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hollow organs 2. solid organs Solid Organs Basic Structure Stroma Also known as ‘framework’ Supporting structure, framework or lattice made up of connective tissue From the stroma, the supporting structure known as the ‘capsule’ arises From the capsule, strands of connective tissue will develop, dividing the organ (parenchyma) into smaller compartments, these are known as the trabeculae (singular: trabecula) In some organs aside from having a trabecula, the organ may have a septum (plural: septa), which also develops from the capsule and will likewise divide the organ (parenchyma) into several compartments. The functional component cells (parenchyma) of the organ will be supported by a network of fibers. The stroma of solid organs will include; 1. capsule 2. septum 3. trabecula may be
4. network of fibers Parenchyma Responsible for the function of the solid organ Cellular part of the organ Solid organs will always have a stroma and a parenchyma. Lymphoid Organs A collection of lymphoid connective tissue with a definite set of characteristics Made up of lymphocytes, which are responsible for the function of lymphoid organs Collections of lymphoid tissue may form an organ or form a part of an organ Examples of lymphoid (solid) organs; 1. lymph node 2. thymus 3. spleen These are solid organs, made up of lymphoid connective tissue. Function: production of lymphocytes Collection of lymphoid tissues in certain areas of an organ, especially on the mucous membrane of hollow organs, form the MALT → Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissues Mucosa associated: collection of lymphoid tissue will be in the mucous membrane Examples of MALT (as part of an organ); 1. Tonsils
plasma cells.lymphatic nodules germinal center (of Flemming) .axilla.cellular part . Medulla (central) . Peyer’s patch (mucous membrane of ileum) 3. Filtration of lymph (from intercellular spaces in CT) 2.medullary cords . macrophages Lymph Node Aggregates of lymphoid tissue in the course of the lymphatic vessels Location . Immune defense (secondary. macrophages) Filtration of Lymph Lymph → Afferent lymph vessel → Convex part of lymph node → Sinuses → Efferent vessels at hilus (with valves directed away from node) Spleen Largest lymphoid organ Location . Stroma . Medullary Space between medullary cords and trabecula Functions 1. Subcapsular Primary or marginal.made up of lymphocytes. Cortical Secondary. Cortex (peripheral) . smooth muscle - . beneath capsule and nodule 2. inguinal area. space between trabeculae and nodule 3. Production of lymphocytes 3. Parenchyma .lymphocytes : in cords (“medullary cords”) Lymphatic Sinuses Spaces within the lymph node for passage of lymph during lymph filtration 1. cervical. septa.capsule. Stroma Capsule : fibro-muscular. monocytes.2. mucous membrane) General Structure A.lymphocytes : nodular C. reticular network B. Appendix (mucous connective tissue.framework .left hypochondriac region A. trabeculae. mesentery Structure Rounded or kidney-shaped organ with a slight indentation (hilus) where the blood vessels enter and leave the organ Stroma of lymph node Capsule Trabeculae Network of reticular fibers and cells Parenchyma Cellular part responsible for the function of the organ A.
Sheathed artery – covered by the sheath of SchweigerSeidel. Filtration of blood. Cortex Lymphocytes are diffused 2. Terminal branches – dilation : ampulla of Thoma Functions of the Spleen 1. Septa 3. Pulp arteriole – longest part 2. flat. Penicillar Artery Segments 1. Iron storage 4. become trabecular arteries → Reaches dm of 2 mm. artery enters white pulp. Producti on of lymphocytes – primary function 2. Parenchyma – splenic pulp 1. blood filter 2.nest of epithelioid cells containing keratohyaline granules arranged concentrically Functions 1. not lymph sinuses Blood Vessels Splenic artery : arteries which supply the spleen Spelnic artery → Passes trabeculae. Immune defense – presence of plasma cells and macrophages . due to venous sinuses 3. constitute the splenic ellipsoid (sheath and sheathed artery) 3. Immunologic defense (macrophages) Thymus Broad. Trabecul ae – end at the corticomedullary junction B. structural and functional unit of spleen Network of reticular fibers and cells B. Red pulp Bilroth’s or splenic cord and venous sinuses (spaces between the cords). Parenchyma 1. bilobed mass of lymphoid tissue found just beneath the upper part of the sternum. a primary lymphoid organ First lymphoid organ seeded by lymphocytes from the bone marrow The lymphocytes are honed in the thymus A. Blood reservoir. now known as central artery → Reaches dm of 25 micra → Artery enters red pulp → Becomes a penicillar artery or a penicillus of Ruysch. Production of lymphocytes (nodules in white pulp) 5. Capsule 2. White pulp Lymphocytes : diffused or in nodules Forms the PALS (periarterial lymphoid sheath) which surrounds the arteries Central artery : artery within the nodule 2. Medulla Lymphocytes are diffused Found here : Hassall’s or thymic corpuscle . acquires lymphoid sheath (PALS). Stroma 1.Trabeculae : splenic lobule.
since the lining epithelium of the small intestine is simple columnar. opposite to the lining epithelium. not entire tonsil is covered Half will be covered by the connective tissue capsule. Palatine or Faucial – two. located at the dorsal midline part of the nasopharynx 2.Tonsils One of the MALT Accumulation of lymphoid tissue in the lamina propria of the upper part of the respiratory and digestive tracts Types 1. goes down to the lamina propria to form crypts known as the tonsillar crypts Tonsillar crypts contain desquamated epithelial cells and degenerated/degenerating lymphocytes to form the salivary corpuscles Capsule Only located on one side. the . Pharyngeal or Adenoid – only one. Lingual – located at the root of the tongue These tonsils guard the opening of the upper part of the respiratory and digestive tract or throat and form a ring-like structure along with other smaller collections of lymphoid tissue (includes solitary nodules) in the lamina propria of the throat. while the exposed part is covered by epithelium Typical lymphatic nodules A nodule with a dark peripheral part and a pale center (germinal center) Present in the tonsils. but lymphatic sinuses are absent Differentiation Bases Adenoid Fauci Lingu al al Epitheli um Pseudostra tified ciliated epithelium with goblet cells Shallow – pseudo crypt Seromucous Surface of tonsil Stratifie d squamo us Deep and branchi ng Mucous Surface or upper part of crypt Very commo n Stratifie d squamo us Deep and branchi ng Mucous Bottom of crypt Crypts Associat ed glands Opening of glans Infectio n Not common Rare Peyer’s Patch Accumulations of lymphoid tissues or aggregates of nodules found in the lamina propria of the ileum opposite its mesenteric attachment Collection of lymphoid tissues will be only on one side of the organ. all of these form the → Ring of Waldeyer Basic Structure Tonsils are covered by epithelium (type depends on location). located in the glossopalatine arch or the pharyngopalatine arches 3. infiltrated with lymphocytes Epithelium invaginates. the side opposite its attachment Contains typical lymphatic nodules but no lymphatic sinuses There will be infiltration of the overlying epithelium. the left and right.
Production of lymphocytes 2. Immune defense .Peyer’s patch will be covered by simple columnar epithelium Functions 1. Production of lymphocytes 2. Immune defense Confluent Nodules of the Appendix Collection of lymphoid tissue found in the lamina propria of the appendix all around its lumen Contains typical lymphatic nodules but no lymphatic sinuses Covering epithelium is simple columnar Functions 1.