marriage. (BDYFI) HANAS Cooperative 105 . Bontoc. pregnancy & childbearing. Inc. “Counselingon-Air” UNICEF 1996 Published Primer UNICEF External Consultants (Michael L. et.. Adolescents Adolescent profile in Iloilo Want to Talk Antique Western Visayas. etc. 1994 Young Adult Fertility Survey (YAFS II) Socio-economic background of adolescents.) 1996 Unpublished/ Survey Selected Findings Department Of Health (DOH) POPCOM March 1996 Unpublished Report POPCOM POPCOM VI Buas-Damlag Youth Foundation. Tarlac services. Karapatan Rights & ng Bawat responsibilities of Batang Pilipino every child (The Rights of Every Child) 14.2003 Title Content Geographical Principal Investigator/s Sites/Focus Author/s Nationwide University of the Philippines Population Institute Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Date 1996 Published Nationwide Survey Funding Source David & Lucile Packard Foundation 12. sex & Implementation sexuality of Adolescent Health & Youth Dev't Program.

gaps. Ph. Lee. Al. demographic surveys & contraception Deborah Balk. Philippines sexual behavior. skills enhancement workshop & back home application 21. Adolescent Health & Youth Dev't Programme: Youth Programs & Projects 18. Manila) April 1997 Unpublished Qualitative Needs Assessment (FGDs & interviews) 106 . views on getting the right info Romeo B. De La Salle University. SWS-NYC Study on the Situation of Youth in the Philippines 20. HIV/AIDS Risk in the Philippines: Focus on Adolescents & Young Adults 23. values. needs. East-West Center Foundation for Adolescent Dev't Metro Manila Info on young people's relationships. agencies w/ programs for the youth Nationwide Characteristics. issues & areas for dev't in Adolescent Fertility. Sexuality and RH care Identified problems Nationwide of the youth.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Title Content Geographical Principal Sites/Focus Investigator/s Author/s POPCOM Nationwide Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Date March 1996 Unpublished Report Funding Source POPCOM 17. Sexuality & RH Concerns among CampusBased Adolescents Demographic or compositional changes Nationwide/ Philippines Community & Family Services International (CFSI) & National Project On Street Children (NPSC) Peter Xenos & Corazon Raymundo 1997 Published 1997 Published Paper/ Article Honolulu East-West Center Nationwide/ HIV/AIDS risk. current programs & projects. basic Philippines psychosocial interventions for street children. (Behavioral Sciences. attitudes. 1997 Published Paper/ Article Honolulu Program on Population. The Social Mapping of Asian Youth At Risk: An Example from the Philippines 22. aspirations & problems POPCOM March 1996 Unpublished Survey POPCOM Social Weather Stations (SWC) April 1996 Published Representative National Youth Survey Commission (NYC) Manual AUSAID & UNICEF Nationwide/ Understanding the street children. practices. AHYDP Community Needs Assessment Survey 19. et. Basic Training on Psychosocial Interventions for Street Children Service Providers Needs & potentials of the Filipino Youth. lifestyles.D.

UNFPA Fourth Country & health sit. 1997 Published Quantitative 27. Robert Strack. Osteria & Pilar Ramos Jimenez HAIN Dec. Action for Adolescent Health Towards a Common Agenda 25. local partners & other institutions Women's Feature Service. Framework for Country Programming for Adolescent Health Main platform. Sexuality reproductive health. Francisco S. core IEC themes. Summary of Results of FGD among youth FGD Results beneficiaries. contraceptive use Romel Saulog Lacson.. From Words Data on HIV penetration into to Action Asian & the Pacific Countries Demographic. Social Dev't Complex. workplan.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . Ateneo De Manila (for BCYA) 1998 Published Booklet UNFPA (FOR NCRFW) 1998 Unpublished Report BCYA 107 . social Nationwide 28. Adolescent Fertility Programme (Support to the & Youth Dev't Programme Adolescent Framework. activities & Youth Dev't workplan Programme 1994-1998) Nationwide 29. adult & parents. Correlates of Sexual Abstinence Among Urban University Students in the Phils. Trinidad S. Adolescent Sexuality. Hearts & Minds: Reaching out to young Filipinos through IEC 26. sexual behavior & contraception 1997-1998 Published Guide UNDP UNFPA 1998 Unpublished Country Programme UNFPA Baguio City 30. Murray L. pregnancy risks. Sy.2003 Title Content Geographical Principal Sites/Focus Investigator/s Author/s International WHO UNFPA (role of UNICEF donors) Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Date Program Published May 1997 for Action Funding Source WHO 24. knowledge on AIDS. Theocharis R. project Fertility & strategy. Philippines (Aurora Perez & Penny Azarcon-de la Cruz) Institute of Social Order. Vincent. activities POPCOM V November 1997 Unpublished Information Kit UNFPA Metro Manila Data on sexual abstinence. Theocharis. school counselors. sex education.

ethics of abortion 31. Tan Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Date 1998 Published Qualitative Funding Source UNFPA Sexuality & related concepts. Through RH inventory of health Awareness in services. Abortion as Info on abortion a Public Health experiences of Filipino women. major 1998 programs & policies. health & nutrition. Male community survey Involvement on RH awareness. & Zelda Zablan (UPPI) Rosena Sanchez Jose Dante Marcos Eliseo de Guzman Josephine Avila June 1998 Unpublished Report USAID Metro Manila. health services. Philippines Nationwide UNICEF March 1998 Published Report UNICEF Bukidnon Province Population Council Manila. poverty. Sex and Sexuality Nationwide National Youth Commission (NYC) 1998 Published Situationer Report NYC. working & youth Development Plan 1999-2004 with special needs Info on Phil culture 34. Issue in the abortion Phils. major problems. Corazon Raymunco. Medium-Term out-of-school youth. Rights Too! adolescent pregnancy & early motherhood. mutual understanding (MU) 32. Cebu Nationwide (other articles) June 1998 Published Quantitative Task Force & Qualitative on Social Science & RH. Dr. Philippines Nationwide NYC 1998 Published Report NYC. with the Department of Health Dr. views on courtship. violence & abuse. young adults' definitions of love. HIV/AIDS & other STDs. Philippine Needs of in-school. education and child labour Results of 35.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Title Content Geographical Principal Sites/Focus Investigator/s Author/s Michael L. Social Dev't Research Center. Girl Children Have & family. Dr. results of Bukidnon FGDs & interviews Province. Josefina Cabigon. challenges & recommendations 33. consequences. De La Salle University 108 . the Philippines 36. gaps. Situation Of Background information on the The Youth In The Philippines youth.

STD. impact of STDs/HIV/AIDS. Inc. Region VII sexuality & sex education. advocacy & IEC strategies & successful organizations Adolescents & Nationwide Youth Fiscalina AmadoraNolasco 1999 Published Quantitative & Qualitative Foundation for Adolescent Development. Health & Dev't Overview on adolescent health status (e. Inc. contraception. Negros their needs Occidental Youth sit. 20 21 April 1999) 43.g. Results of FGD (Negros Occidental. STDs) Literature on youth. sexual behavior. (FAD) 1999 Published Module UNFPA Department of Sociology. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Among Young Adults in Region VII 39. mental health. University of the Philippines (Clarinda Berja) 1999 Published UNESCO Case Study (Documentary Regional Clearing Review) House on Population Education and Communication Annual Report UNFPA UNFPA 1999 Published Data on problems La Carlota affecting the youth & City. 1999 Annual Report of the Technical & Policy Division 42. alcohol & substance use. teen pregnancies. A Guide for Trainers & Facilitators on Adolescent Sexuality. youth profile (Region VII). incidence of HIV/AIDS. info on the Adolescent Health & Youth Dev't Programme Nationwide KABALAKA Dev't Foundation. health & dev't Nationwide Demographic profile. fertility. policy & programme responses.. Communication & Advocacy Strategies on Adolescent Reproductive & Sexual Health in the Philippines 41. Inc. UNFPA 109 . Health & Dev't (Modules 1-9) 40. Youth Power. Workshop on Adolescent Health 38. health service delivery.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . POPCOM 1999 Unpublished Report 1999 Published Report KABALAKA Dev't Foundation. awareness & knowledge of HIV/AIDS Info on step-by-step methods/processes in conducting trainings on adolescence & related issues such as sexuality.2003 Title Content Geographical Principal Sites/Focus Investigator/s Author/s Western World Health Pacific Region Organization Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Date October 1998 Unpublished Report Funding Source WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific 37.

Sexuality in the on dating. diff. How are the Info on youth's Nimfa B. contraceptive use. A Review Nationwide UPPI (Grace Of Policies. ing Filipino Cabigon. T.. street Dir. Shifting media & political Lifestyles of exposure. Filipino Youth lifestyles. etc. Understand. RH Domingo problems. (UPPI) definitions of Research Gaps 'adolescent'. D. Ph.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Geographical Principal Investigator/s Sites/Focus Author/s 44. education our Nation's & work. info Osias Adolescent on violence & abuse. Phil. ARH status 1990s 46. 48. gender & Young 1970s to sexuality. ARH sit. (Executive Reproductive prostitution. Ogena. childbearing during adolescence. Research on RH Raymundo) of Filipino Youth Title Content Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Date Unpublished Report 1999 Funding Source POPCOM 1999 Published Qualitative 1999 Published Qualitative 1999 Published Quantitative UNFPA January 1999 Unpublished Paper 110 .etc. PMS. Experience on sit.. expectations. ARH& Challenges related issues (marriage during adolescence. juvenile POPCOM) & Programs: delinquency. Adolescent Youth profile. data Nationwide Corazon M. Ph. Lita J.. current Advocacy for & policies & programs Practices on Policy & Program Including Genesis.Profile of Josefina V. Raymundo Philippines Peter Xenos conception status. Health Policies children.) 47. substance use. adolescents. Changing? (The values. cultures. Current Status & Future Direction 45. Adolescents: D. Cruz & Programs & Corazon M. Youth & adolescent Nationwide Tomas M.

policies & rights Info on BCYA 52. Youth Edition incest. marriage). 4) June 2002 (Vol.g. in-depth interviews. CPR (Contraceptive Prevalence Rate) & FP services Marawi City RH sit of M'ranao 55. Berowa Norania M. youth practices Info on safer sex. 2) June. 1999 Published JulySeptember 2000 Published September 1999 Dec. Reprowatch Articles on rape. Zablan) Publication/ Published/ Manuscript Unpublished Date Published JanuaryDecember 1999 Study/ Paper type Journal Article Funding Source Philippine Social Sciences Review 49.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . 3 June. Acmad Aminoding B. 1999 (vol. practices on RH & (courtship. teen Newsletter centers. projects) Institute for Social Studies & Action (ISSA) Health Action Information Network. 2000 (Vol. Philippines BCYA January 1999 Published News Magazine ISSA July-Dec. KIIs. M'ranao adolescents & young Lanao Del Sur Youth: Views adults. 2001 (Vol. 5) 2000 Published Guide (newsletter) HAIN Phils. Newsletter BCYA Newsletter 54. Adolescent Articles featuring programs for the Education youth (e.2003 Title Content Geographical Principal Sites/Focus Investigator/s Author/s UPPI (Zelda CAR C. women's health. 51. Dec. Attitudes and Behavior of Single Adolescents 50. AIDS program for Action adolescents. participant observation 111 .Nationwide Planning Survey tive use (modern & traditional methods). HIV. BCYA in programs & Action accomplishments 53. 2000 Family Data on contracep. Dec. The Impact of The Cordillera Administrative Region IEC Program on the RH Knowledge. Limpao (Al Mujadilah Dev't Foundation) 2000 Published Qualitative & Ford Participatory Foundation (FGDs. Sexuality domestic violence & incest National Statistics Office Published Quantitative NSO Yasmin Busran-Lao Alma E.

Ateneo de Naga University. social welfare. Naga City 2000 Published Survey 2000 Unpublished Qualitative National Statistics & Coordinating Board (NSCB) Women's Health & Safe Motherhood ProjectPartnerships Component. Matnog. Sex Trade in Incidence. Changing Our Lives Info on an ECPAT project for Filipino youths 57. migration. work. health & FP. Province of causes & conseMatnog: An Sorsogon quences of Exploratory prostitution among Study adolescents National Statistical Coordination Board 2000 Published BCYA 2000 Unpublished Report UNFPA National Statistics & Coordinating Board (NSCB) Ateneo Social Science Research Center. public life. DOH & EU in the Philippines 112 . public order & safety & VAW Baguio City 59. Child Pornography & the Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes-Int'l Young People's Participation Project (ECPATIYPPP) Social Action Province of CenterAlbay Diocese of Legaspi Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Date 2000 Published Report Funding Source ECPATIYPPP 56. Participation.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Title Content Geographical Principal Sites/Focus Investigator/s Author/s End Child International Prostitution. 2000) 60. Functional Education indicators Nationwide among youth Literacy. Education & Mass Media Survey (flemms) 61. BCYA First Info on BCYA Annual Report program accomplishments (Sept. econ.-Dec. 19941999 58. A Profile of Child & Woman Abuse in the Province of Albay. education. patterns. agri & agrarian reform. Women and Men in Bicol Region Physical & sexual abuse among children & adolescents 2000 Published Documentary Children & review Youth Foundation of the Philippines Quantitative POPCOM V Data on population Bicol & families.

tive Health. cancer. PMS.2003 Title Content Geographical Principal Investigator/s Sites/Focus Author/s FAD Web Publication/ Published/ Manuscript Unpublished Date Published 2000 2002 2003 Study/ Paper type Article/ Report Funding Source 62.Discussions on how to treat adolescents. FP. views on abortion Religion & Nationwide 66. 2000 Unpublished Report STD & pregnancy 69.. Rights. programs available (e. 15-Nov.g. (DPF) PNP Zamboanga City Police Office Maria Luisa de Leon-Miranda Soroptimist International of Baguio 2000-2001 Unpublished Report Reproductive (Proceedings) Health. views/opinions of parents regarding adolescent sex & RH Info on adolescent sexuality. Articles of Foundation for Adolescent Dev't Youth health sit. Body & Soul: A Forum reproductive health On Adolescent of adolescents Sexuality 64. Reproduc. Consolidation & Analysis of ASRH FGDs (20002001) 65. drug abuse. Inc. 14. 2000 Published Article David & Lucile Packard Foundation PNP Zamboanga City Police Office PLCPD Unpublished Quarterly Report Soroptimist International of Baguio 113 . Youth In Action For Reproductive Health & Rights 68. Inc. stories.-Dec. Ethics & RH rights/policies Law for Health Professionals Rebecca J. AIDS. Cases Against Women Consultations. Body & Soul Questions for Tomorrow's Women 67. counseling. child exploitation. sexuality. forums. Cook 2000 Published Views/opinions of Davao City adolescent on sex & RH. Street Children Project among children & adolescents 70. Women's Feature Service (WFS) Philippines. family relations. Inc.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . hotline) 63. Development of People's Foundation. Rights and Ethics Center for Studies & Training (ReproCen) Report DPF July 2000 Published Quantitative / Qualitative Ford Foundation July 2000 Published Forum Report Ford Foundation Oct-Dec 2000 Unpublished Activity Report Zamboanga City Oct. Soroptimist Data on VAW cases International of Baguio Quarterly Report Metro Manila Baguio City OctoberDecember 2000 Oct. data on teenage pregnancy. training & monitoring Data on VAW cases Davao City Development of People's Foundation (DPF) Women's Feature Service (Philippines).

abortion) Nationwide 76. Gender Bautista. Provinces in Apayao. Maturation: A Davao Case Study in Medical Selected School Schools of Foundation Mindanao Dir. Reproductive Health & Dev't Project Book Series 2001 Unpublished Qualitative/ FGDs Rockefeller Foundation 2001 Unpublished Report 2001 Published Situation Analysis Report UN 114 . infant/child mortality. Primary menstruation tion & Sexual Health Care. Alicia child abuse Dimensions Molina. Philippines: A policies & programs Review of the Youth Situation and National Policies and Programs Title Content Funding Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Source Date SWS Nov. student Violence: Its Rachelle Socio-Cultural prostitution.. 2000 Unpublished Survey (Quantitative) December 2000 Unpublished Survey & qualitative. Maricar Savella. Fritzie Ramos.g. religious Luzon (areas Youth: Demographic orientation. lifestyles outside of NCR but w/in Patterns & Luzon) Attitudinal Visayas. UPPI RTIS/STD/HIV/ and Ifugao Administrative (Zelda C. violence/sexual abuse. battering. FGDS UNFPAAECI 2001 Published Qualitative Ford Foundation UCWS Gender. incest & Layda.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Geographical Principal Sites/Focus Investigator/s Author/s Gerardo A. Sexual Experiences of sexual experiences & Capital Region Sandoval (SWS) Balance mass media the Filipino experience.g.Sexual maturation. AIDS of single Provinces Region (CAR) Zablan) adolescent boys & girls Violeta Articles on girlfriend 73. IEC activities for 72. Situation of Filipino Youth maternal death. The 2000 Research & Kalinga & adolescents. Nationwide 75. Correlates Mindanao Demographic Apayao. Rose D. . Youth in the Youth health. Menstrua. e. Prescilla Tulipat Institute of 74. National Data on youth's 71. Kalinga management of the Cordillera Inc. Data on ARH (e. IEC Impact Development Ifugao prevention & Survey in Foundation. STDs. Health Marcelino pregnancies.

discussion on laws & rights. Trust & Power: Child Abuse in the Eyes of the Child & the Parent 80. marriage. Nora RodriguezCortez. Working With Abused Children: From the Lenses of Resilience & Contextualization 81. Bodytalk: The XYZ Guide to Young Women's Health & Body Vol.) UP-CIDS-PST (Violeta Bautista. STDs & AIDS. Inc. de Dios. Karen Kunawicz. MHA. 2001) 82. RH of adolescents. MD. ARH & rights 2001 Unpublished Manual Development of People's Foundation Abuse on children & Malate.g. resilience & responding to challenges Metro Manila 2001 Published Save the Qualitative/life story Children-UK interviews ARH-related activities & programs (e. al. MD. health services 78. 2001 Unpublished Report KABALAK A Dev't Foundation. 77. adolescents Dakota & Leveriza Streets UP-CIDSPST (Elizabeth Protacio et. MD. 16.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . Inc. KABALAKA Dev't Foundation. 2 Info guide on lesbianism. ARH Orientation & Leadership Training” Inputs on sex & gender. Accomplishment Report (Aug. contraception. pornography & VAW. et. Building Young VisionariesCourse 3: Gender-Fair Counseling for ARH & Rights 79. Susan Grace PinedaMercado. sexuality. peer education) La Carlota City & La Castellana in Negros Occidental KABALAKA Dev't Foundation. Info on Saint Mary's SMU University's (SMU) programs & activities involving the youth SMU 2001 Unpublished Report SMU 115 . rape & sexual harassment. FPDS Anna Leah Sarabia Development of People's Foundation Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Date Published Guide 2001 Funding Source Women's Media Circle Foundation. al) 2001 Published Participatory Action Research Italian Cooperation for Development Abuse.2003 Title Content Geographical Principal Sites/Focus Investigator/s Author/s Stella G. 17-Nov. teen centers. Rina JimenezDavid. “Recollection. Inc. Inc.

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines
Geographical Principal Investigator/s Sites/Focus Author/s 83. Documenta- Info on ARH-related Region II Ana Cecilia activities, programs, Nueva Vizcaya Alejo, Lemuel tion of plans and services PARDEV's Cacho, Englebert Study Tour in Nueva Vizcaya Dator, Dainty San Jose, Ma. Lourdes Kathleen Santos & Jubeth Joy S. Santuyo Info on SMU's Nueva Vizcaya 84. St. Mary's ARH-related University programs, activities & services; ARH data Title Content 85. “Love & Desire: Young Filipinos & Sexual Risks” Discussions on sex, gender, sexuality, courtship, marriage & love Manila Iloilo Michael Tan Ma. Theresa Ujano Batangan Henrietta Espaňola Medecins Sans FrontieresBelgium (in the Phils.' Streetchildren Project) Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Date 2001 Unpublished Report Funding Source

2001

2001

Published (in the Rafael M. Salas Population & Dev't Award 2001) Published

Report

Qualitative

Ford Foundation

Info on streetchildren's ARH concerns (e.g. menarche, sexual debut, pregnancy, substance abuse, STIs, FP; present conditions Abortion estimates, link between unwanted pregnancy, contraceptive use & abortion; policy implications of abortion Data on youth 88. The McCann Youth environment, activity trend Study 2000 89. Abortion in Abortion estimates, the Phils: Being link between illegal does not unwanted pregnancy, contraceptive use & make it rare abortion; policy implications of abortion 86. Research on the RH Problems of Street GirlMothers in Selected Areas of Metro Manila 87. Abortion in the Phils: Being illegal does not make it rare

Pasay Quezon Manila Caloocan

2001

Unpublished

Descriptive

Medecins Sans FrontieresBelgium

Nationwide

UPPI Demographic Research & Dev't Foundation, Inc. McCannErickson Philippines UPPI Demographic Research & Dev't Foundation, Inc.

2001

Published

Quantitative / qualitative

David and Lucile Packard Foundation

Luzon, Visayas & Mindanao Nationwide

2001

Unpublished

Quantitative

McCannErickson David and Lucile Packard Foundation

2001

Published

Quantitative / qualitative

116

A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 - 2003
Title Content Geographical Principal Investigator/s Sites/Focus Author/s International EngenderHealth Funding Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Source Date 2001 Published Article from EngenderHealth the web

90. Key Facts about Adolescents & RH 91. Adolescent & Youth Health & Dev't Program (AYHDP) 92. Unsafe Abortion in the Philippines: A Threat to Public Health

Global statistics on unplanned pregnancies, STDs & reproductive needs Strategic framework for AYHDP; implementing guidelines, workplan 2001-2010 Profile of women w/ abortion experience, RH status of these women, level of abortion, consequences of abortion

All health facility levels

DOH

2001

Unpublished

Manual

DOH

Manila Cebu Davao Tuguegarao

Corazon M. 2001 Raymundo Zelda C. Zablan Josefina V. Cabigon Grace T. Cruz Clarinda L. Berja Writers (Arlyn 2001 G. Verba & Faye A.G. Balanon) Plan Philippines 2001-2002

Published

Quantitative & qualitative

Ford Foundation

93. Childhood Referral system for & Child Rights child abuse cases Study Series including adolescents 94. Plan Info on Plan's Philippines programs for Milestones children aged 6-12 (2001-2002 & 13-17 Annual Report) 95. Medium inclusion of Term Dev't Adolescent Health Plan 2001-2004 & Youth Dev't in (Baguio City) advocacy areas 96. Adolescent Health and Youth Development

Nationwide

Published

Nationwide

Published

Monograph Save the Children (UK) & UP CIDS PST Report Plan Phils.

Baguio City

2001-2004

Unpublished

Plan

Adolescent Nationwide demographic & socio-econ profile, reproductive behavior of adolescents & youths, approaches & lessons learned 97. “Time to Data on RH, ARH Nationwide Act: Needs, and population, Options, Highlights of Decisions,” RH/ARH-related State of the programs in the Phil. Population Phils. Report 2000 98. Youth in Experiences in Davao City Action for RH youth leadership & & Rights advocacy on sexual & Rh & rights, lessons, accomplishments

POPCOM

2001-2004

Published

POPCOM

January 2001

Published

Part of the PPMP Directional Plan 20012004 (Quantitative and qualitative) Report POPCOM

Development of People's Foundation, Inc.

Jan-Oct. 2001 Unpublished

Activity Report

David & Lucile Packard Foundation

117

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines
Title Content Geographical Principal Investigator/s Sites/Focus Author/s ISSA Nationwide Funding Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Source Date Published Booklet David & May 2001 Lucile Packard Foundation

99. Sa Pagdadalaga, Bigyang Pansin Ang Mga Pagbabago Sa Katawan 100. Rapid Impact Evaluation of Kabalaka Development Foundation, Inc. 101. Adolescent Reproductive Health & Family Planning Practices in La Carlota City & La Castellana 102. Baseline Survey on the Knowledge, Attitudes, & Practices of Adolescents & Adults on Reproductive Health 103. Coming of Age Under the Threat of HIV/AIDS: The Experience of Filipino Adolescents 104. The Participatory Planning Process: Research Utilization & Plan Formulation for Adolescent RH in Southern Leyte

Adolescent reproductive & sexual health

Youth development La Carlota & La Castellana, Negros Occidental

External Consultant (Adonis A. Sucalit)

June 2001

Unpublished

Evaluation Report

Kabalaka Development Foundation, Inc.

La Carlota City & Municipality of La Castellana, Negros Occ.

Reasons for Sexual Baguio City Initiation, Contraceptive Use, STD, Substance Use, Violence & Sexual Abuse among students in four high schools Sexual initiation, Nationwide multiple sex partners, commercial sex, invulnerable youth, HIV, same-sex sexual practice Southern Leyte

Business June 2001 Resource Center, University of St. La Salle, Bacolod City (Carmen Peralta-Benares) Division of June 2001 Social Sciences, University of the Philippines, College Baguio

Unpublished

Descriptive- Kabalaka explanatory Development (quantitative Foundation, & qualitative) Inc.

Unpublished

Survey

UNFPA

AIDS Action (Elma Laguna)

JulyDecember 2001

Published

Newsletter

HAIN & Healthlink Worldwide, UK

UPPI (Zelda C. August 2001 Zablan & Josefina V. Cabigon)

118

HIV/AIDS situation Nationwide Health Action HIV/AIDS in the Phils. Respond. responding to HIV/AIDS & challenges Title Content 107. Nat'l Aids Council (PNAC) & United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS in the Phils. initiatives & best practices Population Council. Regina De Diseases substance abuse & La Paz-Ingente. work Philippines status. Inc. Among Female sexual abuse Marie Aimee Street Hyacinth Adolescents in Bretana) Drop-In Centers in Davao City 106.) Survey United descriptive Nations statistics Foundation 2002 Trade Union Congress of the Philippines (TUCP) Published Article /Annual Report David & Lucile Packard Foundation & UNFPA POPCOM 2002 Unpublished Report POPCOM 119 . policy & programs. Correlates STD. childbearing. health sit. Demographic educational Survey: enrolment & Statistical Tables attainment. Philippines Adolescent socioNationwide Country Report econ profile. Facts Urban-rural Nationwide About residence & Adolescents population from the distribution. marital for Program status.Knowledge. awareness & 1998 use of contraceptive methods 108. Funding Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Source Date October 2001 Unpublished CrossSectional Study 2002 Published 2002 Published Quantitative Phil. info on effects of HIV/AIDS. & youthHealth for the friendly services & Working Youth facilities 109.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . Young Work-Based Adult Peer Reproductive Educators.2003 Geographical Principal Investigator/s Sites/Focus Author/s 105. Davao City External of Symptoms multiple sexual Researchers of Sexually partners.. communiReproductive cation plan on youth Health sexual & reproducChallenges: tive health. health risk behaviors.. data on Information Country Profile HIV/AIDS Network Philippines awareness & (HAIN) 2002 prevention. sexuality & Planning. attitudes Nationwide ing to Youth & practices of young Sexual & workers. physical abuse. (UNAIDSPhils. Lu. lack of (Jetty Jet Rioja Transmitted contraceptive use.

attitudes Health & practices Knowledge. SB 2325 & HB 4110) Title Content Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Date 2002 Published Documentation report Funding Source Save the Children-UK 2002 Published Survey/ Structured Interview UNFPA 2002 Published Report UNICEF 2002 Published Qualitative Ford Foundation 2002 Unpublished Press Release David & Lucile Packard Foundation 2002 Published Factsheet Ford Foundation 2002 Published Primer Phil. Attitudes. sexual abuse & Children exploitation & HIV and Dreams (From State of infections the Filipino Children 2002) Manggahan & Amaryllis T. et. Dev't practices) PMS Foundation Phil. Integrating Adolescence. Torres Maburol marriage. 57.al) Children's Work 111. Rebuilding Disabilities. (PLCPD) Ma. Working Profile of adolescent Metro Manila TUCP workers & sexual & & Metro Youth's Reproductive reproductive health Davao knowledge.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Geographical Principal Sites/Focus Investigator/s Author/s UP-CIDS-PST Nationwide/ 110. gender.health & dev't. Time of Ina sexuality. 4. Philippines Protacio-De Approaches in deviance & peers Castro. Talkpoint Data on adolescent Global/local Committee on (Issue Nos. romance (Zambales) Morata from the point of view of those who married at a young age UPPI & Nationwide 114. ad Behavior: Implications for WorkplaceBased Intervention Council for the Nationwide 112. child Welfare of Shattered Lives labor. Cecilia De 116.9 million data on PMS (e. Love in the Views on love. Legislators' 115. RH Population & problems 62) Dev't Foundation. Sa Totoo Discussion on Los ReyesRH issues (abortion) Lang! (Ang Ferrer Katotohan Tungkol sa RH Care Act.g. 113. (Elizabeth Child-Centered adolescent sexuality. Demographic consequences young adults Research & have engaged in surrounding first sex. Inc. Legislators' Committee on Population (PLCPD) 120 .

La Castellana Teen Horizon 119. Tabaco City Identified RH problems in the community & policy/legislative actions UPPI & Views/perceptions Nationwide Demographic of youth on morality Research & Dev't Foundation Mary Barby Stakeholders concept Iloilo City Penacerrada of ARH Badayos (De La Salle University) Content Funding Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Source Date Reproductive Report Published 2002 (Proceedings) Health. Foundation. Inc. Rights & Ethics 118. Inc. Rights and Ethics Center for Studies & Training (ReproCen) Unpublished Case Study ICOMP 2002 Malaysia 2002 Unpublished Case Study ICOMP Malaysia 117. Rights health seeking and Ethics behavior among Center for young women & Studies & men.2003 Title Geographical Principal Sites/Focus Investigator/s Author/s Reproductive Discussions on Health. Adolescent Reproductive Healthcare Programs & Services in Iloilo City's Public Health System: Stakeholders' Concepts. Development sexuality education Negros Occ. Filipino Youth Seeking Moral Compass February 2002 Unpublished Report April 2002 Unpublished Press Release David & Lucile Packard Foundation 122. Foundation. Development sexuality education Negros Occ. La Carlota Teen Circle 120.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . Kabalaka Peer counseling. Kabalaka Peer counseling. pre-marriage Training counseling programs (ReproCen) La Castellana. assessment instruments Nationwide Plan Phils. La Castellana. What Barangay Officials Can Do to Set Up a Child-Friendly Locality July 2002 Unpublished Exploratory Personal Qualitative Graduate Thesis Guidelines for setting up a childfriendly barangay. DSWD DILG Liga ng mga Barangay Council for the Welfare of Children UNICEF NEDA September 2002 Published Booklet UNICEF 121 . The Journal of Reproductive Health. Perceptions and Recommendations 123. Barangay Policy Forum (Workshop Outputs) 121.

RH problems such as STDs.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Title Geographical Principal Sites/Focus Investigator/s Author/s Philippine Manila. premarital & early sex. 2002 Young Adult Fertility & Sexuality Study Dec. contraception) Metro Manila. Taguig children & youth & Quezon ages 7 to 18 City UPPI & Nationwide ARH data (risky Demographic sexual behavior) Research & Dev't Foundation UPPI Data on sexuality & Nationwide DRDF RH of Filipino youth. ISSA on ARH (e. advantages & disadvantages UPPI & Young adults losing Nationwide Demographic hope in the future. Working Youth profile. Las Action for ment & moral Youth development of 300 Piñas. unsafe sex practices UPPI & Nationwide data on youth in a Demographic live-in arrangement. abortion. Arrested Development: The Level of Discernment of Out-of-School Children & Youth 125.Foundation tive/Quick Results) 127. Metro Davao knowledge & Youth's RH attitudes on sexual & Knowledge. 2002 Unpublished Press Release David & Lucile Packard Foundation 129. love relationAttitudes & ships. Level of discernCaloocan. Kikay Kit: Kaalama't Impormasyon Sa Katawa't Kalusugan Nating Youth Global and local data 131. commercial sex. Research & influences on young Dev't adults' lives Foundation Institute For Nationwide Adolescent Social Studies & reproductive & Action (ISSA) sexual health Content Publication/ Published/ Manuscript Unpublished Date September Published 2002 Funding Study/ Paper type Source Survey/ UNICEF Quantitative Manila and qualitative/ in-depth interviews Press Release David & Lucile Packard Foundation 124. 2002 Unpublished Nationwide David & Survey Lucile Packard (Quantita. Filipino young adults see bleak future Dec. 2002 Unpublished Press Release David & Lucile Packard Foundation 128.g. 132. Research & views of adolescents Dev't on marriage & Foundation living-in. Offenders Paranaque. out-of-school (PAYO) Pasay. dating. homosexuality. The youth are not alright Dec. No more weddings for young pinoy Dec. 2002 Unpublished 126. sexual Behaviour: Implications for & non-sexual behavior WorkplaceBased Interventions 2003 Published Booklet David & Lucile Packard Foundation 2003 Institute For Social Studies & Action (ISSA) Trade Union 2003 Congress of the Philippines (TUCP) & the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) Published Newsletter Ford Foundation Published Survey / UNFPA quantitative 122 . RH. (Newsletter) pregnancy.

FGDs (e. Felix & Regina De La Paz-Ingente) background of Nationwide University of adolescents. Protecting Women & Children: A Handbook on CommunityBased Response to Violence 2003 Published Handbook 135.g. Cecilia psychology & culture areas. population education. Case Demographic Philippines Studies Of characteristics.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . activities on gender province of & RH with youth as Albay target audience 139. pregnancy & childbearing. premarital sex & contraceptive use Content ARSH Web Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Date Qualitative Published 2003 (in-depth FGDs & KIIs) Funding Source University Center for Women's Resources & Phil. Center for Population & Dev't Ford Foundation 133. friendship & dating. & private Conaco. advocacy & IEC lessons learned & guidelines 138. Filipino youths truly at risk with more liberal views… 137. 400. sex & contraception. public Gastardoof adolescent life. ARSH programme responses. 2003 Published Article (from the Sunday Times) 123 . the Philippines demographic & Population socioeconomic Institute characteristics.000 Data on abortion Nationwide abortions in RP yearly despite ban 2003 Unpublished Report 2003 Published Case Study Report 2003 Unpublished Plan Jan. 2002 Young Adult Fertility & Sexuality Study (YAFSIII) 2003 Preliminary Findings/Press Release Published Nationwide David & Survey Lucille Packard Foundation 136. Ma. residential history. marriage. results of KIIs & schools Carmen C. GAD plan Programs & Albay & budget. Filipino Adolescents in Changing Times 134. (Maria Leny E. Jimenez & adolescents' Cherrie Joy F.2003 Title Geographical Principal Investigator/s Sites/Focus Author/s Literature on the Rural & urban Ma. Inc. reproductive health & HIV Nationwide Perla AragonData on sexual Choudhury debut. experiences & views Billedo on sex & sexuality) Includes stories & Center for Nationwide statistics on physical Reproductive & sexual abuse Health among adolescents Leadership & Development.

1) Info on student prostitution Funding Publication/ Published/ Study/ Manuscript Unpublished Paper type Source Date University Jan-Mar 2003 Published Article Center for Women's Studies Jan-Mar 2003 March 2003 Published Unpublished Newsletter Press Release POPCOM V David & Lucile Packard Foundation 141. Inc. experimental nature of risk behavior Questions of the youth on RH Albay Mayon May 2003 Integrated Dev't Alternatives & Services. Forum on HB 4110 Population data Narrower gender Nationwide gap in risk behaviors. Survey reveals increasing feminization in adolescent risk behaviors 143. Population Infoclips 142.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Title Content Geographical Principal Sites/Focus Investigator/s Author/s Fritzie Franchette Ramos Maricar Gay Savella Bicol POPCOM V UPPI & Demographic Research & Dev't Foundation 140. Pananaw (Vol. (MIDAS) Unpublished Report MIDAS 124 . VIII No.

Inc. referrals. Adolescent fertility management program Popcom 1983-1992 5. on-air counseling and youth camps. awareness. Adolescent Fertility Management Program BCYA 1995-1996 Alternative education. Programs/projects on adolescent reproductive health Title Implementor Period of Implementation 2002-2004 Focus Key Features Approaches Location Geographical Target Sites Clients Funding Source Status of Implementation Completed 1. resource centers. (MIDAS) 2003-2005 Gender. referral Counseling. early marriage. repro tract infection. training.Bicol based Youth 125 .1999 Fertility. sexuality Teenage pregnancies. peer education. recovery against children and reintegration assistance. DOH Completed 4. violence and discrimination against children Integrate adolescent and youth health services into the health delivery systems Community. Adolescent Commission Health and Youth on Population Development (POPCOM) Program (AHYDP) 1995. clinical services. synchronize training and delivery of IEC and services Counseling Community National Youth USAID National Youth 1524 UNFPA Completed 6. fertility. Prevent abuse. publications Phone counseling. teenage pregnancy. integration of GST in secondary schools. Adolescent and Department Youth Health and of Health Development (DOH) Program (AYHDP) 2001-2010 Community. and reproductive health problems of adolescents Responsible adolescent behavior HIV/AIDS IECradio spots. sexuality. BCYA 2002present 1994-1997 Naga City (26 brgys) Youth On-going IEC approach on HIV/AIDS prevention Community. ARH Medical services. discussions. 5th Country Program for Children Government Violence Rescue. sexuality. film showing.Baguio City based Youth Philippine Completed HIV/AID S NGO Support Program Philippine On-going Ngo Support Program (Phansup). brochures. counseling. counseling.2003 Annex 2. reproductive health. contests. child protection Nutrition. info kits. one-stopshops. and training for health service providers Community. Adolescent Hotline 7.National based Children UNFPA. early marriages. and schoolbased National Youth GOP On-going 3. RH. training Information Community Close coordination with GOs and NGOs in addressing ARH School and Coordination community and program monitoring. counseling. parenting classes. fora. networks. physical/emotional/ mental status. HIV/AIDS Education. UNFPA.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . mental health. Hospital. communicable diseases. disability Fertility. exploitation. neglect. GOP 2. referral. centers Generation of Community.Baguio City ARH info and based development of adolescent facilitators Adolescents AUSAID. responsible parenthood. training and youth camp Education and services for the youth. Eu Mayon integrated Development Alternatives and Services. Adolescent Program on HIV/AIDS Prevention 8. maternal/child health. Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Program Bantay Familia. symposia. symposia. Inc.

sexually.Metro Manila based Youth NGO-based National NGO. advocacy. referrals Schoolbased Metro Manila Youth On-going DepEd. Jose Medical services Schoolbased Fabella Memorial Hospital Adolescent Completed 14. City 3 years Health Offices RH. training. Building Sustainable Advocacy Network for RH PNGOC on Population. healthcare promotions. RH. Domestic violence. workshop Counseling and medical health services Community. sexual harassment Counseling. media. services and community organizing RH assessment exam Community. AIDS Hotline Caritas Manila AIDS 10.Metro Promotion of Manila and based adolescentBatangas centered RH and City responsible sexual behaviors. Health and Welfare.Davao City based Youth On-going 126 . media network Education and counseling on AIDS for the youth Strengthening local NGOs in their advocacy role for a genderresponsive RH program School-based and out-of-the classroom program Community. Gomez Elementary School. primer. Grade 4-6 pupils. Campusbased “SEXTERS” (socially. puppet shows.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Title Implementor Period of Implementation Focus Key Features Approaches Location Geographical Target Sites Clients Funding Source Status of Implementation On-going 9.Davao based counseling P. Ateneo de Naga University Family Planning Organization of the Philippines (FPOP) ARH 15. Inc. STD/HIV/ AIDS 13. prevention of STD/HIV/ AIDS Dr. Crisis management program VAW. youth UNFPA 11. counseling Counseling. referrals. comics NGO advocacy network. gender. sexual harassment. health. Crisis Counseling Services 16. emotionally. gender-fair healthcare. 9-12 years old Youth On-going On-going IEC University and communitybased Schoolbased Quezon City Ateneo de Naga Women and RH/VAW On-going University pamphletsStudents Ford Foundation Students On-going 17. workshops and mini library Information kit. enable partners to provide IEC. education. information. capability building. Davao Teen Center (DAFLEY) Reproductive and sexual health care Face to face or telephone counseling. counseling. IEC. brochures. 1998 Population. Inc (KCCFI) Center for Women's Studies (CWS) Office of Gender Development. networking. Counseling for the Youth Kaugmaon Center for Children's Concerns Foundation. CommunityOutreach School Health Programme Department of Health (DOH) 1988 Reproductive health Alliance. Communitybased and adolescentcentered RH project FAD Sexuality Peer-led activities. welfare Hotline. community theater tour. networking and advocacy. rape. info Information and Community. responsible teeners) program 12.

and partners on ARH Youth counseling Community. Manila AIDS victims On-going Young people's health and sexuality needs and their lifestyle concerns. theater. policy advocacy Provision of youth-friendly services and facilities Integration of family welfare concerns at the work places Workplacebased National Workers David and On-going Lucille Packard Foundation. school nurses On-going 25.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 .Davao City based Youth 2000-2003 21. Dial-a-Friend Family Planning Organization of the Philippines (FPOP) Baguio center for young adults. radio counseling program Counseling and information Community. treatment Provide an integrated package of services Using entertainment for education Community QC.Metro communicators based Manila Kimberly On-going Clarke and DepEd Trainers On-going 127 . Development and Family Life Education for the Youth (DAFLEY) 19..Baguio City based Youth Parents Partners UNFPA On-going Community. inc.Metro based Manila Youth On-going Counseling. Fertility and Sexuality Relationship Education for Adults Responsibility (FEFAR) Christian Children's Funds (CCF) Fertility.2003 Title Implementor Period of Implementation 1988present Focus Key Features Approaches Location Geographical Target Sites Clients Funding Source Status of Implementation On-going 18. counseling Training. (Bcya) Foundation for Adolescent Development. 1994 Feminine hygiene Training 26. IEC. workshops. video showing Telephone counseling Awareness for young people. Developing & mobilizing peer educators for ARH 20. Family Planning/Family Welfare Program 24. referral. Drop-In KPPF AIDS Prevention Center 22. sexuality 5-day training of trainers School Regions Training of school nurses to counsel and lecture on physiological and biological changes of boys and girls Training for Community. radio guesting. Inc. workshops. reproductive health Family welfare Training. (FAD) Reproductive health. including young workers Youth. radio and TV episodes Community and schoolbased Metro Manila Youth 23. services. Family Welfare Program Trade Union 1984 Congress of the Philippines (TUCP) DOLE Population. FAD Entertainment for Education Programs (EnterEducate) 1996 and 2002 Young people's health and sexuality needs and their lifestyle concerns HIV AIDS Training. and responsible parenthood Adolescent reproductive health Counseling. Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) UNFPA On-going Workplacebased National Workers. Feminine Hygiene Education program DepEd and Kimberly Clarke Phils. John Hopkins University. and HIV/AIDS Videos. parents. Inc. medical clinic. testing. gender equality.

research. FP/RH campaign. FP/RH Program TUCP ARH POPCOM Until 2004 RH. music. Integrated Human Resource Development Program for the Youth 35. HIV/AIDS Population awareness Community OSY. ads. video. IEC. Community. Inc. 15-24 On-going RH Maryknoll Foundation Out-of-school youth Counseling School National Promotes secondary/ vocational educ & awareness on RH Community.National Raise health status of women based and children by reducing unmet needs for FP services Women and Youth USAID (P3. JICA. STD/HIV/AI DS. condoms. FP 29. surveys Training Community. lectures. games. Information and Counseling Program on Sexuality for the Young Workers at the Export Processing Zone 33.based of-school youth 13-17 years old On-going Out-of-school youth On-going 128 . Frenzy Mobile Outreach Team (FMOT) DKT Philippines. 2001present ARH.Metro Counseling Manila services for out. health clinics Multi-media mobile intervention team. services. morality Sexuality Philippine 1983 Center for Population and Development (PCPD) Modules. Youth 31. formal and non formal educ Counseling.17B) Completed 34. RH Revised training curriculum. David and On-going Lucille Packard Foundation.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Title Implementor Period of Implementation Focus Key Features Approaches Location Geographical Target Sites Clients Funding Source Status of Implementation 27. STD. safe sex practice 30. Integrated Survival and Development of Children 13-17 years old 36. Guidance Counselors Training Catholic Educational Association of the Philippines (CEAP). FP/RH for Young workers 28. films. sexuality Training. Human sexuality education 32. interactive website.National based Multi-media approach in reaching the youth Community and schoolbased Metro Manila Urban youth and semiurban youth SchoolTraining of based guidance and peer counselors in schools in youth counseling for the integration in college guidance programs School Guidance and peer counselors. education Integrated RH/FP package in all DOH hospitals. dating game Training Workplacebased Provide quality health services National Young Workers 15-24 years old GoP. etc. and POPCOM ARH. symposia Information and Work-based counseling for young workers Export Processing Zone peer counselors. Integrated Family Planning and Maternal Health Program OGD. UNFPA. UNICEF. RH. discussions. youth Young workers Government Until 2002 FP. ADNU Sexuality. contraceptive distribution. Completed USAid. Kasambuhay DSWDBureau of Child and Youth Welfare PLAN Philippines 2000-2005 Fertility.

teenage pregnancy. Philippine DOH and Population LGUs Management Program (PPMP) 1990-1992 Medical services. stand alone. Naic Community Academy & Fair Haven Baptist Youth. based Cebu and Baguio 15-24 years old Assistance On-going from POPCOM's AHYDP POPCOM.Metro based Manila Disadvantaged youth On-going Community. infant and maternal mortality. counseling. peer counseling. Peer PLAN Education Philippines Program 45. Davao Youth 46.Davao City based Schoolbased Street adolescent Adolescent On-going On-going Improvement of Community.Baguio City based Street Children ARH. counseling Provision of services Community. Resource center for adolescent health & sexuality Vocational skills of the youth Lectures. Multi-Service Youth Center BCYA Services Provision of services Community. information Iloilo. early marriage Understanding sexuality & assumption of responsibilities for sexual behaviors Services. Completed Population Center Foundation President Completed Social Fund 41. MM 13-20 years old in. Manila Center for Young Adults Kabalikat Ng Pamilyang Pilipino Foundation (KPPF) Foundation 1984 to for Adolescent present Development (FAD) RH and Sexuality Education IEC. services Provide special needs of street adolescents Community.Baguio City based Youth 42. Bacoor High School. training Information. services and Baguio. video presentations.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 .Metro access to based manila. training Education & structured activities on sexuality Community & schoolbased Ellenwood church youth members. symposia.2003 Title Implementor Period of Implementation Focus Key Features Approaches Location Geographical Target Sites Clients Funding Source Status of Implementation 37. training Community Street Youth HIV-AIDS education & prevention.Manila. life planning educ. Resource center on ASRH Designed to make life a little better for disadvantaged youth “drop-in. pregnancy 1997present 2000 Population and reproductive health. counseling Peer education. Life Planning FAD education and Vocational Skills Training Program 40. New BCYA Horizon's DropIn Center for Street Children 43.. group discussions 39. counseling and referral Sexuality education. Kabataan Reproductive Health And Sexuality Education For Street Youth 38. vocational skills training.and out-ofschool youth 129 . on-thejob training & referral Information. Relationships 1985-1988 Adolescent Reproductive Health Life planning education. contraception. multiservice facility” Schoolbased University belt area in Manila College students aged 16-24 On-going Community. Multi-Service Campaign for Young People PCPD Adolescent health and sexuality. Pag-asa Drop. Support mechanism for peer counseling training.Local In Center Government Unit (LGU) 44. Pinoy Youth 2000 Options for Living Orientation meetings.

Cagayan De Based Oro 13-25 Yrs Old Care Phils. population education library. Strengthening and Revitalizing the Population Education Program DepEd. family life and responsible parenthood Integrate POPED in the curricula of the three levels of the educational system Schoolbased National Youth in schools Completed 130 . gender equity. Seminar and Training program Women's Studies. Population awareness and sex education program DSWD and PCPD 48. clinical referrals. sexuality education. 12 and based ARMM School and communitybased UNFPA Training On-going 1998-1999 ARH Discussions Discussion Of Taboo Subjects Like Sex With Young Adults Community. Regional Population Office & UNFPA 54. SHINE Philippines (Sexual Health Initiatives through Networking and Education) St. outreach. fertility Population Educ matls. ARH curriculum integration & teen center POPED SchoolIntegration of based RH issues & concerns in the curriculum. STDs Women's rights Health services. responsible parenthood Family formation. FGD Counseling. resource speakers' pool. Scholastica's College CARE 52. maternal and child health.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Title Implementor Period of Implementation 1970s Focus Key Features Approaches Location Geographical Target Sites Clients Funding Source Status of Implementation 47. Revitalized Guidance Program DepEd and PCPD 1994 Early marriage. sex education Community. Completed 20 July 1999 to present Teen pregnancy prevention. population. Population Education (POPED) Department of Education (DepEd) 1970spresent 49. HIV/AIDS. St. ARH/VAW Nueva Vizcaya Program FP. lectures Preparing osy Community economical and sexually National OSY POPED in formal education Integrating POPED in school curriculum Schoolbased National Students in public and private secondary schools On-going Training Institutionalize a Schoolrevitalized based guidance program in 15 division leader schools in 15 regions Services and education provision Training. awareness National Secondary school students and guidance counselors Women and children Women UNFPA On-going 50. sexuality. RTIs. maternal and child health. enhancement of status and role of women. counseling & policy advocacy Province of Nueva Vizcaya 13-24 years old Provincial On-going Government. RH Subprogram DOH Institute of 51. youth camps. Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) ARH. unemployment. CO. SMUUniversity.Regions 2. 1996-1999 Commission on Higher Education (CHED). early marriage prevention & STD/HIV/ AIDS prevention ARH on Air. IEC. 6. Mary's 53.

VAW. program development. counseling Shelter for Community. ADB. evaluation and technical assistance. books Training Sexuality and reproductive health Community. Magazine. network referral. XYZ 67. POPCOM. IEC. referral Counseling Web counseling. Teen horizon 60.Davao based Youth PLAN Department of Health (DOH) Until 2002 Basic and emergency obstetric care Ensure access to Hospitalquality and based/comcomprehensive munity obstetric care Developing young workers into effective leaders through training Multi-media campaign for young women Peer educators training to reach the youth Workplacebased National Abused women and children Women and babies DMC.Metro based Manila Abused children On-going Adolescent reproductive health ARH Counseling. DOH On-going Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) Women's Media Circle TUCP Leadership Leadership training. web library. Women And Child Protection Unit 64. radio RH.2003 Title Implementor Period of Implementation 1986 Focus Key Features Approaches Location Geographical Target Sites Clients Funding Source Status of Implementation On-going 55. information Community.Baguio City based Community. Young Adult Peer Educators on Youth SRH Women's rights. teen help resources. WB. PMT 1994-1998 Fertility. Inc. Urban Youth Development Program 63. medical consultation Medical services. upgrading technical capability Training.La Carlota based and La Castellana Community.5M) On-going 66. etc. networking Medical services Youth Youth On-going 59. Working Youth Center UNFPA. workshop Counseling.La based Castellana Community Metro Manila Youth Youth On-going 61. e-mail-a-friend Trainings. UNFPA Fourth Country Program (Support to the Adolescent Fertility and Youth Development Program) 62. Teen Health Quarters Tambayan Center for the Care of Abused Children. youth development Enhanced multiagency participation in program development Agencybased (LGU/ NGO) National Government agencies UNFPA Completed BCYA 1992 Davao Medical 1997Center (DMC) Present VAWC Training for youth development Medical services and counseling Community. (HASIK) 56. Tambayan Center 57. women Shelter.Davao children victims based of abuse and incest Counseling and medical consultation Communitybased lifestyle center for the youth Community.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . Support Services for the Youth Harnessing Self-Reliant Initiatives and Knowledge. AUSAID. training Addressing Community. Teenfad.Metro issues and based Manila providing support services Youth.ph Kabalaka FAD ARH ARH Counseling in the community Counseling. capability building National Young workers Completed GoP. early childhood care and development. teenage drug abuse Violence against children Support services. and TV program. information and education. value formation. medical services. study tours. KfW ($128. Inc. Women's Health and Safe Motherhood Project 65. IEC. ARH.Metro based Manila Workplacebased National Young women Young workers On-going On-going 131 . sexuality. Inc. Teen Center/Teen Circle 58. counseling. Kabalaka Development Foundation. EU. FAD VAW.

peer counseling. and organizations Community and schoolbased Cebu Adolescents 69. Youth 2 One LGUs. fora.Marawi City based Youth leaders. POPCOM Development of People's Foundation (DPF) Adolescent sexuality. dances. workshops IEC Film showing. Youth Corner ISSA ARH 71. agencies. contraceptives Advocacy. Youth Group Al-Mujadilah Development Foundation (AMDF) TUCP 1998-2000 Empowerment IEC. and human rights FGDs. lectures. workshop.Cordillera Development. community and school outreach.Barangays Leadership Sasa. medical ARH advocacy Community. medical services. consultancy Training. peer educators' seminar. youth organizing & mobilization. IEC 70. institutions. enterprise development. Autonomous empowerment based Region and participation Youth empowerment and development School and communitybased Baguio City 15-24 youth David & Completed Lucile leaders Packard Foundation Youth On-going Youth Youth character and capability building. Youth SRH 76. networking and referrals. art therapy. for a. Youth Development/ Empowerment/ Participation 72. Youth Empowerment to Serve and Grow with Others 74. CYFP Completed ARH. youth Young UNFPA Workers 12-19 years old On-going 75. Development in based Panacan & ARH Bunawan of District II. community participation BCYA 73. plays.Manila awareness based Community. Davao City Information and School and Metro community. peer development. Manila On-going 132 . discussions. YOUTH in Action for RH & Rights 2000-2002 Youth involvement in provision of ARH services Youth narrative research. Youth Empowerment and Development Program Friends Network @ CAR BCYA 1995-1998 Youth development Community. counseling.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Title Implementor Period of Implementation 2001Present Focus Key Features Approaches Location Geographical Target Sites Clients Funding Source Status of Implementation On-going 68. community outreach & behavioral skills development IEC National Tutuban Centre. present Inc. leadership training. skits Film showing. (RAF) Workplacebased Mall-based Sexuality/ STD/HIV AIDS education. drama & computer-based internet education. Youth Zone ARH Promotion of responsible sexual behavior Remedios Aids 1998Foundation. seminars. leadership Youth CYFP Completed Youth training Community. newsletter Training. capability building. Colleges and Universities. advocacy. partnership Reestablishing partnerships with barangays.Baguio City and participation based Youth Levi's Strauss. DOH.

including NFP.A.2003 Annex 3. providing penalties for its violation. 8044/An Act Creating the National Youth Commission 5. Proclamation No. No. 7610/Special Protection of Children Against Child Abuse. 1997 National Supreme Court Being implemented 1998 Davao City City Planning and Development Enacted & Office being implemented 133 . Adolescent reproductive health-related policies Title 1.A. using applicable laws. Allocation of 30% from ODA & 6% from local funds to women & gender-sensitive projects & formulation of gendersensitive programs including ARH December 10. 307/Implementing of Family Planning Program at the Local Government Level 7. 6365/Population Act of 1971 2. Executive Order No. 603/the Child Youth & Welfare Code Subject Population policies Date Enacted 1972 Scope National Implementing Agency POPCOM Status Amended 3.A. Exploitation & Discrimination Act 4. R. Executive Order No. R. 8369 8. R. 1974 National Council for the Welfare of Children Being implemented June 17. No. R.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . at appropriate levels adhering to standard of quality care promulgated by the national program Family Courts Act of 1997 mandating the creation of family courts. investigation. 1992 National Council for the Welfare of Children Enacted & being implemented July 25. 1994 National NYC Being implemented November 9. R. A. 1996 National/ Local Local government units Being implemented October 21. 1994 National Council for the Welfare of Children Being implemented February 28. & assigns to these courts the hearing & resolution of domestic violence cases against women & children including adolescents. 7658/ 6. appropriation of funds & other purposes An Act prohibiting the employment of children below 15 years of age in public & private undertakings Ensuring availability of information & services of FP. prosecution & rehabilitation of youth offenders Provides for stronger deterrence & special protection against child abuse. exploitation & discrimination. & for other purposes Establishment of a national comprehensive program on youth development. 24/Women & Development Code of Davao City Rules & regulations on the apprehension.A. No. No.

Administrative Order No. implemented Philippine National Police. No. Administrative Order 1-A National National 12.A. 1998 policies & programs beyond family planning & a much closer collaboration among development agencies as the primary mechanism to attain the reproductive health approach objective. and it includes adolescent reproductive health programs National Department of Health Enacted & being implemented Local Local Government Unit Being implemented National N/A Proposal 134 . building skills & providing services 16. No. N/A 17. providing information. 8353 11.A. 8504 Philippine Reproductive 1998 Health Program & adopted the ten service elements of RH Philippine AIDS 1998 Prevention & Control Act Anti-Sexual Harassment Act of 1995.Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines Title 9. implemented DOH Being implemented DOH Being implemented National 13. R. R. Philippine National Police. 7877 14. 43/Reproductive Health Policy National DOH Being implemented 15. DOJ. 8505 Subject Date Enacted Scope National Implementing Agency Status Rape Victim Assistance & 1998 Protection Act Anti-Rape Law 1997 10. a special law that names. R. Being etc. City Ordinance Anti-Domestic Violence June 26. Administrative Order 34A/Adolescent & Youth Health Policy 2000 Promotion of the total health. No. Reproductive Seeks to improve the Health Care Act of health & well being of 2002/House Bill Filipinos by ensuring their 4110/Senate Bill 2325 right to reproductive health care & their right to reproductive selfdetermination. education or training environment Broadening of population January 15. Being etc.A. defines & penalized sexual harassment in the workplace. No. well-being & selfesteem of adolescents & youth by promoting a safe & supportive environment.A. R. DOJ. 2002 1933 Ordinance of Cebu City which is the first local measure in the Philippines that penalizes perpetrators of domestic violence & provides protection to victims.

Den 18. DMSF ADNU-OGD UPPI DSWD PLAN Philippines MIDAS Health Coordinator Executive Director Executive Director Psychiatrist Director Resident Manager Librarian Executive Director Senior Technical Staff Executive Director Chief. Sylvia 12. Mangohig. Samonte. Leopoldo 14. Lao. Christita Cervantes Organization DKT Philippines. Alexandra 9. Chan. Karen 15. 19. DMSF UNICEF LIKHAAN DPF IPHC. de Asis. List of key informants Name 1.2003 Annex 4. Rayala. Lani 20. Jusayan. Triunfante. Imelda Dr. Auralyn 3. Balbuena. Inc. Josephine 17. Perpetita 13. Corazon Dr.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . Mercader. Fortaleza. Purugganan. 7. ISSA IPHC. UNFPA HAIN Center for Women’s Studies Bantay Familia (Naga City) WCPU-Bicol Medical Center POPCOM V KDFI ISSA AMDF. 6. Yasmin 11. Raymundo. Child Protection Nurse Administrative Officer Researcher Program Coordinator Over-all Program Coordinator (YAFSS) Position Ads and Promotions Program Officer for ARH and Gender ARH Coordinator 135 . Gelle. Malou 21. Gina 5. Agnes. Sevilla. Inc. Apple 10. Rosa 8. Joyce 4. Nene Kgd. Anorico. Ma. Tin-tin 2. Moselina. Quianzon. Pineda. Escuadra. Minda 16.

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines 136 .

Naga City Center for Women’s Studies Child Protection Unit (Philippine General Hospital) Commission on Population Commission on Population. 2.. Bacolod City Linangan nang Kababaihan Mayon Integrated Development Alternatives and Services. Legaspi City Davao Medical Center – Women and Child Protection Unit Department of Health Department of Interior and Local Government Department of Labor and Employment Department of Social Welfare and Development Development of People’s Foundation. 25. Inc. 37. 4. 17. 3. Marawi City Bantay Familia (Naga City) . 26. 29. Al-Mujadilah Foundation. Rights and Ethics Center for Studies and Training Social Development and Research Center (De la Salle University) Trade Union Congress of the Philippines United Nations Children’s Fund United Nations Population Fund University of the Philippines Population Institute UP Center for Integrative and Development Studies UP Center for Social Work and Community Development UP College of Home Economics Women’s Media Circle 137 . 15. Naga City Philippine Legislators’ Committee on Population and Development Philippine Psychiatric Association Remedios AIDS Foundation. 10. 22. 20. 7. Legaspi City McCann-Erickson Philippines National Youth Commission Office of Gender Development (Ateneo de Naga University) . Reproductive Health. . 21. 9. 35. 11. Inc. 6. Inc. 30.A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . 5. 24. Health Action Information Network Institute for Social Studies and Action Institute of Women’s Studies ISIS International Kabalaka Development Foundation. 33. 18.. 36. Family Planning Organization of the Philippines Foundation for Adolescent Development. Inc.2003 Annex 5. 14. 19. Davao City DKT Philippines. 23. 28. Inc. 12. 32. 31. 8. Inc. Inc. 34. . 27. . 13. 38. List of organizations contacted 1. 16.

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A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 - 2003

Annex 6. List of organizations with adolescent reproductive health materials
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. AIDS Action Al-Mujadilah Development Foundation , Marawi City Ateneo Social Science Research Center , Naga City Baguio Center for Young Adults, Inc. , Baguio City Bantay Familia , Naga City Buas-Damlay Youth Foundation. Inc. Bureau of Child and Youth Welfare Center for Reproductive Health Leadership and Development, Inc. Center for Women’s Studies Children and Youth Foundation of the Philippines Commission on Population Commission on Population (Region V and VI) Community and Family Services International Council for the Welfare of Children Demographic Research and Development Foundation, Inc. Department of Education Department of Health Department of Social Welfare and Development (Programs and Special Projects Bureau) Development of People’s Foundation, Inc. , Davao City Division of Social Sciences (UP Baguio) , Baguio City DKT Philippines, Inc. End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography & the Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes Engender Health Family Planning Organization of the Philippines Foundation for Adolescent Development, Inc. HANAS Cooperative Health Action Information Network HIGALA Association, Inc. Institute for Social Studies and Action Institute of Primary Health Care , Davao City Institute of Social Order (Ateneo de Manila University) Kabalaka Development Foundation, Inc. , Bacolod City Mayon Integrated Development Alternatives and Services, Inc. , Legaspi City McCann-Erickson Philippines Medecins Sans Frontiers-Belgium National Bureau of Investigation National Project on Street Children National Statistics and Coordination Board

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39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65.

National Statistics Office National Youth Commission Office of Gender Development (Ateneo de Naga University) , Naga City Philippine Action for Youth Offenders Philippine Legislators’ Committee on Population and Development PLAN Philippines Population Council, Inc. Ramon Aboitiz Foundation, Inc. Reproductive Health Reference and Resource Center Reproductive Health, Rights and Ethics Center for Studies and Training , Manila Sentrong Sigla SMU-ARH VAW Task Force Social Action Center (Diocese of Legaspi) , Legaspi City Social Development Research Center Social Research Office (Ateneo de Davao) , Davao City Social Weather Station Soroptimist International of Baguio , Baguio City Trade Union Congress of the Philippines UNESCO United Nations Children’s Fund , Manila United Nations Population Fund University of the Philippines Population Institute UP Center for Integrative and Development Studies UP Center for Social Work and Community Development Women’s Feature Service Philippines, Inc. Women’s Media Circle World Health Organization

140

20. Inc. Legaspi City Options for Living Foundation. 5. 22. Remedios AIDS Foundation. 31. 28. Bacolod City Kabalikat ng Pamilyang Pilipino Foundation Kaugmaon . 13. Davao City DKT Philippines. 30. Inc. Al-Mujadilah Development Foundation. 19. Inc. Friends Network @ CAR Harnessing Self-Reliant Initiatives and Knowledge. 29. 21. 39. Technical Education and Skills Development Authority Trade Union Congress of the Philippines United Nations Population Fund Women’s Media Circle 141 . . Baguio City Bantay Familia . Health and Welfare. 25. Naga City CARE Philippines Caritas Manila Catholic Educational Association of the Philippines Center for Women’s Studies Christian Children’s Fund Commission on Higher Education Commission on Population Davao Medical Center . 23. Inc. 7. 34. Inc. 32. St. Baguio City Philippines Center for Population and Development PLAN Philippines Philippine NGO Council on Population. 4. Inc. 14. . Davao City Maryknoll Foundation Mayon Integrated Development Alternatives and Services. 8. 27. Inc. Marawi City Baguio Center for Young Adults. 6. Nueva Vizcaya Tambayan Center for the Care of Abused Children. Inc. .. 35. 12.2003 Annex 7. 33. 15. List of organizations with adolescent reproductive health programs 1. Institute for Social Studies and Action Institute of Women’s Studies Kabalaka Development Foundation. Family Planning Organization of the Philippines Foundation for Adolescent Development. 18. Health and Welfare Population. 37. 36. 26. Inc. Davao City Department of Education Department of Health Department of Labor and Employment Development of People’s Foundation . 2. Inc. 16. 38. 17. Mary’s University .A Review of Literature and Projects 1995 . 10. 11. 3. 9. 24.

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youths in the Philippines 142 .

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