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Operations research (also referred to as decision science, or management science) is an interdisciplinary mathematical science that focuses on the effective use of technology by organizations. In contrast, many other science & engineering disciplines focus on technology giving secondary considerations to its use. Employing techniques from other mathematical sciences — such as mathematical modeling, statistical analysis, and mathematical optimization — operations research arrives at optimal or near-optimal solutions to complex decision-making problems. Because of its emphasis on human-technology interaction and because of its focus on practical applications, operations research has overlap with other disciplines, notably industrial engineering and operations management, and draws on psychology and organization science. Operations Research is often concerned with determining the maximum (of profit, performance, or yield) or minimum (of loss, risk, or cost) of some real-world objective. Originating in military efforts before World War II, its techniques have grown to concern problems in a variety of industries.
Operational research (OR) encompasses a wide range of problem-solving techniques and methods applied in the pursuit of improved decision-making and efficiency. Some of the tools used by operational researchers are statistics, optimization, probability theory, queuing theory, game theory, graph theory, decision analysis, mathematical modeling and simulation. Because of the computational nature of these fields, OR also has strong ties to computer science and analytics. Operational researchers faced with a new problem must determine which of these techniques are most appropriate given the nature of the system, the goals for improvement, and constraints on time and computing power. Work in operational research and management science may be characterized as one of three categories: • Fundamental or foundational work takes place in three mathematical disciplines: probability theory, mathematical optimization, and dynamical systems theory. • Modeling work is concerned with the construction of models, analyzing them mathematically, implementing them on computers, solving them using software tools, and assessing their effectiveness with data. This level is mainly instrumental, and driven mainly by statistics and econometrics. • Application work in operational research, like other engineering and economics' disciplines, attempts to use models to make a practical impact on real-world problems. The major subdisciplines in modern operational research, as identified by the journal Operations Research, are: • • • • • • • • • • • Computing and information technologies Decision analysis Environment, energy, and natural resources Financial engineering Manufacturing, service sciences, and supply chain management Marketing Engineering  Policy modeling and public sector work Revenue management Simulation Stochastic models Transportation
Cecil Gordon. Since that time. and government. and studies into the dynamical behaviour of railway vehicles in defence of the GWR's broad gauge. was that a few large convoys are more defensible than many small ones. the techniques began to be applied more widely to problems in business. P. After the war it began to be applied to similar problems in industry. Waddington. About 200 operational research scientists worked for the British Army. and in the United States with George Dantzig looked for ways to make better decisions in such areas as logistics and training schedules. It was also argued that small convoys would be harder for German U-boats to detect. Historical origins In the World War II era. Chain Home (CH). therefore. rather than on the overall size of the convoy. and has become an area of active academic and industrial research. expanding later to include the operating personnel's behaviour. Prior to the formal start of the field. Jacob Bronowski and Freeman Dyson. Second World War During the Second World War close to 1. H. Patrick Blackett worked for several different organizations during the war. C. Early in the war while working for the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE) he set up a team known as the "Circus" which helped to reduce the number of anti-aircraft artillery rounds needed to shoot down an enemy aircraft from an average of over 20. The modern field of operational research arose during World War II. They undertook a number of crucial analyses that aided the war effort. Blackett's staff showed that the losses suffered by convoys depended largely on the number of escort vessels present. first to the Royal Navy's Coastal Command. but while the principle of using warships to accompany merchant ships was generally accepted. Frank Yates. operational research originated in the efforts of military planners during World War II. operational research has expanded into a field widely used in industries ranging from petrochemicals to airlines. industry and society.000 at the start of the Battle of Britain to 4. Initially. it was unclear whether it was better for convoys to be small or large. Modern operational research originated at the Bawdsey Research Station in the UK in 1937 and was the result of an initiative of the station's superintendent. large convoys could deploy more warships against an attacker. moving to a focus on the development of mathematical models that can be used to analyze and optimize complex systems. Britain introduced the convoy system to reduce shipping losses. His research into the cost of transportation and sorting of mail led to England's universal "Penny Post" in 1840. Owen Wansbrough-Jones. Scientists in the United Kingdom including Patrick Blackett (later Lord Blackett OM PRS). so small convoys can travel faster. .000 men and women in Britain were engaged in operational research. in 1941 and then early in 1942 to the Admiralty.000 in 1941. Convoys travel at the speed of the slowest member. Their conclusion. Percy Bridgman brought operational research to bear on problems in physics in the 1920s and would later attempt to extend these to the social sciences. A. Rowe. he analyzed the operating of the radar equipment and its communication networks. In 1941 Blackett moved from the RAE to the Navy. finance. operational research was defined as "a scientific method of providing executive departments with a quantitative basis for decisions regarding the operations under their control.Operations research 2 History As a formal discipline. logistics. early work in operational research was carried out by individuals such as Charles Babbage. This revealed unappreciated limitations of the CH network and allowed remedial action to be taken." Other names for it included operational analysis (UK Ministry of Defence from 1962) and quantitative management. In the decades after the war. Blackett's team at Coastal Command's Operational Research Section (CC-ORS) included two future Nobel prize winners and many other people who went on to be preeminent in their fields. On the other hand. Rowe conceived the idea as a means to analyse and improve the working of the UK's early warning radar system.
 The "exchange rate" ratio of output to input was a characteristic feature of operational research. All damage inflicted by German air defences was noted and the recommendation was given that armour be added in the most heavily damaged areas. Blackett's team instead made the surprising and counter-intuitive recommendation that the armour be placed in the areas which were completely untouched by damage in the bombers which returned. It was then a matter of calculating the statistical loss from collisions against the statistical loss from night fighters to calculate how close the bombers should fly to minimise RAF losses. which.Operations research While performing an analysis of the methods used by RAF Coastal Command to hunt and destroy submarines. even if attacked shortly after submerging. if hit. Bomber Command's Operational Research Section (BC-ORS). Bomber Command inspected all bombers returning from bombing raids over Germany over a particular period. Blackett observed "there can be few cases where such a great operational gain had been obtained by such a small and simple change of tactics". By comparing the number of flying hours put in by Allied aircraft to the number of U-boat sightings in a given area. and if it saw the aircraft a long way from the target it had time to alter course under water so the chances of it being within the 20 feet kill zone of the charges was small. it was realised that if the RAF bombers were to fly in a bomber stream they could overwhelm the night fighters who flew in individual cells directed to their targets by ground controllers. They reasoned that the survey was biased. analysed a report of a survey carried out by RAF Bomber Command. revealed that . one of the analysts asked what colour the aircraft were. and United States mines in Japanese routes. Tests showed that aircraft painted white were on average not spotted until they were 20% closer than those painted black. Before the change of settings from 100 feet to 25 feet. (If submarines were caught on the surface. 7% were sunk and 11% damaged. the kill ratios would go up. 1% of submerged U-boats were sunk and 14% damaged. 3 Map of Kammhuber Line Operational research doubled the on-target bomb rate of B-29s bombing Japan from the Marianas Islands by increasing the training ratio from 4 to 10 percent of flying hours. British mines on German routes. since it only included aircraft that returned to Britain. The reason was that if a U-boat saw an aircraft only shortly before it arrived over the target then at 100 feet the charges would do no damage (because the U-boat wouldn't have time to descend as far as 100 feet). would result in the loss of the aircraft. The ratio of 60 mines laid per ship sunk was common to several campaigns: German mines in British ports. the numbers rose to 11% sunk and 15% damaged). At the suggestion of CC-ORS a test was run to see if that was the best colour to camouflage the aircraft for daytime operations in the grey North Atlantic skies. (Info to help verify some/most of the above paragraph is found in "Dirty Little Secrets of the Twentieth Century" authored by James F. Dunnigan on pages 215-217 When Germany organised its air defences into the Kammhuber Line. The untouched areas of returning aircraft were probably vital areas. It was more efficient to attack those submarines close to the surface when these targets' locations were better known than to attempt their destruction at greater depths when their positions could only be guessed. it was possible to redistribute aircraft to more productive patrol areas. Other work by the CC-ORS indicated that on average if the trigger depth of aerial delivered depth charges (DCs) was changed from 100 feet to 25 feet. Comparison of exchange rates established "effectiveness ratios" useful in planning. After the change. As most of them were from Bomber Command they were painted black for nighttime operations. For the survey. Their suggestion to remove some of the crew so that an aircraft loss would result in fewer personnel loss was rejected by RAF command. This change indicated that 30% more submarines would be attacked and sunk for the same number of sightings.
Operations research wolf-packs of three United States submarines were the most effective number to enable all members of the pack to engage targets discovered on their individual patrol stations. intermodal freight transport) scheduling: • • • • personnel staffing manufacturing steps project tasks network data traffic: these are known as queueing models or queueing systems. labor. They analysed. logistics and infrastructure. setup of telecommunications networks to maintain quality of service during outages • Allocation problems • Facility location • Assignment Problems: • Assignment problem • Generalized assignment problem • Quadratic assignment problem • Weapon target assignment problem Bayesian search theory : looking for a target optimal search routing. aerial bombing. On land. and the smooth paint finish increased airspeed by reducing skin friction. such as determining the routes of buses so that as few buses are needed as possible supply chain management: managing the flow of raw materials and products based on uncertain demand for the finished products efficient messaging and customer response tactics automation: automating or integrating robotic systems in human-driven operations processes globalization: globalizing operations processes in order to take advantage of cheaper materials. operational research was no longer limited to only operational. revealed that glossy enamel paint was more effective camouflage for night fighters than traditional dull camouflage paint finish. among other topics. Problems addressed with operational research • critical path analysis or project planning: identifying those processes in a complex project which affect the overall duration of the project • floorplanning: designing the layout of equipment in a factory or components on a computer chip to reduce manufacturing time (therefore reducing cost) • network optimization: for instance. 4 After World War II With expanded techniques and growing awareness of the field at the close of the war. and anti-tank shooting. land or other productivity inputs transportation: managing freight transportation and delivery systems (Examples: LTL Shipping. but was extended to encompass equipment procurement. training. • • • • • • • • • • sports events and their television coverage • blending of raw materials in oil refineries • determining optimal prices. in many retail and B2B settings. and they followed British forces in the advance across Europe. the operational research sections of the Army Operational Research Group (AORG) of the Ministry of Supply (MoS) were landed in Normandy in 1944. the effectiveness of artillery. within the disciplines of pricing science .
as well as designing and developing new and better models of organizational excellence. statistics and numerical algorithms to improve an organization's ability to enact rational and meaningful management decisions by arriving at optimal or near optimal solutions to complex decision problems. Of course. In dealing with these sorts of challenges mathematical modeling and simulation are not appropriate or will not suffice. business.Operations research Operational research is also used extensively in government where evidence-based policy is used. and identifying and understanding the strategies adopted by companies for their information systems Management science is also concerned with so-called ”soft-operational analysis”. and other sciences. and Problem Structuring Methods (PSM). with strong links with economics. establishing the information needs and appropriate systems to supply them within the health service. Therefore. and in government. management science (MS). 5 Management science In 1967 Stafford Beer characterized the field of management science as "the business use of operations research". factory or fire station. It includes: • • • • • • scheduling airlines. However. Techniques Some of the fields that have considerable overlap with Management Science include: • • • • • • • • Data mining Decision analysis Engineering Forecasting Game theory Industrial engineering Logistics Mathematical modeling • • • • • • • Mathematical optimization Probability and statistics Project management Simulation Social network/Transportation forecasting models Supply chain management Financial engineering Applications of management science Applications of management science are abundant in industry as airlines. is an interdisciplinary branch of applied mathematics devoted to optimal decision planning. The management scientist's mandate is to use rational. manufacturing companies. managing the flow of water from reservoirs. Management science is concerned with developing and applying models and concepts that may prove useful in helping to illuminate management issues and solve managerial problems. The application of these models within the corporate sector became known as Management science. science-based techniques to inform and improve decisions of all kinds. the techniques of management science are not restricted to business applications but may be applied to military. strategies. including both planes and crew. In short. engineering. identifying possible future development paths for parts of the telecommunications industry. Like operational research itself. It uses various scientific research-based principles. The range of problems and issues to which management science has contributed insights and solutions is vast. deciding the appropriate place to site new facilities such as a warehouse. systematic. medical. during the past . public administration. charitable groups. in modern times the term management science may also be used to refer to the separate fields of organizational studies or corporate strategy. management sciences help businesses to achieve their goals using the scientific methods of operational research. political groups or community groups. military branches. which concerns methods for strategic planning. service organizations. and analytical methods including mathematical modeling. strategic decision support.
Simulation and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) In 2004 the US-based organization INFORMS began an initiative to market the OR profession better. They are: • • • • • • • • • • • • Decision Analysis Information Systems Research INFORMS Journal on Computing INFORMS Transactions on Education (an open access journal) Interfaces: An International Journal of the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences Management Science: A Journal of the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences Manufacturing & Service Operations Management Marketing Science Mathematics of Operations Research Operations Research: A Journal of the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences Organization Science Transportation Science. UK. Germany. The constituent members of IFORS form regional groups. • International Journal of Operations Research and Information Systems (IJORIS)": an official publication of the Information Resources Management Association. a number of non-quantified modeling methods have been developed. published quarterly by IGI Global.000 pages of published papers per year. • Decision Sciences published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Decision Sciences Institute • European Journal of Operational Research (EJOR): Founded in 1975 and is presently by far the largest operational research journal in the world. Canada. with its around 9. including a website entitled The Science of Better which provides an introduction to OR and examples of successful applications of OR to industrial problems.. • INFOR Journal: published and sponsored by the Canadian Operational Research Society. its total number of citations was the second largest amongst Operational Research and Management Science journals. representing approximately 50 national societies including those in the US. Philippines. such as that in Europe.Operations research 30 years. Other journals • 4OR-A Quarterly Journal of Operations Research: jointly published the Belgian. This initiative has been adopted by the Operational Research Society in the UK. . India. including the top two journals in their class. These include: • • • • • stakeholder based approaches including metagame analysis and drama theory morphological analysis and various forms of influence diagrams. according to 2005 Journal Citation Reports. New Zealand. approaches using cognitive mapping the Strategic Choice Approach robustness analysis 6 Societies and journals Societies The International Federation of Operational Research Societies (IFORS) is an umbrella organization for operational research societies worldwide. including a website entitled Learn about OR. Other important operational research organizations are Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO) and Interservice/Industry Training. Japan and South Africa (ORSSA). France. Australia. Journals INFORMS publishes twelve scholarly journals about operations research. In 2004. French and Italian Operations Research Societies (Springer).
lionhrtpub. cors. co. Methods of Operations Research. Sodhi. 101 (http:/ / books. lums.?" OR/MS Today. 2008. • Journal of the Operational Research Society (JORS): an official journal of The OR Society. Raymond H. 2006. and Kimball. March–May 1943 (http:/ / www. gov/ oco/ ocos044. • Opsearch: official journal of the Operational Research Society of India. 96. uk/ departments/ ManSci/ DeptProfile/ WhatisManSci/ ) Lancaster University. (May 1968). p. 5th printing. October 1947. php?c=10& kat=Forthcoming+ Papers  http:/ / www. 117 (http:/ / books. co. published by Palgrave. • Mathematical Methods of Operations Research (MMOR): the journal of the German and Dutch OR Societies. org/ content/ index. cam. Report C67/3/4/48. co. ca/ Articles/ victory1943.S. html)  Kirby. html) University of Cambridge 2008. p. google.Operations research • Journal of Defense Modeling and Simulation (JDMS): Applications. html  P. org/ )  INFORMS (http:/ / www. uk/ books?id=DWITTpkFPEAC& lpg=PA141& pg=PA117)  Kirby. asor. UK National Archives file WO291/1301 Quoted on the dust-jacket of: Morse.  What is Management Science? (http:/ / bus. au) . ac. mod. 102."  http:/ / brochure. familyheritage. biz  "Operational Research in the British Army 1939–1945. raf. ifors. uk/ books?id=DWITTpkFPEAC& lpg=PA141& pg=PA96)  "Numbers are Essential": Victory in the North Atlantic Reconsidered. this is the oldest continuously published journal of OR in the world. 12. published by Springer. Philip M. uk/ books?id=DWITTpkFPEAC& lpg=PA141& pg=PA101)  (Kirby. ac. ca)  ASOR (http:/ / www. utk. The Logic of Modern Physics. uk/ programmes/ mphil_mgtscience/ mgtresearch. and it absorbed the Army Operational Research Establishment based at West Byfleet. uk/ books?id=DWITTpkFPEAC& lpg=PA141& pg=PA109)  Kirby. W. edu/ soms/ information/ whatis_msci. britannica. "In January 1962 the name was changed to Army Operational Research Establishment (AORE). p. google.  IFORS (http:/ / www. Methodology. 91–94 (http:/ / books. p. bls. informs. a tri-service operational research organisation was established: the Defence Operational Research Establishment (DOAE) which was formed in 1965.  http:/ / www3. html) The University of Tennessee. uk)  http:/ / www. 1st Edition Revised.  UK National Archives Catalogue for WO291 (http:/ / www. George E. ac. org/ site/ OperationsResearch/ index. hsor. "What about the 'O' in O. New York. google. • Military Operations Research (MOR): published by the Military Operations Research Society. • Production and Operations Management. uk/ catalogue/ displaycataloguedetails. roadef. com/ orms/ orms-12-07/ frqed. htm  What is Management Science Research? (http:/ / www. Retrieved 5 June 2008. decisionpro. The MacMillan Company. lancs. uk/ books?id=DWITTpkFPEAC& lpg=PA141& pg=PA103))  http:/ / www. google. uk/ bombercommand/ thousands. published by Palgrave. Bridgman. org/ what_is_or. cfm  http:/ / www. Operations Research in World War II. pp. pp. • OR Insight: a quarterly journal of The OR Society. jbs.  Stafford Beer (1967) Management Science: The Business Use of Operations Research  What is Management Science? (http:/ / www. United States Naval Institute Proceedings. gov. co. 1927  http:/ / www. published by Palgrave. • Journal of Simulation (JOS): an official journal of The OR Society.R. December. za/ myunisa/ data/ subjects/ Quantitative%20Management. co. orsoc.103 (http:/ / books. htm  CORS (http:/ / www. http:/ / www. pdf  M. unisa. 2007. asp?CATID=109& CATLN=2& Highlight=& FullDetails=True) lists a War Office organisation called Army Operational Research Group (AORG) that existed from 1946 to 1962. google. Retrieved 5 June 2008. pub MIT Press & J Wiley.109 (http:/ / books. p. google. org. Following the creation of a unified Ministry of Defence. Technology: a quarterly journal devoted to advancing the science of modeling and simulation as it relates to the military and defense. uk/ books?id=DWITTpkFPEAC& lpg=PA141& pg=PA94)  Kirby. nationalarchives. co. html  Milkman. informs. 7 Notes  http:/ / www. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 682073/ operations-research/ 68171/ History#ref22348  Kirby. the official journal of the Production and Operations Management Society • TOP: the official journal of the Spanish Society of Statistics and Operations Research. 1954. Retrieved 5 June 2008. 96 (http:/ / books. org/ )  The OR Society (http:/ / www. org.
html)  The OR Society (http:/ / www. Washington. • Gerald E.army. iitsec. springer. Donald B. 2011 • Wayne Winston. Management science: Building and Using Models • Kamlesh Mathur. orsi. (Operational Research Society (Great Britain)). co. org. 4th. McWilliams (1987).Operations research  ORSNZ (http:/ / www. org/ pubs/ jdms/ jdms. aspx?TitleId=1141  JDMS (http:/ / www. org/ )  SISO (http:/ / www. 2nd. Wiley and Sons. Thompson (1981). Bernard W. 2005 • Michael Pidd. . Prentice Hall. orsp. "Management Science: Quantitative Methods in Context" • Thomas W. Sang M. Krieger Publishing Co. New York: J. scs. orsnz. ph/ )  ORSI (http:/ / www. org. ISBN 1860943667. in/ )  ORSSA (http:/ / www. Gass & Arjang A. McGraw-Hill: Boston MA. Operational Research in War and Peace: The British Experience from the 1930s to 1970. Lee. L. Introduction to Operations Research. nz/ )  ORSP (http:/ / www. Assad (2005). 1957 • Joseph G. Management Science: A Bayesian Introduction. Management Science: Introductory Concepts and Applications • Lee J. Edition. An Annotated Timeline of Operations Research: An Informal History. com/ east/ home/ business/ operations+ research?SGWID=5-40521-70-173677307-detailsPage=journal|description) 8 References • Kirby. Arnoff.html). uk). Operations Research: Applications and Algorithms. West Churchman. Imperial College Press. Russell L. org/ site/ DA/ )  INFORMS Transactions on Education (http:/ / www. CMH Pub 70-102-1. M. com/ mathematics/ journal/ 186)  TOP (http:/ / www. org/ )  The Science of Better (http:/ / www. Edition. Wiley & Sons Ltd. Taylor (1993). uk/ )  INFORMS Journals (http:/ / www. 2003.  Mathematical Methods of Operations Research website (http:/ / www. org. Krajewski. Duxbury Press. History of Operations Research in the United States Army. informs. Management Science: The Art of Decision Making • Laurence J.C. php?c=31& kat=-+ INFORMS+ Journals)  Decision Analysis (http:/ / www. Kropp (1985). J. Lieberman. Pinney. Ackoff & E. Edition. Thompson (1982). Operations Research: An Introduction.mil/html/books/hist_op_research/index. Knowles (1989). Ecker & Michael Kupferschmid. za/ )  EURO (http:/ / www. informs. • Frederick S. Baker. Charles R. Moore. org/ site/ ITE/ )  http:/ / www. euro-online. W. Tools for Thinking: Modelling in Management Science. org. Hillier & Gerald J. informs. Volume 1:1942-1962 (http://www. learnaboutor. New York : Kluwer Academic Publishers. Introduction to Operations Research. New York : McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. 2003 • Hamdy A. (International) Edition. orsoc. 8th.: United States Army Center of Military History. org/ )  Learn about OR (http:/ / www. 2003 • Kenneth R. Management Science: An Introduction to the Use of Decision Models • David Charles Heinze (1982). 9th. • William E. Chichester. Management Science: An Introduction to Modern Quantitative Analysis and Decision Making. igi-global. (2006). orssa. Introduction to Operations Research. 9781860943669 Further reading • C. Taha. springer. org/ index. Management Science: An Introduction to Quantitative Analysis for Management • Shrader. scienceofbetter. com/ Bookstore/ TitleDetails. sisostds. Howard E.. Daniel Solow (1994). D. org/ )  I/ITSEC (http:/ / www. • Saul I. Management Science • William Thomas Morris (1968). Dean H.history.
Schedules Your Favorite Team's Games. 2000 (http://www.boston.computerworld." Boston Globe. November 20. June 27. • International Federation of Operational Research Societies (http://www." Computerworld.ifors.gov/ oco/ocos044. U. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics (http://stats.bls.S. 2004 (http://www.com/news/globe/reprints/062704_postrel/) • "Optimal Results: IT-powered advances in operations research can enhance business processes and boost the corporate bottom line.htm/) • "Operation Everything: It Stocks Your Grocery Store.informs. and Helps Plan Your Vacation. The Most Influential Academic Discipline You've Never Heard Of.com/s/article/ 54157/Optimal_Results?taxonomyId=063/) .org/) • Occupational Outlook Handbook.Operations research 9 External links • INFORMS OR/MS Resource Collection (http://www.org/Resources/): a comprehensive set of OR links.
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