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INTRODUCTION A great discovery solves a great problem but there is a grain of discovery in the solution of any problem. Your problem may be modest; but if it challenges your curiosity and brings into play your inventive faculties, and if you solve it by your own means, you may experience the tension and enjoy the triumph of discovery. George Polya In [4] and [5] the authors tell to the students putting emphasis on solving problems. In particular, James Stewart considers important to have an intuitive geometrical and physical description and tie up mathematical concepts with own experience. In this sense, we recompiled all these problems from [4] and [5] as part of the training activities for participating students in this course of Calculs at the UPIIZ. The exercises were ordered according to the program. Most of the problems are related to common real situations, and some of them are treated more the one time. Also, the majority of them require the using of a Computer Algebra System (CAS) like Derive which is a very good software for this course. I encourage you to work very hard for solving every one of the problems. Doing these exercises is a chance for improving those skills required for coming advanced courses. You have to realize that just you can push yourself into this challenge. My function as instructor in this course is to tutoring you during the semester and helping to solve doubts and all kind of questions that could appear. Rafael Castaneda Diaz

REAL NUMBERS 1. Express the interval in terms of inequalities, and then graph the interval. (a) (3, 0), (b) (2, 8], (c) [6, 1 ] and (d) (, 1) 2 2. Express the inequality in interval notation, and then graph the corresponding interval. (a) {x R : x 1}, (b) {x R : 2 x 1} and (c) {x R : 5 < x < 5}. 3. Graph the set. (a) (2, 0) (1, 1), (b) [4, 6] [0, 8) and (c) (, 4) (4, ). 4. Area of a Garden Marys backyard vegetable garden measures 20 ft by 30 ft, so its area is 20 30 = 600f t2 . She wants to make it longer, so that the area increases to A = 20(30 + x). Which property of real numbers tells us that the new area can also be written A = 600 + 20x? Draw the Marys backyard vegetable garden about x units. 5. Speed of Light If the distance from the earth to the sun is about 96 million miles. On the other hand, the speed of light is about 186, 000 mi/s. Use the information to estimate how long it takes for a light ray from the earth to sun to reach the earth. 6. Number of Molecules A sealed room in a hospital measuring 5 m wide, 10 m log, and 3 m high, is lled with oxygen. One cubic meter contains 1000L, and 22.4 L of any gas contains 6.02 103 molecules (Avogadros number). How many molecules of oxygen are there in the room? 7. Mowed a Field A square eld in a certain state park is mowed around the edges every week. The rest of the eld is kept unmowed to server as a habitat for birds and small animals. The eld measures b feet by b feet, and the mowed strip is x feet wide. (a) Explain why the area of the mowed portion is b2 (b 2x)2 . (b) Factor the expression in (a) to show that the area of mowed portion is also 4x(b x). 2

8. Gravity If an imaginary line segment is drawn between the centers of the earth and the moon, then the gravitational force F acting on an object situated on this segment is F = 0.012K K + 2 x (239 x)2

where K > 0 is a constant and x is the distance of the object from the center of earth measures in thousand of miles. How far from the center of the earth is the dead spot where no net gravitational force acts upon the object? (Express your answer to the nearest thousand miles.) SKETCHING REGIONS GIVEN BY A SET 1. Sketch the region given by the set (a) {(x, y) R2 : x 3} (b) {(x, y) R2 : y < 3} (c) {(x, y) R2 : x 3} (d) {(x, y) R2 : 0 x 4} (e) {(x, y) R2 : x 1 and y < 3} (a) {(x, y) R2 : |x| 0 and |y| 2} 2. Sketch the region whose points satisfy the following equations: (a) {(x, y) R2 : y 4x2 x2 } (b) {(x, y) R2 :

x2 9

(c) {(x, y) R2 : y

(e) {(x, y) R2 : x2 + y = r } PROPORTIONAL RELATION 1. Sketch the graph of the equation y = kx.

k 2. Sketch the graph of the equation y = x .

y2 < 1} 4 1 } 1+x2 2 2

(a) T varies directly as x. (b) P is directly proportional to w. (c) P varies inversely to T . (d) y is directly proportional to s and inversely proportional to the cube of x. (e) V is jointly proportional to l, w and h. (f) is jointly proportional to the square of , and . 4. Hookes Law Hookes law states that the force needed to keep a spring stretched x units beyond its natural length is directly proportional to x. Here the constant of proportionality is called the spring constant. (a) Writes the Hookes law as an equation. (b) If a spring has a natural length of 10cm and a force of 40N is required to maintain the sprig stretched to a length of 15cm, nd the spring constant. (c) What force is needed to keep the sprig stretched to length of 14cm? 5. Law of the Pendulum The period of a pendulum (the time elapsed during one completed swig of the pendulum) varies directly with the square root of the length of the pendulum. (a) Writes the law of the pendulum as an equation. (b) In order to double the period, how would we have to change the length l? (c) What force is needed to keep the sprig stretched to length of 14cm? 6. A jet of water The power of a jet of water is jointly proportional to the cross-sectional area A of the jet and to the cube of velocity v. If the velocity is doubled and the cross-sectional is halved, by what factor will the power increase? 7. Electrical Resistance The resistance R of a wire varies directly proportional to the length L and inversely as the square of its diameter d. (a) Writes an equation that expresses this joint variation. 4

(b) Find the constant of proportionality if wire 1.2m long and 0.005 m in diameter has a resistance of 140 ohms. (c) Find the resistance of a wire made of the same material that is 3 m long and has a diameter of 0.008m. of 14cm? LINEAR RELATION 1. Temperature & ElevationAs dry air moves upward, it expands and cools. If the ground temperature is 20 C and the temperature at a height of 1 km is 10 C, express the temperature T (in C) in terms of the height h (in kilometers). Assume that the relationship between T and h is linear). Also, draw the graph of the linear equation. What does its slope represent? and, What is the temperature at a height of 2.5 km? 2. Global Warming Some scientists believe that the average surface temperature of the world has been rising steadily. The average temperature is given by T = 0.02t + 8.50 where T is temperature in C and T is years since 1900. (a) What do the slope and T -intercept represent? (b) Use the equation to predict the average global surface temperature in 2010? 3. Depreciation A small business buys a computer for $4000. After 4 years the value of the computer is expected to be $200. For accounting purposes, the business uses linear depreciation model to assess the value of the computer at a given time. This means that if V is the value of the computer at time t, then al linear equation is used to relate V and t. (a) Find a linear equation that relates V and t. (b) Sketch a graph of this linear equation. (c) What do the slope and V -intercept of the graph represent? (d) Find the depreciation value of the computer 3 years from the date of purchase. 5

4. Pressure and Depth At the surface of the ocean, the water pressure is the same as the air pressure above the water, 15lb/in2 . Below the surface, the water pressures increases by the 4.34lb/in2 for every 10 ft of descent. (a) Find a linear equation that relates pressure and depth. (b) Sketch a graph of this linear equation. (c) What do the slope and y-intercept of the graph represent? (d) At what depth the pressure is 100lb/in2 . FUNCTIONS 1. Express the functions (or rules) in words. (a) f (x) = (b) k(x) =

x4 3

x+2

2. Draw the machine diagram for the function. (a) f (x) = x 1 (b) k(x) =

x+2 x4

3. Evaluate the function at the indicated values. (a) f (x) = x 1 x = 10, x = 2.333, x = 0, x = 0.5, x = 0.99, x = 0.9999, x = 1, x = 1.5, x = 2. (b) k(x) = x4 x2 x = 23, x = 3, x = 3.5, x = 2, x = 2.3, x = 6, x = 23 4. Evaluate the function at the indicated values. (a) f (x) = 2|x 1| 1 f (3), f (2.33), f ( 2 ), f (x + 1), f (x2 + 2). (b) g(x) = |x| x 1 g(2), g(1), g(0), g(5), g(x2 ), g( x ), g( a)

5. Evaluate the piecewise dened function at the indicated values. (a) { f (x) = x2 if x < 0 x + 1 if x 0

(b) 2 if x 1 x + 2x x if x 1 < x 1 g(x) = 1 if x > 1 1 g(2), g(1), g(0), g(5), g(x2 ), g( x ), g( a) SKETCHING A GRAPH OF A FUNCTION 6. Sketch the graph of the functions given in the last exercise. 7. Sketch the graph of f (x) = 8. Sketch the graph of g(x) =

1 x

9. Transformation of function Suppose the graph of f is given. Describe how the graph of each function can be obtained from the graph of f . (a) y = f (x) (b) y = f (x) + 2 and y = f (x) 4 (c) y = f (x 3) and y = f (x + 5) (d) y = cf (x) for c > 1 and 0 < c < 1 (e) y = f (cx) for c > 1 and 0 < c < 1 10. Exploring how the graph of g is obtained from the graph of f . (a) f (x) = x2 and g(x) = (x + 2)2 (b) f (x) = x3 , g(x) = x3 3 and h(x) = x3 (c) g(x) = x, h(x) = x 7

11. Sketch the graph of the following functions: f (x) = x4 4x2 and g(x) = |x4 4x2 |. APPLICATIONS 12. Production Cost The cost C in dollars of producing x yards of a certain fabric is given by the funtion C(x) = 1500 + 3x + 0.02x2 + 0.0001x3 (a) Find C(10) and C(100). (b) What do your answers represent in part (a)? (b) Find C(0). (This number represents the xed costs) (c) Sketch the graph of C. 13. Area of a Sphere The surface area S of a sphere is a function of its radius given by S(r) = 4r2 (a) Find S(2) and S(3). (b) Sketch the spheres generated in (a). 14. Torricellis Law A thank holds 50 gallons of water, which drains from a leak at the bottom, causing the tank to empty in 20 minutes. The tank drains faster when it is nearly full because the pressure on the leak is grater. Torricellis Law gives the volume of water remaining in the tank after t minutes as V (t) = 50(1 (a) Find V (0) and V (20). (b) What do your answers in part (a) represent? (c) Make a table of values of V (t) for t = 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20. (d) Sketch the graph of V . t 2 ) 20 0 t 20

15. Relativity According to the Theory of Relativity, the length L of an object is a function of its velocity v with respect to an observer. For an objected whose length at rest is 10 m, the function is given by v L(v) = 10 1 2 c where c is the speed of light. (a) Find L(0.5c), L(0.75c), and L(0.9c). (b) How does the length of the object change as its velocity increases? (c) Sketch the graph of L. 16. Blood Flow As blood moves through a vein or artery, its velocity v is greatest along the central axis and decreases as the distance r from the central axis increase. The formula that gives v as a function of r is called the law of laminar ow. For an artery with radius 0.5 cm, we have v(r) = 18500(0.25 r2 ) 0 r 0.5 (a) Find v(0.1), v(0.4) and v(0.5). (b) What do your answers in part (a) tell you about the ow of blood in this artery? (c) Make a table of values of v(r) for r = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5. (d) Sketch the graph of v. 17. Internet Purchases An internet bookstore charges $15 shipping for orders under $100, but provides free shipping for orders of $ 100 or more. The cost c of an order is a function of the total price x of the books purchased, given by { x + 15 if x < 100 c(x) = x if x 100 (a) Find c(75), c(90) and c(105). (b) What do your answers in part (a) represent? 9

(c) Sketch the graph of c. 18. Sketch the graphs of the following functions. (a) f (x) = (b) k(x) = (c)

x4 3

x+2 { f (x) =

x2 if x < 0 x + 1 if x 0

(d) 2 x + 2x x if h(x) = 1 (e) g(x) = |x|. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS 19. Quadratic Function Sketch the graph of the following quadratic functions and estimate, in terms of the graph, the maximum or minimum value of it. (a) f (x) = x2 + 4x (b) f (x) = 2x2 + 4x 5 (c) y = 5x2 30x + 49 20. Maximum Gas Mileage for Car Most car get their best gas mileage when traveling ar a relatively modest speed. The gas mileage M for a certain new car is modeled by the function M (s) = 1 2 s + 3s 31, 28 15 s 70 if x 1 1<x1 if x > 1

where s is speed in mi/h and M is measured in mi/gal. What is the cars best gas mileage, and at what speed is it attained?

10

21. Height of a Ball If a ball is thrown directly upward with a velocity of 40 f t/s, its height (in feet) after t seconds is given by y = 40t 16t2 . What is the maximum height attained by the ball? 22. Advertising The eective of a television commercial depends on how many times a viewer watches it. After some experiments an advertising agency found that if the eectiveness E is measured on a scale of 0 to 10, then 2 1 E(n) = n n2 3 90 where n is the number of times a viewer watches a given commercial. For a commercial to have maximum eectiveness, how many times should a viewer watch it? POLYNOMIAL FUNCTION 23. Market Research A market analysis working for a small appliance manufacturer nds that if the rm produces and sells x blenders annually, the total prot (in dollars) is P (x) = 8x + 0.3x2 0.001x3 372 Graph the function P in an appropriate viewing rectangles and use the graph to answer the following questions. (a) When just a few blenders are manufactured, the rm losses money (prot is negative). (Fox example, P (0) = 263.3, so the rm loses 263.3 if it produces and sells only 10 bleders.) How many blenders must the rm produce to break even? (b) Does prot increase indenitely as more blenders are produced and sold? If not, what is the largest possible prot the rm could have? 24. Population Change The rabbit population on a small island is observed to be given by the function P (t) = 120t 0.4t4 + 100 where t is the time (in months ) since observed of the island began.

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(a) When is the maximum population attained, and what is the maximum population? (b) When the population of the rabbit disappear from the island? 25. An open box is constructed from a piece of cardboard 20 cm by 40 cm by cutting squares of side x from each corner and folding up the sides. (a) Express the volume V of the box as a function of x. What is the domain of V ? Draw the graph of V and use it to estimate the maximum volume for such a box. 26. Composition of Functions A ship is traveling at 20 mi/h parallel to a straight shoreline. The ship is 5 mil from the shore. It passes a lighthouse at noon. (a) Express the distance s between the lighthouse and the ship as a function of d, the distance the ship has traveled since noon; that is, nd f so that s = f (d). (b) Express d as a function of t, the time elapsed since noon; that is, g so that d = g(t). (c) Find f g. What does this represent? 27. Composition of Functions A spherical weather balloon is being inated. The radius of the balloon is increasing at a rate of 2 cm/s. Express the surface area of the balloon as a function of time t (in seconds). EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION 28. Exponential Functions An infection disease begins to spread in a small city of population 10,000. After t days, the number of persons who have succumbed to the virus is modeled by the function v(t) = 10, 000 5 + 1245e0.97t

(a) How many infected people are there initially (at a time t = 0)? 12

(b) Find the number of infected people after one day, two days, and ve days. (c) Graph the function v and describe its behavior. 29. Hyperbolic Functions The hyperbolic cosine function is dened by cosh(x) = ex + ex 2

Sketch the graph of the functions y = 1 ex and y = 1 ex with same 2 2 axes and use graphical addition to sketch the graphs. 30. Animal Population Animal population are not capable of unrestricted growth and because of limited habitat and food supplies. Under such conditions the population follows a logistic growth model P (t) = d 1 + kect

where c, d and k are positive constants. The sh were introduced into a pond at time t = 0. (a) How many sh were originally put in the pond? (b) Find the population after 10, 20 and 30 years. (c) Evaluate P (t) for larger values of t. What value does the population approach as t ? Does the graph conrm your calculation? LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS 31. Perception of Loudness The perception is loudness B (in decibels, dB)of a sound with intensity l (in W/m2 ) is given by B = 10 log( I ) I0

where I0 is the physical intensity of a barely audible sound. Find the decibel level (loudness) of a sound whose physical intensity I is 100 times that of I. 13

32. Investment The time required to double the amount of an investment at an inertia rate r compounded continuously is given by ln(2) r Find the time required to double an investment at 6%, 7% and 8%. t= 33. Absorption of Light A spectrophotometer measures the concentration of a sample dissolved in water by shining a light through it and recording the amount of light that emerges. In other words, if we know the amount of light that absorbed, we can calculate the concentration of the sample. For a certain substance, the concentration (in moles/liter) is found using the formula I ) I0 where I0 is the intensity of the incident light and I is the intensity of the light that emerges. Find the concentration of the substance if the intensity is 70% of I0 . Graph I as a function of C. C = 2500 ln( 34. Law of Forgetting Ebbinghaus Law of Forgetting states that if a task is learned at a time performance level P0 , then after a time t the performance level P satises log P = log P0 c log(t + 1) where c is a constant and depends on the type of activity and t is measured in months. (a) Solve for P . (b) If your score on history test 90, what score would you expect to get on a similar test after two months? After a year? (Assume c = 0.2.) 35. Biodiversity Some biologist model the number of species S in a xed area A (such as an island) by the Species-Area relationship log S = log c + k log A where c and k are positive constants that depend the type of species and habitat. 14

(a) Solve for S. (b) Use part (a) to show that if k = 3 then double the area increases the number of species eightfold. 36. Linearizing Exponential Data The word population sice 1900 to 2000 is shown in the following table. Considering that the data (t, P ) in table lie on an exponential curve y = Cekx , then linearize the data. t (time) Population P(in millions) ln P 1900 1650 1910 1750 1920 1860 1930 2070 MODELING 1. Modeling Data The table shows the Consumer Price Index (CPI) in E. U. (Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics) Year 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 CPI 38.8 53.8 82.4 107.6 130.7 152.4 172.2 What is the (CPI)? The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a measure of the average change over time in the prices paid by urban consumers for a market basket of consumer goods and services. Use the regression capabilities of a graphing utility to nd a mathematical model of the form y = at2 + bt + c for the data. In the model, y represents the CPI and t represents the years, with t = 0 corresponding to 1970. Use a graph utility to plot the data and graph the model. Compare the model with the data. Use the model to predict the CPI for the year 2010. 2. Modeling Data The table shows the average number of acres per farmer in the United States for selected years.(Source: U. S. Department of Agriculture) 15

Year 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Average 213 279 374 426 460 434 Use the regression capabilities of a graphing utility to nd a mathematical model of the form y = at2 + bt + c for the data. In the model, y represents the average and t represents the years, with t = 0 corresponding to 1950. Using the graph utility to plot the data and graph the model. Compare the model with the data. Use the model to predict the CPI for the year 2010. 3. Break-Even Point (BEP) Find the sales necessary to break even (R = C) if the cost C of producing x units is C(x) = 5.5 x + 10, 000 and the revenue R for selling x units is R(x) = 3.29x. The BEP is the point at which the cost (expenses) and revenue (prot) are equal. 4. Cooper Wire The resistance y in ohms of 1000 feet of solid cooper wire at 77F can be approximate by the model y= 10770 0.37, x2 5 x 100

where x is the diameter of the wire in mils (0.001 inch). If the diameter is doubled, the resistance is changing by about what factor? 5. Find an equation of the graph that consists of all the points (x, y) having the given distance from the origin. The distance from the origin is twice the distance from (0, 3). The distance from the origin is K(K = 1) times the distance from (2, 0]. 6. Modeling Data The table shows the rate r (in miles per hour) that a vehicle is traveling after t seconds. t r 5 10 15 20 25 30 57 74 85 84 61 43

Plot the data by hand and connect adjacent points with a line segment. 16

Use the slope of each line segment to determine the interval when the vehicles rate change most rapidly. How did the rate change? 7. Temperature Conversion Find the linear equation that expresses the relationship between the degrees Celsius C and the temperatures in degrees Fahrenheit F . Use the fact that water freezes at 0C(32F ) and boils at 100C(212F)Use the equation to convert 72F to degrees Celsius. 8. The equation to nd the distance between the point and the line, or between the lines, using the formula for the distance between the point (x1 , y1 ) and the line Ax + By + C = 0 is given by |Ax1 + By1 + C| A2 + B 2 Point: (0, 0), Line: 4x + 3y = 10. Point (2, 1), Line: x y 2 = 0. Graph both cases. Distance = 9. Apartment Rental A real state oce handles with an apartment of 50 units. When the rent is $580 per month, all 50 units are occupied. However, when the rent is $625, the average number on occupied units drops to 47. Assume that the relationship between the monthly rent p and the demand x is linear. (Note: The term demand refers to the number of occupied units.) Write a linear equation giving the demand x in terms of the rent p. Linear extrapolation Use a graph utility to graph the demand equation and use the trace feature to predict the number of units occupied if the rent is raised to $655. Linear interpolation Predict the number of units occupied if the rent is lowered to $595. Verify graphically. 10. Automobile Aerodynamics The horsepower H required to overcome wind drag on a certain automobile is approximated by the H(x) = 0.002x2 + 0.005x 0.029, 10 x 10

Use a graphics of the car in miles per hour. Rewrite the power function so that x represents the speed in kilometers per hour (Find H(x/1.6)) 11. A car with tires that have a radius of 15 in. was driven on a trip and the odometer indicated that the distance traveled was 400 mi. Two weeks later, with snow tires installed, the odometer indicated that the distance for the return trip, over the same route was 390 mi. Find the radius of the snow tires. 12. A rectangular storage container with an open top has a volume of 10m3 . The length of its base is twice its width. Material for the base costs $10 per square meter; material for the sides costs $6 per square meter. Express the cost of the material for the base as a function of the width of the base. 13. A rectangle has perimeter 20m. Express the area of the rectangle as a function of the length of one of its sides. 14. Express the area of an equilateral triangle as a function of the length of one side. 15. A Norman window has the shape of a rectangle surmounted by a semicircle. If the perimeter of the window is 30f t, express the area A of the window as a function of the width x of the window. 16. As the dry air moves upward, it expands and cools. If the ground temperature is 20 C and the temperature at a height of 1 km is 10 C, express the temperature T (in C)as a function of the height h (in kilometers), assuming the function is linear. Draw the graph of the function T = f (h). What is the temperature at a height of 2.5km?

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LIMITS 1. Evaluate the function at the given numbers (correct to six decimal places). Use the result to guess the values of the limit, or state if it does not exist.

x1 (a) g(x) = x2 1 ; for x = 0.2,0.4,0.6, 0.8,0.90,0.99,0.9999 and for x = 1.8,1.7, 1.4, 1.2, 1.1, 1.01, 1.0001

(b) g(x) =

cos(x)1 sin(x)

x0

lim (1 + x)1/x

to ve decimal places by rst evaluating the function at x = 1, 0.1, 0.01, 0.001, 0.0001, 0.00001, 0.000001, 0.0000001, 0.00000001, and 0.00000000001. 3. Estimate the value of 6x 2x x0 x lim by graphing the function y = places.

6x 2x . x

4. Using the limit laws, estimate the given limit and justify each step indicating the appropriate limit law. (a) limx4 (5x2 2x + 3) (b) limt2 (c) limt1 (d)

t3 t2 t+10 t2 +3t+2 t3 t t2 1 limt0 2t 2 t

1 1 2 x

(e) limx2

x2

5. Lateral Limits Find the limit. If it doesnt exist, explain why. (a) limx4 16 x (b) limt0 |x| and limt0+ |x| 19

1 (c) limt0 ( x

1 ) |x|

6. The signum function, denominated by sgn, is dened by 1 if x < 0 0 if x = 0 sng(x) = 1 if x > 0 Sketch the graph of the function and evaluate each of the following limits. limt0+ sgn(x) limt0 sgn(x) limt0 sgn(x) limt0 |sgn(x)| CONTINUITY OF FUNCTION 7. Explain why the function is discontinuous at the given point a. f (x) = x2 1 x+1 a = 1

8. Explain why the function is discontinuous at the given point a. { f (x) = for a = 4. LIMITS AT INFINITY 9. Find the limit at innity and justify each step. (a) limx (b)

1 x x limt 1t 1+ t x2 2x8 x4

if x = 4 if x = 4

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(c) Guess the value of the limit x2 x 2x lim by evaluating the function f (x) = x2 /2x for x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 100. ESPECIAL LIMITS 10. Give a proof of the following limits (a) lim0 sin() = 0 (b) lim0 (c)

sin() = lim0 cos()1

1 =0

11. Evaluate the following limits (a) limx0 (b) limx0 (c) lim0

cos(2x) csc(x) sin(sin(x)) sin(x) sin() +tan()

x+1 x1

5. u = x

6. (x) = 7. f (x) =

8. y = A +

C x2

+ 21

9. The general polynomial of degree n has the form P (x) = an xn + an1 xn1 + + a2 x2 + a1 x + a0 where an = 0. Find the derivation of P . THE CHAIN RULE 10. Find dy/dx and dy/dx]x=1 in the following composite functions. (a) y = u2 , u = x2 + 2x + 3 (b) y = u2 2u + 3, u = 5 6x (c) y = u u2 , u = x + 3 x 11. F (x) = (x2 + 4x + 6)5 12. G(x) = (x3 5x)4 13. G(x) = (3x 2)10 (5x2 x + 1)12 14. k(x) = 3 1 + x 15. y = cos(x3 ) 16. y = (1 + cos2 x)6 17. y = sin(tan( sin(x))) 18. y = 1 + 2 tan(x) APPLICATIONS 19. Find the equation of the tangent line to the curve y = (x 1)/(x + 1) that are parallel to the line x 2y = 1. 20. Show that the curve y = 6x3 + 5x 3 has no tangent line with slope 4. 21. If the equation of a particle is given by s = A cos(t + ), the particle is said to undergo simple harmonic motion. (a) Find the velocity of the particle at time t. (b) When is the velocity 0?

22

22. The frequency of a vibrating violin string is given by 1 T f= 2L where L is the length of the string, T is its tension, is its linear density. Find the rate of change of the frequency with respect to (a) the length (when T and are constant) (b) the tension (when L and are constant9, and (c) the linear density (when L and T are constant) RATE OF CHANGE 1. A position function of a particle is given by the equation s = t3 4.5t2 7t, t 0. When does the particle reach a velocity of 5 km/s. 2. A spherical balloon is being inated. Find the rate of increase of the surface area (S = 4r2 ) with respect to the radius r when it is (a)1ft, (b)2ft y (c)3ft. 3. If a ball is thrown vertically upward with a velocity of 80 ft/s, then its height after t seconds is s = 80t 16t2 . What is the maximum height reached by the the ball? What is the velocity of the ball when it is 96 ft above the ground on its way up? On its way to down? 4. Newtons Law of Gravity say that the magnitude F of the force exerted by a body of the mass m on a body of mass M is F = GmM r2

where G is the gravitational constant and r is the distance between the bodies. If the bodies are moving, nd the rate of the change of F with respect to r.

23

5. If the tank holds 5000 gallons of water, which drains from the bottom of the tank in 40 min, then Torricellis Law gives the volume V of water remaining in the tank after t minutes as V = 5000(1 t 2 ) 40 0 t 40

Find the rate at which water is drawing from the tank after (a)5 min, (b) 10 min. and (c) 20 min. 6. The quantity of charge Q in coulombs (C) that has passed through a surface up to time t (measured in seconds) is given by q(t) = t3 2t2 + 6t + 2. Find the current where (a) t = 0.5 s and (b) t = 1 s. The unit of current is an ampere (1 A=1C/s). 7. The mass of glucose in a metabolic experiment decreased according to the equation m = 5 (0.02)t2 , where t is measured in hours. Find the rate of change of the amount of glucose after 1 h. 8. The population of slowly growing bacterial colony after t hours is given by n = 100 24t + 2t2 . Find the grow rate after 2 h.

24

RELATED RATES 1. If V is the volume of a cube with edge length x, nd 2. If xy = 1 and dx/dt = 4, nd dy/dt when x = 2. 3. If x2 + 3xy + y 2 = 1 and dy/dt = 2, nd dx/dt when y = 1. 4. A plane ying horizontally at an altitude of 1 mi and a speed of 500 mi/h passes directly over a radar station. Find the rate at which the distance from the plane to the station is increasing when it is 2 mi away from the station. 5. The altitude of a triangle is increasing at a rate of 1 cm/min while the area of the triangle is increasing at a rate of 2 cm2 /min. At what rate is the base of the triangle changing when the altitude is 10 cm and the area is 100cm2 . 6. Gravel is being dumped from a conveyor belt at a rate of 30 f t3 /min and its coarseness is such that it forms a pile in the shape of a cone whose base diameter and height are always equal. How fast is the height of the pile increasing when the pile is 10 ft high? 7. A kite 100 ft above the ground moves horizontally at a speed of 8 ft/s. At what rate is the angle between the string and the horizontal decreasing when 200 ft of string have been let out? 8. Boyles Law states that when a sample of a gas is compressed at a constant temperature, the pressure P and volume V satisfy the equation P V = C, where C is a constant. Suppose that at a certain instant the volume is 600cm3 , the pressure is 150kPa, and the pressure is increasing at a rate of 20kP a/min. At what rate is the volume decreasing at this instant? 9. A swimming pool is 20 ft wide, 40 ft long, 3ft deep at the shallow end, and 9 ft deep at its deepest point. A cross-section is shown in the gure. If the pool is being lled at a rate of 0.8 f t3 /min, how fast is the water level rising when the depth at the deepest point is 5 ft? (Hint: see Stewart, 3rd Edition, CALCULUS, EARLY TRANSCENDENTALS pp. 173)

dV dt

in terms of

dx . dt

25

THE FIRST AND THE SECOND DERIVATIVE TEST 1. Find the interval on which f is increasing or decreasing, the local maximum or minimum values of f and sketch the graph. f (x) = 20 x x2 f (x) = x3 2x2 + x f (x) = x + cos(x), 0 x 2. 3 f (x) = 3 x x2 2. Find the interval on which f is increasing or decreasing, the local maximum or minimum values of f and sketch the graph and the intervals of concavity. Also, nd the x-coordinate of the point of inection. f (x) = x3 x f (x) = x4 6x2 h(t) = t + cos(t) g(x) = xex OPTIMIZATION 3. Show that of all the rectangles with a given area, the one with smallest perimeter is a square. 4. Find two positive numbers whose product is 100 and whose sum is a minimum. 5. A box with a square base and open top must have a volume of 32,000 cm3 . Find the dimensions of the box that minimize the amount of material used. 6. A right circular cylinder is inscribed in a sphere of radius r. Find the largest possible volume of such a cylinder. 7. A right circular cylinder is inscribed in a cone with height h and base radius r. Find the largest possible volume of such a cylinder. 8. The top and bottom margins of a poster are each 6 cm and the margins are each 4 cm. If the area of printed material on the poster is xed at 384cm2 , nd the dimensions of the poster with the smallest area. 26

INTEGRATION In this section we pretend to use the techniques of integration step by step. Let us begin with the substitution rule which comes from the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. THE SUBSTITUTION RULE If u = g(x) is a dierentiable function whose range is an interval I and f is continuous on I, then f (g(x))g (x)dx = f (u)du EXERCISES 1. x(x2 1)99 dx, (Hint: u = x2 1) dx 2. (2x+1)2 , u = 2x + 1 3. sec(a) tan(a)d, u = a 4. x3 2 + x4 dx 5. sec(x) tan(x) 1 + sec(x)dx 6. axax+b dx 2 +2bx+c 7. sin(2x + 3)dx cos( 1 ) t 8. dt t2 9. cos(ln(x)) dx x t 10. e dt INTEGRATION BY PARTS Use the formula for integration by parts. f (x)g (x)dx = f (x)g(x) f (x)g(x)dx In order to remember the last formula we can change the form of it in terms of the substitution rule as follow udv = uv vdu where u = f (x), v = g(x), then du = f (x)dx and dv = g (x)dx. 27

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

TRIGONOMETRIC INTEGRALS How to evaluate sinm (x) cosn (x)dx (a) If the power of cosine is odd (n = 2k + 1), save one cosine factor and use cos2 (x) = 1 sin2 (x) to express the remaining factors in terms of sine: m 2k+1 sin (x) cos (x)dx = sinm (x)(cos2 (x))k cos(x)dx Then substitute u = sin(x). (b) If the power of sine is odd (m = 2k + 1), save one sine factor and use sin2 (x) = 1 cos2 (x). to express the remaining factors in terms of cosine: 2k+1 n sin (x) cos (x)dx = (sin2 (x)) cosn (x) sin(x)dx Then substitute u = cos(x). How to evaluate tanm (x) secn (x)dx (a) If the power of secant is even (n = 2k), save one factor of sec2 (x) and use sec2 (x) = 1 + tan2 (x) to express the remaining factors in terms of tan(x): tan (x) sec (x)dx = Then substitute u = tan(x). 28

m 2k

(b) If the power of tangent is odd (m = 2k + 1), save one factor of sec(x) tan(x) and use tan2 (x) = sec2 (x) 1 to express the remaining factors in terms of sec(x): 2k+1 n tan (x) sec (x)dx = (tan2 (x))k secn1 (x) sec(x) tan(x)dx Then substitute u = sec(x). EXERCISES 1. sin2 (3x)dx 2. (1 sin(2x))2 dx 3. cos5 (x) sin5 (x)dx 4. sin3 cos(x)dx 5. tan2 (x)dx 6. tan4 (x)dx 7. tan(x) sec3 (x)dx 8. sin(5x) sin(2x)dx TRIGONOMETRIC SUBSTITUTION In the following table we list trigonometric substitution that are eective for the given radical expression because of the given trigonometric identities. Expression 2 2 a x 2 2 a + x x2 a 2 1. 2. 3.

9x2 dx x2 1 dx x2 x2 +4 x3 dx (4x2 +9)(3/2)

3 2

29

dx x3 x2 16 x2 a2 dx x4

8. Fine the area enclosed by the ellipse x2 y 2 + 2 =1 a b INTEGRATION OF RATIONAL FUNCTIONS BY PARTIAL FRACTIONS P (x) A rational function f (x) = Q(x) can be expressed as a sum of simpler fractions, called partial fractions. There are four possible cases: CASE I: The denominator Q(x) is a product of distinct linear factors. P (x) A1 A2 A2 = + + + Q(x) a1 x + b1 a2 x + b2 ak x + bk CASE II: The denominator Q(x) is a product of distinct linear factors, some of which are repeated. P (x) A1 A2 A2 = + + + 2 Q(x) a1 x + b1 (a1 x + b1 ) (a1 x + b1 )r CASE III: The denominator Q(x) contains irreducible quadratic factors, none of which is repeated. Ax + B ax2 + bx + c CASE IV: The denominator Q(x) contains a repeated irreducible quadratic factor. A1 x + B1 A2 x + B2 Ak x + Bk + + + ax2 + bx + c (ax2 + bx + c)2 (ax2 + bx + c)r EXERCISES 30

1. Write out the form of the partial fractions decomposition of the functions (a) (b) (c) (d)

x3 +x2 +1 x(x1)(x2 +x+1)(x2 +1)3 1 (x1)(x+2) 7 2x2 +5x+12 x4 x2 +9

2. Evaluate the integrals x2 (a) x+1 dx 4x1 (b) (x1)(x+2) dx (c) x31 dx 1 1 (d) x4 x2 dx (e) x2dx 2x RATIONALIZING SUBSTITUTION By means of appropriate substitutions, some functions can be changed into rational function and therefore integrated by the method of partial frac tions. In particular, if the function contains an expression of the form n g(x), then the substitution u = n g(x) may be eective. 1. 1+1 x dx 2. 3. 4.

x dx x+1

1 dx 1+ x

x+1 dx x1

5. For the following exercises consider the substitution t = tan( x ) which 2 was proposed by the German mathematician Karl Weierstrass (18151897). 1 (a) sin(x)+cos(x) dx 31

(b > 0)

An especial probability density function studied by statisticians is the standard normal distribution which has the for

1 2 1 N (z) = e 2 z 2

Actually, to integrate this function is not a simple task. We mean that to nd its antiderivative of f its dicult or even impossible. In this way, using the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus couldnt be done. In other hand if we want to calculate the area that lies under the curve into a interval, it is necessary to implement the Midpoint Rule or the Trapezoidal Rule. Is an exercise for the student to calculate the values given in the tables of probability for dierent values of z,

0 z

1 2 1 e 2 z dz 2

z 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.0 0.0000 0.0040 0.0080 0.0120 0.0160 0.1 0.0398 0.0483 0.0478 0.0517 0.0557 . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Use the Trapezoidal Rule and the following data to estimate the value 3.2 of the integral 1 ydx. x 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.2 y 4.9 5.4 5.8 6.2 6.7 7.0 7.3 7.5 8.0 8.2 8.3 8.2 32

3. Use the Simpsons Rule and the following data to estimate the value of 6 the integral 2 ydx. x 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 y 9.22 9.01 8.76 7.52 6.83 7.52 6.83 7.69 7.91 4. A log 10 meters long is cut at 1-meter intervals and its cross-sectional areas A (at a distance x form the end of the log) are listed in the following table. Use Simpsons Rule to estimate the volume of the log.

x(m) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 A(m ) 0.68 0.65 0.64 0.61 0.58 0.59 0.53 0.55 0.52 0.50 0.48 5. A pendulum with length L that makes a maximum angle 0 with vertical. Using Newtons Second Law it can be show that the period T (the time for one complete swing) is given by T =4 L g

0

pi 2

dx 1 k 2 sin2 (x)

where k = sin( 1 0 ) and g is the acceleration due to gravity. If L = 1m 2 and 0 = 42, use the Simpsons Rule with n = 10 to nd the period. 6. If f is positive and f (x) < 0 for a x b, show that Tn

a b

f (x)dx Mn

APPLICATION OF THE INTEGRAL EXERCISE 1. Area between curves Sketch the area bounded by the given curves and nd the area of the region. (a) y = x, y = x2 (b) y = x, y = x3 33

(c) y =

x 1, x 3y + 1 = 0.

(d) y = x, y = sin(x), x = /4, x = /2 (e) y = 1/x, x = 0, y = 1, y = 2 2. Volume Find the volume of the solid obtained by rotating the region bounded by the given curves about the given axis. Sketch the region, the solid and the typical disk or washer. (a) y = x2 , y = 0; about the x-axis (b) y + x = 1, x = 0, y = 0; about the x-axis (c) y 2 = x, x = 2y; about the y-axis (d) y = ex , y = 0, x = 0, x = 1 3. Volume by cylindrical shells Use the method of cylindrical shells to nd the volume generated by rotating the region bounded by given curves about the given axis. (a) y = x2 , y = 0 x = 1, x = 2 (b) y = 1/x, y = 0, x = 1, x = 10 (c) y = x2 , y = 0, x = 1, x = 2; about x = 4 (d) x = cos(y), x = 0, y = 0, y = /4, about the x-axis 4. Work The work done in moving of objects from a to b is given by denite integral b W = f (x)dx

a

(a) Find the work done in pushing a car a distance of 8 m while exerting a constant from 900 N. (b) A particle is moved along the x-axis by a force that measures 5x2 + 1 pounds at the point x feet from the origin. Find the work done in moving the particle from the origin to a distance of 10 ft. (c) A spring has a natural length of 20 cm. If a 25 N force is required to keep it stretched to a length of 30cm, how much work is required to stretch it from 20cm to 25cm.

34

(d) A circular swimming pool has a diameter of 24 ft, the sides are 5 ft high, end the depth of the water is 4 ft. How much work is required to pump all of the water put over the side? (e) When a gas expands in a cylinder with radius r, the pressure at a given time is a function of volume; P = P (V ). The force exerted by the gas on the piston is the product of the pressure and the area: F = r2 P . Show that the work done by the gas when the volume expands from volume V1 to volume V2 is V2 W = P dV

V1

5. The average value of a function f The average value of f on the interval [a, b] is given by b 1 fave = f (x)dx ba a Find the average value for following functions on the given interval. (a) f (x) = x2 2x, [0, 3] (b) f (x) = x4 , [1, 1] (c) f (x) = 1/x [1, 4] (d) The temperature (in F) in certain city t hours after 9 A.M. was approximated by the function T (t) = 50 + 14 sin( t ) 12

Find the average temperature during the period from 9 A.M. to 9 P.M (e) The linear density in a rod 8 m long is 12/ x + 1 kg/m, where x is measured in meters from one end of the rod. Find the average density of the rod. (f) The velocity v of the blood that ows in a blood vessel with radius R and the length l at the distance r from the central axis is v(r) = 35 P (R2 r2 ) 4l

where P is the pressure dierence between the ends of the vessel and is the viscosity of the blood. Find the average velocity over the interval 0 r R. Compare the average with the maximum velocity. IMPROPER INTEGRALS (i) IMPROPER INTEGRAL OF TYPE 1 t (a) If a f (x)dx exists for every number t a, then t f (x)dx = lim f (x)dx

a t a

provided this limit exist (as a nite number). t (b) If a f (x)dx exists for every number t b, then b b f (x)dx = lim f (x)dx

t t

provided this limit exist (as a nite number). The improper integral in (a) and (b) are called convergent if the limit exists and divergent if the limit does not exists. a (c) If both f (x)dx and a f (x)dx are convergent, then we dene a f (x)dx = f (x)dx + f (x)dx

a

(ii) IMPROPER INTEGRAL OF TYPE 2 (a) If f is continuous on [a, b) and is discontinuous at b, then b t f (x)dx = lim f (x)dx

a tb a

if the limit exists (as a nite number). (b) If f is continuous on (a, b] and is discontinuous at a, then b b f (x)dx = lim f (x)dx +

a ta t

if this limit exists (as a nite number). The improper integral in (a) and (b) are called convergent if the limit exists and divergent if the limit does not exists. 36

(c) If f has discontinuous at c, where a < c < b, and both c b f (x)dx and c f (x)dx are convergent, then we dene a b c b f (x)dx = f (x)dx + f (x)dx

a a c

EXERCISES 1 (a) 2 x+3 dx (b) xdx (c) (2x2 x + 3)dx 1 (d) 0 x ln(x)dx (e) Find the values of p for which the integrals converge and evaluate the integral for those values of p. (i) 1 1 dx p 0 x (ii)

e

1 dx x(ln(x))p

(f) (g)

1 3

0

ln(x) dx x

1 dx 0 x x

POWER SERIES (a) Power Series A power series is a series of the form

n=0

cn (x a)n = c0 + c1 (x a) + c2 (x a)2 +

and is called a power in (x a) or a power series centered at a or a power series at a. Use the following ratio test to prove that a given series is convergent. 37

(a) If limn | an+1 |= L < 1, then the series an is abson=1 an lutely convergent (and therefore convergent) (b) limn | an+1 |= L > 1 or limn | an+1 |= , then the If an an n=1 an is divergent. EXERCISES (b) Find the radius of convergence and interval of the convergence of the series. xn (a) n=0 n+2 (b) nxn n=0 xn (c) n=0 n! n n (d) n5 x n=0 xn (e) n=0 ln n)n TAYLOR SERIES If f has a power series representation (expansion) at a, that is, if f (x) =

n=0

cn (x a)n

| x a |< R

So, substituting cn into the series, then it takes the form: f (x) =

f n (a) n=0

n!

(x a)n = f (a) +

f n (0) n=0

n!

(x)n = f (0) +

and has the name Maclaurin series EXERCISES (a) Find the Maclaurin series for the following functions: 38

1 1x ex sin(x) cos(x)

(b) Find the Taylor series for f (x) at the given value of a. f (x) = sin(x), a = /4 f (x) = 1/x, a = 1 f (x) = ex , a = 3. f (x) = ln(x), a = 2 f (x) = x, a = 4.

39

Bibliography

[1] Baldor A. Algebra. D. G. T. PUBLICACIONES CULTURAL, S. A. de C. V. 1983. Mxico, D. F. [2] Batle R. G. Introduccin al Anlsis Matemtico de un Variable. EDT. LIMUSA NORIEGA EDITORES., MXICO, D. F. [3] Lay S. R. ANALYSIS: An introduction to Proof. Edt. PRENTICEHALL. Englewood Clis, New Jersey E. U. (1986) [4] Stewart J. CALCULUS: EARLY TRANSCENDENTALS. Edt. BROOKS/COLE PUBLISHING COMPANY. An international Thomson Publishing Company. (1995) [5] Stewart J., Redlin L., Watson S., PRECALCULUS Mathematics for Calculus . Fifth Edition. Edt. Thomson Books/Cole. (2006).

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