Khanum and Razack
Res Rev Biomed Biotech 1(2); 2010 ISSN 2229–7154 Research and Reviews in Biomedicine and Biotechnology Volume , Issue , 2010, 71-89 www.rrbb.in
Review article Anxiety- Herbal Treatment: A Review
Farhath Khanum* and Sakina Razack Biochemistry and Nutrition, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Mysore-570011, Karnataka, India
*Corresponding author email: email@example.com Article received on 19.09.2010; Revised article accepted on 16.12.2010 Copyright: © 2010 rrbb.in
ABSTRACT Stress has become a part of the modern world and lifestyles. Persistent stress leads to anxiety. Anxiety is a general feeling of getting worried. In small quantities stress and anxiety are good as they can motivate and help one be more productive but people with persistent stress feel anxious quite often and anxiety interferes in their daily lives and is a matter of concern. Evidences suggest anxiety to be caused by dysfunction of one or more neurotransmitters and their receptors and has emerged to be a very important area of research. Plants have known to possess enormous potential to cure ailments from time immemorial. This review lists most widely used herbal anxiolytes and classifies them according their mechanisms of action. Keywords: Anxiety, Gamma Amino Butyric Acid, Herbal Anxiolytes, Neuropeptides, Serotonin.
Stress and anxiety are common psychiatric manifestations of the modern world and lifestyles. In small quantities, stress and anxiety are good; they can motivate and help one be more productive. However, too much stress, or a strong response to stress, is harmful. It can set up for general poor health as well as specific physical or psychological illnesses like infection, heart disease, or depression. Persistent and unrelenting stress often leads to anxiety and unhealthy behaviours. Anxiety is a Central Nervous System disorder [1-2]. Anxiety is a common emotional phenomenon in humans . Anxiety is an emotional state, unpleasant in nature and is associated with uneasiness, discomfort and concern or fear about some defined or undefined future threat . Anxiety is considered to be a normal reaction to stress and is characterized by www.rrbb.in
heart palpitations, fatigue, nausea and shortness of breath. Anxiety is the most common mental illness affecting one eighth of the total population and has become a very important area of research in psychopharmacology in the current decade  . Anxiety disorders are psychiatric disorders affecting nearly 25% of the adult population at some point in their life. The prevalence of anxiety disorders is 30.5% and 19.2% in women and men respectively. The prevalence of anxiety disorders is remarkably high in young people. Children aged 7 to 11 years reported a 15.4% prevalence rate of anxiety disorders. A survey has also stated that less than 14% of people with such psychiatric disorders receive treatment . Anxiety can aggravate many physical and mental ailments and also impede recovery from any other problems.
“State anxiety” is anxiety a subject experiences at a particular moment and is increased by the presence of an anxiogenic stimulus. breathing to become rapid and in turn activates all the biological components of fight/flight response. FORMS OF ANXIETY DISORDERS Anxiety disorders comprise clinical conditions of Generalized Anxiety Disorder.Khanum and Razack Classically. and avoiding situations that remind the person of the event. such as heights. Social Anxiety Disorder and Phobias. dizziness.
Res Rev Biomed Biotech 1(2). • Panic Disorder : In this type of a disorder the person suffers from brief attacks of intense terror and apprehension which is often characterized by trembling. Hence. money or family and experience these symptoms even when there are no signs of trouble in their life [4. enclosed places or other situations. In contrast. • Phobias : A phobia is an unrealistic or exaggerated fear of a specific stimulus. and difficulty in breathing. work. Panic Disorder. The part of the brain that triggers a response to danger is the Locus ceruleus and the area of the brain responsible for the acquisition and expression of fear conditioning is the Amygdala . • Social Anxiety Disorder : Is a marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations . • Obsessive-compulsive Disorder : This is a particularly important form of anxiety disorder which is characterized by obsessions i.e. • Generalized Anxiety Disorders : Generalized Anxiety Disorder involves a broad presentation of anxiety. nausea. startling easily. recurrent thoughts that may not be about real-life problems and which the person fails to ignore or suppress. PHYSIOLOGY OF ANXIETY The human brain is the centre of human nervous system and is a highly complex organ. shaking.rrbb. confusion. The symptoms experienced during an anxiety attack include: • Rapid heartbeat and rapid breathing • Twitching or trembling • Muscle tension • Headaches • Sweating • Dry mouth and difficulty in swallowing and • Abdominal pain 72
www. The person also believes that he or she is seriously ill or about to die and this feeling can leave the person depressed or shaken for quite a while afterwards . withdrawing from others. Those suffering from this disorder experience non-specific persistent fear and worry and become overly concerned with everyday matters like health. This disorder can continue for a sustained period of time with marked impairment in function. The symptoms include flashbacks or nightmares about what happened.in
. the amygdala senses danger and instructs us to run from danger. 2010 • Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: Post-traumatic stress disorder is an anxiety disorder which results from a traumatic experience. anxiety is distinguished into the ‘state’ and the ‘trait’ anxiety.10]. lasting for a few minutes. Once the neurotransmitters pick up over activity/hyperactivity in the locus ceruleus. Compulsions are repetitive behaviours that the person feels driven to perform in response to an obsession. The compulsive behaviours attempt to reduce the distress from the obsessions. “trait anxiety” does not vary from moment to moment and is considered to be an “enduring” feature of an individual [7-9]. hyper vigilance. Obsessive-compulsive Disorder. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder. It is characterized by long-lasting anxiety (for over 6 months) that is not focused on any one object or situation. once the amygdala gets activated it sends an alarm to the heart to beat faster. Phobias tend to be the most common form of anxiety disorder whereas panic disorders are fairly rare in the general population . The phobic individual may experience full panic attacks when exposed to such stimuli.
ANXIETY . serotonin. glutamate etc.
Res Rev Biomed Biotech 1(2). GABA works to regulate the neuronal excitability and thereby serves as a ‘brake’ on the neuronal circuitry during stress and is the brain’s natural stress reliever . New evidences suggest a role for adenosine and cholecystokinin in the development of anxiety. Brain synthesizes several neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine. Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) is one among the chief inhibitory neurotransmitters in the mammalian brain and an increasing wealth of information suggests that GABAergic mechanisms have a special role in the neurophysiology of anxiety . the serotonergic system.Khanum and Razack Sometimes other symptoms accompany anxiety. noradrenergic mechanisms and neuropeptides . The neurochemistry of anxiety although not well understood has emerged to be a major area of research leading to new approaches in the treatment of anxiety. 2010 endorphins. including loss of temper • Sleeping difficulties and nightmares • Decreased concentration and • Sexual problems. gamma amino butyric acid. They cause a problem only when they occur in response to situations where one is not physically threatened.MECHANISM OF ACTION Anxiety is recognised as one of the most important emotional processes with firm neurobiological roots.rrbb. The major thrusts of current work dealing with anxiety disorders have centered around the gamma amino butyric acid mechanisms. adrenaline. dopamine.in
. such as: • Blurred vision and Dizziness • Diarrhoea or frequent need to urinate • Irritability. Anxiety is caused due to too many or too few neurotransmitters in the brain. The evidences suggest anxiety to be caused by dysfunction of one or more neurotransmitters and their receptors.
www. Most information has come from studying the action of anxiety-reducing or anxiolytic drugs. drugs interactions with these neurotransmitters also may have anxiolytic effects. All these physical symptoms are felt when one is anxious or having a panic attack and are part of a system that is designed to keep one safe and do not cause any harm.
Khanum and Razack GABA is formed by the decarboxylation of L-glutamate.
Schematic representation of GABA receptor
. GABAB. The physiologic role of GABAC receptors is yet to be described. GABAC. GABAA receptors are ligand-gated ion channels (ionotropic receptors) and
Res Rev Biomed Biotech 1(2).rrbb. 2010 receptors are the seven GABAB transmembrane spanning G-protein coupled receptors (metabotropic receptors). Brain has three different types of GABA receptors GABAA.
the barbiturates. at least four have been implicated in anxiety in various animal models . these GABA agonists/analogues elevate GABA levels thereby exerting antianxiety. Of the 14 or so mammalian serotonin receptor subtypes that have been described.
www. Serotonin has long been viewed as a neurotransmitter involved in regulating emotional states. barbiturates. Alteration of the influx of chloride ions within this receptor complex is associated with development of anxiety. anxiety. thereby elevating GABA levels. relaxing and anti-convulsant effects. and ethanol) selectively enhance only GABA mediated transmission.rrbb.Khanum and Razack The GABAA receptors mediate fast inhibitory synaptic transmissions and regulate the neuronal excitability and are responsible for rapid mood changes (e. The GABAB receptor ligand/agonists include baclofen. phenibut etc among others. 2010 an important role in memory.g. The GABAB receptors mediate slow inhibitory potentials and are known to play
Res Rev Biomed Biotech 1(2). neurosteroids and ethanol. GABAA receptors are targets of sedating drugs such as benzodiazepines. depressed mood and pain.in
. panic and stress response). Thus. All of the most commonly used anti-anxiety drugs (benzodiazepines.
irritability etc. The treatment involves: 1. In contrast to benzodiazepines. Psychological treatment 3.Khanum and Razack Serotonin is synthesised from the conversion of L-tryptophan to 5hydroxytryptophan which then crosses the blood-brain barrier and is then broken down to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) commonly known as serotonin. fear. among other effects. corticotropin-releasing factor. 5HT2C and 5-HT3 receptors. Norepinephrine – Elevated levels of norepineprine are helpful in situations of emergencies or in fight/flight response. anatomical distribution and function . galanin have relevance in anxiety [24-25]. 10]. Likewise. citalopram etc. vasopressin. These drugs elevate the level of neurotransmitter serotonin. Thus. the finding that a number of drugs that are useful in panic disorder are not useful in generalized anxiety disorder and vice versa
Res Rev Biomed Biotech 1(2). Other medications commonly prescribed for anxiety disorders include Benzodiazepines
www. It has been reported that reduced levels of serotonin can produce anxiolytic effects . neuropeptides Y. over expression of peptides in intact animals and generation of knockout mice lacking particular peptides or peptide receptors . When stimulated. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron has been reported to be anxiolytic in some animal models . including the central administration of antisense sequences that block translation of peptides or peptide receptor proteins. Neuropeptides . anticonvulsant or muscle-relaxant activity and no significant addiction liability [17. 2010 suggests that the fundamental mechanism of these processes are different . sertraline. paroxetine. Fluoxetine. somatostatin. oxytocin. the role of catecholamines in anxiety is being studied using adrenergic receptor agonists and antagonists . cholecystokinin.in
. Antagonists for 5-HT2A receptor like ritanserin exhibit anxiolytic effects in some animal models  . In humans 5-HT2A receptor agonist m-chlorophenyl piperazine (m CPP) has been shown to generate anxiety in control subjects and in patients with a wide variety of anxiety disorders . Alternative therapy Medication: includes Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) which may be the first choice of medication for generalised social phobia. presynaptically on serotonin neurons. blockage of the 5-HT2C receptor produces anxiolytic effect in animals . The brain serotonin receptors have been divided into a wide range of subtypes based on their pharmacological specificities. Thus. Other serotonin receptors potentially involved in anxiety include the 5-HT2A.[22-23] There is increasing evidence suggesting that neuropeptides including substance P. Medications 2. Behavioural effects of these peptides also have been studied using molecular biology techniques. continuously elevated levels even when not in situations of danger put the person in states of anxiety. Ex. One of the receptor subtypes implicated in anxiety is the serotonin 1A receptor subtype an autoreceptor located (5-HT1A). buspirone has a delayed onset of action and must be administered for up to several weeks before a significant reduction in anxiety is observed and has no sedative. However.rrbb.Neuropeptides have been implicated in the regulation of complex behaviour including anxiety related behaviours and psychopathology. MANAGEMENT OF ANXIETY Management of anxiety disorders varies and depends on the nature of the disorder and individual patient characteristics . this receptor inhibits the synthesis and secretion of serotonin . The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have proven useful for panic and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The 5-HT1A receptor agonist buspirone exhibits anxiolytic effects in animals and is useful in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder but not in panic disorder.
including neuropeptides and small molecule neurotransmitters. and trigger. Thus. It was found that all mice independent of the genetic background showed an ‘anxious’ phenotype compared to their corresponding wild-type mice. Hydrotherapy – promotes general relaxation of the nervous system. Apart from the receptor KO mice. Psychological treatment: Cognitive-Behavioural therapy and Exposure therapy are effectively used to treat anxiety disorders. acting as neurotransmitters can also act as cotransmitters and as co-transmitters they are known to activate specific pre or postsynaptic receptors that can alter the responsiveness of the neuronal membrane to the action of other neurotransmitters like noradrenaline. 129/SV and SwissWebster. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs) (Phenelzine. Biofeedback – an effective method that uses sensors that measure physiological functions like heart rate. Acupuncture – used in traditional Chinese medicine. A number of psychogenetically selected rat models such as Maudsley reactive and nonreactive strain. 2010 confront your fears while in a state of deep relaxation. Alternative treatments: Meditation – beneficial to patients with phobias and panic disorders. Moclobemide) that prevent the breakdown of serotonin and noradrenalin. atenolol which reduce the ability to produce adrenaline. fatigue. coordination problems. there are groups of researchers who have selectively bred high anxiety breeds (HAB) and low anxiety breeds (LAB) of mice .rrbb. Neuropeptides. helps alleviate anxiety . 33] . Exercise – a natural stress buster and anxiety reliever. serotonin etc.) which facilitate inhibitory GABA transmission. The autonomic changes associated with anxiety have also been found pronounced in these KO mice. [29-31].in
. Co-transmission: Different neurotransmitters can be released from a single nerve terminal. straindependent variability within the core phenotype restricts the use of these KO mice. However. Neurotransmitters like serotonin. mental confusion. The common limitations of anxiety medications or drug therapy include comorbid psychiatric disorders and increase in dose leading to unbearable side-effects  . such as allergic reactions. indicating that the 5-HT1A receptor knock-out mice represent a genetic animal model for anxiety. Cognitive therapy focuses on changing patterns of thinking and beliefs that are associated with. ANIMAL MODELS OF ANXIETY Serotonin receptor 1A Knock-out mice: Low levels of serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) have been repeated found in mood and anxiety disorders. Exposure therapy includes confronting your fears to desensitise yourself to such dangers/fears that can trigger anxiety. anxiety. 3. breathing and muscle tension and help to recognise the body’s anxiety response and learn how to control them using relaxation techniques. The most important component of behaviour therapy is exposure. Hypnotherapy – is sometimes used in combination with cognitive-behavioural therapy. nausea and addiction liability among others. drowsiness. chlordiazepoxide etc. Mice lacking in serotonin receptor 1A (5-HT1A KO) have been developed by three independent research groups in three different genetic background mice (C57BL/6J. noradrenaline and dopamine are known to
www. Ronan high and low avoidance rat lines. Tsukuba strains and high/low anxiety-related behaviour (HAB/LAB) rat lines have been developed [32. Beta-blockers like propranolol.Khanum and Razack (ex: diazepam. Relaxation techniques (Yoga) – include progressive muscle relaxation and controlled breathing which when practised regularly attenuate anxiety. The hypnotherapist applies different therapeutic approaches to help you
Res Rev Biomed Biotech 1(2).
Brain is prone to oxidative stress due to high consumption of oxygen. The model is based on rodent’s aversion of open spaces.in
. it was hypothesised that glyoxalase1 and glutathione reductase 1 regulate anxiety in mice. Animal models form the backbone of preclinical research on the neurobiology of psychiatric disorders. Vogel’s conflict test etc. Light/Dark test – The light/dark test in mice is based on the innate aversion to brightly illuminated areas and the spontaneous exploratory activity of mice. These and other neurotransmitters have been implicated to play a major role in mental illnesses and diseases related to the brain. 2010 proven to be helpful in research as mice and humans share more than 90% of their genes in common. The EPM has four arms (two open and two enclosed) that are arranged to form a plus shape and elevated 40-70 cm from the floor. Thus. and are employed as screening tools in the search for novel therapeutic agents. Another group of researchers generated HAB-M (high anxiety-related behaviour mouse) and LAB-M (low anxiety-related behaviour mouse) CD1 mouse lines as models of extremes in trait anxiety and used comparative proteomics to identify anxiety related protein markers and also reported differences in expression of glyoxalase 1 between HAB-M and LAB-M animals. The assessment of anxiety behavior of rodents is done by using the ratio of time spent on the open arms to the time spent on the enclosed arms. the time spent in each chamber and the latency to enter the light chamber are noted. Rodents especially mice have
Res Rev Biomed Biotech 1(2). The distance traveled in each chamber. Oxidative stress and anxiety: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the aetiology of many pathological conditions including anxiety [34-35]. Genetic manipulation studies using lentivirus-mediated gene transfer showed that local overexpression of glutathione reductase 1 and glyoxalase 1 in the cingulated cortex of murine brain results in an increase of anxiety-like behaviour. mounted on a base that raises the maze above the floor. TEST FOR ANXIETYStudies related to the Central Nervous System and brain is accomplished using animals as experimental models. animal models are particularly helpful in situations when the impact of stress cannot be studied in humans because of ethical and other reasons  .Khanum and Razack control many of our mental states sometimes acting on their own or at other times together. Elevated zero maze – Elevated zero maze. in 2005 identified that the expression of glutathione reductase 1 and glyoxalase 1 (genes involved in antioxidative metabolism) is correlated to anxiety-related phenotypes. A variety of tests for anxiety have been developed of which the commonly used ones include Elevated plus maze. a modification of the EPM comprises an elevated annular platform with two enclosed and two open quadrants. Elevated plus Maze (EPM)– The Elevated plus maze is a simple method for assessing anxiety responses of rodents. The apparatus comprises of a light (brightly lit) and a dark compartment separated with a partition.rrbb. Light/Dark test. The elevated plus maze relies upon rodents proclivity towards dark (enclosed spaces) and an unconditioned fear of heights (open spaces). They also found that the activity of these enzymes is highest in the most anxious mice and lowest in the least anxious strains. whereas inhibition of glyoxalase 1 expression produces low-anxiety mice. its lipid rich constitution and modest antioxidant defences [36-37]. Elevated zero maze. The anxiolytic compounds are known to increase the total duration of time spent in the light
www. Furthermore. Hovatta et al. the total number of transitions. The Elevated Zero Maze does not have a centre compartment thereby allowing uninterrupted exploration of the open and enclosed spaces and eliminating any ambiguity in interpretation of the time spent in a centre compartment.
The apparatus usually consists of a wooden chamber with 16 holes measuring about 3cm in diameter present on the floor which is elevated from the ground ensuring that the rats could peep through the holes and each rat is placed individually and the latency to the first head dip. Table 1 gives a list of some of the widely studied plants for anxiolytic effects. Traditional medicines are used by about 60% of the world populations in rural areas in the developing countries and is gaining acceptance in the developed countries where modern medicines predominates . the number of rearings and the total number of defecations are noted. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)STAI  is one of the most widely used selfreport measures of anxiety. Ayurveda and Unani are such inherited traditional systems of health and longevity that are based on herbal medicines. However. the major hurdle in the uninhibited exploitation of herbal medicines into the regular practice of prescription is the lack of sufficient scientific data and better understanding of efficacy and safety of the herbal products . It helps practitioners differentiate between anxiety and depression. The open field area/arena usually consists of brightly lit square or round area enclosed by walls with the animal usually being placed in the centre and its behaviour being recorded for a known period of time (3-15 minutes). the STAI Form Y differentiates between temporary or emotional state anxiety versus long standing personality trait anxiety in adults. the number of head dips. The scores obtained are directly related with anxiety i. After a specified number of licks an electric shock is applied to the nipple and the animal can escape the shock by withdrawing from the drinking tube/nipple. the total time
Res Rev Biomed Biotech 1(2).in
. Open field test – It is generally used paradigm to assess/evaluate the locomotor. A means for appraisal of anxiety in research & clinical settings with questionnaires.rrbb. Hole-board test – A generally used paradigm to measure the exploratory behaviour of rodents and the potentiality of anxiolytics. The ‘World Health Organization’ has approved that traditional health and folk medicine systems have proved to be more effective in health problems worldwide .
Plants are known to have enormous potential to cure ailments from time immemorial. 2010 spent with the head dips. It relies on the fact that the rodent when anxious stays close to the enclosed walls and measures the degree to which the rodent avoids the central area. The STAI occurs in three forms. The STAI Form X is the first version of the STAI.e. Vogel’s conflict test – The Vogel conflict test is based on the principle that the water deprived animal is placed in the test cage with a special conductive floor grid and a drinking bottle with an electrically conductive nipple.Khanum and Razack compartment whereas the anxiogenic compounds work in the opposite way. exploratory and anxiety-like behaviour in laboratory animals. and the third form is the STAI for children . The animal licks are recorded and monitored by very low electrical currents applied to the nipple that are below the animal's perception level. A number of plants have been scrutinised for their anxiolytic effects. The number of shocks received after treatment with the anxiolytic drug is compared with the untreated animals.
www. higher the score (20-80) greater the anxiety. The anxiolytic drugs significantly increase the number of licks and therefore the number of shocks applied.
Coriandrum sativum L. Cecropia glazioui. atrorrhizine. (L)
Rutaceae Cannabaceae Moraceae Apiaceae Cannabidiol an cannabinoid exerts anti-anxiety effects The essential oil includes triterpeniod saponins such as asiaticoside (got from fresh leaves. alkaloids (hydrocotyline. kaempferol 3-0-beta-D-glucoside. bacosaponines D. Juss Bacopa Pennell monnieri. isovaleric acid. The active constituents include tannins. caretenoids. sterols. dipentene (8. l-bornyl acetate (15. Cannabis sativa L. Centella Urban asiatica. flavonoids. The chemical constituents include 4-methulacetophenone.9%). 2010
Active constituents The fresh leaves yield 0.
  
Citrus aurantium. and essential oil containing monoterpenes sesquiterpenes. flavonoids. α-pinene. L
Verbenaceae Fabaceae Fabaceae Apiaceae Lauraceae Annonaceae Apocynaceae The leaves have been shown to contain caffeic acid.25% oil which contains α-pinene (14. vanillic acid. Two flavonol glycosides quercitrin and isoquercitrin. palmatine. Presence of choline has been shown to impart hypotensive effect.4%).
Aloysia polystachya Griseb & Moldenke Albizzia lebbeck. kaempferol and quercetin. carotenoids.
Citrus sinensis L. A. and nimbidin. Sneth. The chemical constituents include monoterpenes. tannins. Annona cherimola Mill. β-cariophyllene. Diels. The herb contains an alkaloid achilleine. llimonene (10. Albizzia julibrissin Durazz Angelica sinensis Oliv. triterpenes & dammoranes such as bacosides A.Khanum and Razack Table 1: List of plants with anxiolytic properties
Plant name Abies pindrow Royle Family Pinaceae
Res Rev Biomed Biotech 1(2).monnieri are saponins. The essential oil contains lingustilide. thymol. borneol. (Saffron/kesar)
Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma yielding compounds. ∆3-carene (11. Linn. The phytoconstituents include linalool. B & C. Casimiroa edulis Llave & Lex. choline and trigonelline and coumarins. a glucoside). isoflavones. sesquiterpenes. flavonoids. baimaside. α-crocin (a digentiobiose ester of carotenoid crocetin) imparts the golden yellow-orange colour. Aniba riparia Nees Mez.6%). Among the non-volatile active compounds include carotenoids like zeaxanthine. alkaloids. salicylic acid. several compounds have been isolated and include kaempferol.
Rutaceae Fabaceae Apiaceae Ranunculaceae Amaryllidaceae
   
Coptis chinensis Franch Crinum Andrews.[63-64] The chemical constituents include diterpenes. Riparins (methyl ether of N-benzoyl tyramine) exert antianxiety effects. nimbinin. lycopene and various α and β-carotenes. isolated from the dried plant) an some bitter principles. fattyacids.8%). 1. 8-cineole and geranyl acetate. Major chemical constituents found in B. alkaloids. triterpenoids and steroids. daucosterol. epiberberine. The seeds contain a complex secondary metabolite azadirachtin. coptisine. asparagines.rrbb. The chemical compounds isolated from Neem oil include nimbin. starch and the roots contain taraxerol and taraxerone. (L). linalyl acetate. Berberine.in
. Safranal and picrocrocin give saffron much of its distinctive aroma. alkaloids. lipids and phenolic compounds. brahmoside and thankuniside. coumarins. Osbeck Clitoria ternatea. α-cubebene. βcaryphyllene. β-selinene.7%) and l-codinene (9. Apocynum venetum. L. E & F. Benth. caffeinel isoquinoline. and jatrorrhizine.
Achillea millefolium. and linalool The chemical constituents of the leaves and flowers include ionone glucosides named apocynoside I and II. β-phellandrene. giganteum
Crocus sativus L. limonene. L. Azadirachta indica. L.7%). resins.
[52-53] [54-55]     
Meliaceae Scrophulariaceae Fabaceae
Caesalpinia Bonducella (Roxb). citranellol. Flowers yield an essential oil azulene. coumarins and vitamin c.
flavonoids and terpenes. euphol. The chemical 7-hydroxymitragynine is effective as a pain reliever. The active constituent of the plant Elenoside. and matricin (usually converted to chamazulene). The active principle is adenosine. The seeds yield the alkaloid hypaphorine and a saponin-migarrhin. triterpenes and phytosterols. saponins and phenolic compounds. It contains rosmarinic acid. longifolia Dilleniaceae Boraginaceae Fabaceae Fabaceae Fabaceae Papaveraceae Sapindaceae Euphorbiaceae Simaroubaceae
Res Rev Biomed Biotech 1(2). jatmansic acid. Gastrodia elata Blume. Morus alba L. Erythrina plants produce alkaloids. Hypericum perforatum L. charantia
Nardostachys jatamansi DC. triterpenes and their biphenyl derivatives. jatamansi contains sesquiterpinenoids like jatamansone. monoterpene glycosides. tannins. The chemical constituents include alkaloids and flavone glycosides. spirojatamol. citral.
www. Momordica Linn. Erythrina variegata L Erythrina mulungu Mart. flavonoids in the crude leaf extract. These active constituents contribute to the myriad health benefits of the plant. Tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids erythravine and (+)-11α-hydroxyerythravine.Benth. 4hydroxybenzaldehyde. Euphorbia hirta L. steroids. Eschscholzia californica cham. germacrene and caryophyllene. tannins.
The flowers possess 1-2% volatile oils containing alpha-bisabolol.[107-108] The active constituents are mitragynine. The phytochemical study showed the presence of steroidal saponins. Mitragynine is also a pain reliever. anthocyanins. saponins. triterpenes. β-sitosterol and gastrodin. unsaturated terpeniods and sterols.
The phytochemical constituents include a variety of triterpenes like nerifolione. Magnolia dealbata Zucc. Other active constituents include the bioflavonoids apigenin.
Malpighiaceae Orchidaceae The phytochemical studies have revealed the presence of several phenolic compounds. norseychelanone. root. The phytoconstituents include flavonoids. triterpenes. including 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol. terpenic caumarins like oroselol and jatamansin. mitraphylline.ex. The phytoconstituents include flavonoids. polyphenols. alkanes. glycosides and terpenoids (ginkgolides. luteolin. Reports on Nepeta species show that the main constituents of the oil are diastereomeric nepetalactones. Chemically. steroids. The chemical constituents include flavonoids. Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. bark. Ipomoea stans Cav. anthroquinones. N. phytosterols. but it is not as powerful as 7-hydroxymitragynine. chamomilla
Ginkgoaceae Hyperiaceae Convulvulaceae Acanthaceae Clusiacea Magnoliaceae
     
Melissa officinalis L. Xanthones. benzofuran derivatives.[100-101]
Ginkgo biloba L. patchouli alcohol. whole plant and leaf. reducing sugar. xanthones and hyperforin. Euphoria longana Lamk.in
. ex Saddi. morusimic acid. oleanolic acid. triterpeniods. and 7hydroxymitragynine. vanillyl alcohol. flavonoids. The phytochemical constituents include hypericin and other dianthrones. Eurycoma Jack. [79-80]       
Euphorbia Linn. vanillin. amino acids. flavonoids and terpenes. Justicia hyssopifolia Linn.
Nepeta persica Boiss. jatamol A and B. phenolic acids. tannins and saponins.Khanum and Razack
Davilla rugosa Poiret Echium amoenum Erythrina velutina Willd. sitosterols. The phytoconstituents include alkaloids. Matricaria L.rrbb. Anthocyanins like delphin and tulipanin and diterpenes were isolated from the bark and roots. lignins and neolignins. euphorbol and others from latex. 2010
 The chemical constituents include flavonoids. bilobalides). reducing sugar. flavonoids and the essential oil contains citronellal.
Galphimia glauca Cav. tannins. alpha-bisabolol oxides A & B. alkaloids. a lignin (β-D-glucoside) got from the leaves. and flavonoids. and quercetin. The leaves and stems contain the alkaloid erythrinaline.[81-81] The chemical constituents include alkaloids.
Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq. The main constituents are alkaloids and steroidal lactones.
The active compounds include kava-lactones/kava-pyrones.
Rhodiola rosea L. Among the various alkaloids withanine is the main constituent.
www. Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. A. The glycowithanolides exhibited significant anxiolytic activity
Vitex negundo Linn. volatile & non-volatile constituents. farnesene and alcohols like santalol. Flavonoids baicalin and its aglycone baicalein show anti-anxiety effects
   
Scutellaria lateriflora L. chlorogenic acid. Ginsenosides It constitutes an array of phytoconstituents some of which include betacarboline harmala alkaloids. The leaves contain volatile oil. Rauvolfia serpentina (L. borneol. rodionin. Valerianaceae
The major alkaloids include mesembrenol and tortuosamine. d-cadinene.) Poiret.) Dunal
Solanaceae. tannins. The active constituents include flavonoids. ex Kurz. coumarins.) Jacks Valeriana edulis ssp.
Withania somnifera (L. p-methoxy cinnamaldehyde have been identified as the major constituents. organic acids. Chrysin. Piper methysticum G.
[112-113]  [115-119]
Paeonia mountan Sims. paeonol. stem & leaves of the plant). monoterpenes like rosiridol. The active constituents are present in the essential oil. Pachyrrhizus erosus L. The phytoconstituents include paeonolide. Panax ginseng C. paeonoside and paeoniflorin. phenolic compounds. mucilaginous constituents and tannins. The steroidal lactones are commonly called withanolides and are the most important bio-active components present in roots that account for the multiple medicinal properties of the herb.
mesembrenone. choline.E.) Benth. flavonoids.
Lamiaceae Leguminosae Paeoniaceae Araliaceae. Meyer Passiflora Linn. Wogonin-a monoflavanoid exerts anti-anxiety efffects. 2010
The principal constituents of the oil are nepetalactone and nepetalic acid. Rubus brasiliensis Martius. ajmaline. It contains a variety of bioactive compounds including reserpine (the most important alkaloid present in the root.   
Methyl chavicol. reserpinine. Forster. Triterpenes show anti-anxiety effects
mesembrine. a flavone is known to render the anxiolytic properties. deserpidine. tannins. Tragia involucrata Linn.
Aizoaceae. procera Meyer Valeriana officinalis L. rosin.Khanum and Razack
Nepeta cataria L. Sceletium tortuosum (L.
Crassulaceae Rutaceae Rosaceae Santalaceae Lamiaceae Lamiaceae Lamiaceae
Ruta chalepensis L. Santalum album Salvia officinalis L. Two acyl steryl glucoside namely sitoindoside VII and sitoindoside VIII have been isolated from root. lignans. sarpagine. glycosides. which contains cineole. Brown Sesbania grandiflora (L.
Res Rev Biomed Biotech 1(2). serpentinine. triterpenes like daucosterol and phenolic acids like chlorogenic acids.) N.
Apocynaceae. caffeic acid. Fabaceae Asteraceae Euphorbiaceae Turneraceae Malvaceae Rubiaceae. R. α-ionone. Turnera aphrodisiaca Ward. incarnata
Passifloraceae Passifloraceae Passifloraceae Piperaceae
 [51. tyrosol. Tilia Americana L. The phytoconstituents of the seed include rotinoids.
   
The chemical constituents include alkaloids. methyl 2-pyrrolketone. rosarin. and thujone. flavonoids like rodiolin.in
. 13] 
Passiflora foetida L Passiflora edulis Sims. aminoacids. beta-sitosterol. gum and a resin. nepetalic anhydride. damianin and glycosides. rescinnamine.rosea contains a variety compounds including phenylpropanoids like rosavin. phenylethanol derivatives like salidroside. β-caryophyllene and an ether and ester.rrbb. volatile oils. Scutellaria Georgi baicalensis
  The phytoconstituents include sesquiterpenes like santalene. Stachys lavundulifolia Vahl. flavonoids and their glycosides. beta-sitosterol. flavonoids and phenylfuranocoumarin derivatives.
2004. Cle´ment Y.) Benth. Fischer SK. so these herbs with a wide therapeutic applicability promise to alleviate anxiety with very few adverse effects. Weissman M. Ethologically based animal models of anxiety disorders. Br J Psychiatry Suppl. 57: 57-71. However. REFERENCES
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Table 2: Lists the plants influencing GABAergic system
Plant name Annona cherimola Mill. 1997. Anxiolytic-like effects of Gastrodia elata and its phenolic constituents in mice. Anxiety at the Frontier of molecular medicine.) Poiret. Synthetic drugs and medications possess enormous side effects. Weinberger DR. Yoon BH. officinale
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. Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq. 7. 49 (1): 515-655. 2.) Jacks Common name Persian silk tree or pink siris Agati Reference    
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3. Bleau P. Agranoff BW. Pachyrrhizus erosus L. 170: 205-08. Lushene RE. 1990.) Poiret. The Social Costs of Anxiety Disorders. In: Siegel GJ. Gorsuch RL. Link between emotional memory and anxiety states: A study by principal component analysis. Sannd R. Leon A. monoterpenoids and nonvolatile phenylpropanoidderived compounds. Kumar S. 344(16): 1247-9. Sesbania grandiflora (L. N Engl J Med. (1970). Rauvolfia serpentina (L. Authors kindly acknowledge constant encouragement given by Director. Pharmacol Ther. Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi Scutellaria lateriflora L. India. Long-term goals in the management of acute and chronic anxiety disorders. Tragia involucrata Linn.
Ziziphus jujuba Mill. 5. Belzung C. Lister RG. Sesbania grandiflora (L. Kim SY. Portera L. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The work has been carried out for a project funded by Defense Research and Development Organization. Rao MM. Oh HR. Can J Psychiatry. natural herbs/herbal mixtures that act synergistically promise to provide an effective remedy for anxiety. Belzung C.rrbb. L Gastrodia elata Blume.Khanum and Razack
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Indian snakeroot or sarpagandha Baikal skullcap Skullcap Agati
Table 3: Lists the plants influencing the serotonergic system
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