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Ethernet Overview
IEEE 802.3 nomenclature is in 3 parts

Ethernet
Standards and Opera.on

First - 10, 100 or 1000 indicates speed Next - Base or Broad indicates baseband/broadband
Broadband has a carrier, baseband uses digital signals

Finally - In early LAN standards represented distance, now used for media or physical layer Includes addendum to include updated technology
Eg IEEE802.3ae (Gigabit ethernet)
Uses 802.3 MAC protocol and frame format Only provides full duplex and does not support shared media
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The IEEE-802.3 family of specica.ons


Symbol T F FP FS FL X FX T4 SX LX CX
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Symbols used in Iden.fying 802.3 LANS

Definition Unshielded twisted pair Optical Fiber Optical Fiber passive star Optical Fiber backbone Optical Fiber link Two pairs of Cat5 UTP or STP Two Optic Fibers Four pairs of Cat3 UTP Short wavelength duplex Optic Fiber Long wavelength duplex Optic Fiber One Pair of short-UTP wire
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Selected Addenda and Extensions to 802.3 IEEE Standard Year Description


802.3 802.3u 802.3x & y 802.3ac 802.3z 802.3ab 802.3ad 802.3ae 2000 Latest consolidated standard 1995 Clauses relative to 100BASE-TX & FX 1997 Defines full duplex and flow operation 1998 Defines VLAN tagging 1998 SX,LX,CX 1999 Physical Layer for gigabit operation 2000 Multiple link segments 2002 10 gigabit ethernet
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Ethernet Concepts
Devices on an Ethernet segment
Share the communica.on medium Mul.ple sta.ons may receive data at the same .me Only one sta.on may transmit at any one .me

Gigabit operation for 1000BASE-

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Ethernet Concepts
U.lises the 1-persistent algorithm
9.6usec quiet .me that delineates frames Equates to 96 bits @ 10Mbps Sends jamming signal if collisions detected Waits random period before checking medium again

The IEEE 802 LAN model

Silence period is the inter-frame gap (IFG) CSMA/CD

Ethernet frames are suciently long so that collisions are detected before the end of the frame transmission If no collision in 2Tprop, sta.on knows it had control over the media
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Logical Link Control - LLC


Upper por.on of IEEE802 data link layer (DLL)
Common to all LAN protocols Resides above the MAC layer Primary func.on is to provide addressing and control mechanisims LLC based on High Level Data Link Control (HDLC) protocol. LLC uses unacknowledged, connec.onless service, relying on best eort mode of frame delivery Data unit is termed a Protocol Data Unit (PDU)
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LLC PDU
Length ranges from 46 to 1500 bytes DSAP & SSAP contain 7 bit addresses
First bit of the DSAP determines whether the frame goes to individual (0) or group (1) of users First bit of the SSAP indicates a Command (0) or Response (1) PDU

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LLC
Control Field iden.es an informa.on eld (I- Frame), supervisory frame (S-Frame) or an unnumbered frame (U-Frame)
I Frames transport data and related control informa.on S Frames only transport control such as ow and error control U Frames are reserved for system management

Fields in the LLC-level protocol data unit (PDU)

Note the PDU has no CRC and no sta.on address, these are added at the MAC sub-layer
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Formats of the LLC protocol data unit (PDU)

Standard Ethernet
Originally (IEE 802.3) 10 Mbps bus topology
Coaxial cable Broadcast using CSMA/CD Maximum 2500m

Key Parameter - round trip delay .me Poisson distribu.on used for inter arrival .mes
May not accurately reect true trac paferns

Given that k sta.ons always have a packet to transmit, analysis assumes a constant retransmission probability in each conten.on slot
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Rela.onship of 10-Mbps Ethernet to OSI model

MAC Frame
MAC formats frames from LLC
Resolves conten.on Addressing Flow and error control

Format
Preamble
7 byte repeated 8 bit pafern 10101010

Start Frame Delimiter (SFD)


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10101011 where the trailing 11 indicates the start of frame

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Des.na.on Address (DA)

MAC Frame
LLC Data

MAC Frame
Contains the en.re 802.2 PDU 46-1500 bytes long

6 byte eld where the 1st bit indicates unicast or broadcast/mul.cast, 2nd bit indicates local or global address What DA is used if the des.na.on is not on the local network?

Pad
Ensures the packet is at least 64 bytes long

Source Address (SA)

Frame Check sequence (FCS)


32 bit CRC

Frame types (Length Field)


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Ethernet_II ARPA version Ethernet_SNAP Novell encapsula.on Ethernet_802.3

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Frame formats for IEEE-802.3 and DIX Ethernet standards

Timing
Consider worst case, 2 sta.ons at furthest points on the network 802.3 originally
10Mbps Maximum distance 2500m Maximum of 4 repeaters Round trip delay => 51.2s So a frame must be at least 512 bits long
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or sta.on may nish transmission before a collision is detected Results in runt packets

Standard Ethernet
10BASET
Normally wired as a star Uses a central Hub Hubs act as a concentrator
Accepts signals on one line and transmits to all other ports (except the one it came in on) In case of a collision
Hub sends jamming signal Sta.ons use back o algorithm

A 10BASE-T network wired in a star topology

Logically a bus topology


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Two basic Ethernet networks connected by a bridge

Fast Ethernet
802.3u retains the fundamental structure of standard ethernet except

Denes a single CSMAS/CD network


May be decreased by addition of bridges/ switches

Cable op.ons Encoding Network spans

Structure
Medium Independent Interface (MII)
Separates the MAC layer from the PHY layer Similar to AUI
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Permits the MAC to operate unchanged over various media

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Media op.ons for the IEEE 802.3u standard

Fast Ethernet
Important dierence in MII
Transfers data in nibbles 25Mhz clock = 100Mbps May only be 0.5m (AUI may be 50m) Via reconcilia.on sublayer

Supports 10 and 100 Mbps


Maps between the nibble transfer and bit transfer

Five sub-layers in the physical layer


Physical Coding Sublayer (PCS)
Encoding, transmit/receive and collision detect Encoding is dierent in each media so there must be a unique PCS.

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Fast Ethernet
Physical Media Afachment (PMA)
Serialisa.on Extracts .ming informa.on

Fast Ethernet
Auto-nego.a.on func.on
Allows inter operability in 10/100 networks CSMA/CD is sensi.ve to round trip propaga.on delay to frame transmission .me ra.o (a)
Should be small for good performance

Physical Media Dependent (PMD)


Electrical/op.cal specica.ons

For correct opera.on Tf > Tprop


Otherwise an en.re frame may be transmifed before a collision is detected

Increasing the rate by 10 means either


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Minimum Frame size increases to 640 bytes Network length decrease to 200m *

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Modica.ons that IEEE 802.3u makes to the IEEE 802.3 PHY

Data Encoding
The increased rate requires an alterna.ve to Manchester Encoding (Bandwidth=2*bite rate) 4B5B with NRZI for op.cal links
NRZI is invert on 1

MLT-3 for 100BASE-TX


Mul. level transmit, 3 levels + - and 0

8B6T for 100BASE-T4


For use with Cat 3 using all 4 pairs
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100BASE-T4 wiring congura.on between a node and a hub

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Two examples of 4B5B encoding and the nal NRZI paferns

The opera.on of the 8B6T-encoding algorithm

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Switched Ethernet
A switch eliminates collision detec.on .ming restric.ons Consists of two components
Forwarding logic
Dened in IEEE 802.1D Examines incoming frames and transfer to the appropriate port (when free) Therefore no collisions, each connec.on is its own collision domain Access ports and uplink ports Both buered

Gigabit Ethernet
IEEE 802.3z
Op.c ber, STP (short haul, 25m) and Cat5 UTP 1 byte blocks instead of nibbles

Similar reconcilia.on layer to fast ethernet Remember network length must be shortened for higher transmission rates
Would reduce to 20m, not much use. Minimum frame for 802.3z is 512 bytes
Appends a set of special symbols

I/O ports

Small frames are lengthened by carrier extension

May operate in full or half duplex

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Addi.onally uses frame burs.ng of mul.ple short frames

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Layering structure for the IEEE 802.3z Gigabit Ethernet

Architecture op.ons for IEEE 802.3z and IEEE 802.3ab

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Encoding
8B10B arose from Fiber channel
In two opera.ons
5B6B and 3B4B block codes

Opera.on of the 8B10B encoding process

Disparity is the excess of one type of bit


Disparity controller inserts correct 8B10B encoding into the next data byte to maintain an equal balance.

1000Base-T employs 4D-PAM5


Eight state trellis forward error correc.ng code
Reduces crosstalk

PAM5 - 5 dierent voltage levels to encode data


4 data, 1 error correc.on
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10 Gigabit Ethernet
IEEE 802.3ae
Two physical (PHY) types
LAN & WAN

U.lises 802.3 MAC protocol and frame format (inc min/max size) Full duplex only No shared media, I.e. point to point
Therefore not distance limited

WAN PHY allows transparent transport across OC-192 SONET infrastructure


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