THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE

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THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE BY JOHN POLLOCK Late Fellow of Trinity College. Cambridge. Author of ii War and Revolution in Russia Sr'c LONDON CONSTABLE AND COMPANY LIMITED 1919 .

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H. is allied is. "Russia can but be understood by faith. TioT4eB r b. y Heft oco6eHnaji craTB — BTj PoCCiK) MOJKIIO TOJbKO BipHTb. Whosoever with Russia." the poet saith. $. General Oleg Vassilkovsky 426612 .yaiOM'b Poceiio ue uoHaib." F. — Tyutchbv Great Russia was. "Russia cannot be understood by reason. ApintlKOM-L oGmilMTi He H3M'fipHTb. Apply the common rule to her 'tis treason: Her stature is her own. his will be World Victory. and will be.

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.. y 35 CHAPTER BEHIND THE VEIL IN MOSCOW III 55 CHAPTER RUSSIA AND THE UKRAINE IV 82 CHAPTER V COMMUNISM IN PRACTICE 100 CHAPTER HUNGRY PETROGRAD vii VI 156 ..GfNALT0BE NOV 08 199^£T"A(NED CONTENTS PAQK INTRODUCTORY LETTER ix I .-\T!ON ^Py ADDED OH.... .'.--"-.. . CHAPTER DOWN WITH THE BOLSHEVIKS ! . 25 CHAPTER II CHRISTMAS UNDER THE BOLSHEVIKS ..

9K 195 CHAPTER MY LAST JOURiNEY VIII 205 CHAPTER IX MY EXIT FROM RUSSIA 237 INDEX 277 viti .CONTENTS CHAPTER A PRODUCER DsT BOLSHEVTSIA VII PA.

Robert Lee gave proof of the most brilliant military genius recorded in history. theless. This book deals with Bolsheviks' deeds. not their words. was one of Lee's most highly-prized lieutenants. Of other fellows' brindled hair ? Who do not indeed propose to imitate the novelist's freedom in revealing his friends to the world neverI . and as. Staff My dear Johnston. present public intrusion upon you.INTRODUCTORY LETTER To Major Robert M. his opinion on this subject ix . who was killed too soon for the Confederate side during the American Civil War. Johnston. General Albert Sydney Johnston. in the opinion of some good judges. of the General of the American Expeditionary Forces. I feel that a word of apology is due for my Your uncle. gave you leave that you might speak. While all the world might smile and stare. You will remember how Andrew Lang once : wrote to Stevenson Dear Louis of the awful cheek.

1915. to do relief work among refugees from the area of the war and returned In the interval I saw something of last Thursday. So lately as January last I travelled my from Petrograd to Saratov. in Voronesh when that town was taken by a band of Bolshevik ruffians fleeing from the Harkov at the time of the attempt on Lenin's Saratov during Trotsky's visit there prior to the taking of Samara. and compelled during the last six months to live under a disguise. It was therefore natural that your bent should be for military history. and if I address you now it is because at a distance I have tried to apply to the solution of some problems of the war the principles your teaching by the spoken and the written word has often made clear to me. I went to Russia in March. and x . Not being an official perfront. much of the revolution. the front. and free from the blinkers often imposed on those who only know their own country. Moscow in and sonage. in life. Your mind. has been occupied during the war with the fruitful consideration of strategy in practice. When I went to Russia I did not speak Russian. trained to the bird's-eye view.INTRODUCTORY LETTER would be hard to question. I was able to travel about the country with some freedom and to watch events from an independent angle. and mere of the Bolshevik regime than was given to most Englishmen to see. and it was on return thence that I was denounced and narrowly escaped coming to a premature end in the capital. I was in Petrograd during both the revolutions.

I believe. and.INTRODUCTORY LETTER my ideas about the country were drawn from books and acquaintances. especially as one seldom hits on the most illuminating book beforehand. To take an instance. General Brusilov has related that he kept map the date fixed for his offensive of 1916 a secret even from General Headquarters. is so different from other European countries that these are by no means safe guides. to disentangle causes by piecing together reports to fit from their maze of " more international effects and " " future " Strategy in Russia turned out to be politics. when this legend was was. Russia. I should name Colonel Burnaby's Ride to Khiva. which Russian fortresses fell like ninepins it became a matter of absorbing interest complete Russia into a real and not a fanciful of the war. As it vague and merely enthu" the Russian steamI took the legend of siastic. Judging from my experience. optimism and pessimism xi alike being at . if I were asked to recommend the best single book from which a preliminary idea of Russia and Russian character might be acquired. and politics to be war. however. my ideas were shattered by the German offensive in Galicia and the way in toppling over. " at its face roller value. the failure to apprehend the force of the direct action of politics on military affairs in Russia that vitiated the English view of the Russian effort. for fear that it would be betrayed to the enemy. What staff work could be expected in an army where recourse was had to such methods ? It was.

entered directly into the calculations. Interior.INTRODUCTORY LETTER different times exaggerated. existed. pursuing their re- presentatives with ingenious calumnies. the Minister strongly suspected of being a German as was acclaimed from our side as " such an excellent " and with " How fellow lucky Russia is to get a Minister like him Despite the advantages of our . had not the knowledge to enable them to analyse the complex situations they were confronted with. For it was not politics in the ordinary sense that influenced the conduct of the war. We did not seem to learn how to pick out the guiding threads. Semitic sentiment was freely exploited to this end. of course. Russian Not content with manifold organisations of spies in the army. having the best intentions.! ! xii . and doubtless in every Russian department of State. In this respect the truly Germans displayed a thoroughness that was admirable. when Protopopov. sowing discord between them. we committed many blunders and much German This. and afforded traps that were rarely avoided by Britons who. with the result that injustice. but the use made by Germany of political machinery in Russia to stultify the efforts of the Russian army and supplement those of her own. they kept track of even the smallest Allied efforts in Russia. They neglected no opportunity. They probably did not realise that analysis was required or that complexity of the traitor. and wherever possible insinuating Under the old rSgime antispies into their midst.

It may be imagined that if the Allied cause in Russia from his cousin with a German from a person kept in England by from such causes under the empire. which proved the long-sought lever for the Bolshevik Government definitely to oust the Allies from their already precarious position in she turned Russia. their potency was increased tenfold after the revolution. Ejected from this post.P. who name. Was the lady a spy or an agent-provocateur ? But it was not only. since much of our information came from sources dominated by patriotism to-day. so. a case of a young lady of attractive appearance and doubtful nationality who was a frequent visitor at an Allied institution in Petrograd. The only question in this case seems to be. a well-known statesman gets his information with regard to Russia from his private secretary. getting a salary of five hundred roubles a month and spending several thousand. where she worked for a considerable time.INTRODUCTORY LETTER and the recognition of British bulldog tenacity. who gets it from a London hostile influence.. no better way was discovered of dealing with the matter than to obtain her employment in another branch of the service. Even M. for instance. ourselves xiii . or indeed chiefly. our position was in reality weak. suffered up smiling at a certain Consulate in Moscow and was there at the time of the puerile plot to bribe the Lettish guards. Cause being found to suspect her. who gets it gets it the Bolsheviks for exactly that purpose. There was.

for too staunch an American to suspect my goodwill. Other of the Allies too are tarred with the same brush. not excepting the United States. so as. know thyself. my dear Johnston. But the injunction. and as regards America it must be admitted — that much leeway has to be made up. who indeed has had no So really I feel there can be allies but only vassals. America doubtless welcomed the Russian revolution more keenly than many of the Allies. lest I should offend. on the other the Boche. and in the war we have been all one on the one side France and her Allies. The Imperial Government of Russia was supposed to be one of the reasons why the United States did not come earlier into the war. Russia will recover sooner from the effects of the war than any other European nation. seems to me stronger upon us in relation to the war even than it was before.INTRODUCTORY LETTER who were at fault. and I have too many friends and the memories of too many happy days in America to waver in my affection. no offence if I point to mistakes made in Russia by your country. and will in our lifetime probably become the richest and most powerful in the world. You know me. It therefore behoves us to see where we have gone wrong. and its downfall naturally created a wave of sympathy with the new-born republic in Eastern xiv . if possible. And here I beg forgiveness beforehand. to regain lost ground. By heredity and experience my sympathies have long since been strongly enlisted on your side of the Atlantic.

but America would life see in that not one man more had to give his the war. Edward Russell. All went well. Russell had been chair- the cause of of Workmen's and Soldiers' and had been engaged by the mission on its way from Vladivostok. On inquiry afterwards. I found that the interpreter-secretary for the day was another gentleman of precisely the same kidney. who. the speech being translated sentence by sentence by an interpreter gifted with tremendous when he came to the central point this delivered himself in Russian of the sentigentleman ment that America was the home of liberty and that lungs. the well-known American Mr. A day or two later. The mission. Russell made a speech of fine Socialist leader. working up to the climax that America was the home of liberty and that every American would give his life to defend liberty. Root at the Winter Palace. fervour and simplicity. were thus able to render its best xv man of the Council Deputies of Harbin. and was present at a meeting of several thousand at Pavlovsk addressed by Mr. I learned that the interpreter attached to Mr. . lunching with Mr. in fact. But the expression of that sympathy was not upon the same level of candour and certainty.INTRODUCTORY LETTER Europe whose country had been regarded as the stronghold of reaction. at critical moments. was in the hands of its enemies. which evoked uproarious applause from all Socialists in the huge building. I happened to be in Petrograd when Senator Root's mission arrived.

and Sir George Buchanan had already left the country. I answered. It was in the official of the Russian summer of 1918 that an extremely Red Cross. such extreme misrepresentations. to understand the course of recent history in Russia. but unless the point is made. with the exception of replied distributing condensed milk. Albert Thomas did not suffer from missions. of the Allied representation Russia was not until after the Bolshevik revolution. with some surprise." Now we have it on good authority that "talebearers are as bad as talemakers.INTRODUCTORY LETTER intentions nugatory. who may have done excellent work in other spheres. real test. if not impossible. undoubtedly xvi . still even he can hardly have been fully aware of the extent and viruanything? lence of the anti-Ally propaganda circles among Socialistic with which Kerensky was in intimate touch. The leaders of the American Red Cross. that I should have expected him to answer the question better than myself. To which he "So far as we know. it is hard. shortly before able that was taken over and wrecked by the Bolsheviks. Is it to be wondered at that in these conditions it left without having accomplished The same game was played with other and if M." and I would not repeat this. when the Embassies were sitting in a quasi-conventual retirement at Vologda. asked me what I knew about the work of the American Red Cross in Russia. The in however. they have done absoinstitution : lutely nothing here but political intrigue.

some public.INTRODUCTORY LETTER threw their energy on to the side of the Bolsheviks and it was understood in Moscow that Colonel Robins. had they done so. which have put the latter into power so solidly as to might render their removal impossible. Russians. in the same direction : xvii c .the way of interAmerican public can hardly have the fact that the War was going on all the time grasped in Russia. who knew Americans as little as the latter did them. destroyed their budding sympathy. The the sympathy of the entire upper class in Russia. but the experience of watching American representatives apparently willing to enter common into a compact with their national enemies. who took part and was photographed in the Bolshevik Mayday parade last year. they could not have calmly accepted a policy that has cost them the American vention. . there were moments of very high tension in pro-Ally circles. and though recognition did not take place and the tension slackened. some the proposal of the private. Since that time Russians have witnessed one after another effort. which was not improved by the belief that Government stood in. did his utmost to get the Conciliar Government recognised. were ready when the United States came into the war to revise their somewhat crude notions and go forward hand in hand with a new Ally in the cause. and that the Bolshevik regime was nothing but a German barrage . As he had some English backing also. nevertheless an uneasy feeling remained after Colonel Robins' departure.

South Carolina and murdered most of the whites. more or less under Bolshevik protection. who see the tragic situation of their country misrepresented to the outer world by persons consider have no right to express an opinion of any kind. but this is only the more exasperating to Russians. it ceases to be surprising is that they take whatever they are told by the Bolsheviks as gospel. was attributed to President Wilson another attempt to enter into peace negotiations with the Bolsheviks was barely . at least. That what must be called the American pro- who they Bolshevik movement did not express the feelings and desires of a large part of the best representatives of the American nation is evident. averted . rightly or wrongly.INTRODUCTORY LETTER Prinkipo Conference. If objective evidence of this were required. say. and have not scrupled to express opinions favourable to the Bolsheviks. and there have been at least two schemes for sending into Russia food that every Russian knew Various would benefit no one but the Bolsheviks. which has about the same effect on Russian educated opinion as it would have upon Americans if Russians visited and belauded an insurrectionary Negro Government that had mastered. it could be found in that remarkxviii . of these knight-errants are unacquainted with the Russian language and with the customs of the country. American journalists and representatives of charitable societies have in the last few months visited Russia. When it observed that some.

to the truth concern- ing the acts and intentions of the Bolsheviks. Sisson 's work could have made possible the frame of mind of a New York banker who explained the United States attitude towards the Bolsheviks by a desire of American business men to have the cards reshuffled and a fresh deal made. but an adequate account of their causes. purely by The reader will find there.INTRODUCTORY LETTER able publication of the United States Committee on Public Information. and an explanation of what has happened. so that his documents can have on my judgment. The German-Bolshevik Conspiracy. Lord Acton once being asked what was the moment of greatest . Sisson 's pamphlet. If anyone whom doubts the testimony of that cloud of witnesses. I should perhaps say that I saw it for the first time after escaping from Russia in February. No one studying the long series of documents collected by Mr. answered." xix Had he lived he c 2 . which was formed a consideration of the facts I had observed. not a description of events effect had no in Russia. only neglect of Mr. Sisson. of I am probably the latest. of which perhaps six or seven are open to the suspicion of having been tampered with before they came into his hands or of having been copied by his agents from memory. could fail to be convinced of the impossibility of any enemy of Germany making peace with the Bolsheviks.< When danger in England's history. let him read Mr. Fulton offered to transport Napoleon's army across the channel by steamship. Indeed.

But this was a danger not only to England. It is impossible not to mention so prominent a feature in the Bolshevik that my movement. would have been able to meet and crush the entire world. since Bolshevik Russia. in Russia. and it is doubtful if a full history and true history of their adventure can ever be written. It would be too soon to attempt a of the Bolsheviks. You will in this book find numerous references to the part played by the Jews in Bolshevik Russia. Of the studies in Bolshevik history that make up this volume. having beaten Germany in the field. when the Allied Governments. They do not aspire to be history. But I venture to hope that the facts I have brought together and the account of my own experiences will shed some light on dark places in Russia. If I to Americans. could think that they will reveal part of the truth my ambition would be more than I should perhaps add a word on a delicate subject. but it must not be thought remarks are inspired by any feelings of hosxx . 1919.INTRODUCTORY LETTER would have seen a greater danger even than this. let themselves be brought to the verge of a peace with her agents. Taken as a whole. they give a fairly comprehensive account of development in Russia from the fall of Kerensky to March. re- organised by Germany. satisfied. but to America also. and especially those now offered to the public for the first time. only two have been published before. our most dangerous enemies.

though it among did among Poles. but it is against the Bolsheviks. very many This of them have suffered bitterly from the terror. could not be otherwise. of the Jews by the Imperial Government persecution and of Russia. to stem the tide of treacherous propaganda conducted by them. a deep-seated exasperation against the Jews as a whole. legal profession when it is reflected that the and journalism in Russia are largely recruited from of Jewish blood. and that the Press and the law courts have been abolished by among men the Bolsheviks. Bolshevik leaders are Jews or have intimate Jewish The reason for this is clearly that the connections. It is not the fact that all the Jews are Bolshevik on the contrary. implanted in and many Jewish exiles an ineradicable hatred it was of this hatred that Germany took advantage in sending Lenin and his associates back to their foster-country. more than others. not against Russia for the preponderance of men of Jewish blood in the Bolshevik camp . and a grave distrust of their motives. The journalists especially did good work for Russia until they were dangerous But it is the fact that almost all the finally muzzled. have suffered from its success.INTRODUCTORY LETTER tility to the Jewish race. In former days pogroms were engineered by gendarme agents at the bidding of reactionaries in the Government but when the Bol. has resulted in what did not exist before Russians. like others. and. Russian Jewish patriots were unable. . Russian Jews have now indeed a terrible grievance. xxi .

the Cabinet Council or the administrative body of an insurance company.." if it represents anything to an English reader. but if they cannot.g. will be to restrain the people itself from wreaking vengeance on the race of which the Bronsteins. John Pollock. and Kamenev whom the Jews will have to thank. Peasants'. and Joffes are the reckless and criminal offspring.INTRODUCTORY LETTER sheviks are cleared out the difficulty of the true representatives of democratic Russia. but the old causes remain and will work themselves out in ways that we cannot foresee but will surely be bitter with suffering and wrath. The objection to this seems to me that the word " soviet. May 22. '<- Yours ever. I believe the new leaders will do their best to prevent anti-Semitic excesses. come to reconstruct the State. Rosenblums. A new chapter in history is about to open. Zinoviev. or Redxxii . the word is the ordinary Russian for a council of any description. it is Lenin. Trotsky. which are supposed to congovernmental system of Bolshevik Russia. e. In fact. 1919. — The "Sovieti. Apfelbaums. In the Bolshevik system it is used shortly for " a Council of Workmen's. are generally referred to in England by their Russian name." stitute the grand. must seem to imply something exceptional and Note.

which is at the top of the and the epithet " sovietsky " for anything system. It appears to me appertaining to such a Council." or People's for the Council of the Commissars. " Council " and simpler to use the English words " Conciliar." XXlll . and replaced by Red-Armyman.INTRODUCTORY LETTER Armymen's* Deputies." * as The word " soldier " has been abolished by the Bolsheviks " reactionary.

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Down with the one should leave his house or return no one should sit down to table or rise from it. wordk. they should be carved in the brain and heart of every man who breathes the air of freedom : Down with the Bolsheviks ! we put down the Bolsheviks ? " BolWhy shevik " is the name of the extreme wing of the Russian Social Democratic Party. The word means a should 25 .THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE CHAPTER I DOWN WITH THE BOLSHEVIKS! As Cato ended every speech with the words Delenda est British citizen Carthago! even so now should every patriotic and every honest thinking man begin his day. ! Bolsheviks to it. with the No no one should betake himself to pleasure or to work without putting up the prayer in his heart. Down with the Bolsheviks! The words should be trumpeted at every street corner. they should be blazoned on every public building. begin and end of and end every important piece business.

! Honour bids us Down with the Bolsheviks little To realise this we must look back a into history. captured the Russian machine" of government a year and a half ago." It Peasant Government. Now the Germans. began as a patriotic movement directed against the corrupt intrigues of the Court by men who wanted Russia and her Allies to win the war. it is by them that we regulate every action of our lives and every thought of our minds. and though we do not often pronounce their names in conversation. They are reasons that have big names. Honour. and Interest. The revolution of March. with less than all the lot. The Bolshevik party.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE man who wants the big share. 1917. but they are not the less true reasons. which has gone on beyond the teachings democracy and has turned itself into a communist party. They are Honour. who will not be satisfied. one might say." this ? " the WorkmanWhat concern have we with calls itself And why should we put down a Government that has ruled for eighteen months over some sixty million people ? Why should we put down any Government at all in Russia ? We Government ought to put down the Bolsheviks and their in Russia for three reasons. Religion. understanding perfectly that 26 if this move- . First then. It captured the of social machine by force and has continued to rule by force much of the Russian empire as it can control under " the Socialist Federative Conciliar the of as guise Russian Republic.

The Bolsheviks were aided by countless German agents and spies. and in otherwise working against their country. the paid agents of Russia's enemy. and they themselves. the banks. became an organisation. The Bolsheviks were for the most part not Russians at all. though these had had no control over the Imperial Government and were not in the least responsible for its misdeeds. that is. immediately on the revolution taking place rushed the Bolsheviks who had been living in exile in Western Europe and America back to Russia.DOWN WITH THE BOLSHEVIKS! ment crystallised and from being an inspiration. and to dissolve the bonds that united Russia to her Allies. the mint. 27 . but had themselves often suffered severely from them. and they succeeded so well in their work that within eight months the Russian army had ceased to exist. and all arms and ammunition and within a few months more had . the post. but Jews who had suffered persecution at the hands of the Russian Government they had spent much time in trying to corrupt the Russian prisoners of war in Germany and Austria. and now came back determined to revenge themselves on the Russian educated classes. Their work was exactly to prevent this organisation and by every possible means to lower the righting spirit of the Russian army. their last chance was gone. and telephone. the public offices and their archives. and supplied them with enormous sums of money to do their work. the railways. telegraph. had seized the . machinery of government.

the " Soviets " or Councils are a sham. because they believed that through the victory of the Allies freedom would come to Russia. members of the Duma. strongly pro-British and pro. This the Bolsheviks hope to do spies are tion. This : by crushing the educated classes. and Chinese. composed of Letts. if community duction . for patriotism is scarcely developed in the millions of peasants who The educated classes were cannot read or write.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE complete control of the printing press and of the food supply of the country. Thousands of officers have been killed by the Bolsheviks because they believed that England would not allow Germany to triumph over Russia. public-spirited women. For this they are now almost all being punished. 28 Tens of . while thousands of employed to scent out and denounce opposiimmense power is used for one chief object to root out in Russia all sense of patriotism and indeed of nationality.Ally. have been flung into prison. and there are no better elections of the Commissars nor any other control over them there is no republic. . and many killed on the pretext of plotting with the English against the Bolsheviks. the elections to on force . no socialism. Their power is based solely the high-sounding titles they apply to themselves have no foundation in reality . of by socialism is meant control by the government and of the means of promaintain themselves and the Bolsheviks solely by the strength of highly-paid guards. Hundreds of writers. liberal landlords. no federation. Magyars.

And yet the Russian educated classes are faithful to their belief in the Allies and especially in Russia saved the Allies in 1914. and honesty disappears under upward effort their grinding tyranny.DOWN WITH THE BOLSHEVIKS! thousands are being starved daily in order that the last spirit of resistance to the Bolsheviks and their German comrades may be squeezed to nothingness. or vilifying the Church. and the plot at Moscow and Petrograd for which scores of patriotic Russians fell into the clutches We must keep faith now. loyalty. All sense of justice. Secondly. I do not refer to the facts that eleven bishops and none knows how many of the minor clergy have been shot by the Bolsheviks that famous Church treasures have been plundered and desecrated by them that holy images have been torn down and lewd posters exhibited broadcast mocking . Now it is England. Religion bids us. Human 29 . unutterably besmirched. our turn to Actively or passively we encouraged the rising at Yaroslavl. where thousands lost their lives. save Russia. That is of the Bolsheviks. . Down with the Bolsheviks ! we are not deaf to the claims of the dead and the cries of the living we must obey the call. why Honour If calls to us. dignity has been Fair trial does not exist. What I mean is that the Bolsheviks have systematically debased and befouled the standards of civilisation that centuries of have implanted in men's minds. Down with the BolI do not use the word in a narrow or sheviks! dogmatic sense.

do not pollute and violate. brutal arrest. Religion joins to that of Honour.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE Freedom has become a dream. torture. but savage imposition of and forced contributions. deceit. of good in the world. and these mercenary butchers sell the flesh of their victims in the market as meat. They have declared that women are public property and would make promiscuity compulsory. now there is none. No man is safe huge from denunciation. crime. In the times of the bad old autocracy there was yet some meagre control over taxation and expenditure". Elderly men fines delicate ladies are forced to do hard physical work while strong young men look on and jeer at them. The Bolsheviks have introduced the abominable custom of and taking hostages to prevent opposition and have murdered thousands of innocent people to terrify or to revenge themselves on their political enemies. Should we fail to cursed in history as that of treasure entrusted to them it and let a gang of cut-throats filch away. not an aspiration fruitful an ideal to raise and purify. In the name of all command obey it. corruption. our name will be men who had a precious that sacred to humanity. They have hired Chinese coolies to murder and torture for them. Mammon and that they Might are their two gods. There is not a sentiment dear to civilised beings. 80 . and secret death. There is not even taxation. not and brutality her their offerings is upon the altar. long imprisonment so vile that after a few weeks men's hair sometimes turns white.

Paris. And Communism. the Bolsheviks are hunger. men.DOWN WITH THE BOLSHEVIKS! And. to raise the huge yellow masses of the East against 31 . Most of all. so that without outside aid it is doubtful that they can get up again. just as they have put down Bolsheviks! If the real Russians. they fear British retribution. British straightforwardness. Interest bids us. Italians. the president of the Petrograd Council. They believe that India is our weakest point and hope to strike a deadly blow there. and terror. It was largely by inculcating hatred of Great Britain. Americans. by misrepresenting British ideals and British methods. by organising a Bolshevik among the Hindoos. is destined to London. desirous of that they carried out their plan of reducing the fine Russian army to a panic-stricken mob. the destruction of property. and support organisations in neutral countries that have revolution the same object. means the abolition of liberty. in Zinoviev 's sense. the stoppage of the factories. they will Not only us. With this purpose. They hate British justice. The Red Army. but Frenchput us down. and Rome in the is sacred cause of Communism. whose real name fight in the streets of Apfelbaum. Englishmen. the most startling increase of disease. have trained Hindoo agitators in Russia to send they to India for the execution of their schemes. . lastly. declares Zinoviev. smashing the British Empire. British thoroughness. They are training Chinese agitators. Down with the we do not put them down. universal dirt.

and turn on their conquerors with a new " " motto. Russian or anybody else. organised forces it will fall to pieces. If we are to and to prevent Germany from turning our victory against ourselves. If own first them sturdiness and tenacity of purpose to pull out of the universal devil's cauldron. They have been beaten. Revolutionary Deutschland iiber alles There were those of us in Russia who long ago raised our voice in warning of a moment when the German . . Bolsheviks in Russia.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE civilised Europe. This is the logical Germany's having sent the Bolsheviks to Russia. That moment is now upon us. but they strong against are very weak against a foe. they have the prospect of an enormous debt to pay now they think to refuse or stultify the terms of peace. free Russia is essen- The Bolsheviks are very unarmed Russians in Russia. tial A strong. renounce their debt. Their body is rotten at the core at the first blow dealt resolutely and with to the peace of Europe. The pressed soldiers will 32 . we must put down the avert it. coming in arms from outside. and have sued for peace. But even the menace of fusion between BolThis is and Germany. reckoning on failed. is more pressing shevik Russia result of an awful danger. It has been foreseen by the Germans at least from the time when their last offensive on the Western Front their they were beaten in the field they would turn Bolshevism loose on Europe. ! sergeant might lead Russia's blind millions against the Allies. All Russia is weary of their iniquities.

but to run Last summer it would scarcely away from them. But if we wait till the Germans have performed their transformation scene and emerged with their brains and method to organise Bolshevik Russia and lead it against us. and though 83 d . Allied troops they can More do without. in blood. More expensive in money. but it will be much more expensive to defend ourselves from them sive then. worse.DOWN WITH THE BOLSHEVIKS! not fight. Then we shall have to fight the war over again and at a disadvantage. The whole 1918. food. desert. in December. though British volunteer detachments would add greatly to their prestige and strength. that is and organisation are needed for the forces already in the field against the Bolsheviks. This have cost — year it will still be easy. Hungary and Bavaria are proofs in effort. twice. It may be expen- now to put down the Bolsheviks. and in Automobile Division was got ready for the road in two days not to go against the British. The officers. will Even without a blow. ammunition. having their families shot. there was such a panic in on the mere rumour that British troops Petrograd had been seen in the field that the Bolshevik leaders fled to Moscow and the principal Bolshevik institutions were prepared for instant evacuation. 1919." can keep out the Bolsheviks. forced to serve for fear of being shot and. of the folly of supthat any barrier of buffer-States. an effort to put down the Bolsheviks. all Money. January. the story will be very different. or "cordon posing sanitaire.

Delenda est Carthago! Down with the Bolsheviks ! 84 . Religion. and Interest are at one. But destroyed it must be. Honour.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE pacific to-day the evil may break out afresh to- morrow. All we have to do is to summon up determination to destroy it. or the hornets will destroy us. hornets. The nest of the Bolsheviks needs no finding. A wooden fence cannot keep out a swarm of The only defence against the hornets is to find and destroy their nest.

your card in after nine o'clock no stranger can enter without leave of the : anxious hand moves." An while the pasteboard is visitor is admitted." The great gate. here my visiting card. 115. stirs and clatters. the most urgent busiis — am quite alone. I —on business. and the postern is opened three inches more a stout chain is : visible that will hold it in that position against a score " Pass pushing from without. through the chink in whose postern a mouse could hardly squeeze. no. Petrov ness.CHAPTER II CHRISTMAS UNDER THE BOLSHEVIKS goes there ? Flat No. Are we in France during the occupation of Bordeaux by the Black Prince ? Is this a blockhouse on the eve 85 d 2 . Petrov 's chief of the guard. I have only come you live here ? ! " Rat-tat Rat-tat ! "—" Who "— " to see Mr. and examined the inquirer is conscious of an uncomfortable scrutiny from three pairs of eyes within and of the business end of a carbine turned towards himself. I want to see Mr."— 'Er. " Pass in." Mr. and the postern hastily shut and double-locked behind him. Petrov— " " Do "No.

THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE of a Red Indian raid ? Or a scene from the private warfare of King Stephen's barons ? The situation will bear the comparisons. scrupulous enough to part with their to the sometimes organised guards reinforced by of able-bodied paid Caucasian the gates in watches of three or four hours throughout the night. They procured weapons at high prices from dealers. who keep few minutes. debauchery. the only protection against organised pillage. They have no existence in law. and murder. if need be. where the Bolsheviks or for and uncertain than any. An Englishman's house is his castle. and sugar without waiting for several hours in the street queue. through which it is possible to obtain bread. if indefinite. or at low ones from members of the Red Guard unrifles — bourgeois they tenants. and can. force. but it is committee of a house nothing to the state of fortification maintained by the in the capital of the former empire of Russia. and indeed now remain. For a considerable time they were. we say. and is perhaps more fantastic are in Petrograd at Christmastide in the year '17. They have organised co-operative societies. but have to be reckoned with by the Bolsheviks' masters as possessed of a certain. House-committees sprang spontaneously into being when the Bolsheviks first seized the power in Petrograd. paraffin. and salt herrings at a third of their retail price. we Maximalists hold sway. summon from twenty to sixty men to their aid in a bravos. which is a 86 .

however. that the revolution literally boils at every moment. He is an accomplished. they afford a means of human intercourse at a moment when few leave home after dark save on serious affairs and bursts of musketry in the street break the stillness of the long evenings." said to me the head of one of the "people in departments Europe imagine that murder goes on uninterruptedly in Russia. only its episodes are — went our way. James's Square. joke. an upright official and former judge with twenty years of good service changed. as it were. man. We go our way as if nothing had hapNot a bit ! pened. and an exMinister of the revolutionary Government was cleaned out a few steps from his house when returning from a political meeting. " No doubt. learned pistol. go to the ' are given every night by ' the Comrades play.CHRISTMAS UNDER THE BOLSHEVIKS rouble and a half. I had little doubt that it rested lightly on the butt of an automatic So did mine. People been stripped of valuables and clothes." 37 We . On Boxing Day at a fashionable theatre there were twenty people in the house. eat. we do our daily business. and a few nights before a and gentleman was undressed by a gang of robbers have flung into the canal almost at its doors. well read in French history. balls in fact. and my companion's right hand was in his pocket. in the middle of the street. and in the Ministry of Justice. that it is unsafe to walk in the streets. it being night time. in Portland Place or St. life remains life.

the pre-war rate of exchange. ally caused misunderstanding. and that Mole's " aux Francais " ranked in interest with the acting fall of the Tuileries. written them up. Moreover. Others inferred that then the events were indeed of far less importance and that historians had subsequently. In reality there is no contradiction. The serious were scandalised as to and asked how it was possible that the world should have been mistaken in its estimate of such notorious events. which is worth perhaps £100 a year. Bastille how they went to the taking of the an entertainment. Frantz Funck-Brentano published a paper showing with what frivolity Parisians of the time regarded the Revolution. debating them from never reaching any but the 1 every same 2d. rouble = 2s. 1 Experience of the Russian troubles throws light on a phase of the French Revolution that has occasionSome years ago M.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE behind him. at moments when tragic events obsess the mind and talk has ranged angle 1 over and At them. In company with the other chiefs of his Ministry he has now been dismissed by the Bolsheviks and is seeking an occupation. if only at two hundred roubles a month. when the fate nations may be in the balance. curiosity will get the hand of a deeper emotion and interest in everyupper day affairs persists as a guiding force for those who do not take part in the shooting. in the journalistic phrase. Those who have lived through the past months in Russia know of how in moments of great peril. 88 .

in of importance occur long spaces of time that their witnesses spend in the daily round. its heels Colonel Walden. and he it was who. waiting seems endless. even difference between revolution as history and as the former. in the latter. yet when the event arrives it is always with the sensation that it has come too soon. in The other thoughts. having fled from Petrograd in the disguise. wearisome. deserves to be gibbeted as high as Haman. some say of a sailor. despite the strong anti-Bolshevik opinions he was wont to express to brother officers. late senior his Majesty's Rifle commanding of the officer of Knight Japanese War. the leading facts are grouped together so as to shadow forth the ideas that underlie and direct them .CHRISTMAS UNDER THE BOLSHEVIKS conclusion. others of a sister of St. it is imperative to find relaxation in mere silliness. moved upon the capital with twenty guns and an insignificant force of Cossacks. of mercy. the while strain- ing every faculty to comprehend the march of fate. and that its successor treads on with breathless haste. between events life is that. For it was he who commanded the Red Guard at Tsarskoe Selo when Kerensky. turned the probable defeat of the hordes of fanatic workmen and motley soldiers drawn from every regiment in Petrograd into the success that gave Lenin and Trotsky their dictatorial throne. and veteran of the Guards. Regiment George. The fighting in Petrograd 39 . so The as to foresee and guard against its next blow.

dispersed. hiding in ditches when they saw anyone coming.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE was purely local. out again the same way. There was no leadership. and was for the possession of the Winter Palace. Some : of the women captured. those gallant lads whose ambition to be Russian officers can never be fulfilled." they were told. a train to a station not far from Thence they boarded Moscow and there He who narrated the tale did not think 40 . the telephone station. changed into civilian clothes. no visible object. or vilely used. were violated there were cases subsequent madness and suicide. or clubbed to death. no preparation. itself nothing but devotion in a cause that the defenders believed to be Russia's and death and suffering. and the military training colleges. men were starved. and the first of them. believed. the good swimmers helping the worse. dreadful to relate. They were defended by Junkers. arid footed it to Luban. Forty Junkers caught after the taking of the Winter Palace Peter and Paul that " Stand here and wait we shall kill you to-morrow. : up a drain-pipe to the upper storey of their college that abuts on the quay. They climbed were sent to the fortress of frowns across the Neva. by a detachment of the Petrograd Women's Battalion. but they managed to slip a bar in their prison window and swam the river to a spot between two guards. no plan. and savagery on the part of the attacking sailors and work- men of after the points it is were won. fifty miles along the railway to Moscow.

overshooting their causing 1 much loss to their mark from both sides and own people. too. threatening to throw them all into a pit and burn them alive with paraffin. for three days. it. the able Francothe seat of the suppressed Among others. 41 . In Moscow the affair was more prolonged. who had lost heavily. At Moscow. that knowledge probably dulled their while it gave them strength beyond own. and only conquered with the aid of sailors from . German and Austrian prisoners of war were observed counter-revolution. Cronstadt sent down as to stamp out the hydra of Socialist writers like to put In both they had to call upon the skill of their ready allies. they butchered a priest while he prayed from civil war. where they counted all the large working-class popuand much of the garrison they were less ably led. refused admittance to the hospital to the wounded Cossacks and tore the bandages off their limbs. by the staff of Russian paper that kept Novoe Vremya until it was warm itself suppressed. the preliminary military training college. for the deliverance of Russia Here. less The Bolsheviks were far lation numerous than in Petrograd. If caught they would all have been killed their imagination.CHRISTMAS UNDER THE BOLSHEVIKS it out of the : common. At Tsarskoe when the fighting was over the Red Guards. At the taking of the Winter Palace. T taking part in the operations. they invited UEntente. after the Bolsheviks had bombarded the Cadets' Corps. that is.

THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE
a
the guns ; on which he placed ten shells running into the building and forced its surrender. The Kremlin, bombarded from three
officer to lay

German

points with six and eight-inch guns as well as lighter

metal,
first

by this paucity of experienced and fortunately suffered less than was at gunners
profited

believed. One of the outer gates, however, has been considerably damaged, and it is reported that the monastery and at least one of the cathedrals
inside the walls were hit

by

shells,

though the

strict

control exercised over visitors prevents independent verification. There can be hardly a doubt that a

great part of the Petrograd Church treasures and objects of art from the Hermitage sent to the

Kremlin for safe-keeping from the Germans will ultimately be found to have vanished. Though the Kremlin was not destroyed and the
church of
less

St. Basil the

Moscow

suffered

Blessed not burnt, nevertheenough from the Bolshevik fury.

Within a ring of a quarter of a mile from the Kremlin, which is the centre of the city, hardly a pane of glass escaped smashing, either from concussion or from rifle and machine-gun fire. Numerous small churches and shrines were riddled with bullets. At the between one of the main streets and the junction
inner boulevard that encircles the

houses, nearly the size of small

town four large London blocks, have
its

been burnt out, and
in the cellars.

many

of their residents perished

The Hotel Me*tropole had
42

upper

CHRISTMAS UNDER THE BOLSHEVIKS
storeys wrecked; eight high-explosive and some fifty shrapnel shells found their billet here. Inevitably the belongings of guests were rifled by the drunken
soldiers,

who

also broke into the Little Theatre, the

famous " theatre de Moliere russe " across the street, and ransacked the wardrobe of the leading actors. Life has come to have such a precarious value that no one seems to have attempted an accurate count of

human

losses

;

but

it is

probable that in the fighting

at Petrograd,
ties totalled

Moscow, and Tsarskoe Selo the casualTsarskoe Selo was the end of Kerensky.

not less than ten thousand.

The

fight at

Known

before the revolution as a lawyer of mediocre attainments, his rise to power was the result of the

absence from the scene of any strong personality that might have interrupted the spread of the legend from

which

his

derived.

He was

gigantic and mushroom popularity was a Socialist intellectual at a time

when

respect for intellect had not yet been smothered in the army by the catchwords supplied from Germany, and there was no man of real eminence in

the same position
hysterical,

:

that

was

all.

Vain,

weak,

unprincipled, self-convinced, maybe by the catchpenny phrases that were all the core of his

supporting, condoning or ignoring the worst excesses, the most slavish errors that accomeloquence,

panied the ruin of the army and the dissolution of stable government, he drove the ship of State on to
rocks faster than a

man

of

more apparently criminal

48

THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE
character might have done. Fear of being supplanted by the Cadets (the Party of the People's Liberty) stayed his hand when, in July, any decent patriot

would have put down the Bolsheviks once and for all a whiff of grapeshot would have done it yet greater
;

fear of General Kornilov led

him

to

lie

to that true

lover of his country and son of the Russian soil, and to invent, with the aid of Nekrassov and otner
Socialist tutors, the legend of his

"

mutiny

M that was

the last stroke to the possibility of military efficiency. Fearful alike of being held too moderate and too extreme, without policy or standard, he forfeited the

support of every section of the nation and fell, an object of scorn or hatred to all. His last acts, in summoning a company of girls to the defence of the

whence he himself fled, hands of the sailors from Cronstadt, and in sacrificing the lives of the Junkers in Petrograd by an order to seize the telephone exchange when he must have known that his promise to enter the capital in victory in a few hours was an
indefensible Winter Palace,

leaving them

to fall into the

boast, can hardly give him a lower place in Tohistory than that which was already his due.

empty

wards Russia and her Allies to the Bolsheviks, was that

his attitude, in relation

of a

decoy who whistles

in front of his victim for the actual assassin to

come

behind and deal the deadly stroke.
is

In this estimate of Kerensky there is one fact that not taken into account. It has been remarked that

44

CHRISTMAS UNDER THE BOLSHEVIKS
when Lenin was under sentence
efforts of

of

arrest, all

the

Kerensky did not succeed in finding him ; that Kerensky is under sentence of arrest by Lenin, not all the latter 's million hounds can unearth

now

the vanished Premier.

There are not found wanting
that
either

those

who draw

the inference

unites the

two leaders than

a closer bond would publicly

admit, and that serving the same masters neither could afford to hand over the other to justice.

The completeness of the Bolshevik triumph shows how even the most impartial observers were guilty during last summer and autumn of excessive optimism. Evident as was the collapse of administration and the terrifying deterioration in every form of life, the canker under the surface had eaten even

more dangerously
not of Russian

into the structure of society.

Only

the seizure of the reins

by a band of usurpers, mostly blood, openly boasting that they

served the interests not of Russia but of International

was needed finally to disjoint the once imperial machine and change the inheritance of Ivan, Peter and Catherine into a series of inchoate, weak
Socialism,

and hostile quasi-republics, tormented by civil war, and united only by spectres of hunger and bankruptcy spreading over the land.

To

fortify their

work the Bolsheviks have abolished the freedom of the Press. Thev have, for the first time in history,
prohibited

ments.

newspapers from publishing advertiseThey have abolished the inviolability at45

THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE
tached even in the days of tyranny to members of
the supreme assembly of the people. They have abolished the existence even of the Courts of Justice.

They have
sailor,

seized the banks.

Patriots such as the

Batkin, famous revolutionaries like Burtsev and Purishkevich, the slayer of Rasputin, are flung into prison; in the general persecution no one feels that his liberty and property are secure. But with They liberty the Bolsheviks have indeed no concern. are the real tyrants and openly say that if the Constituent Assembly, such even as they allow to meet, is not to their liking, they will go their way without
its

sanction. 1

Their aim

is

admittedly that of the

German
of the

Social Democratic leaders
class.

—the

dictatorship

working

If

they cannot achieve this they

make no concealment

an autocracy again, republic with the educated elements predominant. The first they could upset later the second would be too strong for them. Not a few competent persons believe that they know a working-class domination to
;

that they would rather have Russian or German, than a

be impossible and are deliberately playing to bring back the Romanovs. The enemies of the ex-Empress appear to earn their specific disfavour, while negotiations have been carried on with the Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich and the notorious former Minister of
Justice, Shcheglovitov.
1

Meantime, nothing that can
met, the Bolsheviks destroyed
it

by

In fact, as soon as force.

it

46

and only ninety are repaired. while the latter sometimes turned their attention from the liquor in private cellars to the silver in the house. Edinburgh to London) now takes from eighteen to thirty hours instead of the former twelve. to the accompaniment of rifle and machine-gun fire. beginning with the cellars of the Winter Palace. sacked the wine-stores. and are filthy. The turn out the drunken soldiers not infrequently fell on the bottles and had to be dealt with by detachments of sailors. brought into — and loathing by the brutal egoism of the away from the Front to their homes. and ending in a three days' siege of a vodka distillery near " Red Guards " sent to the Admiralty stores. and tickets are no longer issued beyond Moscow. The railways are slowly dying. The journey from Petrograd to Moscow (as it were.CHRISTMAS UNDER THE BOLSHEVIKS terrify and disgust respectable citizens is omitted. Trains are warmed perhaps for six hours in twenty-four. Every month nine hundred engines go out of service. For days together Petrograd has been the prey of prowling bands that. and there are ticket-holders who have had to wait for days before derision soldiers —pouring being able to get a fraction of a seat. literally storm the trains. Their place is taken by goods engines which crawl at about fifteen miles an hour. demolishing windows and doors in their impatience. Since the peace negotiations and the degradation of " a word the " comrades officers. The underpaid railway servants con47 .

and difficult to procure. brutish and short.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE In this turmoil the post and telegraph work intermittently and render still more haphazard the already difficult communications. he said. the The German success up map of Europe. should have been borne in the procession : that of the conscience of Russia. In short. and the white spotless coffin of Russia herself. Three coffins. wrote that three things alone were repentant of his early lacking to the peace demonstration held on the 30th of December. the inconvenience of which will be recognised on reflecting that in winter Petrograd hardly enjoys more than Candles and paraffin are very six hours' daylight.] . at any price. a disastrous peace on Russia is the heaviest defeat incurred by Great Britain since at " Roll least the battle of Austerlitz. in forcing 1 an armistice and. stantly threaten to strike. in the classic definition to which it even breaking approaches. More and yet more factories close down owing to the exorbitant demands of the workmen. the expensive mechanism of day and there bility of its life is becomes more unhinged day by no one that does not face the possi- Then life altogether. it may soon be. will become. and to want A large part of Petrograd of fuel or raw material. receives electric light only for six hours a day. that of the liberty of Russia." ardour for peace Mereshkovsky." cried Pitt 1 in agony 48 of soul in : that of Russia (Written early 1918. down now " nasty.

We have allowed ourselves to be pushed nearer and nearer the edge of the bed that we and our friend 49 e . The of officers German New Year in feigned shrieks of disapproval emitted by the inspired Conciliar Press on the partial publication of the German terms of peace they know that the rule hardly disturb them of Kerensky and Lenin has will : destroyed Russia's last power to defend herself. Bread is sold to the Germans. The bevy in expectation of and are armed and diplomats that welcomed the Petrograd are free. and without her lifting a finger to prevent it. to her grave despite. to exercise the same arts by which their country obtained the vassaldom of Turkey and of Bulgaria. putrefying before its poisonous weight hope of healthy movement in the nation. or discipline. surrounded by the agreeable attentions of Herr Trotsky-Bronstein. In this catastrophe the position of Great Britain and her Allies is one of profound humiliation. it dismembered carcass. and by stifling all German prisoners of to their fatherland. its every service disorganised. The Front lies open. has ceased to breathe. a huge. it lies on the face of the land. war already almost freely cross Their fellows still in Russia drill speedy return or of a mission nearer the banks of the Neva. had she indeed the will. system.CHRISTMAS UNDER THE BOLSHEVIKS has been torn to shreds by Teuton agents under the eyes of Britain. ceased to exist : its officers The Russian army has by the last blow reduced to the ranks. without aim.

Weapons were at his command that would be hard for a Parliamentary Government to 50 paralysed the organisation of our interests. We would not treat with him. for our ejection began.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE had taken at the inn by an impudent robber who has crept in. . It may be that nothing would have staved off for long this degradation. and will perhaps before long heave us over the side and lord it in our We the while have shown a truly Christian place. stolen our friend's watch and pistol. It was geographic position. was confined ttf a refusal to recognise the interloper. The anarchic conditions of the upper classes and the good-hearted laziness of the bulk of the nation. might always have The was against us. who knew how to profit by it as we did not. spat in our face. too. We would only let him insult us and injure us and triumph over us. Thus it has come about that while hardly two educated Russians out of ten will believe that the British Embassy in Petrograd did not en- gineer the revolution of February. our enemy. has successfully repre- sented us to the uneducated masses as oppressors of the people and vampires draining the world's veins to swell our money-bags. against us that we were many and our enemy's mind was single. we would not recognise him or answer him. shoved us. accustomed to accept the accomplished fact without resistance. which has proved the cause of their undoing. slapped us. Our action. even when the final move resignation.

the more so for one snapped at by curs ever ready to yelp against their country.CHRISTMAS UNDER THE BOLSHEVIKS justify. not a policy that would have been endorsed by Pitt or by Canning. Yet when all this is counted it must be admitted that our policy of do-nothing-and-hope-for-the-best has been tragically weak. but a month late. We have never let pass an opportunity to declare that we will not interfere in the internal affairs of Russia. and : We should have remem- bered that the respects mob the fist. a few Easter cards to the soldiers we should hajre distri: buted it pounds would have been cheap. but during the War. We took over the port of Archangel we should have insisted on taking control of the railways. We took down the name of a British queen from over the Anglo-Russian hospital in Petrograd to pacify the demagogy. We should have been impervious to the This is fears of the snobs before the revolution as well as to the taunts of the mob . and until the murderer of Belgium and of freedom is brought to we should never have borne hindrance from : her in our great task. and everyone saw in the action the curved back of a toady. Let Russia work out her fate by herself his knees. 51 E 2 We . We put men into the Treasury we : should have demanded men and women known for German agents to be put out of the Government. Last year we presented. since. five million in presents to them. We ought to have interfered. does not respect cowardice it Fist-rule is the basis of the Bolshevik power.

and very 52 . put on not only his Russian but a Serbian decoration. During the last three months the same cry has gone up from the Russian "I educated classes.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE should have better followed the example of a Russian Red Cross Commissioner who. did the Slav chiefs write to the Northmen. but there is no Come ye and rule over us. They are children. " Great order in is it. according to legend. stubbornness and dexterity. they mean to wait till the Germans come here and organise an army agaist them ? I have lived in the country in Russia half my life and I know the people. To-morrow tE'ey will kiss the toe that kicks them to-day. to speak with a Bolshevik delegation. cannot understand the Allies. as almost from one man. When they slaughter stock and burn seeddo you think they understand what they are corn. but it would have needed the vision of a Lincoln and the suppleness of a Barillon to cope with a series of situations requiring the maximum of insight. so that his interviewers might have two crowns before their eyes. our land and bounteous." Thus. The representatives throughout the of the Allies in Petrograd War have had a steady lead of staunch patriotism from the British Ambassador. doing? The policy of grabbing the land without system or reason means ruin to themselves." said a member of the " Do second Duma. and Rurik and his two valiant brothers came and ruled in the land.

when But to accuse the Russian educated classes what has happened is completely to misunderstand Nothing could be more stupid or cruel than the slights which Russian officers in France and England feel to imply that they are guilty of of the situation. 58 . or the French. and in Russia. a new structure will have to be built afresh from the foundathese are exhausted and tions. it must be expected that twenty or thirty if and years will pass before signs of civilised progress is living on the reappear remains of capital inherited from the days when people worked and some order was preserved.CHRISTMAS UNDER THE BOLSHEVIKS soon when the Germans come to make order they will in 1914. if they do not the Germans will." said a Jewish lawyer. the Cossacks have not the strength to master the North. In the more than likely absence of any such. to an artillery colonel fight from the ? " Not the Germans They will fight for A score of anyone who takes a stick German Feldwebel will give you world." welcome them." to them. or the Japanese. At present she when necessity has schooled the present universal irresponsibility. " Let the soldiers in the " The Allies Americans come. or the English. the best ought to have treated Russia as Europe treated China in the Boxer troubles. Then they will march against the Allies just as they did against Germany for The question was put Caucasian Front." It may be safely said that the most patriotic Russians yearn for the possibility of a punitive expedition.

They do. they are still a people of gifts beyond the common. They are the martyrs of the intrigue that has dissolved the State of German Russia. their most ruinous reactionary blunders. In their blackest crimes. Nor must even the mass harshly- of the people be judged too off They were cut Court. our prayers. but not our hate. a from the light by a corrupt bureaucracy.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE treachery. and a know not what they frivolous aristocracy. 54 . a people that deserve our sympathy. our deepest pity.

For fourteen days Moscow has been without telephone.CHAPTER III BEHIND THE VEIL IN MOSCOW fourteen days * Moscow has been without newspapers. And this state of things. or drift over or under the curtain. that of The effect must be much the same as on the occupants of a harem. 1918. should it be to their liking. We live behind a veil as dense and as palpable as that life severing the seraglio from the outer spheres. which called forth or was the pretext for the total suppression of freedom of the 1 The second and third weeks of July. To say that the murder of Count Mirbach. save those which the Council of People's For Commissioners and their party are pleased to issue. German envoy to the Council. unprecedented in the world as we know it. 55 . may last an indefinite time and indeed is quite likely to do so until the Germans occupy the city. save for the convenience of the Conciliar Government and for its satellite institutions. and whatever news comes to us must percolate through.

When he spoke it was the voice of Germany coming across that special wire laid directly from her capital to the house in quiet Money Alley. but no one. was subwas centred on the question of stantiated. And the bullet that put an end to his life was not intended for the man. At 8. the fate of the luckless diplomat than would have been aroused by the end of an acquaintance's dog.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE written word. Once the fact. He was a symbol of the Teuton mailed fist. When he moved the tread of the imperial legions was heard.10 p. was in the least shocked.m. Less concern was expressed for its consequences. save doubtless the Bolshevik and personal friends of the deceased. on the 6th shot in his study " in accordance with a resolution of the Central Committee of the Left Social Revolu' of July Count Mirbach was Denezhny pere\ilok. rumoured accomplishment. He was the receiving point for the couriers who pass twice a week to and from Berlin in their special railway coaches. was a shock. The news was staggering by of what it might lead to . but for the menacing Power behind him that has robbed Russia of her glory and her wealth. 1 which was her representative's habitation. The of assassination seemed totally bereft personal Count Mirbach was a pawn in the game interest. would be to give a false the thought impression. within two hours of its all interest being played in Russia for the mastery of the world. 56 . and dissolved the Russian State.

they pistolled him. presented certificates from the Extraordinary Commission. in the presence. The Social Revolutionary Party it was that. one was an assistant- chairman of the Extraordinary Commission lor with the Counter Revolution. There. Neither has so far been while a caught. that surrounds the garden and drove off in their car. such as the On no assassinations of Sipiagin and Plehve. Their neatly planned or to the German's would seem. but the Bolsheviks overpowered the guard they set round the printing-office and the manifesto never appeared. fetched to Moscow for the purpose. under the old rSgime. vainly stormed at the mulish Letts on guard for not shooting. dashing out of his flat in the house opposite.BEHIND THE VEIL IN MOSCOW tionary Party. jumped among climbed the low iron railing through the window. it executed. officer. occasion was their work more drove agents house in a motor-car. the momentous candour 57 of which . carried out the majority of the acts of terror directed against the autocracy." So said the manifesto of the party printed that night for publication in their organ. which is the Struggle chief weapon of the Council for maintaining and spreading its reign of terror. the other a journalist from Odessa. of a secretary and a German and throwing a bomb and staff. and were immediately shown into the Ambassador's study. the astonished servitors German colonel. Of his assassins. In a phrase.

the calm understanding between them. the . but that the Kaiser's Government life. was done at the bidding of English and French Imperialists. knows into position in Russia to be so secure that it need not budge. save for a and without the existence of a definite Secondly. proves not that Christian principles have been adopted in Prussia. with which Germany has swallowed the smartest smack in the face received by a Sovereign Power since Louis the Fourteenth had an Italian minister kidnapped in his own land and clapped into prison for fixed purpose. First. the representatives of the Extra- ordinary Commission were without hesitation shown into the German Ambassador's presence . and it must be presumed that Count Mirbach did not habitually hobnob with an association of murderers." was the comment.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE perhaps officially escaped him. overheard by the writer on the same evening. Comrade Trotsky-Bronstein announced that the murder was directed less against Germany than against the Coneiliar Power. The murder. The connection thus authoritatively made between the Bolsheviks and the Boches is further made plain by two facts. that is. moreover. of a Hun excited into speaking more than he should have. mussen wir doch sitzen bleiben. and is resolved not to be pin-pricked its " Hier budging until the time chosen by itself. declared the official proclamation. who also bought 58 Muraviev. the Bolshevik Government of which Trotsky is himself one of the chief props and ornaments.

yet. is probably to be explained personal as on public grounds. defence-men. by the murder of Mirbach. Their proclaimed object was. to force Germany into activity. The rebellion now social " " " Left " Social Revolutionaries. They were being squeezed out of power . perhaps they perceived that in the present Government there could be no place for persons of Russian blood or of anything approaching to Russian ideals. were hurled into nothingness by the October revolution." and everything patriots. one. like every- Army is incapable of fighting supplied troops. and are since then reckoned as counter-revolutionaries. raising the standard of revolt among the peasants. among whose leaders were Kerensky and Chernov. to harass the enemy by widespread guerilla warfare. properly against disciplined Resistance to the Czecho-Slovaks and 59 . fanatic. self-seeking as much on and ignorant though they are.BEHIND THE VEIL IN MOSCOW commander of the Conciliar troops on the Czecho- slovak front. formerly notorious as the Bolshevik butcher in the Ukraine. and then. who organised by the in October (1917) shot down women and children. none too clean- handed or inspired by patriotism themselves." The M Right " Social Revolutionaries. the fact that the serious " Red " They accepted. with the object of opening the road to Petrograd and Moscow " and all Conciliar Russia " to the " internal enemy. and shared fully in the guilt of the massacres of Kiev. Odessa and Sebastopol." that stinks in Bolshevik nostrils.

Nowhere did the dealt with as the defence of the party printing office. they pre- ferred with strange placidity to surrender to the of the Conciliar power. save for a slight diversion on the Kursk front. They took no steps to seize the Fifth Congress of Councils which was sitting in the Opera House. nothing was reported and within the capital the seizure of the telegraph office and of the Pokrovsky barracks were isolated acts. whom they would go almost any length to avoid fighting. certain detachments have actually been known to throw away their boots.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE and to the " White Guards " at Yaroslavl and other places is to be explained by the deficiencies in number and materiel of the latter. No movement was arranged between Moscow and the provinces. whence. The failure of the Social Revolutionaries was made certain by their complete want of concerted action. as easily . On the Harkov front. rebels show serious fight . footgear sacrifice to is beyond price. and Muraviev's fatal his mistake probably lay in his ordering the Reds under command to turn westward against the Germans. mercy who had them As 60 shot out of hand is or executed the following day. an extreme pacifism in a land where. as in Russia. but apparently relied on the mere noise of Mirbaclrs disposal to overawe the assembly a hope doomed to be vain when it is remembered that two-thirds of that : body are estimated to be in the direct pay of the Bol- sheviks. usual in such . to attain this result.

ruary and March. war. and directed by the intelligentsia. When Russian sailors were ejected from the telegraph office by a detachment of Magyars." in Trotsky's word. Its object was to free the nation from treachery in high places. was a political movement in which all classes were associated. to win the War. " unfortunately. The representatives of Congress were kept under had dealt with the armed opposition and were then arrest until the released. but inspired. when other operations for the defence of the Conciliar hotly contested Trotsky. but it is supposed to amount to some five hundred. and Alexeiev prominent among them it would have been impossible. it was no longer possible to blink the fact that the Bolshevik Government. Rodzianko. was caught and cases. Only one of the leaders. The revolution of Febbut purely anti-national. Alexandrovich.BEHIND THE VEIL IN MOSCOW an accurate tally of the dead is impossible to furnish. the party in the Council was the political situation in its main lines before. directed almost exclusively by men of non-Russian blood and instincts. not. the murder and revolt made it still clearer. to develop the beneficent social and originated. Definite as organised as prisoners of " and but as being " comrade-internationalists. without the work of whose leaders Purishkevich. — — 61 . who detest the Russians. 1917. killed. and to Chinese. power were entrusted to Letts. nor international. is not national. Miliukov.

or killed. Kropotkin. to secure freedom. of a Petrograd paper detained in Berlin said to his German acquain" You can't tances. redistribution of the land. the editor and her immense distances. masses was the watchword of dictatorship ignorant by the working class. derided. beginning of the War. then ? The revolution on which they counted and which they achieved was the October revolution that put the emissaries of Germany into office and handed Russia definitely over to be dismembered by The spell these cast on the densely foreigners. of ruthless men. equality before the law. EmigrSs swarmed back into the country primed with German gold and German instructions but the Old Guard of ." " What do " " A revolution. but in nine months their rule has sunk from even this restricted ideal to be the millions — — — unblushing tyranny of a group country. revolution. patriots of Russian blood like Burtsev. Plehanov. hard of accomplishment as they would have been in any circumstances. exercising power against the interests of their usurped and solely supported 62 by foreign ." you count on." " No. At the imprisoned. These aims. and by the agitation of the Bolsheviks and their many sympathisers among other Socialist groups. hope to conquer Russia with her and finally ousted.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE economic evolution of the country. were frustrated from the first by the lack of organisation among the educated classes. force. were cold-shouldered. and representative government.

Without their Lettish troops." he makes himself ridiculous to all who know the facts. The Red Army. When they cease to be useful to German policy they will vanish as swiftly as spirits of hell at cockcrow. Bachelors received 15 Rs. we shall have to count with and to respect the will of the Russian people. or can no longer They are here. pay the piper. as all understand. Its main use is to check discontent among the workless by affording them luxury without exertion it was recently referred to by a military " Com" missar on the German Front with equable scorn as " dieses Lumpenproletariat. and sole possession of the armoury. and their gang control the entire apparatus of State. the Bolshevik Government would be swept away in a week. a day. upon the people. July 11. with its pound and a half of bread per day. on tolerance. With an effort of will on our side. they will remain in power until they are relying it ] . by Germany or the Allies. and its seven hundred and fifty roubles per month for each man and all found. its ten pounds of flour and seven pounds of sugar per month. 1918) " If the Conciliar Government maintains its position." But so long as Lenin. would quickly melt. and mercilessly execute all who are opposed to them. the Allies. 68 . Alfred Gardiner writes (quoted in the News of the in the Daily News Executive Committee of : the Council. at once overset brave and profitable. telegram from London.BEHIND THE VEIL IN MOSCOW When Mr. Trotsky. German backing. too. could rid Russia 1 For the married men.

to destroy leaders. The only real opposition to German ambition in Russia. and lay the foundation friendship by rebuilding the Eastern Front. is in the small educated upper class. and to . and of the Anarchists. There was also high belief in the capability of the Allies and hope that the Government War would free Russia from its evil is influences. of the Menshevik Social Democrats. and incapacity to gauge the situation. can only be ruinous to ourselves. it is if said. This to. Therefore the object of Germany 64 to crush the spirit of this class. counsels. There are among it also marked Germanophile tendencies. Meanwhile they call the tune. of both wings of the Social Revolutionaries. line of policy. though less quickly. must come from within. Without help from outside the end will not come soon. but more hostility to the crafty and overbearing Western neighbour. Regeneration. They have gone forward over the ruins of the Cadets. and still more the only comprehension of what that ambition means to Russia. if Russia's divided greater Allies hold aloof in misgiving. For what is the essence of the Bolshevik power? What lies underneath the understanding between Comrade Lenin and the Imperial German ? adhered The answer is simple. and it must be thought doubtful that General Alexeiev can rout them of even with the help of the Czecho-Slovaks. According to common talk. the Allies' view is that they must not act until the Russian people have acted.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE of them.

together with the patriotic sons of Russia in their midst from among the Jewish. removed but one generation from the servitude of ages. until recently. save On after very long exthe other side. but cannot beforehand form a mental picture of what their case would be. regenerating movement. Those upon whom the complex European situation has thrust greatness will not willingly surrender it. perience. as representatives of Slavonic Orthodoxy from which they suffered. Another yet simpler motive exists. can be hoped. often far too lenient.BEHIND THE VEIL IN MOSCOW render will life so unbearable to the remainder that they Germans repent the error of their ways and welcome the as saviours from a worse state. the latter are possessed of an abiding hatred for the Russian intelligentsia. Theirs are 65 f . Georgian. are suffering for the misdeeds of the autocracy. And if you wrong us shall we not revenge ? The Rus- sian educated class. It is this class alone that can be held to speak with the voice of true Russia. It is their day. may in detail hate the German when he is in their midst and has his heel on their necks. Armenian. apart from material inducements offered by Germany to the exiles whom she rushed back in special trains after the revolution. and for the plans of Germany it is essential that Russia should have no voice and no The uneducated. to which they were indeed. or apprehend their further effects. uncomprehending millions. From them no will. untrained. those plans once accomplished. and other nations.

Bolsheviks must compass the suppression of the educated classes. lordly motor-cars. " We are the repreof democratic sentatives of organised terror. and the governing council will consist of two elected masters and two hall-porters. Now palaces are at their disposal. Formerly they lived in cheap furnished lodgings and took penny tram rides. so that it is impossible to tell a soldier on duty from a robber. exquisite villas. where. July 8. which correspond to our Public Schools. and good marks in the schools . The mask endeavour that once barely concealed the leer of triumphant tyranny is now flung aside with contemptuous indifference.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE the sweets of power. guards to shoot down their critics. 66 . the masters are to be elected by the boys. all orders and badges of merit have been abolished. service to their —the politics." declared of the 1 the president the Counter-revolution Extraordinary Commission for Struggle with " this must be said plainly — — a terror that is 1 absolutely necessary in the conditions Novaya Jizn. For every reason —ambition. To that end every form of excellence is banned. In the army. since early spring. who as representatives of the working class will naturally have the pull. Gymnasia. paymasters revenge. the spoils of office. purse. 1918. and not a mouse stirring without their leave. religious teaching has not only been removed from the curriculum. but In the prohibited to be given even voluntarily. moreover.

sharpers. as political well as all the bandits. but was yet open and known. kill Those of the anonymously. indeed. slightest evidence. has earned a horrible reputation in this respect. too. untried. Men are arrested on the in Petrograd. shot at night. so as to its stifle crime in root. French Bolsheviks in secret. of justice. without any charge being preferred against them. to the building of the former Prefecture. or none. uncondemned. that the worst deeds of the Revolution were inspired by a fervour of patriotism that knew itself betrayed and hunted. there are Many who never taste the fresh air again. Towards them we know no mercy. to the premises of a once flourishing insurance com- pany. but are trace. They killed after trial that. speculators." And so it is.BEHIND THE VEIL IN MOSCOW of the revolutionary duty is power time we are living through. Here they may wait for days or weeks in foul circumstances. and taken. dealt out a mockery publicly. The murderers and of the French Revolution had at least the courage of their deeds. We terrorise the enemies of the Conciliar power. converted for the purpose. turned into a fortress for the safeguard of the masters. Such are our opponents. in Moscow. Our to struggle with the foes of the Conciliar and of the new order of life." and the Kremlin itself. and other criminals who undermine the foundations of the Socialist power. by night. Now terror 67 F 2 . impossible to The same thing is repeated within the walls of the local " commissariats. There is this.

ex-Emperor was murdered at the beginning of the last week in June. " First. Louis was tried. then it shall be held in a vice. or the petit and when the term means the whole of the educated addition of anyone else class.man. and he was beheaded in an open place. defended. where all might see and all must take their share of responsibility. the solid. hardly is bourgeoisie in the exists in Russia." another authoritative interpreter of Bolshevik policy be needed we may turn again to Trotsky. his fate was voted by an assembly of the people. and to assist the enemy." he declared in a speech to the Congress of To understand class this it must be remembered that a rentier. with the who 68 is against the Bolsheviks. middlethus used it commercial . that it was denied at the time and only acknowledged nearly a month convenience of the Council. but it was an execution.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE is used to break the last defences of love of country. when the report of his death was current. the latter a It is even possible that the cowardly butchery. bourgeoisie shall be placed upon the register. The former deed may have been unjust and criminal. . accused. If later to suit the " the Councils on June 29. To make the point clear we need only compare the execution of Louis the Sixteenth with the murder of Nicolas the Second. without any public act save a resolution by a committee of provincial usurpers. proper sense. Nicolas was shot without accusation or defence.

professional Anarchists. with elegant officers in simplicity. Even so. it will be observed. house committees. " Right " Social Revolutionaries. the : all over Russia to be counter- monarchists." the Czecho-Slovak forces is A special corps of guards being weed out counter-revolution in the and the following have solemnly been provinces. we will crush it ! We will such conditions that ! it will put the bourgeoisie in lose all wish to be bour- Every bourgeois house (Loud applause. the clergy. and charitable organisations. terms the Russian "prostitutes. was the licence issued in the old days by the police to women in registered houses of call. all national organisations. it seems. in days gone by. clean up our dirt begun to raise its down to the earth geoisie ! we will force the bourgeoisie to The bourgeoisie. declared by the recent Conference of Extraordinary formed to Commissions from revolutionary Cadets. the officers. After this it is not surprising that in an official document Trotsky. unions." continued Trotsky. On the gates of every house where must be seven or eight bourgeois families live must be hung ! yellow tickets. To these the new corps is to turn its special attention.) marked.BEHIND THE VEIL IN MOSCOW " For several hundred years. " the class has cleaned up the dirt of the working Now bourgeoisie. the Minimalist Social Democrats. the gendarme corps persecuted . Let the workmen see to it that they " The yellow grip the bourgeoisie in the pincers ticket. has head too high.

but against the bloated and tyrannical 70 . pianists at cinematograph shows. porters and cleaners. while office work is performed by those who were orderlies. and tEeir wives by singing at small cafes chantants or serving in teashops. Former useful servants of the State judges. are in fact many ex-gendarme officers and former agents of the secret police.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE persons suspected of progressive leanings. carry the bodies of the dead. There are those who utterly starve. the Council reassured the lower classes by a proclamation to the effect that this measure was directed. and to cases. The amount of the fines levied upon the Press of Moscow in the month of May alone is reckoned to be more than that during the whole of Stolypin's ministry throughout Russia. as for instance the head of a large military hospital in Petrograd. a professor of medicine. civil servants. both in the capitals and in the provinces. cabdrivers. Thus when too widespread discontent was raised not long since by searches for food in numerous flats in Moscow. officers. bank officials —are — driven to earn a livelihood as commission agents. not against the starving and downtrodden workmen. The " " are forced to bourgeoisie dig graves for cholera crowding the hospitals at the rate of some hundreds a day in Petrograd and Moscow. who died after a nervous breakdown caused by malnutrition. Sometimes the Council pushes its cam- paign against the intelligentsia to the point of ridicule. and among the Bolshevik agents. or street hawkers.

1. sions to brocanteurs. so as to prevent the bourgeoisie from dressing too well. . of . in 1915. on the line between Petrograd and Moscow.BEHIND THE VEIL IN MOSCOW bourgeoisie : a statement greeted by frank laughter from peasants and sailors who buy gold ornaments and calmly give orders for a thousand roubles' worth of flowers. while many of the once rich can only exist by selling their possesAs a fact of minor interest. may be noted that a parcel of 20. First. in 1916. are sold everywhere. it u the Comrades " in the papers was destroyed by post. To take the railways. the best in Russia.700.400. a journey from one place to another requires days of preparation and troublesome application to three or four authorities for permits of various kinds.000 Rs. In 1914. only four trains a day are run at passenger speed. On the other hand. or furniture for ten thousand.000 Rs. sometimes fraudulently passing themselves off as the genuine Parisian article.000 Rs. the railways gave a profit of 1. and their wives fashion papers at twenty roubles the copy and plush at a hundred roubles the metre. 1. in 1917. the rest all go as goods trains. . It is hard to describe and would be impossible to exaggerate the pall-like blight that creeps over every department of Russian cultured life. and 71 this figure sure to be .and second-class coaches have been restored on some lines and better order is main- tained than in the spring.200. a loss is two million roubles.000 French fashion but German substitutes.

besides Bolshevik papers. The post is as bad as ever. especially south At the same time. Tiflis. Up to now the German conquests terri- have cost Russia 780. and on everything 72 it has the . 46 millions of population. as well.073 textile The order of the day is the " nationalisa- of everything. Ekaterinodar. 26 per cent. The telegraph works more quickly owing to the death of commerce and consequent reduction in the number of messages sent. 615 paper and 1. factories. of the railway system. of reach of the telegraph but on July 20 the following places were out from Moscow Archangel. an insuffidegree of filth cient luggage is permitted. Siberia. Baku. without special permission. the Ukraine. 37 per cent. and issued only on the certificate of two known German residents of Moscow. and scarcely any town of importance can be entered amount of To get to Harkov. a pass from the German Embassy is required. Samara. struction is put in the way of travellers.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE No one who has far surpassed in the current year.681 distilleries.000 square kilometres of tory. 280 sugar factories. Rostov. : Vologda. luggage is liable to be searched and detained for days by authority of any local Council of Deputies. of course. of her harvest. every possible obof Moscow. not travelled in Russia this summer can imagine the and chaos obtaining. 918 tobacco factories. Yaroslavl. as the districts of Great Russia occupied by the enemy. Murman. tion " 244 chemical. 1.

by force new battle-cry.BEHIND THE VEIL IN MOSCOW same effect. In- impossible to obtain as to the state of books have often been lost. with machine-guns and have the " supply large stores of bombs and rifles . moreover. But it is impossible to obtain. is The banking system is ruined. and one transfer for which permission was by exception obtained took from November to June to be effected. Little by comparison as remains to the difficulties of tricts Conciliar Russia of productive land. and intensifies the currency." as they are called. too. on which draw without leave being oba hierarchy of Conciliar by business men as the of paper tained each time are from institutions. In industry and " nationalisation " commerce. terrorise 73 . Huge sums money are therefore kept in private residences and offices. regarded grave of money. as there is a fixed price for all products at which it is unprofitable to sell. which means that detachments are sent into the corn-bearing districts to requisition grain with the aid of machine-guns. spells dislocation and starvation. remittances accounts. for the peasants returning from the army provided themselves. detachments. the central disare still brimming with food. Bloody fights take place. which affords rich reward to housebreakers. formation The current accounts it is at the People's now possible to Bank. from one place to another cannot be made. and those sold at higher prices or transported by private dealers " Bread " is the are liable to confiscation.

THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE the railway servants. Petrograd. The remains of the textile trade have just received a staggering blow with the sealingup of eighteen hundred wholesale stores in Moscow and all the question the retail establishments in Petrograd. and now all Soap and tinned foods have recently been added to the long list of " goods obtainable only by card. starves. further disorganise transport. so great is the expense. easier for the Red Guards to watch. brought in by smugglers who run the gauntlet of machine-gun fire turned on to sus- pected trains. the commonest alphabet libraries costs three roubles. 12-22 roubles. woman. potatoes 4-9 roubles. the only result is to encourage illicit dealing at immensely enhanced prices. are to be nationalised. butter 19 roubles per lb.. and have liberally to grease the Comrades' palms. Moscow barely supports itself on bread at 8-9 roubles. or child who does not attempt to speculate in something. eggs 18 roubles for ten. and is whether the contents shall be credited to their owners in accounts compulsorily opened at the People's Bank. Books can hardly be printed. grey bread and cauliflowers roubles per head.. Rye 4-6 flour costs 15 roubles per lb. pant." As there are huge stocks of these articles. or sequestrated outright. the luxury among speculators —who know that Bribery is ram- 74 . There is scarcely a man.. and flour at 10 roubles per lb. and further from plenty. and themselves seize food wagons destined for the towns they were sent out to succour.

in order that German industry may hereafter be without a shadow of competition 75 . Russian public opinion is singularly uneducated in economics. It is also necessary to prevent the beginnings of ordered life and settled prosperity. one of a class who peculiarly feel the bitterness of the situation." —revolting." and want of work. Instead of the most general elementary reasonable measures being taken to ensure regularity of production and supply. railway guard. and is in the state of believing that when one man gets rich another must get poorer." evils loudly proclaimed by Lenin as due to the malice of the educated classes. This is especially true of the Socialists. and so further incense the ignorant against the educated. and now M the with cholera. while the Bolsheviks believe that force and noise can accomplish everything. For it is necessary to keep up a state of acute discomfort." In all this there is much simple stupidity.BEHIND THE VEIL IN MOSCOW their time will fall may still be short and that the paper money further in and a low moral tone prevails." "At said a value struggle last. " at last they have an enemy they can't put down with machine-gups. But there is also a bottom of calculation in their brutal idiocy. to whom the antiquated Karl Marx is a god. in order to attribute it to the bourgeoisie and the counter-revolutionaries. a class to whom a tribute of praise is due for hard work and constant endeavour. we have " the " the struggle with struggle with hunger.

They have taken the land and stock of the former landlords. and prevent the industrious from sowing and tilling to their advantage. started is And the road one on which there on which Russia has is no stopping.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE Russia. of the local Bolsheviks or to be held in trust for the is Germans. and only wish to be left in is But now uneasiness enjoyment. for the enrichment Voronesh all their crops . who are frequently murdered and thrown into the Volga. information received from the governments of Moscow and Novgorod. on peace and order. In the government of to yet greater extremes. is coming to be based on the idle not possible to get They anxiously ask " a " that visitors if it and dissipated among the peasants. and there are many inquiries as to when a Tsar will reign again. who are averse to seeing a strong class grow up in their midst. In the Saratov district. and that German policy may have a pretext for a move eastwards and find an excuse and in a welcome. In the towns. to give The Council's influence. the Bolsheviks' supporters are markedly different from the old soldiers of the days after the revolution. have been seized from the " for the benefit of the Conupper-class proprietors " in other ciliar republic words. growing among the peasant proprietors. These 76 . the attitude of the peasants is hostile to the Red Army and Red Guards. their title against will confirm paper newcomers. The trend of the Bolsheviks' policy takes them ever lower.

and it is impossible not to be reminded of Mr. In the provinces filth they are reduced to an immediate condition of and dilapifall and if in the capitals they do not so low. of the weak. faces only greed and lust of power. for which. of public duty enters. or at all events their best rooms requisitioned. but only a base triumph over vanquished superiors. the hungry. The natural blackguard or brute that is in every man Here is no idealism in the rises in them to the top. is The atmosphere quest into : worse than that of foreign con- it is which no sense anarchy. yet rapid wear and tear goes on. they will not pay. Idealism is in — the faces of the sufferers. is " The Island of Dr. the one sphere of 77 must be . But the Bolshevik myrmidons are frankly overbearing. by the group. Moreau. as they are quite without capital the deterioration also Pauper tenants thus expropriate houses or flats under cover of the The theatre." for the beast regaining the uppermost in man. who term themselves " a working swift. crystallised by party discipline." and seized staff. those infinitely pathetic figures of wounded officers who sell bootlaces and matches at the street corner. of Others are sometimes course. Wells *s terrible fantasy. Hotels in the best situations have mostly been seized by the Bolsheviks.BEHIND THE VEIL IN MOSCOW had a look logists of settled maintain for contempt gloom which Russian psychowas the peasant's expression of others and of his own superiority. dation.

to enact compulsory In everything Russia is living upon prostitution." and it has been proposed. come " How I hate workman to a lady. 78 . " Be- 1 Chaliapine has since this was written come to heel. and smartness is observable only in the brand-new uniforms of so-called prisoners of war. in a violent attack l made in the News of the Council on Chaliapine . in various places it has " socialise " women between 18 been proposed to and 40 years. to Similarly. the remains of her past ." said an educated " Why ? " she asked. Many theatres have been requisitioned by local councils. demands are put forward for a " proletarian reper- tory. lieved to be some thirty thousand. strolling freely in the streets of Moscow In the former city there are beand Petrograd. in other words. Russians. hand stretched out over it. but habits of idleness and dishonesty become indelible. and is credited with having received 60. having this spectacle before their eyes.000 Rs. a month during last winter." may be pardoned for giving way to despair and nausea.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE activity where work has been up to now more or feels the less normal. nothing new is created. seeing too the com- mercial greed that is an extra motive in the suppression of the independent Press. for singing in Conciliar halls. where it was written : " Nicolas the Second has to a satisfactory end. socialise actors. and the daily incitement of the lower classes in papers such as Poverty. both Austrian and German. your intelligentsia.

was shot on a on the very day that the remains 79 .BEHIND THE VEIL IN MOSCOW cause. are they so Christian ? They make me sick Why can- preached that we are all brothers and must live in How can a man of sense say that he or peace. to the Allies whom they had never betrayed.Ally. Then. until repentance they looked to the Allies to help Russia and help themselves. driven in disgust at our shilly-shallying. and it may be too late. " because of their meekness not ! Why with their they hate ? A student came to us the other day and fraternity. " that we must be brothers with all this canaille ? — — The intelligentsia know this perfectly. downtrodden. sneered at. who fleet away from Finland it. a few more minutes. beaten. Already the Cadets. and even now. but had seen betrayed by common But the Allies came not. when are in the land. eleventh hour." was the startling answer. They made their mistakes throughout the months following the Kerensky finally gave up the key of the fortress to the enemy. A special set is made against the officers. to the German camp. are reported from Kiev to have gone over. We are in the barely feels an answering touch. who were our best friends. It is not significance that piloted part of the Baltic before the Germans could take frivolous pretext Captain Shchasny. in the bitterness of failure and revolution. who almost without to a man were pro. they are yet so distant and hold they themselves so aloof that the hand stretched out foes.

The force us is not love for Germany. they . and they know that disorder and want in Great Russia are artificial.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE Black Sea fleet was handed over to them by In Moscow and Petrograd the German Lenin. have been confiscated. And those who are German that in the Ukraine. its former staff dismissed. Those who were once with us heart and soul are daily forced to leave our side. is plenty and order despite severity. The Unions of Zemstvos and Towns have suffered the same fate. 80 . from the fluence in and attribute it to pro-German inthe United States. for all the requisitions. and it may soon be wholly abolished. If the Allies will not here know must take help from the enemy or perish Above all. much value The organisation where sympathy with the Allies in the past. Hawks come marauding February and there will be starvation. They have never heard east. they do not understand the utterly. to exhaustion. stark hunger. of the was its of Red Cross. but come next tops. Even now not only men but horses may frequently be seen to fall in the street from the very centre of Moscow. wheeling scarcely above the houseThis is hunger. orientation spreads in circles of which the growth is of the visible almost from day to day. American attitude they see that help does not come help. has been captured . but hunger and against misgovernment. for the stores benefit of foreign speculators who are hovering around the remains of its great medical supplies.

but they do know that to win the War and not lose its results the Allies must win of Grant's " Russia.BEHIND THE VEIL IN MOSCOW Fight it out on this line if it takes all and do not know that the mistake of the summer. When shall we have such another? 81 G ." mighty Lee's opponent is being repeated on the Western Front. Now or later to drive victory the Russian front must be re- pass the magic chance of the rising at Yaroslavl. and the entire line to established. to the Volga. And home our they are right. that would have helped us to all the north. let We Siberia.

and the beneficent conquests of Catherine the Great. It was a reproach justly made against Stolypin that his motto. then reform." was a cloak for the repression of but despite the many crimes and which he was guilty. I. was the result of two the Ukrainian movement in Little Russia causes : itself and the Socialist propaganda in the capital ' and among the troops on the front. if Kerensky and others that destroyed 82 discipline in the . 'Order first. from the original 1917. was. entirely against those of " Order No. her richest provinces. he was. at all events.CHAPTER IV RUSSIA AND THE UKRAINE The tragic end of that phase of the War which at the beginning of the year 1918 robbed Russia of her fairest city. according to his own light. a patriot. Time has proved the truth of the charge levelled by him against the Socialists " The difference between us is that I wish to see Russia cruelties of — great you wish to see her small." The agitation they carried on throughout the summer and autumn of : not solely organised and managed in German interests. all liberalism." issued by Russia.

it has an insignificant literature. Gogol. and the two capitals. has claims to be considered more truly Russian than *the vast expanse of the north and east. the ground had been prepared from long ago. As a national possible. Without the nience to take them. the beginnings of civilisation had shown themselves in the south. It was Kiev that gave Christianity to Russia. shall not fight. the Ukrainian movement would not have had strength to bear its fruit. Before the sons of Rurik had established their principalities. and the great ornament language of letters who arose in the south. treacherous work that had for long gone forward in Little Russia. but we will not conclude peace. of the German So rapid and widespread was the success general plan. natural forces there to resist the might have been found even when the front lay enemy open to him. except for the poetry of Shevchenko.RUSSIA AND THE UKRAINE " We formula of Trotsky-Bronstein. Ukrainianism was and still remains a failure. The so-called Ukrainian. wrote exclu- sively in Russian. is recognised as an inferior tongue to Russian and Polish. The Ukraine." that gave Germany all the north up to the gates of Petrograd. and throughout the 88 G 2 . but the visible to observers movement. Indeed. had it suited her conve- army to the Without the disintegration of the might of Russia. indeed. that few can have been it found beforehand even to believe intrigue of the enemy at Kiev was from the beginning of the war. or Little Russian.

the mental nourishment of Little Russia in our age Breton no whit from that of Petrograd or Moscow. where the teaching was in Old Slavonic. where the names of Bishop Yevlogy and Skalon. It is true that on the borders of Galicia and of Poland. Quicker in intelligence than the Great Russian. Nor is Kiev behindhand on the civil side. the prefect of police imposed on Lwow. both ecclesiastical and were committed during the war in Galicia. the Little Russian is still unmistakably his brother by race and by civilisation. the Imperial Government comSimilar iniquities. in While the older memorials of Kiev are among the most prized in ecclesiastical art Church. civil. mitted the grave political fault of allowing a persecution of it by Orthodox prelates. livelier in imagination. from Tourangean more than a man of Jitomlr from one of Tula. one of the cleanest and least unsanitary. became renowned as a centre of learning. Vladimir touches the highest point of Eastern Church art. 84 . in the Orthodox modern times the architecture and adorn- ment of the cathedral of St. ecclesiastical academy of Kiev. literature. and equipped with an excellent water supply from artesian wells. where the Uniate differs differs religion flourished. born under a warmer sun and blest with a more generous earth. art.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE long oppression of Muscovy by the Tartars the Ukraine preserved a purer strain of Slavonic blood and Later in the seventeenth century the aspiration. In religion. being the best paved. best lighted city of Russia.

the natural parent of forty per cent. While in Galicia every manifestation of a Persia. were worked up into an inchoate party termed Mazeppists. that took place there. If it is considered that 85 . the Ukraine is a legend or a dream. The Mazeppists were inevitably against a war. in whose ranks the influence of the Austrian "orientalism. however. at Kiev a separatist movement was artificially fostered and Russia represented as a brutal oppressor. in the south they were the nationalists. trampling on the Mazeppa. was severely punished by an active police." common liberties of the children of The various leavens of discontent the Galician Poles. leaning towards Russia. and the very possession of works by Pushkin and Turgenev served as a cause for imprisonment. was plainly visible. would be an error to believe Russia suffered from special national disit But The repression of liberalism. Regarded as a national entity. with one eye fixed on the Caucasus and From the Ukrainian possibilities were not to be neglected. the persecution of the Jews. Thus while in the north the pro-Germans were the reactionaries. of the population.RUSSIA AND THE UKRAINE became notorious. the success- among ful issue of which must draw closer together the races its institu- of the Russian empire and by liberalising remove still further the shadow of particular grievances in Little Russia. were common to the whole of Russia. who hated freedom. who tions professed to serve at its altar. the point of view. that Little abilities. of the AustroGermans.

as. lost their denouncing sting by being themselves written in Russian. jected was Schoolmasters. the use of the Russian tongue. not of Ukrainian extraction. to the disgust of large classes of the population. since the Ukrainian language did not count enough adepts to support a newspaper. The Mazeppists. to " Ukrainianisation " include Odessa in the Ukraine. loudly proclaiming their pure national principles.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE and of Jewish interest. and use. despite the efforts of successive local governments to compel " Ukrainian " and the that of adoption of the latter as Russian remains the language in common 86 . were encouraged by the Government of Kerensky and Tereshchenko to abandon as quickly as possible the advantages that gave Kiev its " the mother of the cities of Russia. and by the summer of 1915 it was already seething with trouble. were ejected in favour of such as could talk Little Russian. it will be seen that the enemy had a fine water in which to fish. but as there are few books printed in that language and it is useless in business or for the general purposes of life outside the Ukrainian provinces and hardly more useful in them. With the revolution. these steps aroused little enthusiasm. the scum soon burst." right to be called Absurd claims were put forward. Even in 1918 lectures at the university of Kiev were delivered in Russian. Articles in Ukrainophil papers published in Kiev. Anyone who obmarked as a counter-revolutionary. for instance. Kiev was a focus also of Polish proceeded apace throughout the south.

so long. lawyers. parents refused to allow their children to be taught in Ukrainian. The Bolsheviks having done their chief work for Germany. by the October revolu- and the demobilisation. since neither judges. was in part corrected by the energy of General Kornilov . woke up to find that they had lost their hold on the south. Far as matters had gone. By this it may be seen that the opposition to Russian in the Ukraine is about as national as the Ukrainian paper money. however. The catastrophe of Tarnopol. the " General Secretariat.RUSSIA AND THE UKRAINE In the official tongue in Government institutions. engineered by the Bolsheviks and constituting a direct threat to Kiev. the picture changed. nor clients were conversant with it. it attempt to impose in Nor was the the provincial courts more successful. the primary schools. under the inspiration of Nekrasov and the disloyal clique in his Ministry. as the army remained even more or less in existence. which was 1 printed at Leipzig. was powerless to act independently in foreign affairs. and the attempt to force it on them had to be abandoned." by which name the quasiparliamentary government at Kiev was known. but when. Western Europe by a journal entitled V 87 . The slaughter of over two thousand officers at tion 1 The artificial Ukrainian propaganda was carried into Ukraine. the way was free for traitors to complete the rot that had already eaten deep Its destruction into the organism of the army. once achieved. Kerensky threw over Kornilov.

It or to other considerations of was before Christmas. succeeded in dissolving. risk their skins. The relative slowness of the German advance to the north and east. harried the little cities of Little Russia. the indiscriminate methods. were kept as a bodyguard to the Council in Moscow and Petrograd.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE Kiev. the murder of the upright and godly Metromassacre of the " bourpolitan. the heavy guns. by means of their powerful propaganda. the "Council of the People's Commissioners " are styled. incensed at the rejection of their authority. in 88 . highly-paid came against the "Conciliar" by the of Praetorians Men who enlisted in either puerile or fictitious. when disciplined The resistance as foreign troops offered armies. while the Lettish Rifles. order to get thirty roubles a day were none too anxious was to. that the Ukrainian movement touched its apogee. and the latter moreover unwilling. that had sufficed when hordes of armed workmen. The Governments of Prince Lvov and of Kerensky had been too weak. which in the spring of 1918 seized Harkov and crept onwards to Voronesh and Kursk. backed by geois at " Sebastopol. was due to their being said that a occupied elsewhere. to control the sepand the Bolsheviks. "fche army of the south-western front. had not yet quite aratist intrigue at Kiev. 1917. in fact. to it is whom bonus of fifty thousand roubles a man was promised. availed them. of Schrecklichkeit borrowed from Germany. convenience.

should be added. and to create a revolution in . The situation was extremely compliSo long as the army was in being the cated. the intelligence of many of them too primitive. not to give independence to Finland.RUSSIA AND THE UKRAINE the face of which. entirety. and. could still threaten it. and capitalist by Peasants' Government " in Petrograd. But the process of which this was a part obliterated the front in its . but were safe from being over-run by the Bolsheviks. After a short period. laid open the Bolsheviks to the soldiers summoned who them from Kiev and from all Little of the Bolsheviks were too mixed. concerning whose rights they formerly made much noise. the Bolsheviks destroyed the forces at the disposal of the " denounced as M bour" the Workmen's and Ukraine by ceaseless fomentation of class hatred and this gave them the key to Kiev. during which the General Secretariat lorded it with the majesty of a serious Government. and Austria. their forces were impotent. from Russia on the Austrophil basis of their predilection. to keep the Ukraine for themselves. They wanted it The motives at once to conclude a peace in favour of Germany. and were protected against the summons of German troops to aid the geois new republic. Ukrainians could not split off unable to master the Ukraine. and advance of real promptly evicted Russia. if it stood up to them. dissolved the barrier between the Ukraine thence. The latter. to allow of their success.

THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE Germany —to say nothing of England. The latter had not apparently reckoned with the possibility that the Ukrainians arms of Germany would step into the to save themselves from the social at the bayonet point by the Council. By attacking the latter with every means at their disposal and promising a heaven upon earth to workman and peasant as capital the result of their campaign. too. whither Kerensky." after which further to prosecute their designs both within and without the land against and the educated classes. the latter was powerOn the less. they accepted the directive of the Boche so as. This. is the surface view. revolution offered them Its Council there were wheels within wheels. They believed that they could not indefinitely maintain their position in Russia unless a general European revolution came to their aid. When this happened. to gain " a breathing space. managers must not be assumed to have experienced the surprise they expressed at each fresh move of the German. as practised by its exponents. the latter was hardly to be 00 . became part of the new gospel. at least. Thus capital punishment and a standing army. formerly anathema. they attained a virtual Whatever orders they gave were taken dictatorship. Unfortunately. for the precepts of Socialism. and as the Imperial German Government was resolute not to allow this to start at home. in Lenin's phrase. was on the point of dispatching propagandist emissaries when overthrown by the Bolsheviks.

and the former from murder. Skostatue destroyed the Bolshevik belev's popes : remained infallible." since whatever they did was Shingarov justified by Socialist pro- fessions. a palace prepared for Count Mirbach. The game they played on the front Finland gave the enemy all the heavy guns imported into Russia by the Allies. Burtsev im- prisoned. the colossal defeats of Russia which they achieved in politics and battle came to the mass of her people through the prism of Socialism as efforts of a wicked international bourgeoisie to " the conquests of the deprive them of what are called The Bolsheviks could do no wrong.RUSSIA AND THE UKRAINE distinguished from a crowd of hooligans put into uniform. They cared nothing indeed that Germany had access to an almost may inexhaustible source of supplies they were too well to the disadvantage of England. and too parroted : hend what cared ignorant of political and economic science. and enabled the Germans to loose a million men on our front in France. disarmed part of the Baltic fleet. all without the expression of the least regret on the part of Rus" Comrades. While these measures were taken to bolster up the position of Lenin and Trotsky. was murdered. revolution. much that they were cut 91 off from the fount of . to apprefatal results might fall on Russia but they ." Yet the wrath sian of the rank and file among the Bolsheviks at the loss of the Ukraine be thought to have been genuine. compelled British submarines in Finnish and in harbours to be blown up.

in touch with the Germans. From us they can claim neither sympathy nor respect. and though this would have been amply sufficient to feed the north. but its reverse. to anarchy. and until the criminal collapse of the French expedition at Odessa. Orel. tobacco and sugar of the Ukraine. The industrial crisis. they have had to rely on ports of the governments of Kursk and Voronesh. and the Volga. wine. on Tambov. Moscow. they 92 with treachery. took control further to the east. great in potentiality. owing to stoppage of work in the factories. butter. olives. since the goal of it is not patriotism. and when Krasnov's government. Their hands are stained with innocent blood. fish and fruit from the Crimea. They lost the corn. already acute. Since then.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE Petrograd. fruit and petroleum from the Caucasus. . Moscow and Petrograd lost the whole of their southern market for manufactures. They have established a tyranny without example in modern history. their hearts are black They have reduced a country. the Don. became rapidly exasperated. and every succeeding month showed with greater clearness that the Bolsheviks' criminality was only corn. and the plenty themselves. northern governments could now no longer receive food from the South. At the dictation of agents sent by the national enemy. coal of the and iron equalled by their ineptitude. crippled transport and the Bolsheviks' own system of starvation have prevented the produce obtained thence from being utilised for the benefit of the people.

among the "Red Guards. while from Germany arms and money poured withstand claims that were no into the country to arrogant and were worse based than those of the autocracy. to detach Russia from her Allies and to stalemate the war. did everything possible to outrage Finnish national sentiment and to provoke a collision. full of brutality It and vanity. while labouring indefatigably to this end in Russia that with itself.RUSSIA AND THE UKRAINE have not hesitated to security of Russia to a sacrifice the selfish class ideal honour and the which is the negation of the liberty that the revolution was made There may among them be sincere to achieve. Many are mere callow youths or schoolboys. but proceeded from both ends of the political scale at once." and doubtless in higher spheres. Here their agents in the Baltic fleet. corrupt. dreamers of a social Utopia. but the majority of their managers are base adventurers or frankly brigands. they proceeded to play a similar double part in Finland. Thus under the old rSgime they intrigued through the Suhomlinovs. idle. and at the cratic same time through sections of the Social Demo- Party to overthrow the monarchy. After the revolution. assuredly 93 less . characteristic of the Germans' work in Russia that they did not rely on one means alone. foreseeing it the war and the military organisation of the country could be represented in an odious light to the densely ignorant soldiery. They are greedy. Sturmers. and Protopopovs. ignorant. and is signally incompetent.

There left intentionally is is among common the people a higher sense of patriotism than with the Great Russians. information that filtered across frontiers fitful undefined by the Germans showed that the Ukraine early began to suffer from a severe reaction caused by the pricking of the bubble. Their hold became firmly established in every direction. It was typical that among the officers murdered at Kiev by the Bolsheviks was General Ivanov. the control of the position. due perhaps in part to a more direct dislike of the enemy. exercise of natural rights on the other.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE Civil war resulting. a man who might have been dangerous The Teuton success in the south was to the Germans. and they encircled luckless Roumania in an unbreakable ring. political. even more brilliant than in Finland. the ideal of the in the Ukraine. His brutality to their brothers in Galicia was intimately known through the sufferings 94 . Ukrainian politicians with industrious humility made ready their necks for the Austrian yoke. " You cannot have it both was evidently not ways. The saying." made The in Germany. He was always nearer to them. of the Working Classes demanded that Dictatorship Germans stepped in and took The same game was played the new-born State be crushed which dared profess independence of the fashionable theories that progress is downwards and robbery an . formerly commander-in-chief of the Southwestern Front. On the one hand. military and economic.

and that the Austrian troops first sent : viks roost in were replaced by Germans whose officers ruled the Kiev with the usual chivalry of their kind.RUSSIA AND THE UKRAINE recounted by the refugees. of Little Russia soon found they had been were promised that a revolution in They Austria would quickly follow the peace negotiations deceived. their capital. the starting point for the troops. and the material on which the Austrophil politicians worked. and. Kiev. basis of the But it was the opposition to the Bolsheviks. too. 95 . all living evidences of the war and the war on the south-west was a successful war. large numbers of Little Russian troops were serving on the more distant Western Front. the chief weapon used to prevent a revolution. They were promised that thirty thousand troopfc should come to their assistance against the Bolshe- they found that a vastly stronger garrison held the country. . was the base of the South-western Front. Their sense prevent the destruction the front by the Bolsheviks any more than better of discipline and education could ultimately save the of pride sufficient to was not Cossacks from the general poison. moreover. : The people they were forced to realise that the prospect of peace with Russia and of food from the Ukraine was. in fact. The Little Russians could share to the full in the victories of Brusilov and Radko Dmitriev. and knew from eye-witnesses that their failures were not due to their own fault. the clearing point for wounded and activity of the prisoners.

Count Andre Szepticki. and despite difficulties and disappointments was soon getting a hundred trucks of food a day. who into seclusion in a was sent monastery to put a stop to his Austrophil intriguing. the Uniate Archbishop of Lwow. and that the strongly anti-German clergy began to regain their shattered influence.300.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE No word was said of the exaction of supplies . nominally extended to the sea. by treachery and what must be said of our position ? Germany gained a fount of supplies that could feed half the world. eighty million pounds of sugar. a artillery. had promised to supply their new friends with twenty-four billion pounds of flour. had Small access to the blue water only on sufferance. in return for German help. wonder that discontent grew apace with the results of fleet a peace negotiated by a second-year student of the Kiev Polytechnic. became a persona grata at Kiev. Had she won the Ukraine earlier 96 . 1918. but the peasants discovered that they must produce a stated quota of corn or have their villages bombarded by German peasant congress at Elizabethgrad was informed that the Ukraine. if the Ukraine had reason to regret a bargain bullying. and The Black Sea commercial and the imprisoned enemy vessels fell to the conqueror as part of his booty. A milliard eggs. 1. perhaps he now finds that he has backed the after the Russian conquest of Galicia wrong But struck horse.000 head of cattle before August 1. and the Ukraine.

The Allied diplomacy has been at fault in Russia for her since the moment before our going to war. yet alienated valuable sections of used the Russian society. and their antiSemitic opinions. patronised the wrong parties. the War. and not him alone. Germany gained a respite that enabled her to launch her last offensive against us. It was a victory worth a dozen Rigas. was made use of by Kerensky's party and kept by him as a sort of fetish in the Winter 97 H . for us a defeat more crushing than any we have suffered since Ticonderoga. Even as it of 1918. Our representatives praised Protopopov. grandmother of the revolution. Though. with intervals of lucidity. was. we have throughout used the wrong means." who. when Sir George Buchanan's statement that Great Britain had no direct interests in the Balkans surprised Sazonov. herself a simpleminded idealist. while not winning the favour of the reactionaries at Court. not our arms. for the whole work of In the government of Voronesh alone there were estimated to be stored five and a-half billion pounds of flour in the summer is the 1915 harvest There are parts where believed to be unused. American money backed " the the newspaper of Breshko-Breshkovskaya.RUSSIA AND THE UKRAINE she would have won the British blockade would have been stultified. who he obtained to ruin the Allied cause in money Russia. It was none the less a defeat because it was our diplomacy that went under. After the revolution. trusted the wrong people. They supported Gorky.

we voluntarily release you from engagements that have become too onerous for you to fulfil. but on one condition. On the former occasion. that you shall not help the Germans. against tice. it was represented to the French Embassy from a highly competent source that the Allies had before them two alternatives compatible with the policy of the War." Thus they would have put Germany in a tight corner and rendered impossible the continuation of the anti-Ally campaign conducted by the Socialists on the ground that Russia was being dragged at the M wheels of the French and British Or they might immediately and strenuously act by force.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE Palace. Either they might say to Russia : We know you cannot continue to fight. and Vladivostok. The British Government sent Aladin. with enthusiasm by a large body of Russian public opinion and might have succeeded in restoring the balance of the War on the Eastern Front. from Archangel. equally solemn and the Bolshevik conclusion of an armisfeeble. Murman. This repre98 . Make peace on terms favourable to yourselves . And as a guarantee two Allied army corps shall watch our interests with you. known to Russians as a Socialist of remarkably vacillating views. and when the French Government 'decided to give when the Allies money and moral support to the Ukraine. on a mysterious errand to the Russian General But the culminating blunders were Headquarters. made protest. when they would have been received blood-stained chariots.

just as the warnings of competent Russian observers against the Bulgarian designs were neglected in 1915. and a position in which it was possible for German agents to spread the belief that British officers were advancing with the German and Ukrainian troops to put down the Government of the Council. because the selves. main facts of the Ukrainian situation were well known and Russian patriots of unquestioned ability were at But they were neglected.RUSSIA AND THE UKRAINE In the event. was ceived the treatment of every empty boast and contributed to the murder of the luckless General Duhonin. resentation entirely just. because the French have at times shown a better comprehension of Russia than ourIt was the more inexcusable. which. but made a protest loud in words. The blunder of supporting the Ukrainian Government was surprising. the Allies adopted neither course. The result was a further blow to the Allies' prestige. hand with information. a fresh revelation of their incapacity to gauge events. not being backed up by action. 99 h 2 .

cram vol. Tuum in their theory has abolished. with the exception that the Russian rade. is willing to put down his So runs the old jingle. the ancient plan." gaily remarks Proudhon. That they shall take who have the power And he shall keep who 100 can. the truth of which is bril- liantly exemplified by the development of events in " ComRussia.CHAPTER V COMMUNISM IN PRACTICE What is a communist ? One who penny and take up your shilling. transfer by the best argument possible a repeating mean — rifle perpetually at the ready. bettered by the Neo-Israelitish The axiom has been Government imposed Slavonic nations from Germany on the to chief among that former proprietors may rightfully be but that the thieves shall maintain the robbed. but meum is entrenched than ever. is resolute not to put down a " La propriete. c'est le single kopeck of his own. ." while taking up as many roubles as he can into his pocket. according to been more strongly The good old rule.

's. moreover. showed that they neither had the moral stamina. Always have your or your revolver. to kill. but because the only other party that had up to that time It retained any pretension to existence. was then seen that the Bolsheviks. who had before that begun to call themselves the Communist Party. Matters might have gone on so indefinitely. There was friction. but fear of consequences prevented an open breach between the two parties. among the troops.COMMUNISM IN PRACTICE Rifles to at the least are made Red Army. nor controlled the physical force. because further to it was believed that the support latter could count on subTheir old stantial exploits. with -you and be ready kill. not because their support among the nation was widespread or genuine. Shoot to it on the moment. Communism said to have in this new sense of the word may be had its full chance in practice from the time of the murder of Count Mirbach at Moscow. the Left Social Revolutionaries. had no rival and could do as they pleased. had not the Left 101 . as they were called. On such unless you mean to kill. in killing the Tsar's Ministers were remembered and supported a belief in their possessing large powers of secret organisation. say the instructions rifle. feared the Left SR. They had no rival. Never shoot simple principles is latter-day Russian Communism to use based. The Bolsheviks carry on competition.

The documents obtained by Mr. was especially ardent in this respect. of the American Red Cross. but at least they was the guiding stopped short of the complete treason to Russia that star of Bolshevism. . for they too sympathy were usurpers and murderers. was taken up at once by Trotsky. by assas- an open challenge to the Bolsheviks. cherished no illusions as to the origin and policy of their leaders little representatives in Moscow part of the summer of 1918 They themselves deserved but from civilised Europe. who had every reason to know. Colonel Robins. Sisson were not needed to prove a fact already patent. who declared that the murder was directed. It will be a problem some of for historians to solve how the British and the American came in the earlier warmly to favour the Bolsheviks and tried to obtain the recognition of their Government by the Allies as legitimate. and to observers on the spot has only been illustrated ** The German Bolshevik by the publication of " Conspiracy by the American Committee on Public Information.'s. Russia.R.R. not against Mirbach's It This was Government. but against the existing rSgime in That the Germans practically owned the Conciliar Government was notorious. They contained a smaller Jewish element than the Social Democratic 102 in the coach-team.'s themselves precipitated the crisis sinating the German Ambassador.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE S. but the Left S.

crimes of the people and the progress of the Deeply as they were implicated in the they shrank from the logical consequences of the movement they had helped to start.COMMUNISM IN PRACTICE Party. and in his place the Bolsheviks nominated a Lett named Vatsatis. post. but the Left S. and in the towns the food supply are in the hands of the Bolsheviks.R. their representatives. without They were dispersed and difficulty. They were still lit by a hazy tradition of desire for the liberation of tyranny perpetrated by the Bolsheviks. had raged with the fury of Attila. all arms and ammunition. Their power rests upon 108 . showed their feebleness. the Comit. telegraph. telephone. the banks. nevertheless peasants. The railways. all motor-cars and petrol. especially in the south.'s were incapable of seizing destroyed mander-in-Chief of the Conciliar forces committed suicide. and stained with the blood of innumerable victims. for the reason that no one has had the possibility to organise. too. on whom they could rely. From that moment there has been no organised to resistance the Bolsheviks from within. had a moment of weakness. from the beginning a largely preponderant force in the October revolution and the Conciliar Government. Muraviev. and especially the Bolshevik wing of it. The Bolsheviks. where at Harkov Sablin and at Sebastopol Muraviev. and revolted when their dull minds perceived the abyss of shame The revolt only and ruin before their country. the Press.

in ideals. and ten per cent. of which the first and most formidable was the rising in the summer of 1918 at Yaroslavl There have indeed been on the Volga. who. in addition to hating Russians. This important movement.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE the employment of the Lettish rifles. : religion attempts to upset the Bolsheviks. and to nip in the bud any growing disturbance or to provoke it so that it may be dealt with before it Commission mechanism property. as the Government is grandiloquently termed. while " is the " Red Army the artillery of largely under the direction of German officers. must have been successful and would have cut short at a blow 104 . in blood. The Letts are rebattalions. alien force. for receive a salary maintaining and spreading terror. in education. receive immense pay and privileges to ensure their fidelity. of their victim's By such means the Russian nation has been reduced to a condition of complete subservience to the rule of a comparatively small number of men of almost exclusively Jewish extraction. had it been properly supported by the Allies. that and supported The extent to which this is generally by recognised is shown by the common gibe in Petro" Are grad you a Commissar or do you belong to " the Orthodox ? is. Spies of the Extraordinary for Combating Counter-revolution. the is ripe. At the same time inforced by Magyar and Chinese hordes of spies are employed to hunt down opponents of the Conciliar Power. aliens.

Kazan and Nijni would have risen. the Czecho-Slovaks held Samara and Simbirsk. by which is meant were loyal to Russia and to her Allies. and the line from Petrograd to Vologda to follow. Conciliar forces. Without support. Kazan.COMMUNISM IN PRACTICE the career of the Conciliar Government. it was known. state of and the latter was thrown into a dismay by the cutting of the communications between Vologda and Moscow. but even allowing for this. as was afterwards On proved. The opposition on both was The former was held by extremely weak vague. with Petrozavodsk. and Viatka. the South Volga. 105 . to the forces of Germany and anarchy. they could have done at a couple of days' notice. its results have been brilliant. The British were somewhere north of Kotlas and Velsk on the Archangel front. would follow suit. wards believed guard in Moscow that the maturely precipitated by discovery " plot. Nijni-Novgorod. Vologda. we were south of Kem. tries vast coun- come back those that as opposed If the Geras mans had then occupied Petrograd and Moscow. was ripe for a blow against the Bolsheviks. The slightest push from the north would have given us Kotlas. the Czecho-Slovaks have freed Saratov. on the Murman line. The circumstances for a stroke were favourable. it could might was afterrising was pre" white of a It hardly have prospered even had it been perfectly timed. and the whole Volga with the northeast of Petrograd would have into loyalist hands.

and command would be in Moscow to take of White Guards. During the fighting in Finland. The Reds bad soldiers. it was confidently believed. killed five are 106 . half-way to Kazan. Panic feigned in Moscow. Division approached the present writer. through a common acquaintance. It was reported at the Military Commissariat that Kotlas and Petrozavodsk had and and was actually fallen.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE the Bolsheviks would have been forced to disclose hand and the issue have been denned. and there was a rising at Murom. that the line between Petrograd Vologda was cut. Czecho- Army. a detachment of twelve hundred Germans came quietly by train into a town held by them. had flown away from Moscow to meet and join him. in three weeks. if not. in return for a promise merely to report that he had done so. and a combined movement under their good conditions could have been made against Moscow. Twenty aeroplanes. By autumn. and the capture of Vologda Viatka was momentarily expected. Petrograd would certainly have had to be evacuated by the Bolsheviks. with an offer to put all his cars at the service of the Allies the Volunteer when the advance guard should reach Moscow. it was said. General Alexeiev the supreme slovaks. Evacuation was hastily preThe commander of the Armoured Car pared. Bolshevism would have been dead. Fighting heard of at Rostov not on the Don. but near — Yaroslavl.

itself Yaroslavl was seared with flame and drenched in blood. Meantime the reason must be presumed to have been that fatal indecision that has hampered their action at every critical move in the game and prolonged the War at least a year longer than was necessary. and while took over ten thousand prisoner. Only the Letts and the Germans would now show fight.COMMUNISM IN PRACTICE thousand. A survivor bitterly remarked that with their usual inefficiency they got up three hours late in the morning. History will relate why they did not. the outset by the failure of the Mensheviks to seize the railway station and line. according to the statements of those who were there. as arranged. Yet even so they put up a stiff fight. had begun They made no move. ingly at Yaroslavl were so promis- The rising that came to a tragic end. The Whites. and perhaps Moscow would not be defended It seemed that the Allies had but seriously at all. the fighting lasted ten days. to walk in. The Bolsheviks were before them. The White Guards not supported. began well and held their own gallantly In the town against hugely superior forces brought But they were fatally hampered at against them. 107 . and the Whites saw themselves thus cut off from reinforcements and supplies they had reckoned on from the surrounding countryside. Annapa was taken by one officer with a detachment of sixty schoolboys and students. who then proceeded to hang over five hundred Bolsheviks.

For three days this continued. But leaders escaping by river. who willingly or unwillingly gave them up to the Bolsheviks. lawyers. Doctors. They might have helped to give the revolt a chance. but the greatest number of victims were among students and high-school boys. Then the educated classes of Yaroslavl had cause to regret their abstention from the fight. As it was." after the surrender. Whosoever is not for me. as though the Bolsheviks were determined to stamp out the rising " On the first day generation of the bourgeoisie. regarding the attempt as and the Whites only had three the Reds brought against them were lily-livered. surrendered into the protection of the German Consul. Out of every ten to be arrested. is the Bolsheviks' motto. doomed to guns. some of their water main was cut. priests. five were shot. they The inpaid the piper without calling the tune. over a thousand were massacred.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE The local intelligentsia did not take much part in the contest. furiated victors refused to know any difference between active participants against them and mere onlookers. is against me. but on the fourth an 108 . but the German prisoners of war under the command of their own On the tenth officers. Yaroslavl was burning in fourteen separate day places from incendiary shells flung into it. and the The Whites. failure. merchants were thus destroyed. backed by heavy artillery. It was not they who took the town.

and orders to shoot whoever did not machine-guns work.R. At one factory the workmen Hunger A detachment came down with struck for food. attempt at Vitebsk. About half the town had succeeded. " He who does not work for us. may be no great guarantee." is the new working man's charter. On this the men resumed work and the Bolsheviks then sent in food for them. and the tale diminished accordBolshevik trials ingly. railway communication with Saratov was interrupted for some days in similar cause. The capture and recapture of Kazan belong less to our story here than to that of the Czecho-Slovak movement. but at least they absorbed time.COMMUNISM IN PRACTICE order trial came from Moscow that executions without were to cease. the governments of Tambov and Riazan and near Kostroma. little earlier a rising took place in the government 109 . neither shall he eat. it is admitted that there have been revolts in obtain. for only that labourer is worthy of his hire whose mind and efforts pursue the path marked out by authority of the Lamas of the Kremlin. but there have been since last summer several other less known risings of purely peasant While details are extremely difficult to origin. so threatening did the danger appear. suffered severely from shell fire. The killing continued in decreasing quantities for six weeks. besides a smaller S. November owing to a and Moscow was even proclaimed in a A state of siege.

His main concern is to is. sent down two regiments of thorough-paced Communists and went through the surrounding villages. guerillas only harassed but could without not master the Germans they in the Ukraine. In the case of peasant each village can be dealt with separately and revolts. no command. it Russian peasant psychology. who had bided their time. down is piecemeal.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE About fifteen thousand men collected town between Petrograd and Vologda. arms in the peasants' possession for many returning from the front brought with them rifles. there they stayed. and even machine-guns. village. But having arrived at Tixvin. There was no plan. hand-grenades. talk was rife of the demobilised. could not supply. no transport and having consumed their food. so against the Bolsheviks prevail artillery. and each man had food for a week. ammunition. and his 110 . and leadership. They brought with them machine-guns and rifles. as simple. at Tixvin. the rising put tions of State. no organisation. . a . organisation. vague. or rather destroyed. the peasants went back to their homes. of which there are plenty in the villages. killing every man in whose possession arms At the time when the army was were found. But just as it was found that such weapons in the hands of of Novgorod. Then the Bolsheviks. interest bears on quesis The peasant's realm his that in international matters. those that affect the world beyond the confines of his village.

This system guaranteed a since minimum of return for labour. however. but in Great Russia land belonged solely to provinces. land might be taken from him and given to another. and a sloth. he who had land already wanted more. In sense of property in Russia was rudimentary. difficult without having recourse to more intensive and methods of agriculture than his father used before him.COMMUNISM IN PRACTICE have enough land to till so as to support himself and his family in comfort according to his standards of life. Only with the land reforms of Stoly- a man's well- pin did a glimmering of what Arthur Young called " " the begin to illumine his darkmagic of property ness. tilled maximum development ignorance. was too short. and the shock propaganda struck Russia before the peasants had emerged from their primitive State. especially 111 . personal the village community. and the individual had only a passing interest in it common to all the members of his community. and all wanted to be secured Now it must be remarked that in their tenure of it. of Socialist Time. Little Russia. now often called the Ukraine. and apathy. Long of land redistribution of before the revolution the question was seen to be the most vital Russia's social problems to be faced after the The peasant wanted land. Thus immemorial tradition communal inclined them to a ready acceptance of communistic ideas. he thus losing the fruits of industry and perseverance. the Baltic ownership of land existed. and in War.

These results are easy to relate. The peasant was Bolshevik so long as he could steal two cows from the man who had but when robbed of one of those two. So far from wanting Communism now. swelling been. " a term in use and fists. he requires certain four. especially among the Kazan Tartars. the peasants believing that the landlord. Not until the results of Communism began to be seen in practice did their eyes open and their minds change. and the profitable possibility of selling Russian guns to the enemy. Peasants of ability and process energy acquired more land and prospered. " Committees " were created to control and Poverty despoil them. they desired to be established in possession of goods.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE when accompanied by a lavish distribution of German gifts in money and kind. The great estates were broken the ranks of peasant proprietors." already meaning hardof hearted. For his life to be agreeable and useful. probably on the same principle as a bear's lair is burnt out. 112 . Landlords had been driven out and their houses burnt. will not come back again to a haunt where fire has up and the land But the passed into the hands of the peasants. of whom there were already many. close-fisted fellows. quickly lost the ruddiness of his political views. and by no means relished being stolen from in turn. These now found themselves looked askance at as " kulaki " or They were nicknamed capitalists. did not stop there. like the bear. many of which were stolen.

especially at would be unprofitable even if the money were good. needles. Detachments of Red Guards were then sent prices that into the country with orders to requisition food for the towns.000 Rs. 113 I . as tea. and the same right was given to every army commissar. cotton-stuffs for his womankind.COMMUNISM IN PRACTICE goods and provisions. to which no guarantee whatever attaches. with the additional privilege of printing as many notes as he wanted at the portable " " totals presses carried with him. The peasants " Kerenkies. sugar. As might be expected. manufacture has broken down. and these cannot be had because importation has ceased. not in of twenty and forty roubles begun to be printed slips during the Ministry of that ill-starred juggler. and agricultural implements for his work. The food-army some thirty thousand men. as it and pay for it in often turned out. and when they cannot buy what they require with money at all. " Kerenkies " at the prices fixed by decree. for themselves. Kerensky. or. and distribution been " " dislocated the for by ignorant rage all enterprise. It is therefore foolish to expect nationalising are enormously rich in them willingly to sell their products for wretched scraps of paper printed by the million. matches. tobacco. but in good old notes struck before the revolution. and more buried in hiding-places. They began to refuse to sell. It is not uncommon for them to have packets of notes to the value of 100. soap." miserable little paper money. paraffin.

They were 114 told that the War . the tilled on the quiet into vodka. In these circumstances. or soda could obtain white bread in What unlimited quantities. Butter and cheese are no longer made. 1918. centre of one of the richest corn-growing districts in the world. but anyone with tobacco. they adopted the simplest and most radical method of self-defence they ceased to produce more than was required for their own needs. in fact. resistance their efforts. it was in December. and when. were also highly-prized being paid for in food.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE was met with. although the peasants' tea-houses were overflowing with it. or grain can be disAt Saratov. paraffin. the peasants : is over is used for barter with townspeople who have means of procuring goods. it is not surprising that the peasants have abandoned all faith in the communistic regime. Doctors' services and rare. to a very large extent lost its value for the peasants. Land is sown only to the extent of the peasants' own demands. beyond the modicum sold by card. in spite of all saw themselves plundered and ill-treated. soap. and a rude system of concealed barter taken its place. In the summer they were anxiously asking for some legal document that would establish them in possession of their new property when a " Give change came. medical orders for alcohol. even if he is a bear. By winter they were saying us a Tsar. Money has." The mobilisation : was the last straw. hardly possible to buy bread for money.

they are said to be willing to pay for the land they have taken. and there will be difficulty in restraining them from indulging in extensive Jewish pogroms." said an Assistant People's Com" But only the riff-raff are well off. expressed " The Russian people is missar. solid peasants are of themselves similarly persecuted ne'er-do-wells. has saved itself. but it may be taken as a fact that the peasants generally will welcome relief from whatever quarter it comes. i "you 2 . " I am " the afraid. such talk can lead to nothing. They want peace and order. of the nation." they cry.COMMUNISM IN PRACTICE was over. hungry call " What you are not with you now. let it be for a Tsar ! sheviks' control of armaments and transport. the Bolsheviks turned them against the educated classes." he was answered." " We have lived their long enough under the Jews." the Bolshevik retorted. The Bolshevik policy has reached its inevitable penultimate stage. that was why the army was broken up and peace made with the Germans. if with cynicism. five the riff-raff are seventyper cent. Now they are mobilised again and forced to fight for what is called " socialistic fatherland. "If we must " In view of the Bolfight. Bolsheviks for those By the themselves the process differently." 115 he sneered. Now the industrious. By promising the peasants a millennium." "Oh. for the benefit The fruits of Communism have come to be exclusively who deserve nothing of the community." said his interlocutor.

There is no Republic. if Socialism means the public ownership of means of production and the control of government by the community. republic and the Esthonians have to defend their autonomy 116 ." and the rulers as People's Com" or " The Workmen's and Peasants' missars Government. The Tartar formed in 1917 was destroyed by violence. it has never even been dreamed of. Bolshevik Russia is described as " The Russian Federative Socialist Conciliar " The Republic. They are a blind. Europe will be face to face with a Russia enslaved. Above the brutal reality of a despotism crushing the mechanism of civilisation out of the nation. educated peasants. is a gloss of taking phrases that in Russia. and no Socialism. As for federation. no Federation. classes. We don't care for They can do nothing against us. for the utter destruction of European culture and liberty." These fine words have no more relation to fact than the Germans' pretence that Belgium was about to make treacherous war upon them. workmen and riff-raff alike.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE mean them. and brought under the yoke of German organisation. Should that succeed. and stopping its prosperity at the fountain head. but no longer deceive anyone would appear to be still potent in some quarters abroad." The last be if by the dilatoriness and blindness of the Allied Governments the Bolsheviks are allowed stage will to complete the fusion with beaten Germany that is already beginning. the dissatisfied hungry.

as voting is not by ballot. It has no legis- 117 . bullied. or can be noted and dealt with quietly afterwards.COMMUNISM IN PRACTICE from an oppression they have of once tasted. The Congress of Councils. Anybody is if objecting or wishing to propose other candidates browbeaten. Since its members are dependent for their salaries upon the Councils and the latter are amenable in a high degree to pressure from headquarters. Even so-called its " Northern of its Commune " of Petrograd and sur- rounding districts. Besides. it can be imagined how independent is their criticism. objectors down. that kept up a vague existence own. 1919) and brought back into the fold of uniform Sovietdom. the The Bolsheviks are unable to tolerate the least semblance individual State life. The Councils or Sovieti are not elected in any sense known to respectable States. to speeches by the People's Comlistening missars and endorsing their policy. Lists of candidates are prepared beforehand and presented to be voted en bloc by the meetings of the factories or country districts. as assembly of representatives from the latter which has now come together nine times and is meets when represented as a sort of parliament. Red Guards can be called in to suppress it. and shouted the matter should go as far as organised opposition. and sits is for business Its scarcely more than a few days. has been destroyed (February. summoned by the bosses of the machine. Nor does a further inquiry show any better results.

they understand the necessity of holding in the main together and presenting a united front to the enemy. to obtain like is kept over the distribution of jobs in non-political institutions work even the post-office or the railways. The Bolsheviks' control over every department of life was of 1918 so complete that there can hardly a single person earning a salary in Russia have been 118 by the end . they remain as they began. So close a grip that. and executive only of their will.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE lative authority nor and is any control over the executive. the Councils of The Central Executive Committee of Workmen's. like the good Israelite organisers that the Bolshevik bosses are. the applicant must be provided with recommendations from two members of the Communist Party. Originally self-nominated. patronage as a ware that constitutes one of the These groups do not always agree with one another. if anything Bolshevik merely The can be held to serve so elegant a purpose. but. usurpers of the name and dignity of representatives of the people. and Red Army Men's Deputies is in its active relation towards the People's Commissars merely a consultative body. sars or ments are made by the Council All important appointof People's Commisit by the small groups within that deal in surest of political weapons. who are themselves certified by cards issued by that party. Peasants'. and are uncontrolled by it or by anyone else. Commissars are not responsible to the ConPeople's gress. an ornament.

he would have been laughed to by And here.COMMUNISM IN PRACTICE who was not so that. and the most brilliant journalist " The order of the of the is red party. They do so They against their will and with hearts of lead. directly or indirectly it under their thumb. question is placed before the popular masses by the murder of squarely our Comrade Uritsky and the attempt on Comrade Lenin's life. must either serve or starve. measure of repression of public opinion and such a degree of privilege for the is openly preached and practised the Bolsheviks. Karl Zobelsohn. day terror. sometime member of the for Foreign Affairs. is it were desirable. The screw of economic necessity is one of the two chief means by which the Bolsheviks carry out the policy they have imposed on the country. The other is terror. in an article lauding the modera" The tion of the Bolsheviks. alias Radek. one of the chief executive agents of Bolshevik foreign " Central " College policy. ." official wrote Radek on September 6th in the Moscow News or Izvestiya. even of its foes. Had anyone in the suggested as possible such a days of Nicolas II. lest scorn for a dreamer of absurdities. and has set itself counter to the 119 . governing class as the picture should seem fantastic. they could at a moment's notice get him discharged. . The Conciliar Government is against the aimless and needless shedding of blood. let us call on an unimpeachable witness. Nor possible to blame those who serve the Bolsheviks. .

four hundred and thirty-six were shot at Fort Ino heads. for every leader of the workman's revolution who falls at the hands of agents of counter-revolution. Nor own was graves." a committee of three attached to each commissariat. Throughout the country." and at Cronstadt alone after digging their in Petrograd over a thousand.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE Now it has taken in heart-cry of blood for blood its hand the sword of red terror. Many more were shot in various commissariats by orders of the sorevolutionary troika." Yet the " the destruction of particular individuals among bourgeoisie. who by their simple called " vote could send any person in the district lock-up to death. priests. in answer to the attempt on It is of one of our Comrades. obvious that for every Conciliar partisan. the latter will pay with scores of And so it was. because red terror ! is imperatively dictated by circumstances. Many prisoners were dispatched from Petrograd in barges and drowned. this the whole tale. has only importance as a means of spreading fear at the actual moment the life of encounter. town notables. in so far as they have taken immediate part in the White Guard movement. students. local Commissions for Combating Counter-revolution vied with the more celebrated murderers of the capitals and executed officers. six hundred and twelve hostages. were For the assassination of Uritsky shot in Moscow. On the day following the attack on Lenin. perfectly innocent of participation in the deed. and 120 .

not the special tribunals for the purpose. prophylaxy. Radek demanded. . it should be noted. freeze. of a police character. that executions and confiscations should be carried tor at Yar's. means. means. but fact. corrupt commissars and sailors. It inadmissible that in hungry the Moscow costs smart restaurants should exist where dinner roubles.." . We must take from the bourgeoisie everything we possibly can so that the Red Army may be fed and clothed and Not the bourgeois.. by — " Five applied to property as well as to persons. whose pockets bulged " and with " Kerenkies Trotsky was a frequent visibooted. so to say. The centre of gravity of the red terror lies in a the bourgeoisie the means that serve in their hands as weapons in the different plane. in fact. hostages taken from the bourgeoisie. shot 121 .COMMUNISM IN PRACTICE But this was not journalists in great numbers. Peasants' and in the presence of of the local Red Army thousands of Men's Deputies. and shot by sentence of Council of the executive committee Workmen's. we must take from is struggle. the smartest out. and the Red Army men. but at dictation of the masses lynch law. hundreds of should inadmissible in valuable that swagger bourgeoisie while in the workmen's quarters the at the front fur coats." he enough " of mass red terror are only means of continued. further. " These for Radek's appetite. workmen. and most expensive of all the restaurants in Moscow. in ran up dinner-bills for hundreds of roubles.

bourgeoisie their money. mental. Moral. dered in the streets. People are no longer murof 1918. and always of force. but are shot 122 in commissariats ." naked frankness. is the Communist by means of force. in all its : take credit to themselves for having suppressed the anarchy that marked the winter of 1917 and spring But it was themselves who first created anarchy. warm clothes.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE the act this would be a stronger mass red terror than the execution of five hundred by decree of the Extraordinary Commission Tear from the without the workmen's presence. And such indeed is the state of Russia. and from them in turn to take away that which has just been given unto them. everything that is not an object of prime necessity. Nor have they suppressed. All must be reduced to a dead level of dirt. The Bolsheviks This. even that which he has not. . but only controlled and organised it. and . Let the it let fall without mercy. than the most ruthless reprisals by special engines of red sword of Governmental terror. by means of organised detachments of tens of thousands of work- men. mass terror be raised. workmen approving act of . and degradation. to give it to those that had not. and policy of the Bolsheviks of force. and you will cause them better to feel the powerful will of the working class in defence of the Conciliar Power. . and material superiority must alike be destroyed. to take from him again that has all that he has. discomfort.

Alexeiev and Kornilov to death by disease and shell. or at least more rarely. so many girl of simple birth who the War as a volunteer and raised fought throughout the pitifully brave and tragic Women's Battalion in women like Bochkarova. and between them a vile caricature of the dead Emperor. Dmitriev. and close-fisted fellow with abusive lines following. An odious poster was printed and stuck up at railway stations and in public places all over Russia. the year of the revolution. a Of the heroes of the War. Radko. The Bolsheviks have rendered murder and robbery unnecessary by private nationalising them and giving their excitement to those who choose to enlist under the Bolshevik Rank. and Kulak " Priest. Russky. and furniture and valuables carried out to be sold at auction. representing a ravenous peasant merchant.COMMUNISM IN PRACTICE Flats are no and by Extraordinary Commissions. eminence. the sailor Batkin have been shot. noble banner. Emperor. Tsar. seventeen members of the ex-Imperial family. a bloated Underneath ran the legend " Pop. armed ruffians. patriotism are but claims to martyrdom. piety. Admiral Schastny. and in the middle tion. Brusilov badly wounded. Kaledin driven to suicide. Eleven bishops have been shot. — : — 128 . by bands of longer rifled. but are requisitioned in the name of authority. brilliant journalists like Menshikov. his crown toppling in crazy intoxicapriest. As this was shortly after the murder of Nicolas II.

the At the same time. and vulgarity their The French consular Allies could not escape officials in Moscow. and there were cases of typhus and of death. In the prisons the work of the French was so sickening that they but where such does not exist were unable to eat afterwards.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE of the persecution of the Church and of the landed peasantry. Sickness broke out among them. at provincial railway stations and in second-class hotels a wooden framework is erected to make this impossible . It was Blucher " who earned the special thanks of the Conciliar Government by the work of his detachment against the Czecho-Slovaks perhaps we may learn . but in order to make the nature of this task like fate. The subject may not be nice. the Bolsheviks' relations with " Comrade Germans were the best. There were Germans at the taking of Orenburg. the degree of filth is unimaginable. In this orgy of crime notice. where the Russian commanders were some 124 . the more so as the food provided was rotten and maggoty. understood. day what rank in the German Army this Blucher had held. who were not tarred with the sympathy for Bolshevism that perhaps saved their British colleagues from a were flung into prison and forced to clean the latrines of the Red Guards. Nor did Russians alone suffer. the degree of decency of feeling may be judged. it must be remarked that Russians of the uneducated classes are in the habit of standing on the seat.

Previous to evacuating the town according to the terms of their armistice with the Allies. largely composed of officers. had reviled the and acclaimed the Conciliar troops as harbingers of a life of glorious sloth. barrow. who with uneducated bourgeoisie the usual stupid insolence of provincial Russians. They brought with them and for three nights made The latter. but not to bring cart. The corpses were piled in heaps. with the legs over the bearers' shoulders. but the Russians were confident. keeping the servants on their feet the whole time under threat of shooting. despite the name. ammunition. carrying wards. the Germans promised every assistance to the Russians. a small force of motley detachments. head down- was at Pskov. veered round in their opinions and swore that Communism was nothing but a devilish deceit. a contingent of prostitutes revelry at the principal hotel.COMMUNISM IN PRACTICE three notorious criminals. in reality. But the greatest service rendered by the Germans home and the spectacle was seen of women corpses on their backs. In the daytime the conquering brigands did their work of slaughter. Thither the widows of the slain were permitted to go to hunt for their husbands' bodies. and support against the Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks came on. they held the centre and passage of their 125 . offered them arms. and facilitated the Russian officers from Finland to swell numbers. or stretcher. Here the Russian volunteer Northern Army was stationed.

without a thought for the loyal Russians defending their country against hordes of brigands. and. were sawn asunder. discovered that the The Russians. while Petrograd and Moscow starved. The attack was delivered. leaving a number of prisoners and all Then came the The captured officers. most horrible part torturers in the pay of the Bolsheviks. Yet if for such perfidy the name of German deserves to be branded with endless shame. the Germans. what must be said of the lightheadedness of the Allies in compelling Germany to evacuate the occupied provinces of Russia. while the Germans were on the other. the lights in the town. extinguishing. further All was confusion. to a number variously given as between a hundred and fifty and eight hundred. and had connected the wire entanglements with a powerful current from the electric light station. had to abandon Pskov. it is reported. and retreated in disorder. switched the current. moreover. of all. off only then revealing their treachery. they were rushing trains with flour to the west " for the comrades for battling 126 . three thousand strong. who German machine-guns were jamming. In the middle of November. the foes of Euro- pean order and most of all of the name of England ? The Bolsheviks were not ungrateful for German assistance. in the rear. retreated from their position and attacked the Russian officers' battalion.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE their engineers one wing. were handed over to Chinese their slender stores to the Bolshevik.

and their possession in private houses is even said to have been made the subject of a tax by some . of course. too trivial to be called blasphemous. the remainder of the Russian gold reserve. we see that its aid will not be disdained. Chris- While nominally all Orthodox Church as possible. it was reported. in fact that of the is given as little breathing-space Religious teaching has. sacred images have been taken down from all public places. " These are ye unclean." three weeks before. councils. according to the anniversary of the Bolshevik revolution. off via Riga to Berlin. as railway stations. was rivalled by posters of immense size 127 . but when the Gospel can be twisted to advocate robbery. where the little chapels formed a pleasant spot of colour and interest.COMMUNISM IN PRACTICE And the dictatorship of the proletariat in Germany. tianity is at a discount in Conciliar Russia. been removed from the schools in company with French and Latin (but German has been made compulsory) priests are compelled to do the roughest labourers' work. creeds are tolerated. the reading of the Bible in prisons is pro" hibited as being a " counter-revolutionary book. had been shipped " My full paradise and the Bolshevik " was " Mystery-Bouffe evangelist Maikovsky. Maikovsky 's fatuity. and take it all is ! Jesus. whose produced in Petrograd with great pomp to celebrate of Enter. It is lit by electricity of rich tapestries and carpets and furniture. the words on earth.

were too cunning to be caught with such salt. now somewhat fly-blown. somewhat in the style of Guido Reni. poor villages were brought to Petrograd. it must be considered lucky. Meannot averse to seeing the sights. The rest evaporated on the way into diverse pockets." who were substantially dressed and a hundred times better fed than the once well-to-do of the capital. To take part in " the " of numerous the rejoicings. Some were cubist. while an angelic trumpeter places a wreath on his brow. The efforts were beneath contempt. violent puzzles in new crimson and black. Never were decorations so skimpy. Thirty millions had been allotted to the anniversary while they were decorations in Petrograd. few were executed with any regard to accuracy of drawing. some futurist. the figure of Karl Marx clad in a " Das " Kapital toga hands from on high a copy of bound appropriately in red. the representation. and the illumina- tions at night unworthy of a seaside subscription 128 . but if Petrograd got the worth of a tenth part of that sum. lodgings.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE designed for the celebrations and displayed at street corners. massive clouds. The subjects were various the most striking of all. and most were sickly in colour. through a hole in and symbolical . These " poor. perhaps. of two smiths at work to whom. and passes to the theatre. Many were the old May-Day banners. and given free food. and openly declared that they would not give the Communists more of their products than could be helped.

nor indeed emotion of any kind." etc. each of whom had been marked down through his house-committee and would be deprived of bread if he failed to attend.COMMUNISM IN PRACTICE dance. place. were less interest than first sent out." while " Lieb" Revolution Place. drifted about in silence. cabmen. It was for this occasion that the head of Lassalle. despite the threat of heavy fines. in the threat that all would be stopped for a week." Uritzky Street. their eyes fixed on the ground. a blend. and public re" at the " Nahamkis fused to toric street recognise Prospect the bidding of Zinoviev-Apfelbaum. was set up in front of the town Jew hall. there was no enthusiasm. processions dragged along the main streets laboriously. of and negro. At night crowds of the country " poor " and townstruants' lunch .. under Schools. and. celebrated of ? For what was being Hunger and the beginning of the agony Petrograd. the They were a sorry sight and of far way they had been collected. The attempt was an utter failure. people." knecht Avenue. were to shoulder out the his- which " was renamed names of Petrograd. " Lassalle 's House. and they were simply told that they would be shot if they did not go finally. tramway conductors. workmen. then sailors were brought up from Cronstadt. according to the sculptor. curious to see if anything would happen. On first day of the jubilation. The city was like John Leech's picof tures servants carousing 129 in the drawing-room K .

reason of his thorough knowledge of English. It must have seemed a dream that the Entente should suffer the continuance in power of their bitterest foes who were preparing order in England a campaign to destroy social and France. and already were training bands of agitators to create a revolution in India. seemed surprised to find themselves still in power." said a well-known Bolshevik doctor. to be The reason for successful. but the longer they waited the more difficult the task would become. And well they might be. Another reason. the director of the Eastern department of the Bolshevik Foreign Office. indeed. They knew better than any how easily they might have been overthrown and how richly they deserved Voznessensky. " The English are our chief enemies. but their pride stands in our way. In 180 . must have some reason. had in the summer frankly told the American Ambassador at Vologda that if the Allies wished they could put down the Conciliar Government almost without a blow.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE during their master's absence. Once they are beaten we shall be the first people in the world. they were unable to do anything further. therefore it behoved them to settle a definite policy one way or the other. But having done so. Festivity. could be spied in the sonorous articles that The Bolsheviks poured from communal pens. "not enemies exactly. who was usually deputed for such missions by it. the Bolsheviks' fete was that they had turned out the educated classes.

social life As the lapse became of time interefered with them. scarcely year. Better results attended the " " crowding up campaign. Despite the fact that the population of Petrograd had sunk from between two and three to under one million.COMMUNISM IN PRACTICE March we will shall make a revolution in India. besides knowing from whom tips could be expected. since in practice the dvornik or house porter was bound to have great influence on his " committee of poverty. the Communists had sun make hay." The Bolsheviks had expected a far shorter shrift than a and when the anniversary came and went looked at each other with doubting eyes." and the dvorniki. which would make them once more dependent on proprietors and tenants. by which to showed that no one grip over individual and " House-committees of " had now taken the place of the old housepoverty committees that were the last remnant of free Their intention was to organisation in Petrograd." No more bourgeois 131 K 2 . and that be the beginning of the end for them. the flats of " " were to be M crowded up. the middle-class tenants in favour of workoppress men. able to believe their good fortune. pletely successful. it was declared that to relieve the housing congestion. to a man looked forward to a change in the State. always understanding by workmen those who were members of the Communist Party as alone The plan was not comworthy of consideration. Meanwhile. their tighter.

resorted to Dodges of every kind were by way of evasion. tenants were seized and off. Red Army men were not enough in the or sailors were sent in to Flats left all occupy the spare rooms. educated classes similar to that of the old rigime towards the Jews in 1915 they were simply turned out of their homes to fend for themselves as best they could. many managing to inscribe themselves in two or more places Ox residence. invaded separate houses and many of the best blocks of flats. elderly ladies and infirm gentlemen were set to remove the snow from the street after an exceptionally heavy fall while sturdy young ruffians looked on and delightedly mocked them. In Moscow and other towns. and a maximum of cubic feet was fixed so that a large room must be occupied by at least two. with the added hardship of being forbidden : to sell their goods. with " under the rose " at low price9. empty by their their contents carried Innumerable Conciliar institutions. for instance. founding and supporting a Jewish university in his drawing-room.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE than one room per person. including dining-room and kitchen. which might mean anything from grave-digging to needlework for the Red Army. at . The whole intelligentsia was registered for the purpose of so-called social work. If there family. a policy was adopted towards the . 182 which frequently had to be parted Thus. was to be allowed. In towns near the front. a well-known former newspaper proprietor. multiplying like mice.

and glanders were said to be raging in Central Russia. instead of being taken to the already overflowing hospitals. sick persons were shot out of hand to save trouble. often sleeping in passages In one case. while their former owners and tenants were driven into cramped of the town was emptied of the " and inhospitable lodgings. and persons cut off from their homes by the break- down out of railway on the and river transport. While — : inhabitants were in such straits for room. were camping banks of the Volga. themselves almost become mortuaries. smallpox." the houses frequently not being used at all. the entire centre bourgeoisie. the three largest hotels. typhus. with the without his privileges the right to two rooms accommodation would have been still worse. At the same time thousands of refugees from various scenes of fighting.COMMUNISM IN PRACTICE Saratov. exposed to the weather. In Petrograd the death-rate became 133 . a family of eleven were sleeping in four rooms and taking their meals in the corridor and of these one was a doctor. While Saratov had not so far been visited by an epidemic. scurvy. requisitioned by the Bolsheviks. for want of room. were kept standing completelv empty. much overcrowded by fugitives from the famine in Moscow and Petrograd. by no means rare. attached to the town hospital. and apparently trustworthy reports came to hand of repeated cases where. and without any provision for sanitation or a proper water-supply.

burying her baby in November. December and January seem posOn the authority of information obtained by in Petrograd from the Commissariat of Statistics and supplied to General Yudenich's staff in Finland. Corpses often waited to be buried roubles Coffins were hired at sixty on being emptied. returned for a fresh occupant. for a fortnight or more. and at the end of March is estimated at hardly more than died in Petrograd in thousand in half a million. and " sickness claimed their thousands. When it is remembered that compared with two months afterwards November was a time of plenty in Petrothe figure of eighty-two infant burials in one grad. A " mother. and. instantly trip. counted eighty-one other infants' coffins awaiting burial. while the population rapidly declined. eighty thousand people the Russian Secret Service December and a hundred and It was certainly twenty January. In the light of this. believed in Petrograd that the population was declining by more than a hundred thousand a month. Many were buried without coffins. Yet. were interred in large common graves. ImSpanish mense queues were formed at the cemeteries. the terrific figures given for sible. far too numerous for individual burial. typhus. and almost without grave-cloths. Here smallpox.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE appalling. a The dead. day at one cemetery gives a horrible gauge of the later mortality. the consumption of water in Petrograd rose to nearly four times what 134 . measles.

and there had been several suggestions of making women from twenty to forty years public property also. an order from the local council. the land. Hotels are all shut. The bookselling trade has been socialised. though no attempt appears to have By to been made to put There. but up to that date. dogs. boots. and only approved books can be sold. and the tenants are forced to go to their neighbours for their every need. commerce. and retail trade. toy shops. hairdressers. Even to enjoy the luxury of a Russian bath.COMMUNISM IN PRACTICE 1916. January. or generally anything of utility or value. all shops had been shut except fruiterers. and furnished lodgings run by a after prolonged 135 . 1919. Communism had been pushed what may be regarded as its normal extreme. fuel of any paper. Perhaps some further length may yet be invented. only to be obtained six different and harassing pertinacity in five or departments. bicycle it in practice. article of clothing or food. formerly the most ordinary of comforts. cemeteries. besides industry. and such minor businesses. To buy any sort. many this though in many houses the water-supply has it was in of wholly ceased. houses. and undertakers had been nationalised. an order from the council was necessary. owing to the ruinous condition of And the pipes and consequent wastage. hat shops. shops. as well as in the two capitals. must be forthcoming. At Saratov a scheme for enforced promiscuity had long ago been worked out.

on some days only to houses in blocks where there is a Conciliar institution. Postage stamps. and adverse circumstances. Electric is supplied quite capriciously. tax on all valuables. fines Conciliar finance consists of the savage imposition of huge and contributions. and by reason of general idleness.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE department of the Council. a period of comparative moderation. Even in the depth of winter. and by this time probably a third of the total rolling-stock. Railways under Conciliar management can hardly be said to exist. To take more than a modicum of luggage by railway permissions from four separate authorities have to be shown. The trams run erratically for a few hours a day. Travelling has become a martyr136 By March the . with the result that yet further immense bad delays take place in a service already crippled by habits.. bad control. which during the first half of 1918. ending at Petrograd in February with a sixty per cent.000 Rs. Over sixty per cent. all letters must be taken to the post office and handed across the counter. skilled work. percentage of " sick " rolling-stock had undoubtedly much increased. once considered a sine qua non of civilised comfort. have now been abolished.000. and these will require at least as many days to procure. the streets light were hardly lit at all. were computed to have totalled over 900. of the locomotives are out of service. Repairs cannot be undertaken for want of material. and a ride costs a rouble.

another potatoes or sweets from a mother in a supply committee. practically no work highly intelligent.COMMUNISM IN PRACTICE dom. a typical school of a large amount of speculation goes good reputation. for the schools are managed by committees consisting of the porters. for the free lunch given. brisk business is thus done. In the schools. who are exposed to denunciais done. They have free passes to the State and Communal theatres. This is due partly to the frequent changes of masters. who see A nothing wrong in doing what they see done 137 all around . A from rivals. and Partly also to the general absence of dispartly to the boys being frequently to do other similar Boys frequently do not attend for without any notice being taken. willing lad of seventeen said that from August to January he had learnt nothing at all. In the high school from which these are taken. where changes in the curriculum have already been noted. on among the boys. with the object of swelling the miserable audiences there. and the boys. cipline. and a glass of tea . a minute portion of bread. or discontented house porters. would seemingly not go to school at all were it not employed chop wood and labourers' jobs. pupils with a grievance. consisting of a plate of soup. one having the possibility of details getting bread from the country. and days running. boys. which makes a very serious addition to the day's food in Petrograd. a third cigarettes through a brother in a commissariat. and tions masters.

The contraband markets that have sprung up everywhere have become an unexampled school for pickpockets. presents an aspect known street corners. avaricious traders and not infrequently swindlers. position of the crowd. and swirl round. swelled by thieves and prostitutes. form the sole comThey exhale an odour of vice and murder that revolts and terrifies. but everything falls.' 138 . types represented all — sailors and prostitutes. On February printed 4th. dirty. all they Nor in is this only the impression of a foreigner.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE them. it is not surprising that have spread and flourish to an alarming extent. that used to be one of the finest streets in Europe. in the scale criminal instincts down Nothing can be bought at in the shops. with coarse There are but two laughter and brutal quarrels. a letter signed M Communist " was describing the Northern Commune. as dusk crowds collect to chaffer truly infernal. the latter very young. When such deterioration is noticeable among the youth lower of the educated class. Under the uncertain light of the rare arc lamps knots of loungers drift by. huge and barter. ' a charity entertainment two days before at the Little " This Cabaret Theatre. dark. befouling touch. where. and unkempt. At night the Nevsky Prospect. become hard. Petrograd has literally These indeed become a City of Dreadful Night. The lees of human life have boiled up to the surface in a loathsome scum. in the form of a Cabaret.

Rail- Recently as much way facilities also afford excellent opportunities for palm greasing. among whom I saw very few over sixteen years old.. Corrup- tion by almost all officials. 7. was visible among the public. It Nobody was horrible to watch these bought girls. In one case last permeates bottom. Large sums change hands to obtain release from prison or relief from harsh treatment there.000 Rs. or of masseuses whose business is notoriously to assist orchestra to which sailors else ' ' illegitimate births or to procure abortions. where was known he would be shot. on an advertisement page in the Northern Commune. . but many of from ten to twelve years and even younger.COMMUNISM IN PRACTICE consisted solely in the fact that there was an and prostitutes danced.. was paid to obtain the it transfer of a prisoner from a commissariat. to the fortress of Peter and Paul. It is time to prohibit such indecency and to have done with charities that spread lewdness far and wide. and it is said that Marie Andreeva." In March. commissariat. the Petrograd commissar of theatres. made two millions out of the transport of some trucks of fish 139 .500 Rs. has been paid for the release of a prisoner from the Gorohovaya. out of over two hundred professional advertisements counted there was not one that was not either of a cure for venereal disease. Bribes are taken Communist society from top to summer. as 100. the money was paid to the cook at the and the transfer was effected.

. the larger at a great loss. dresses exquisitely in days when the simplest costume costs a thousand roubles. realise that work and seeing in it the The Conciliar powers close. who was Moscow. the Bolsheviks can hardly be said to show of civilised life of the intellectual little great consideration to the art of drama. he was forbidden and told that if he tried to leave his post he would be shot. some of the smaller well rilled by the efforts of actors really devoted to their only refuge in the general ruin. therefore. She now has her exclusive motor-car. taking her own cook with her for the journey. Theatres are kept open. and travels in a special coach." betake himself to his native south. The cinema censorship commission. since performances are sometimes delayed for half an hour for the arrival of some Conciliar boss. as. a secondis rate actress at the Art Theatre in Maxim " civil " wife.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE from Saratov. who came late. Yet. Bat. There is a strict censorship. though the word has gone forth that the people. when the music hall in Mosmanager " The wished to shut his house and cow. and anything smacking for of counter-revolu- Rostand's " L'Aiglon. the last fiction were the theatres to would vanish. shall have entertainments. Gorky's This Andreeva." is sternly forbidden. and once at the Art Theatre at to give the first the actors were compelled act over again for the benefit of a Moscow Bolshevik grandee tion. in default of bread. 140 instance.

It did not apparently occur to unmuzzle the and inaugurate representative Press. abolish terror. thousand roubles. who contributed more than any single man to the rise of the Bolshevik power in Russia. a fruitful spring of illicit wealth. holding up as many fingers as they require thousands A case has been quoted where production expenses were raised in this way from a hundred and twenty to a hundred and fifty-eight for their assent. His special pet is the Publication Commission. at a fixed rate of payment per sheet to the author. Maxim Gorky himself. The only remedy. where in company with Zinoviev and Lunacharsky he shares in his tent. Well might Lenin declare that bribery in Russia was universal. government in which the people might gain control to him that a surer way would be over administration. Books are now only issued by the State. he said. 141 . to which is given over the whole business of publication with a grant of many millions for the purpose. Maxim Gorky's wife thus queens it over the theatres. last to the full the responsibility for the crimes of the Bolsheviks. and then for a while played Achilles summer came again into the open and was nominated member of the " Presidium " or chief committee of the Petrograd Council. would be publicly to shoot two hundred takers of bribes a week. There it is the custom to leave the film-owner alone in a room into is which members of the commission put their heads.COMMUNISM IN PRACTICE too.

who prefers poverty in exile to the bloodstained laurels of Communism and has refused offers of hundreds of thousands from Gorky's Commission for the right to reprint his old works. The Bolshevik system of buying authors is not confined to the Russian article only. At the head of the Gorky inscribed thirty of his own works. oh. for a literary lady well in England and possessing from the former British Ambassador at Petrograd. Thus seven hundred thousand roubles was paid in October to a group of four young authors. is The Publication Commission extent in reality to a large an engine for distributing hush money to literary persons who might on the quiet foment opinion against the Bolsheviks. persecuted by the Germans for refusing to send an exhibition of his pictures. Bolshevik agents abroad spread legends that Gorky is not really a Bolshevik The real Bolsheviks are Leonid Andreev. ! Meanwhile. ostensibly to start a new review. nothing had been seen or heard by February.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE As new books of standard first list of distinction are not forthcoming in great quantities. it was proposed to republish editions Russian authors. to Munich. however. on remarkably handsome terms. and the painter Constantine Reerich. and Berlin. has been waiting for several months with a well-stocked purse to proceed hither on a search for translation rights in other words. of which. Dresden. to known recommendations — bribe pens that might be driven to the Bolsheviks' 142 . no .

the Finnish Government will not visee her passport. are so childish as to believe that. Not many persons. Another legend was started to save Gorky's reputation from the odium undoing. the reprieve would not have been sent by telephone or telegraph. For some reason. forging bank notes of old dates and old numbers. These are kept chiefly for export. the year 1909 is greatly favoured both for ten and for . but was seized by a heart attack in the train. it is being delayed. money is perhaps the most important weapon in the arsenal of Bolshevism. five hundred rouble notes. arrived too late.COMMUNISM IN PRACTICE Fortunately for us. of responsibility for the murder of the four Grand Dukes at the end of January. At the present time. and so. however low the rouble falls. and had suc- ceeded. this been the case. about that Gorky. since. to be hoped. Such inventions are but a proof of the Bolsheviks' own sense of insecurity of had and of their desire to snatch at any means escape from the retribution they foresee awaiting them. cold-blooded and inexcusable in person to a crime of peculiarly It was put cruelty. anxious to save them. While local and portable presses flood Russia with 66 Kerenkies." the State mint on the Fontanka Canal at Petrograd works day and night striking off notes of the old regime that is to say. had gone Moscow to beg their lives. it is still worth more than the ink and paper required for 143 . and was bringing back the pardon with him.

aided in this work by demandnew M old " 500 Rs. German banks in Helsingfors. In Germany. and were confiscated. In returning from Russia. Mirbach's former Charge d 'Affaires at Moscow. has been employed throughout for the Spartacist rebellion. doubtless under instructions from the astute diplomatists the ing of German Legation. Platten and Axebode. believed in January that two million roubles a month were allocated for propaganda in Finland. an allowance increased by a heavy special grant afterwards. received further proof when Count Bassowitz. notes from refugees arriving from Russia. The Finnish Government further states that a large consignment of forged English bank notes was found in the luggage of the Swiss Socialists. Germany and against the Bolsheviks would be to 144 . it was forgery. and at the beginning of March information was received from Petrograd that 350 million roubles were being dispatched to the Fatherland. as is known also from German sources. and refusing to receive others. the Bolshevik financiers only had to remove to Stockholm. the greatest blow against these circumstances.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE In banking circles in Petrograd. The connection between Germany and Bolshevism. And when dealings in roubles were forbidden in Finland. plain before to all unprejudiced observers. received notice of expulsion from Finland in April on discovery of his complicity in the Red rebellion that was plotted for the following month. Russian money.

COMMUNISM IN PRACTICE
send an aeroplane to

bomb

the mint at Petrograd.

Then there would be an end of this insidious warfare, and the troublesome question of the Russian currency would at least be simplified.
Opponents
of Allied intervention in Russia to put

the Bolsheviks often allege as arguments the difficulty of coping with the mighty Red Army, the

down

would be required, and the advancing into the limitless impracticability distances of Russia that swallowed up Napoleon and

immense

force

that
of

baffled

one
is

Hindenburg. The reasoning is fallacious. No asked to conquer Russia. All that is proposed to upset the Bolshevik Government, when Russia
is

herself

will

do everything

else

that

is

necessary.

Secondly, in the opinion of all
the
if

who have observed
force

Red Army, a very moderate
because, thirdly, the

from outside,
rotten, badly

resolutely handled,

would be enough to cope with

it,

Red Army
disloyal.
is

is

fed

and equipped, and
is

The maximum

claimed for the
the total

Red Army

800,000; but, in fact,

much more than half than a quarter might be a million. Of this less reliable opposed to seasoned troops, being composed of Lettish and some Magyar detachments and of the
believed to be not
old,
if

convinced

Red Army men, who

are Communists,

not by principle, at least by long practice. The Those fighting quality of the Chinese is doubtful.

who used
last

to be on guard in the streets in

Moscow
l

year looked smart and intelligent, but 145

may have

THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE
been picked men. They are understood to have Russian officers, but again it seems unknown whether " Red " officers or men of serious these are military " Red " that is those produced officers, training. by the military training colleges under Bolshevik
admitted, a failure, even as " officers of the later with the " war-time compared period, who had no very high reputation; genuine officers of the old school, however, and of the early
rule, are, it is generally

part of the war, although forced to serve by the Bolsheviks, have no heart in the business, and may

be counted on to do their least, even if they are unable to escape from bondage into the ranks of

up to forty-seven years and senior and staff officers to a considerably higher age. The difficulty of catching and keeping them may be judged from the fact that not only they, but their families and relations, being
their deliverers.

All officers

are

now

pressed,

kept as hostages, are threatened with death should they attempt to desert; and this threat has in some cases been carried out. Even those who went into
the Bolshevik service last year, with the exclusion of turncoat opportunists of the school of Kerensky's
Minister of War, Verhovsky, almost exclusively did so as the only means open to them of procuring their But the rank and file are not much daily bread.

more trustworthy.
proportions.

When

Desertion has reached significant Trotsky visited the front at

Saratov in September, not content with imprisoning 146

COMMUNISM IN PRACTICE
the chief notables of the town in barges on the Volga,

might be massacred were an attempt he was accompanied at every step by an armoured car, a squadron of Lettish cavalry, and a cyclist detachment, and when he addressed the troops spoke from the armoured car with machineso that they

made on

his life,

guns trained on his audience. The equipment of the soldiers is various, their comfort but little, and their

dependent on the knowledge that they will be shot if they break. There are also many bands of ruffians and criminals whose heart is in the cause of Bolshevism, so long as they can rob, rape, and bully
discipline
;

their fighting value, however, against a well-equipped

must be small. Only in the artillery and the work where German officers are employed is anything like a respectable level attained, and German guns and material have already made their appearance and their weight felt on the southern front. The quality of the ordinary, pressed infantry may be judged from the following true story. At the time when a British detachment was rumoured to have arrived on the Narva front, Bolshevik troops were transferred from the Archangel front to meet the new menace. One battalion, arriving in Petrograd and learning its destination, sent a deputation
force
staff

to

the

military
:

commissariat

with

the

following
to be

message
front,
if

" The battalion agrees to go to the Narva
the red tickets
of the

proving the

men

members

Communist Party
147

are taken

away

L 2

THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE
and
certificates

are issued in their place that the

Communists." If captured with red would hang them, they said. The was refused; on which the entire battalion request broke up and proceeded to its various homes in the From this it would seem villages as best it could.
are not
tickets, the English

men

that even the spoliation of the well-to-do to provide presents for the Red Army is not convincing in face
of a possible encounter with a British advance; not even though on one occasion a descent was made on the opera house in Petrograd and all the jewels found on ladies there were confiscated for this purpose.

Such incidents would seem not to be rare; for in January two companies on duty on the Finnish frontier bolted and the men quietly disappeared. The further agreeable incident was reported at the
beginning of April. their best regiments
front.

The Bolsheviks moved one of from the Beloostrov to the Narva

But when they came to transfer another regiment in its place from Narva to Beloostrov, it was found that the latter only existed on paper the men had hanged their commissar and
So
far,

so good.

:

all

gone home.

Lenin on hearing
that the

this

remarked

in

his caustic

—red outside,

way

Red Army were

like radishes

but white at the core.
is

an even more parlous state expert officers and men trained in technical branches from the remains of the Baltic Fleet that Admiral Schastny saved from
in

The Red Fleet

than the Red Army.

If all the

148

COMMUNISM IN PRACTICE
the Germans, only to be shot by the Bolsheviks for it, were concentrated, and the necessary minimum of coal obtained, it is believed that a fleet consisting of

one or perhaps two battleships, one cruiser, and a few destroyers could be put into sea-going trim; but, even so, the engines and guns are in bad repair, and nothing like their proper speed could be expected of
the ships; while the better the shooting, the less danger there would be to an Allied enemy fleet, since
the gunnery officers, as they did once before, would certainly lay the guns wide. The sailors themselves
are an uncertain quantity; at the end of October they made a demonstration in Petrograd in favour of free trade, but were pacified by their bread allow-

ance being increased to lj lb. per day and by a bonus of 3,000 Rs. per man, and although such methods have succeeded so far in restraining them, this cup-

board loyalty to the Bolsheviks would give under
pressure
of

adverse

circumstances.

An

officer,

escaped from Cronstadt, gives as his opinion that the fortress would surrender if a single British destroyer made its appearance and fired one shot.

During the winter Petrograd has gone from bad Not to speak here of the hunger that preys upon men's minds and bodies, the fever of expectancy in which all live works ill results on health, and yet
to worse.

further

reduces

already

shattered

entire absence of trustworthy

news

The strength. and the unwillingno one

ness, nay, the impossibility, to believe that

149

after silencing Fort Ino in a three hours' On the 12th. On the 21st. and there were people whose friends had themselves seen and eaten them. it had come beyond all doubt and with it sixteen ships brimming with flour. and they would be in Petrograd for sure by December 10th. and that Rybinsk had been taken by From mid-November onwards the Czecho-Slovaks. the Allied troops were in Finland and marching rapidly on Petrograd . on the 22nd. The chief Bolsheviks. and both then and when the news came that our fleet was preparing to enter the Baltic Sea there were panics in the capital.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE coming to the rescue of tortured Russia. it was told from a number of positively informed sources that the Russian fleet at Cronstadt had raised the St. fled. Thus on October 30th. In January a British force was located on the Narva front. of Krasnov and his men by some miracle advancing from Pskov. Petrograd was full of rumours of Voronesh taken by the Cossacks. it was a British aeroplane that flew over the capital. put to sea. in December. reported on the verge of war with the Bolsheviks . daily rumours whipped our sunken spirits with news that the British fleet was at Reval. On the 17th. dropping rolls of white bread. and steamed off to join is the Allies. of conferences with the Moscow many Conciliar institutions began 150 . creates an atmosphere in which legend grows like rank jungle weed. Sweden was already engagement. Andrew's flag. under pretence authorities.

else . has gone the purchasing . have more factories of the have been closed. not to fight the British.COMMUNISM IN PRACTICE hurriedly to evacuate. owing to absence of raw material and fuel . where normally twenty and during the war forty thousand men were employed. more and threat of cutting off their last hungry. but to run away from them. was insulted and dumped out of the works in a barrow. Rude jingles were inscribed on 151 down and down . and at the Putilov works. A few weeks later serious trouble broke out there and at other factories. oppressed. Zinoviev and the Swiss Platten were refused a hearing. line only by long lost any sympathy with Bolshevism. and the former. paper money power and the stocks of all prime necessaries have grown less and less. Neither Bolshevik nor anyone knowing the facts doubts that a small force of good men. On January 31st. and on the former occasion the entire Automobile Division was got ready for the road in three days. there were but from two to three thousand working. though President of the Petrograd Council. could take Petrograd in a very short time and the shock of the capture of Petrograd would probably disintegrate the whole Bolshevik machine and The working bring it smashing to the ground. well equipped from a properly established base. and these only working half time. fifty-three considerable factories were shut at one fell swoop. Work at the factories has become more and more irregular. drilled into food. classes of Petrograd.

R.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE the walls with Lenin and horseflesh Long " At the live the Tsar and pork great Treugolnik " rubber factory." said Plehanov to a friend within a of 1917. who had patched up a judged the moment good rising. indecision not one. not a man again. There is of honour. with the Bolsheviks. who have sold themselves to who has not the sensation of being the Bol- But the " The revolution is lost. and attempted to blow up the waterworks on the Petrograd side. Petrograd. peculiarity of this siege is that the assailing forces are within the fort. and. a beleaguered fortress. to the gen- 152 . besieged.'s were denouncd as traitors and bourgeois assassins.'s. Several minor commissars were assas- sinated.. Workmen by truce for a being strikes ensued. issued a manifesto.R. however. others removed. and the outward surface became calm indeed all Russia. north of the Neva. are slowly starving the defenders to death. themselves enjoying plenty. the S. accompanied violence the Left S. . save is blackguards sheviks. took their usual strong action a number of workmen were shot. the women cried Long live Little " " little father " Father Kolchak being a familiar : ! ! " Down : ! title exclusively given to the Emperor. is of whose faults . resolutions of detestation of the strikers were manu- factured in other factory committees. of his return to Russia in the spring Russia must go back to the regime of the to that of Nicolas I. arrested. The Bolsheviks. nor one of intelligence. month " gendarme —no.

COMMUNISM IN PRACTICE " This patriotic Socialist foresaw even then the failure of the educated classes to organise. in Lenin's " a or to make its every nerve of intrigue and duplicity to obtain peace with the Western Powers. and only efficient opposition can bring about its fall. have been trained are Moscow and become the astutest of adepts. While oppo- revolution in the East. Indian agitators. in first im- ported from Berlin. It was this inefficiency that made the rise of Bolshevism possible . and. in view of their inefficiency. not only as unconcerned tools in carrying out every abomination devised by the Bolsheviks. nent waste valuable time. the Bolsheviks are launching straining breathing space. The Mongolian troops are cherished. essentially anti-democratic. and can no more make peace with democracy than anarchy with law. the success of brutality and treason. will do so unless it is first destroyed. and is. treaties and conventions are but conveniences to gain. Egypt has not been neglected. Hungary and Bavaria are evidence of the futility of the " cordon sanitaire. It as has been shown." phrase. but as evangelists to be let loose on China and raise the teeming millions of the Dragon Empire against Euro- pean order. darme with a double knout ! Bolshevism has set out to destroy all civilised govern- ment. It is international in its principle and is directed against patriotism in every form. the mischief may break out again 153 ." and even if once suppressed. As it recognises no argument but force.

having been offered for a British passport. among Red Cross figures largely." wrote the Northern Commune long. attempt to undermine the held out. Europe put stationary their propaganda will Assailed with like other forms of down 154 In the eighteenth the pirates of Algiers. " is and Rome " a A to defend the great cause of Communism." new peace now. Concealment on the main question there is none. up to 25. The only defence against Bolshevism is to attack the Bolsheviks. in It month later. Governments." said Zinoviev at the end of February. energy and courage. England. Bolshevism.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE at any moment. century. Those who think that peace can be made with force the Bolsheviks ignore not only the fact is based exclusively upon the antithesis of representative government.000 Rs. will quickly be mastered. crime. which the For existing order in France. and armies that are always prove a successful solvent. destined to fight in the streets of London. " would assuredly not last would come to grief in a world revolution which the Imperialists would be beaten. " The Red Army. . there is one further lesson to be learnt. this purpose passports of Allied subjects have been stolen or are sought to be bought." When this is understood. and Italy. but their avowed intention of carrying the war to its bitter end against the civilised democracies of that their rule in Russia and is the world. Against societies. Paris. Even while the olive branch is Bolshevik agents in various guises.

in its cruellest moments of its measures of repression. the dreams of its most fervid reactionary agents did not approach the hellish reality achieved in barely more than a year by the minions of German-Jewish Social Democracy known in the scroll of history as the Bolsheviks. According to the words of an Assistant People's Commissar. in the stupidest outrages put by it on sentiments of liberty and progress.COMMUNISM IN PRACTICE The pirates who now have control of the Russian ship of State constitute a far greater danger. little indeed can be said. the abolition of the slender habits of labour and discipline that tion of bestiality of corruption existed before. now two hundred and thirty thousand Bolsheviks are happy. the crushing of the educated classes. in the most licentious orgies. the destruction of industry and commerce. which was responencouraging sloth and servility and for preventing every attempt to raise the level of education and morals of the people. and the extension through every grade of society. the change accomplished is that while formerly a hundred and eighty thousand landlords were happy. They have been suffered already too long. the inculcaand arrogance. sible for Nevertheless. The price paid for this has been the uprooting of culture. For the despotism of the Romanovs. the dispersion of wealth. In two short years Russia has passed from the despotism of the Romanovs to experience to the full the despotism of the Social Democrats. 155 .

How comes it then that the capital of Russia should be hungry ? It would seem as if some gigantic catastrophe of nature must have occurred to account for so astonishing a result. for the matter of that.CHAPTER VI HUNGRY PETROGRAD The Russian empire • comprises. and rye bread a halfpenny. of the corn they consumed. or rather comprised. as if the very fields had been blasted and fruitful juices of the land dried up. is . No such thing. Why how the Bolsheviks desire to starve Petrograd is a question we may leave for the moment and consider the thing is done. Wheaten bread in Russia used to cost a pound. but to export thousands of tons of grain to foreign countries. and Moscow. indeed. and Kozlov and Saratov too. The 156 process. so that all Russia was satiated. Petrograd is hungry. Russia used not only to feed all Russia. because the Bolsheviks wish them to be so. a seventh part of the habitable globe. of The government penny the Tambov alone is larger than the whole of France. The cornfields of among others sending to the British Isles over fifteen per cent.

incompetent. So much for the passenger trains. so profitless. who is the producer. days. points at which every train is searched and bread. and when as the result you obtain some nine trucks of food a day instead of distribution. where the train arrives is a guard that again searches at passengers' luggage. As to goods trains. butter. and corrupt officials. the ninety normally demanded by the city. Having thus crippled supply and choked you establish immense armies of inexperienced. sugar. or At the exit from the station at most two. First.HUNGRY PETROGRAD absurdly simple. impeded is made Then so low a price fixed for articles of prime necessity that the peasant. Nine trucks a day must be considered a favourable 157 result : often less . all private dealing in provisions is prohibited. On every railway line leading into the city you intend to starve you establish at least two for provisions. will not sell. whose aim is to prevent the resuscitation of the one and the natural development of the other. loudly proclaim that this is due to bourgeois speculators who are battening on the blood of the poor. and the same thing is done points established on every road leading into the city. and potatoes are taken away except so minute a portion of the first three as cannot suffice for a man for more than one. grain. the as to be matter is not more difficult. send out bands of armed brigands into the country to requisition food at the prices aforementioned. Then you may be reasonably sure that only a mini- mum of provisions will find their way in.

" he would have been thought mad. month If in the servant. 1918. Petrograd was in this The Red Army and the true Communist position. a white 14s.. for a tram ride. horsemeat at and beef at £2. and pay 2s. per lb. if this is not sufficient. and went about 158 . sweets. Throughout the summer and to December. some have become bad. and my tram fares cost 4d. Yet this is precisely what within eighteen months the Bolsheviks had done with the Russian public. jam. or if you of a work very hard a quarter. roll pound of poor black once a year. hundred tons of potatoes for Petrograd were detained at a station a hundred and fifty miles distant until they were all frozen. lib. no butter. meat. chocolate. bread a day. no milk. no no cheese. while I eat a pound of white bread.. the method adopted to deal with a large consignment of carrots a earlier. of the locomotives in the country have been allowed to go out of repair and that less than two-thirds of the total are in going order. of paraffin a month. coffee eggs. 1918. which is not surprising when it is consi- dered that over sixty per cent. number of trucks To prevent any doubt on the subject. and have butter. they can be kept in the storehouses after arrival until they become completely rotten. Or. provisions can be delayed in transit until they Thus in December. officials had everything they wanted. no tea. saying summer of 1917 anyone had engaged a " You shall have an eighth.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE is obtained . at from £4 to £6 per lb.

He had come " use as he could smuggle searches. 159 . that many principal shops were shut. the last and most brutal of through repeated with as much bourgeois food for his provided own which was on arrival in Petrograd itself. of decline and degradation that hung over everything. of course. longer existed. the town. Moscow central Bolshevik machine afterwards de- stroyed. But nothing could prepare one for the atmosphere of torpor. there was a resemblance. a new impression queerly reminiscent of that experienced by one who for the stone first platform of the station at Venice time steps from the on to the broad pavement alongside her grand waterway. returning to Petrograd in the autumn of 1918 could not fail to be struck by the altered aspect of A traveller He had come. There were no cabs. There was something unexpected about its appearance. Now on Sundays and at slack hours one may be accustomed to a difficulty of finding cabs. fared badly. the government which the Petrograd Bolsheviks erected and the .HUNGRY PETROGRAD with ostentatiously well-fed looks workmen not in the direct employ of the Northern Commune. Not that there is any beauty about the Nicolas Station at Petrograd. prepared for He knew that hotels and restaurants no changes. A few seconds and the connection was established. Still. the majority of the educated classes worse. ants in and that there was a strict limit of space for inhabit" flats. The very aspect of the railway station had changed.

in addition to his money. but all looking as though it were doubtful could their rickety springs and wheels reach the end of a journey once undertaken. obviously no expectation of cabs. . twice the price would not start competition for the three . For three of bread one might have had a barrow and pounds porter without opening one's purse and half an hour's shoving and carrying was finally agreed upon for one pound of bread and forty roubles.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE but at three o'clock on a week-day their absence from the yard of the central terminus in one of the chief European capitals creates a void in the picture that makes one shut his eyes and open them again to be sure that it is not a dream. and." remarked an old man sadly. a number of ancient men and boys with handcarts of diverse patterns. what was more. a certain quantity of bread. fill " Cigarettes won't your stomach. for not a man or boy would budge before he was promised." A cabman in a provincial town once answered. When bargaining began. it appeared that fares had gone up to and four times the figure of cab fares seven months before nor was that all. when expostulated " with on the sum he demanded Why. Not a cab. Instead. Outside the station there were a few cabs. and the horses not in bad trim. that formerly were an Open Sesame. But the fares they asked were prohibitive to " any but Comrades. not even with the promise of cigarettes. because I see you are a 160 . I'm only : charging you sixty roubles. Without bread. job.

.50 Rs. 20 Rs. no meat was given " by the card. wheels greasing. 6-8 Rs. horsemeat shops had prices in Petrograd Towards the end Beef. and as the nights grew longer and colder.. now. cost 1.HUNGRY PETROGRAD boorjooee (bourgeois) and can't afford more. per lb. Herrings.50 Rs.. per become among the most frequent and noticeable in the town. &30- M .50-5 Rs. with hardly any flesh on it. being advertised by signs depicting a noble steed disporting himself in the midst of green pastures. at co-operatives. cushions require patching. 3. each. by the card. forage was so dear higher. Besides. but hard to get of good quality. cr some other " In Petroof the aristocracy. Fresh fish. four going to the pound." Horsemeat. and so difficult to procure as to make it almost im- possible to keep horses profitably. sudak. Salt fish smoked : herrings. not to mention that harness will frequently need minor repairs. per lb. and oil ? October these were the ruling lb. 2. and with the lapse of time the claims of the knacker became harder to resist. If you were a commissar. I should ask double miserable ' ! 4 grad no one but the new aristocracy could afford cabs even at the beginning of winter. indeed. in small quantities. vobla. and where was leather to come from. but very hard to get. 161 Potatoes. cabs became yet rarer and fares Many of the horses were already eaten. an excellent Russian fish. but were very rarely given out. and needle and of : cotton. and only sold 15 Rs. the cheapest and most despised of fish. plentiful.20-1. 7-9 Rs.

3rd category. 40-45 . \ lb. per lb. . 35.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE 3. 14. 1. They received \ lb. butter. \ lb. entitling them to extra advantages. four categories. made with sugar. \ lb. 4. chocolate.. at co-operatives 1. 3.80. The quality of the bread was poor owing to a large admixture of straw. There were. . Tinned fish. tea. 'cabbage.. and rye flour Bread. but only to be found by chance. The second category comprised 162 . 80 . per lb. persons directly in the employment of the Councils. caviare. of second-rate quality. of potatoes a month. Salt we were well off for all the winter. though there was a panic at one moment and the price outside the co-operatives went up to 7 Rs. and 10 lb. for various reasons. 18-45 Rs. with- out a servant. but the latter very hard to obtain. of bread a day. 15-25. 2. and cheese was non-existent. card. 6.10-1. and many of these. in the following proportions : 1st category. carrots. about fourteen herrings.60 Rs. . onions. per lb. nothing. a day . . and an occasional dole of fat and sugar. 4th category. jam. a tin. by the 15.60. real. very poor and difficult to find. 40-50. received additional cards. 28-36. 60. coffee. tinned tomatoes. according to quality . as has been mentioned. 7-9 Rs. 3. 2nd category.60-2. substitute 14-26.10. Mistresses of flats in which five or more lived. turnips. beetroot. was 5-12 Rs. bread. into which all Petrograd was divided for the purpose The first comprised workmen and of receiving food. or with treacle.80. sugar. also were counted in the first category.

perhaps. A plate of soup without meat or fat. took. consisting. the second. must These gentry have always had plenty. rather fewer herrings and potatoes. while recourse could had to perquisitions in the flats of those suspected to have food and to requisition of the slender stores that unfortunate citizens had been reckoning on for the winter. "Hm. -J lb. indeed. the distribution of food through the co-operatives that were founded through in 1917 by combinations of house committees and employees in Government departments." where dinner could be obtained for 3 Rs. There operatives might were also a large number of " social dining-rooms. They had naturally their own means always be of obtaining supplies. and received.HUNGRY PETROGRAD all members of professional unions. not only of bread and meat." For the word dinner was a misnomer. " How cheap " will be the first comment. but also of butter. and a pound of sugar once in six months. however. of bread and all. poor were distinctly worse. who did not belong to the first category." into which a few lentils or pieces of dried cabbage had 168 M 2 . It The third category got else. nothing at not. of bread a day." commonly known as "stolovki. or to such as had no means of obtaining membership in them. in addition to their J lb. practically nothing The fourth. of hot water be. be thought that genuine Communists were restricted to their first category ration. " as the co- which. 50 kop. chocolate. ! town-stores. To the place unprivileged. and sweets as well.

THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE
found their way, a small portion of vobla minced and dished up with a little potato, and occasionally, but not always, a thin slice of bread, made up the whole
of the repast.

At some

of these dining-rooms there

was a plat du jour, generally consisting of two small The rounds of minced horse, and costing 12 Rs.
heyday; afterwards they but even in their prime it cannot be fell on evil times said that the meal provided could claim to be more
stolovki were
in their
;

now

than a rather sickly lunch. By no power of imagination could it be thought of as a real dinner, and it is
interesting to note, as giving a standard of values, that it cost thirty-five times as much, and probably con-

tained thirty-five times as little sustenance, as the dinner provided by the Great Britain to Poland and

The refugees two years before. dining-rooms, further, were dirty, and the wooden spoons and primitive knives and forks provided
Galicia

Fund

to

repulsive.

There were, indeed, a few stolovki of

superior quality; one, for instance, got

up

for the

benefit of musical students at the Conservatorium,

and another attached to an experimental school of cookery, where a decent, if slender, meal that might be considered dinner was served, and where the floor and utensils were clean and the kitchen above suspicion.

The premises of former restaurants were naturally commandeered for stolovki, and the better the establishment had been, the worse it now became. To
164

HUNGRY PETROGRAD
turn the halls of The Bear and of Contant's, as who should say the Carlton and the Savoy, into a common scene of dilapidation and dirt was a policy doubtless
as affording pleasing to the masters of Petrograd the degradation they had ocular proof of the extent of inflicted upon manners and the elegances of life.

Since the third category, which comprised all the educated classes not in the employment of the Councils

and not having a trade behind which to

shield

themselves, received nothing but $ lb. of bread, great efforts were made to get into the second category,
of bread and occasional other end professional, or, as we should To supplies. Once say, trade unions multiplied and expanded.

which received J

lb.

this

great ladies engaged themselves as waitresses in cafes, partly for the wages, but partly for the privilege their
position conferred of joining the waiters' union. It was probably to prevent this that in November the

majority of these cafes were shut up, just as the for-

earning money by bourgeois " Comrades " that the preferred should be kept goods The until a convenient opportunity for robbery.

merly numerous shops where secondhand articles were sold on commission were shut in order to prevent " from " sale of the

had been

daughters of a well-known publisher, whose business confiscated, eagerly sought small posts in
centre of bad
itself in

the institution

at the Proletkult, a pretentious art for the masses, that had installed

known

the beautiful building of the Assemblee de la 165

THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE
But when it was found that the professional unions might thus become a shelter for the educated, attention was turned to these bodies themselves, and
Noblesse.
in

them, democratising in other words, of turning the decent element out of their management, in order to give place to the unmitigated cad, was the order of the day. For a month prices remained steady.
Lists
of

February the process

of

"

"

figures do not convey the full pictures, but it is of interest to note that, on November 10th, forty-two

pounds of potatoes, nine and a half pounds of onions, and seven pounds of low quality salt fish cost 275 And roubles, or, at the old rate of exchange, £27 10s. how long would this last ? The food of a well-to-do
person in Petrograd at this date may be reckoned at lj lb. of fish of the above description, 1 lb. of
potatoes, \ to f lb. of bread, and perhaps \ lb. of some other vegetables. The fish, it should be said, was weighed with the bones, which constituted the greater part of it. For four people, then, the potatoes would last ten days, or, with extra economy, say a fortnight. The fish little over one day. It

may
life

be judged, therefore,

how

intolerably expensive

had become. To exist on the amount sold by the card would have been wholly impossible, and it was necessary to buy supplies at the market, that
is,

at contraband rates.

Let us now consider the
slice

day's meals.
piece of bread

Breakfast would consist of a small

and perhaps a
166

or two of a large

HUNGRY PETROGRAD
vegetable called redka, with the crisp flavour and dinner of herring soup boiled ; with potatoes, and served with the herrings in it, a
taste of a mild radish

some other boiled vegetables, perhaps cabat 5 Rs. a pound, or beetroot at 6 ; for supper bage, the remains of the soup heated up, with perhaps a
dish of

couple of vobla,
to be eatable,

first

beaten with a

hammer

in order

grilled on top of the stove, of bread again at supper and with small pieces dinner. For variety, the soup might be of the kind " called uha," which delicately made and of expensive fish was Rasputin's favourite, seasoned with onions, peppercorns, and laurel leaves, but the fish was

and then

extracted and served to us poor folk, who dare not waste a morsel, as a separate, if tasteless, dish. Not

a crumb

is

allowed to

fall

to the ground, but

is dili-

gently treasured, and then, when enough have been
saved,

made

into little patties with the grounds of

used
little

coffee,

baked and served as cakes.

Similar

cakes could also be

made out

of rye, sold

by

smugglers at 13 to 14 Rs. per lb. The quantity of food above described does not perhaps sound entirely
insufficient.

Nor indeed is it insufficient to support a fair amount of strength, and when one is life and hungry all the time the absence of variety does not make the difference commonly supposed. What,
however, was extremely trying was the absence of fat and sugar. These, as will be seen from the foregoing account, did not enter at 167
all

into the day's

THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE
Milk was only obtainable with great and invalids. One might as a great treat have a little butter, or a lump of sugar, or a sweet; but this would be by way of a rarity, and, however agreeable, could not substantially add
bill

of fare.

difficulty for infants

to the sustenance
salt fish

afforded by the regular diet of and potatoes. Neither butter, nor oil, nor other fat were obtainable except at such high prices
as to be prohibitive except to the very rich, that to say, commissars and their friends, speculators,

is

and millionaires who had made their peace with the Bolsheviks by means of huge bribes. One man who had made half a million sterling out of opium smug" I don't admit the existence of hunger gling said or of cold." But then he was able to spend twentyfive or thirty thousand roubles a month on household
:

expenses.

Another,

still

richer, so late as Christmas,

laughed at the suggestion that there was famine in Petrograd. His table was laden with bread, game,

and sugar, and it was nothing to him that there might be people with incomes of a thousand roubles a month who could afford none of the last three. For ordinary mortals diet consisted of potatoes and salt fish. Those who could afford to buy of them lived badly; those who could not enough
caviare,
lived worse, or died.

Besides the high price of food another very disadvantageous circumstance was the difficulty of
getting
it,

and the immense amount
168

of time spent in

was no joke. either and other vegetables had to be purchased in the open market at prices considerably higher than those quoted. on a card of of membership lent by a considerate could possessor one. In order must be made with some official at a district supply committee. And all these things be 169 . To get potatoes. or at a co-operative attached to some favoured institution. but in the street. and cajolery. prolonged search would be necessary to find a hawker with potatoes. the same procedure was necessary. and this. who would. the fortunate purchaser would have to shoulder his treasure and trudge back with it. involving the expenditure of much time. Even so. from whom an illicit order might be ob- tained on his depot. sometimes not for a couple of days running. use of a tram should one happen to go his making way and not be so crowded as to preclude the possibility of dumping his load on to the step. moreover. going thither after dark with his sack. Some- doing times bread was only given out in the afternoon. Every morning some one of the household would have to go to the co-operative for the day's ration of bread. ingenuity. refuse to sell to obtain a whole sack. as anyone who knows the Petro- grad climate must be aware.HUNGRY PETROGRAD so. such as the Commissariat for Foreign Affairs or the Admiralty. This entailed standing in a queue for perhaps twenty. Herrings. perhaps fifty minutes. vobla. favour more than a few pounds to one customer. Then.

per lb. bringing his own string with him. each. vanished. moreover. the purchaser. By the middle of December the food situation had taken a turn for the worse.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE obtained not every day. had now whether eaten or themselves starved to death. Bread was at 15 Rs. and tea substitutes. and this was also the case in Moscow. fruiterers' shops of practically every description except Apples cost 5 to 6 Rs. formerly one of the sights of the Petrograd streets and considered as sacred birds that might not be touched. and potatoes at 8 to 12 were hardly obtainable.. butter to 100. chocolate to 150. This was not a question of the price : was not asked for potatoes. Sugar had gone to 60 Rs. cocoanut oil at 30. 170 . were now at 10 to 17 Rs.. a gramme. Dogs and cats were beginning to be eaten. since string was one of the many commodities in Petrograd that was becoming rare by degrees and beautifully less. and had when bought to be carried back by hand. saccharine at 6 to 8 Rs. it was considered the greatest stroke of luck Smoked if they could be found at all. per lb. Bad fat was quoted at 40 to 50. herrings turnips 15 Rs. each. but more than 12 Rs. The pigeons. according to size. lemon essence. Food- —and in Russia vegetables are not sold by fruiterers —had been shut by order of the Bolsheviks. the tin. Poor tinned fish cost 20 to 80 Rs. and at the co-operatives there was nothing to be had but the bread ration. Even coffee substitutes had given out.

HUNGRY PETROGRAD
At the same time,
workmen.
in

trains of geese

and other

delicacies

were arriving for the Christmas dinner of the Putilov One ray of sunshine had indeed been ours
the Bolshevik the gloom of gathering despair anniversary. For weeks before it had been announced
:

that in celebration of this event there would be an

extra distribution of food, and expectancy as the
great

day neared went up
6th,

to fever point.

immense, agitated queues waited for the white rolls that had been promised, and when up to midnight there was in some districts

On November

no sign

of them, many loudly complained that the Bolsheviks had hoaxed us and there would be no

rolls at all.

However, next day the Cassandras were all Petrograd had the joy of eating rolls the size of the A.B.C. 2d. article, with a few about currants stuck in them, and rather stale. The first two categories also received TV lb. of tea and the first J lb. of fat. To get J lb. of fat, a lady who managed for a household of seven stood in a queue from ten to midnight and again next morning from nine to eleven o'clock. Nobody but workmen and Conciliar officials got any fat at all. It must be said that for the most part Petrograd was pleased. There is a
discomfited
;

Russian story of a peasant who applied to his parish
priest for a recipe for happiness.
in his

He was

miserable

home, he said, quarrelled with his wife, and

wanted to learn how to escape from affliction. The priest, taking his promise to obey exactly, ordered
171

THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE
him to add his pig to the number of his household. The peasant's discomfort was only increased. At the end of the month the cow was added, the peasant
still

bore

it;

but when, at the end of the second

month, the priest ordered that the horse, too, should be taken into the house, it was almost too much
to bear.
Still the peasant bore it, and only at the end of the third month prayed to be relieved of

the intolerable burden.

Then the
:

priest told

put

all

the animals out of the house again.

him to The
so

peasant
ness!

came

back

known such happihappy," he said, "I " " Just so," answered the priest, "and I have shown you that happiness and misery are
relative.

overjoyed have never

"

Oh,

I

am

you know how really happy you were Petrograd was like the peasant of the story. Anyone, it might be thought, would recog" " nise the mockery of getting the anniversary provisions that were distributed by the Bolsheviks, when three weeks earlier they had been rushing " Ger" of the trains of flour to the
before."

Now

help

starving

mans.

But

it

was not

so.

The simple Russian

public were as pleased as a child with a toy. It is not their nature to reason deeply. Give them white rolls every day and they will be discontented
;

starve them on black bread, and one sudden white This was of the same nature roll delighted them.

paradox that Russians, if paid regularly or by contract, will do as little as possible, that little
as the

172

HUNGRY PETROGRAD
often amounting to nothing. If not paid and given an occasional tip, much can be got out of them. Nevertheless, with or without the anniversary
doles,
it

to obtain

home.
stolovka

was impossible for the average household enough provisions to maintain itself at Recourse must inevitably be had to a
to

eke

out

the

paltry supplies of

the

By December fresh fish had become unobtainable, and caviare too expensive and
domestic cupboard.
tinned fish too poor to be of assistance. A member of the public, however, could not enter
a stolovka and

make

a meal as

and when he liked

;

he must have a card entitling him to eat at a particular stolovka, and then for the period of a month
at least he could not change.

Other restaurants and

dining-rooms, like hotels, had long been abolished. At the Sailors' Club, formerly the Hotel Regina,
strangers

could

have

a

slight

repast

for

fifteen

roubles, with the fun

thrown in of seeing able seamen 300 or 400 Rs. on their lunch, and take out spend " Kerenkies " with sheets of which to pay, cutting
off

the twenty or forty rouble notes with a scissors. Otherwise, a newcomer to Petrograd might well
starve.

newcomers and old inhabitants, all Since the spring of 1918 the majority had doubtless had too little food, perhaps from a half
And,
in fact,

did starve.

to three-quarters of what they would have eaten in normal times. It is hardly an exaggeration to say

178

THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE
that a healthy man was never during this period without a keen appetite, even at the moment of The reason is rising from table after his best meal.

not far to seek.

Even during the summer

there had

been

a deficiency of eggs, bread, milk, butter, sugar,

and cheese, these all being obtainable, but at prices that compelled much less than usual of them to be eaten. Very many people, owing to the high price

meat and the difficulties of a domestic household, dined at vegetarian restaurants, where the greater part of the food consisted of cabbage and potatoes Before winter, served in unsatisfying portions.
of

Thus we had already been hungry for several months, when, from what before had seemed meagre fare but to a backward glance was plenty itself, we were plunged into a condition In such cirof famine prices and famine products. cumstances life becomes reduced to the simplest and You cannot go to the most disagreeable terms.
these, too, were closed.
friends, because

they will

feel

obliged to offer somethis

thing, and you know what an expense

means.

You cannot
it

invite friends to you, because of the bill

run up, and the extra exertion that will be required to obtain food to replace what they have
will

eaten.

because
since

You cannot buy anything not essential, the price represents so much food. You
is

cannot go anywhere that

not absolutely necessary,

movement requires expenditure of energy, which again demands more food to be made up.
174

HUNGRY PETROGRAD
day of food how to get it, and when, and what you will get. Only the stimulus of a task that must be done by a certain time can prevent the mind from dwelling upon food, and, in

You have

to think

all

spite of the energy expended, it is far preferable to be in constant work of an exacting character than to be able to husband one's strength, but have the

mind

free to be preyed on by the ceaseless pictures with which an empty stomach fills the imagination. Actors and singers took to asking for payment, at

To bribe their goodwill the least partly, in kind. Bolsheviks put members of the State Theatre companies in the first category. A celebrated tenor gave
a concert for a fee of five pounds of sweets. Many obtained employment in organising entertainments

Red Army, and were glad of the chance to food from their new patrons. Conversation in get Petrograd other than that necessitated by work had
for the

come

to be exclusively on the subject of food.

Have

you found butter ? What did you pay for it ? How much is bread ? Will there be a distribution of sugar at Christmas ? How much wood have you ? Can
paraffin be obtained
for
?

Is

it
?

true that the potatoes

December
almost

are

all

frozen

Alas

!

this

was

true,

question, and there are thousands, invariably received unfavourable answers. The hardest deprivation was probably the absence

and

every

such

of fat in the cooking, for

want of which, people, while they could, frequently had recourse to vaseline, or 175

Persons. sudden fits of elation seize you. and boiled vegetables. and the majority. before. Physical work that before was normal becomes an almost insupportable burden. Now a diet of boiled fish. It becomes an effort The eye involuntarily follows each morsel from dish to plate. or castor oil. therefore. fell back upon boiling. moments occur when without warning or reason the fingers drop objects they hold. feet to shuffle. debasing effect not to envy others their food.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE cotton-seed oil. Cotton-seed oil is definitely unwholesome. mere ghosts of pale and what they were before. but being indulged in for weeks together produces physical weakness and nervous exhaustion. the heart . The mind grows warped. and men grow thin and hollow-cheeked. Legs begin to get limp. broken nervous sleep becomes ceases to be automatic . in the quantities above mentioned. so expensive as to be unusable. automatically measures each helping. But vaseline rapidly became oil. 170 . Prolonged hunger produces. alternating with periods of depression as irrational and uncontrollable but of longer duration. and resents hospitality shown to others. perhaps thoroughly trustworthy take to pilfering. resents going control upstairs. a on character. and castor though its use in cooking is not attended by dis- agreeable consequences. too. so salt that it must be boiled almost to the point of tastelessness not to cause a devouring thirst. has nothing dreadful about it at the moment. has a most unpleasant taste.

In every man's heart fear beeomes an abiding guest. while on the one hand formerly solid the sight of common to see persons of appearance now as thin as laths. drunk in whatever quantity. and for the time undoubtedly staves off the pangs of hunger. For two . in the midst even of which he does not cease to be hungry. habit. and men falling in the street from exhaustion it was no longer caused the least surprise. only afterwards to increase weakness by putting an extra strain on the kidneys and the heart. to cheat the stomach. mental. the tea of Petrograd was so weak. and the substitutes were mostly made of wholesome berries but what was extremely harmful was the quantity of liquid drunk.HUNGRY PETROGRAD and thoughts diseased and mean. was scarcely possible not to indulge in this First. but of tea or tea substitute. the feelreasons it ing of hunger does not decrease. owing to its costliness. violent stomach-ache ensues. By the end of November. This process of muscular. Con- sidered as a drug. on the other there were those who to a casual glance had flourished and even grown fat under famine treatment. being in reality swollen from drinking too much. as to be harmless. and nervous decay was doubtless accelerated by excessive drinking. But liquid may be imbibed to an astonishing extent. Woe betide the man who by chance eats a meal even half the size of a good old-time meal. 177 The other N . not of alcohol. for although the stomach gets accustomed to the smaller fare.

A temperature of. We therefore lived in cold rooms. to 300 roubles. but for long at a time together this is very tiring. requires from five to ten logs of wood a day to keep the room reason was the desire for warmth. 1917. it is enough to say that in Petrograd in 1914 a sagen cost 8 roubles. and yet more tea. which for a five-roomed flat and " " kitchen spells an expenditure of about a sagen a week. in 1915. reasonably warm. at which price it was very To keep a flat warm during the winter would have cost some 12. but is so to people weak from want of food.000 roubles. say. and had gone up by November. without exact dimensions being given. which were not warmed at all. A Dutch stove.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE Petrograd was not only hungry. the shortage of fuel began to make itself felt in other ways than the coldness 178 . People often put on their fur coats. been impossible. As the winter drew on. but. 53° does not sound terrible. as they did in theatres. This. which is the Russian measure of wood. but cold. from 15 to 18. and to obtain the quantity of wood required would have difficult to obtain. Therefore everyone drank tea. and no whit surprised when it was under 40°. of the pattern universally used in Russian towns. happy when the temperature was over 50° Fahrenheit. because it was hot. who come in from perhaps 10° or 15° below zero in the street. and there was no other way of getting heat. is commonly translated " fathom".

gradually service. and given by the local councils to all An economka would cook a Communists gratis.HUNGRY PETROGRAD is The Russian kitchen. only one dish could be cooked at a time on it. and water for washing up would have to be heated separately after dinner. of living rooms. for instance. by a Petrograd workman. dinner with an expenditure of two logs of wood. It is innocent of the stoker and the quality gas-rings or other As this quantity of wood labour-saving devices. where the cook thus worked in an atmosphere about freezing point. An even worse effect of the fuel shortage was the deterioration of the tramway service." designed. if left to itself for five would go out. according to the of the skill of wood. furnished with a flat-topped stove that takes from five to nine logs of wood for an hour's cooking. but had the disadvantage that it gave but little warmth to the kitchen. meant a serious drain upon slender stores. the remainder were running at not much more than half- any actual that 179 N 2 . the end of November about half the declined. Without breakdown. Moreover. and required to be stoked the whole time with small morsels of wood " chopped minutes for the it purpose . so that while the potatoes were cooking the soup got cold. by total number of cars had been taken off. it is said. the efficiency of the had formerly been high. cooking was largely done on a miniature stove known as an economka. entailing yet more chopping.

then bad company might be introduced into the house. a servant must be fed. is a matter of much concern to the underfed. The cars were and by the end of the summer of 1918 probably no more than a third of the normal number were on the road. you were entirely at her mercy. being country girls. however unreasonable. which was very costly and difficult. while to get a place often meant waiting for twenty minutes or half an hour. the fare. The state of the trams may seem at first sight remote from the question of food. too. or the want of it. and that formal appli180 . were now entirely without domes- servants' First. which beyond its and in worse repair. But the chief reason was that once a servant were admitted into your house. and always having a free fight. ordinary regrettable consequences produces specially bad results on persons living without servants. older Moscow was. with robbery and murder as the consequence . besides which. worse off in this respect even than Petrograd. might be answered by a denunciation. seeing that objection to her demand. and were insufferably crowded. many had gone back to their servants. wages were exceedingly high. but locomotion. being put up by degrees from the 10 kopeck rate of 1917 to a rouble. owing to various reasons. secondly. Many of the intelligentsia tics. villages to escape from hunger in Petrograd.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE speed. however. Uncertainty in the running of the trams also occasions great unpunctuality.

took it in turns to make the stoves. but it Not only did the price leap up ten roubles. and the feast was given exactly as it would have been in the old days.HUNCRY PETROGRAD Lisa's or Masha's justification. and the miserably few trucks of flour that had wormed their way up from the teeming cornfields of the Volga entirely stopped. He was on particularly good terms with the Bolsheviks." Members of the household. and the cost was a round 28." and wine. Such was the state of Petrograd. There was a rich man who gave a feast on the occasion of his daughter's wedding. with white bread. unlimited " zakuski. and a delay of half an hour in heating. raging with intervals for five days and blocking the southern lines for a fortnight. and cook the dinner. or of the groups who banded together for meals for the sake of economy. viewed from the angle of supplies. therefore. Up to mid-December it had been possible for much money to obtain everything. was impossible to obtain at all. marketing.000 roubles. since anyone 181 . or serving the dinner might to strength make a sensible difference and spirits for the day. But on December 20th a terrific snowstorm took place between Tambov and Moscow. cation to a Bolshevik authority could only lead to and possibly to the " bourimposition of a heavy fine on the applicant geois. fetch the provisions. There were forty guests. Petrograd was without bread. when the seriously cold weather began and an immediate disaster occurred.

the log. horse 14.. The price of white flour. with a predisposition to dysentery and cholera. to the great increase of intestinal and throat trouble. or by passing them laboriously through a coffee mill and then making a kind of clammy porridge. per lb. Bread.. and matches Loaf sugar was at 90 to 120. And when trains began again fitfully to run. coffee 75. and butter to 75 to 90. that had gone to 26 Rs. not oatmeal. nor even cleaned oats. There were : two ways in which they could be prepared either by boiling them into a broth. a 2 Rs. following the custom of Russian hors d'ceuvres. candles 20 Rs. great rarity. sand tea 100. But. exactly as they are given to horses. it was uncertain how long the block might In- stead of bread the Bolsheviks distributed oats. thereby frequently developing catarrh of the stomach. 182 . but beef stood at 30. was quoted at 30 to 35 Rs. just as there were people who. ate their ration of salt herring raw.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE who had bread refused to sell at a moment when last. Wood cost 2 Rs. a box. went down to 18 to 22. from which the husks could be fished out when served. and rye flour at 22 to 25. but oats in the husk. Oatmeal could be had at 28. veal 28. per lb. so many unwisely made their oats into little cakes and scones to replace bread. coffee substitutes 55. the food situation of Petrograd had taken another big jump on the downhill path towards the abyss that it afterwards reached. per lb. and in this form ate them. husks and all. and sugar 55.

and paraffin at 5 to 7 Rs. per lb. were watched by ravenous crowds. Milk. but all only to be found by chance or after much private inquiry. and the death-rate in Petrograd increased to between three and four thousand a day.50 and 3 to 4. under with the temperature going from hard frost to slushy warmth and again back to bitter cold. which had already begun to be eaten. coming first from suburban villages. and then becoming persistent in Petrograd and Moscow themselves.50 Rs. when they judged the last moment had come.. of could be had without much diffivery poor quality. now were regularly quoted at the street markets at 2. in At the beginning of January a woman Moscow went mad from the belief that her two 183 . flung themselves on the poor wretch and hacked up the carcase on the spot. dying of starvation in the streets. culty at 12 to 14 Rs. Stories of cannibalism began to be current. A still living horse was on one occasion observed to be gnawed by a band of starving dogs. Horrible Cases were reported things began to take place. where horses. Smoked herrings were 17 to 26 Rs. It and scarcely surprising that. disease played havoc. such conditions.HUNGRY PETROGRAD macaroni at 40. who. always the worst off for food. rice for 30. each. the latter much is in demand for cooking with Primus heaters. a pint. Cats' and dogs' flesh. or that in December and January together sixteen thousand died of sheer starvation. per lb. every transaction being shrouded in the deepest mystery.

per lb. and privately 12-13 Rs. pork 40. drove a grisly trade by selling their victims' flesh for food. Before the great snowstorm Moscow. was Soap. was considerably better off for food third week 1 than the northern capital. As late as the in December. beef 20-24. and that the Chinese executioners. but said to be very difficult to procure without the aid of a friend at court. in Petrograd. Wood and milk were the same In the price as in Petrograd. but there is unfortunately little room to doubt that by March. bread in Moscow cost R. sold by the card in insuffi5 Rs. in a commissariat. For long it seemed impossible that such a depth of loathsome need should be possible in a European country. such practices did exist. if not before. had been abducted and murdered in order to be eaten. 10 kop. The big markets at Moscow had from the summer onwards been the scene of frequent fracas. accompanied by arrests and shots. " Stolovki " in Moscow were not so orcompletely 184 . . who had gone one morning as usual to fetch the daily bread and had never returned. . course of three months meat had twice been distri- buted by the card. but harder to obtain. maintained by the Bolsheviks. horse 13. cient quantities. 52 kop.. each. sugar 60. though in a worse position for trams. Chickens were 120-180 Rs. potatoes 4-6. by the card. a piece in the market 17. and bad quality at that. viz.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE children. butter 60. as against 1 R. raids being made on the illicit tradesmen by the Red Guards.

bread not being given by card at all. butter 30. the chief reason was that Moscow was held tight in the Bolsheviks' grip. and every 185 Astrakhan at its feet. eggs 6-7 Rs.. good a : sausage 8. a pint. and a meal was 5 Rs.HUNGRY PETROGRAD ganised as in the capital. Prices. sweets. This attractive and well-built town is the centre of one of the world's chief corn districts. each .50. That the famine prices were not due to any lack of provisions in the country is proved by those ruling at the same time at Rogachev. town in the government of Mogilev. for ten. wheat flour 5. cheese 30. milk 1 R. . and doubtless before long reached the starvation limit invariably touched under pressure of the Bolshevik rule. and is an important depot for mineral oil. whereas the government of Mogilev had only recently fallen into their hands and that they had not yet succeeded in putting the screw firmly on. but a card unnecessary to obtain it. There were fewer of them. however. white vegetables. black bread 2. and consequently better. but though the chaotic state of the railways and the ruinous condition of rolling stock must have in any case raised prices in the capitals. has all the wealth of the Volga and of has cattle close at hand. It may be thought that the difference was due to the breakdown of transport. and cakes were to be had in abundance. That this and no other is the main cause of the famine in Russia is proved by the case of Saratov. currants. sugar 15 and sand sugar 8. were already going up. chickens 8-12 Rs. per lb.. one night's journey from Moscow beef 6 Rs.

and their requisitioning of butter and flour. and at sions been within a further south The bazaar. In September everything was obtainable there. socialising food supplies. in their words. The result on supplies was at once apparent. with lodging thrown in. Already there had been much grumbling among the populace at the interference of the Reds with trade.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE produce from the shores of the Caspian. Now the Bolsheviks felt themselves strong enough to apply with proper thoroughness their system of. butter. and various grain were to be had in abundance. one workman. 186 . White bread was 3 Rs. and three weeks later was made entirely secure by the fall of Samara. meat. in the public's view. but. and Tsaritsin. The Czecho-Slovaks had on several occa- form of hundred versts of it. had been constantly threatened by General Krasnov's Cossacks. per lb.. than since on fifteen hundred. Milk. But with the capture of Simbirsk by the Bolsheviks in the middle of the month their position at Saratov improved. a rubber repairer. By the end of the year they had achieved a success that must be thought remarkable when it is considered that the country round teemed with food of every description. on the Volga. south of Russia are so called. declaring that he was better off before the revolution on sixty roubles a month. currants. and fruit. overflowed with eggs. for markets in the reasonable prices. causing artificial hunger. and this although contraband. All through the summer the position of Saratov had been doubtful. vegetables.

Sugar was 70 Rs. owing to lack of river transport. Bread was by the card. or indeed food of No eggs.. because there was none in Saratov. meat. then flour and the supply of fish. butter. not. per lb. openly. before. 187 . sausage 25. As none of these were distributed by the card at all. but too fresh when sold. the watch kept by the Reds was so strict that peasants would deal only with those who had long-established connections with them. vegetables. that. however. for every sale of private. any description. persons of moderate means though not starving as in Moscow and Petrograd. cigarettes a rouble each. ceased altogether. Before Christmas the bazaar was wholly shut. good brown bread. for fear of denunciation. Wood was the same price as in the capitals. once coming into an acquaintance's flat where a transaction with butter and sausage was in process. tobacco 150 Rs. tea 65.. Moreover. but because Bolshevik money had ceased to have any value for the peasants and they would only sell bread in exchange for goods that paper money could not buy. according to category. But the sold contraband bread stopped. j or J lb. hidden in the hay at the bottom of his sledge. butter 45. per lb. milk became extremely rare . peasant driving into the town brought four or five white loaves with him. was to be had except in minute quantities issued by the card. lard 30. had been feeble . The distribution of meat entirely ceased. The in Saratov. literally hungered in the midst of plenty. writer. that is.HUNGRY PETROGRAD First butter disappeared from the market.

An argument used in favour of the Baconian theory is that. The official theory that life. and it was common to see people otherwise well dressed with their toes coming 188 . since they are irreplaceable. at from 200 to 600 but goloshes. intelligent men from the German colony. one pair of boots at 80 Rs. blanch and tremble all over for fear he might be an emissary of the Bolsheviks. had no relation to fact. gloves.. were Shakespeare really the author of his would never have condescended to bequeath his four-poster and other household objects in his will. Yet the Germans had enjoyed protection above others. two or more generations in Russia. the least trifles come to have plays. goloshes. and one pair of goloshes at 30. these were treasures far above their nominal worth. because they could not be obFootgear. almost an essential of Russian roubles. bought. Clothes. and the last shop where butter could be bought in the town had been kept by a German woman. not too much to say. he a special value. it is tained. were not to be had at all. Those who may have felt a certain astonishment at this and at the attention paid to personal articles in letters and diaries of the seventeenth century. after diligent Very inferior boots could be search. was a tragedy in Petrograd. would have quickly got over their surprise after a few weeks of life under the Bolsheviks. were obtainable by every member of the population.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE saw three strapping peasants. When little is made and hardly anything can be bought. boots.

could be got secretly and as a great favour at 90 Rs. sum was asked for a poor secondhand lady's fur January. there were in the town considerable stocks of food which all the perquisitions their severities fell by the Bolsheviks had not been able to discover. slender doles of sugar and flour were made to the first and second categories. a slight improvement took place in the food situation.50 the box. matches to 1. per lb. a bed quilt fetched seven hundred and fifty. rye flour to 20. 1919. although the Bolsheviks had other more forcible means of preserving the Communist majority. grain and meal to 20-22. a A pair of inferior socks cost twenty roubles. veal to 17. sugar to 75. obstinate rumours that the British were marching. there were to be new Counlatter half of cil With the elections in February.HUNGRY PETROGRAD through the holes in their worn-out boots.. Linen also rare. This was due to two causes. Secondly. Only 189 . An old great coat sold for a thousand roubles. potatoes to such products in 8-10. and had only driven underground. despite the famine. and five times that cape. or soon to march. on Petrograd brought down prices. Only Bolsheviks had the means to be became most Ladies' cotton or artificial silk stockings well dressed. and pair. With this object. thus proving that. and frayed collars and torn blouses that no longer attracted attention or demanded objects explanation. and. beef to 20. First. it was still useful for them to buy back a little favour among the crowd. Bread to 18 Rs.

sugar 110. coffee to prices or went higher. 1 Meanwhile hardly a pound to February. salvation at the hands of a loyal ally. ten eggs cost 75 Rs. The flattering mirage of herrings at 20 Rs.. a sagen of wood 500. From March 18 to April 10 all passenger traffic was suspended. 190 . the prices quoted were obtained by persons I can vouch for . which pro- gressively rose until in the middle of March bread stood at 35 Rs. nominally for the transport of the in order to free Red Army. more engines Whatever the motive. 1919. and the capitals were cut off from the meagre supplies that had thus formerly nourished them. pork 85 Rs. according to opportunity. but I cannot Down myself or personally guarantee them. Onions remained at 10 Rs. districts in who brought food from the productive sacks on their backs to Moscow and Petro- grad. instead of the solid dish." individual peasant aggravated. per lb. 160 Us.. per lb.. At the stolovki. one smoked herring 30. butter 140-200. those after I left by Russia may be believed to be equally accurate. rye flour at 40. and the awakening to reality was followed by another upward bound of prices. however. the situation was no whit relieved. per lb. for the speculators. this last believed to be a mixture of dog and cat and human flesh from the 1 Chinese abattoir of the Gorohovaya.. dogmeat 6-10. per lb. each. but only " sackmen. soon vanished.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE which there was no margin stayed at their former Tea rose to 150. cranberry fool began to be given. and " mixed meat " 8 Rs. per lb. were no longer able to travel.. horse 35.

On April 10 it was officially announced that cranberries would be given instead of bread. and when higher. dilapidated. the present. In April is described as a town of the it dying and of the dead. dog to 10.HUNGRY PETROGRAD hundreds of tons of grain and flour lying on the banks of the Volga had reached the heart and the head of Russia. beginning of February Petrograd was bad enough.. cious. a few roubles per lb. barely lit at night. killing. on the remains if the Bolshevik regime is allowed to last. is now Electric light. the future must be yet barely living. more or less hardly matter. potatoes to 18. since even lower they are. shuttered. Weakness has become so general that hallu- cinations begin at a temperature of less than degrees above the normal. darkness reigns in the hearts of and are altogether dark. butter to But indeed. formerly capriAt the only given for an hour a day. Bread had gone to 45 Rs. sugar to 200. and on Sundays not at all. per lb. horse to of the 50. two But worse. if indeed seed . in the most literal sense. of the industry of the past. misery. its dejected and morose inhabitants lived feebly from day to day in a state of almost complete apathy. Since March its streets terror. This year 1 1 [1919. there will be no sowing beyond the peasants' immediate needs. The trams now ran only in the daytime. when prices reach such levels. Disease. Filthy. have wholly ceased. if this is Russia is living. famine are its kings.] 191 . cannot be more deadly. In Moscow they 250. and men and clouds their minds.

their magnificence was washed down repast to by choice one could have guessed that there was want in Moscow or any restriction upon food. Lenin is a clever speaker. essential to idealise the central figure of the picture. " What blackguards I am surrounded with " he cried. "It is positively dis! No them. but the legend of their inordinate ability is devoid of foundation for some people it is in the organisation of political intrigue. found the Bolshevik leader sumptuously served by footmen in the former imperial livery. But attention is here rather drawn to the utter incompetence of the Bolshevik Government. no wood will be cut or transported to the cities. apt at repartee. primed with endless Socialist catchwords that flow from their ready tongues they are profoundly versed . Nobody in 192 ." It would be easy to answer with a tu quoque. was asked by him to dinner. and are wholly without scruple. A match wines. and to such among foreigners Lenin has become a genius.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE corn suffices for that. and it seems inevitable that unless Petrograd sluggard is taken this summer by Kolchak or by the Russia. and capable of a witty gibe even at his own expense he and his colleagues are gusting to have to do business with . albeit a genius from the pit. a large proportion of some beings in the northern governthirty million ments must perish of cold and hunger. Lenin was in a scornful mood. . Last summer allies of human a Petrograd lawyer of credit. who had personal busiHe ness with Lenin.

first Why were the cities starved ? In order. on the evacuation of Polotsk. and more thousand officials directly. Secondly. a slogan of rapturously entrancing power to the uneducated. Given a condition of anarchy. to root out the spirit and the very life of the educated classes. a second is of sugar to the Germans. capacity. and threatened to shoot an 193 o . unlimited funds. we may take the case where.HUNGRY PETROGRAD Russia except his henchmen thinks him so. Germany was the latter's inventor and natural friend. indeed to test and in this they have conspicuously failed. to govern with of all. who would have combated the tyranny of the Bolsheviks and who understood its meaning. 1916. to carry out in practice the Socialist theory all that production and distribution should be in the hands of the State with which purpose twenty-two . and utter ruthlessness aim. in the place. a clear view of the immediate object. that in attaining the ultimate the destruction of patriotism and of the educated classes of Russia. the Bolsheviks deliberately abandoned seventeen wagons sheviks' treason. and it was not a work of peculiar difficulty for men with the training of the once Bolsheviks to capture the machine of State : it was a task. that personal is power. were employed in the Petrograd committee drawing an aggregate salary of over supply twenty million roubles a month. The hunger of Petrograd and Moscow is the best test captured. and the bread sent thither in Novem- ber. was but one overt act If in proof of the Bol- required.

194 . and the workmen to whom the millennium was promised. not only for foes. once started. manufacturing. ducing it. until famine has by the throat both the professional. but for those who once were friends. ?nd the pauper class who held their reversion from the Bolsheviks. and the very Red Army is not safe from starvation.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE officer who tried to get them away. But hunger. The mechanism . with has for pro- which they hoped finally to crush their enemies. cannot be stayed and its dread mills have ground out want. become their Frankenstein. and trading classes.

but. had not come my way before. I was only three minutes' walk from the children's home that had been Station in my chief care during the past months. " Don't go back to your hotel. it would be hard to behave with any approach to ease and naturalDisguise life —a in hiding —an : ness. because the house porter. In a twinkling I became someone else. a time-server like all his breed. and I should have expected that they would form a medium. just as later he of the most lyingly denounced the worthy matron for concealing agents in a British plot. did one ever find oneself there. But when a good friend met me at the Nicolas Moscow and said. in which. but I could not go there.CHAPTER VII A PRODUCER IN BOLSHEVISIA assumed identity these are the concomitants of everyday life as depicted in the exciting novels of Mr. with a whole set of 195 o 2 home . and personality. history. The Red Guards are looking for you. outside of them. Max Pemberton." it seemed the simplest thing in the world to sit down on a bench in the boulevard and think out a new parentage. would instantly have denounced me.

and was a new outlook : the only thing I retained my name. Throughout nearly six months that I so lived. and I think that until the very end I was hardly suspected certainly never by the many sailors. of Viennese extraction. 196 . According to the passes obtained for me from the All-Russian Union of Actors. I never hesitated to rely on my story. but I could change its form and assume a new nationFrom that hour I was Ivan Pollak-Ulanda. since the revolution. and. which dropped one letter. perience in America. Red Army men." I was a producer of extrouble the reader . and took to itself a fancy double. and miscellaneous persons into whose company I was thrown. lived first in Austria. at which time I was supposed to have returned thither. leaving his orphan son of nineteen —me—to fend for himself. changed another. and his wife Fanny Pollak.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE new relations. Friedrich Ulanda. into the Theatrical Undertakings. a new country. the ality. which was afterwards " actor " seemed too aristoturned. son of the well-known Lettish Communist. commissars. and fulfilled the purpose for which it was intended. then in France. who was driven out of Russia in the year 1874. where he died seventeen years later. because the word " Professional Union of Workers in cratic. With : my subsequent history I need not enough to say that it was fully worked out with due regard to place and date. and finally emigrated to America. There were too many people who knew me by name and sight for me to shed my name altogether.

a quarter of a pound of bread a day and an occasional dole of salt herrings and half-rotten — potatoes.A PRODUCER IN BOLSHEVISIA in Russia. but held my peace." he sneered. These papers were not only valuable as an addition to my passport. under cover of pompous phrases about revoluideas." " " counter-revoHervieu's " Theroigne de Mericourt . by which. kept the best parts for himself and received callers with a " The revolver on the table. To complete my disguise. "Do you think our workmen " I need to be taught anything by these Canadians ? — privately thought they could be taught a good deal. He would not hear of " " of interest to Land of Promise English only misses. because the into a close ring the Arts Section of the local Soviet. I grew a fine beard and cultivated a Boston accent. theatres at Saratov controlled In this I failed. A third-rate young actor. 197 . whereas the third category used to get J lb. and practically nothing else. was staging average drawing-room melodrama and the usual Russian classics that had had been formed tionary done duty for the past several seasons. My first professional job was to look for a theatre at Saratov for a company from Moscow. but gave me the right to obtain bread and provisions as a member of the second category that is. who by intrigue and coarse activity had obtained the post of Commissar of the Theatres. with the idea in my head of getting through to the Czecho-SIovaks and of bread thence to Vladivostok. " L'Aiglon " was M imperialistic.

the theatres were crowded. and any amount of money to squander. In reality all members of our collective were paid separately by the management. renamed Karl Marx Theatre. although complaint was freely made of the inferior fare provided. Theatre of the Revolution." The real point was that Comrade Basiligo was determined not to have any competition for the multitudinous but very inferior strength he had collected round him. Engel's Theatre. that. He had killed a genuine working man's theatrical club which objected to his tutelage.." Zola's " ideals." free quarters. nevertheless. Most naturally so. which the Soviet paid out bourgeois." next experience was in Petrograd with a socalled "collective. etc. Saratov was so crowded in the autumn of 1918. consequently companies formed round leading actors theoretically is shared alike in profits and losses. the patronage of six theatres. I was informed that Comrade Basiligo managed to declare a substantial deficit.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE Therese Raquin had no lutionary. " " " He had the finest house in the town for his " sec- tion." That any actor should be posof the pockets of the " My to the public sessed of outstanding merit or be a special attraction is contrary to the communistic theory that no one better than the worst. and was not now going to allow anything that might show up his mediocrity." Ibsen was bourgeois. Here I worked for some two months with 198 . by reason than what easier of the food situation being someat Petrograd or Moscow.

This sounds as if the was a very miserable one in fact. Of the old-fashioned theatre-going public 199 . and an elegant auditorium it was Theatre. it was one theatre body else to : of the smartest in Petrograd. house-porters. and a certain amount of unity and drive instilled into the company. uninteresting programmes and want of stage control having almost quite driven the public away.A PRODUCER IN BOLSHEVISIA one or two weeks of I rest. do this but me." that is. Russian actors. for instance. Ours had the advantage of a good medium-sized stage. workmen. was engaged as producer. exactly opposite the State Several Such conditions were general. The bill was now changed every week. persons serving in various conciliar institutions. and very hard work it was. The audilarly had the " ences were mostly composed of Comrades. with the gratifying result that big audiences soon began to flock to the theatre. do not attend to their own entrances. . being situated half-way up the Nevsky Prospect. but are sent on by the stage-manager and when the latter fell ill with pneumonia there was no. and two workmen. soldiers. On Saturdays we regu" House Full " boards out. the stage got up with taste. but before we came it had fallen on evil days. excellent lighting. and a fair sprinkling of sailors. formerly an extremely popular house. it was imperative to dc a great deal besides. theatres remained altogether closed for want of stage hands and through friction with the companies. electrician. but since the entire staff consisted of the stage manager.

THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE there were but few. so that if educated persons were present they were not easy to pick out from the rest. therefore. but he had to be taught his part line by line. The first row of the stalls cost twenty-four roubles. he hastened to assure us. by conviction starved. which not surprising. almost everyone more or rigged himself out in plebeian attire. The collection was distinctly motley. as the best way to avoid unpleasant attention from the less crowd. which few minor Russian actors are. stand. little better in the provinces. but when it turned out that the young lead was a comedian under middle size and nearly over middle age. All actors who the food situation was could had fled from Petrograd. but not. A substitute was found in an amateur who was assisttant commissar in the Petrograd Military Commistalent sariat. makeshifts. a Bolshevik only because he would otherwise have — a nice appearance and was willing to work hard. since the upper and middle classes were exactly those that had least money to spend. since on anything less life was barely The management. in fact. had recourse to possible. intonation by intonation. Some were fair. move. though. and there was nothing cheaper than ten. He had how to sit. steps had to be taken. and those of any who remained and were at liberty asked staggering salaries. and sometimes worse at Moscow. whereas the Comrades could is " blew " two hundred roubles on refreshments between the acts without turning a hair. everything 200 . in fact. Moreover.

no sugar.A PRODUCER IN BOLSHEVISIA from the beginning of the alphabet. The was indefatigable in getting additions to the food supply. His worst point was an unconscious rolling of his head and a jerk at the knee that made me think of a demented gollywog. insisting that admirers should bring bread or rye instead of flowers. illicitly sold one. but when there were added to this the imperative tasks of standing in to the tune of four the queue for bread in the morning. with enor- mous life generosity. and he made such improvement that by the second week he had ceased to be a nuisance and by the fourth was emboldened to strike for a higher salary. and unlimited weak tea was not altogether exhilarating. or shouldering a sack of potatoes through the streets that the superintendent of a district supply committee had. Rehearsing every day and directing the stage at night was hard work enough in itself. especially when it is observed that the theatre was almost stone cold. but good food. all too few potatoes. it is from the centrue. it will be seen that on a meagre and monotonous fare of boiled salt herring. and on chief of our collective one occasion getting leave to buy a substantial amount and caviare very expensive. and what a treat Most trying were the dress tral supply committee. a morsel of bread. no milk. of fish. which he got hundred roubles a week. But in the end we mastered even this. no butter. dashing to get a few pounds of vegetables through the favour of an acquaintance in some commissariat. chocolate. ! — — 201 .

much clad. it packed the theatre and held poor" enthralled. There did not look to be much poverty came more substantially about them. began earlier and ended later than ordinary. the electrician had gone away. cards. or two if you had a lump of sugar. for which work. the lace and silken luxury of her bed in the last act. fried in castor at five roubles apiece. and above all much better fed. for they were huge. and rye cakes the oil. Champagne. than the poor intelligentsia of Petrograd. 202 liqueurs. What fetched them was evidently the splendour of Marguerite Gau tier's life. was the Perhaps the most interesting event in the period " week of so-called poverty. the magnificence of her gowns. the orchestra and the carpenter did not come at all.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE rehearsals. there was always an extra expenditure of nerves and temper. of course. The only food to be obtained was tea from the watchman at a rouble a glass. We were " La Dame aux Camelias. and. I had to set and light the stage entirely by myself and give the music cues from the stalls. size of a mouthful. perhaps " the In fact." when representa" committees of " from the tives of country poverty to Petrograd for a congress and were given passes to the theatres." which would not playing be expected to appeal to this class of audience. . On one occasion the young lead was over an hour late. as it is difficult to get the average Russian actor to see the necessity of dressing and making-up for the occasion. and the stage manager was ill . hulking fellows.

who had been beginning of sitting quite quietly got up at the Act V and went out. A much greater danger was when a well203 .A PRODUCER IN BOLSHEVISIA ville: evening dress. Indeed. for was strange to the newcomer and enabled me to carry off the fiction that I had only been in London thrice. but demandattentive. and didn't think it interested him to have the performance repeated on the stage. so that I had to conjure up a sublime ignorance of my native Cockney dom. more incredible and fabulous than Monte They were very tried to silent. saying that he could see his wife in bed three hundred and sixty-five nights in the year. the " the poor "was the overpowering only objection to odour they brought into the theatre. and to feign ignorance successfully is much harder than to pretend to knowledge. ing a different sort of entertainment. in He spoke English well and knew Leicester Square. the quarrel between Armand and Varall this must have been the top-notch of Cristo to a boy. Twice during this time I had had what might have been narrow shaves of discovery. London. experience to them. He turned out to be a Jewish comedian fulfilled who had recently an engagement at the Empire. but he was The only promptly suppressed by his neighbours. I saw was when a peasant other sign of disapproval Once a man make a row. it Here my American accent served me well. After the stage manager had been ill for a week a substitute was engaged. It did not finally disappear till some days after their week was over.

who nose out and hunt down possible enemies. at least let them have more shows . me. The Bolsheviks keep the theatre going and make actors relatively comfortable. educated man. At what precise moment my impresario. So this passed all right. and obviously never dreamed that I was in hiding from the Red Guards. who was a Pole and a clever. but within it keep control not only — through their recognised commissars and delegates. turned up at the theatre one evening. on the principle of panem et circenses if they have not enough bread to give the people. but he assumed that I had leave to live openly as an Englishman. at the theatre after Christmas he kept in touch with and on the eve of starting denounced my Afterwards I discovered that he was a professional Bolshevik informer. I do not know. but by secret spies. Had he learnt that there was a Lettish producer.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE known Bolshevik commissar. but when he got an inkling he bided his time. When I gave up my work me. with whom I was ac- quainted before the revolution. 204 . The third and last time that I was in danger was within an ace of being fatal. all would have been up. began to suspect me. and that this same producer was I. He learnt that I was intending to slip over the border into Finland and discovered the means I was about to take.

but much more comfortable. There would be nothing more let difficult us say. I had occasion to go from Petrograd to Saratov. to travel at In the first place. Peasants'.m. Under the Bolshevik regime. or. and to get such a permission was necessary to submit cogent reayou were going home to live in your native place. that you were bound on business it sons. than in a journey from. to be sure.CHAPTER VIII MY LAST JOURNEY In the middle of December. as for instance. At ordinary times this is not an undertaking that would call for any special mention. that 205 . was anno one has the right it all without first obtaining special permission from the Council of Workmen's. or that your wife and family were dying. and Red Army men's deputies of the district. Torquay to Inverness. a good deal slower. From Petrograd night's journey of ten hours. however. would reach Saratov in nineteen hours more. better still. 1918. other thing. to Moscow would be a and thence the last train leaving at 4 p.

you must then go to the district supply committee. 44 Comrade " to whom to apply. to get a seat on a train would take an indefinite time. to say nothing of weeks. and his mulish ill-will. where the bread card would be surrendered in exchange for a certifi- with which finally a This whole ticket might be purchased at the station. Four days. thence to your co-operative. absorb at least three or four days. and fill out a form to the effect that you were leaving the town and wished to give up your bread card. Say that the journey would take three days each way instead of the former thirty-eight hours. in unfavourable circumstances. Therefore. while to get a ticket and. reserving the right to get it back on your return. and I should be back by Boxing Day or thereabouts. however. that might run on. the time occupied by travelling might under Bolshevik management easily be doubled. to allow for breakdowns and delays. In the second place. the difficulty of finding the right cate that you it had given up . to avoid the my initial delay. as far as the station.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE for some Conciliar or Red Army institution. mistakes. once found. for I needed to be back in Petrograd by Christmas. quite incalculable beforehand. Armed with this permission. owing to proceeding delays. into weeks. from my professional union 206 —since To get a to . a ticket having been got. By going at once I ought to be able to manage this. were not mine to waste. would. I certificate had recourse to stratagem. three days to do business at Saratov.

the institution finds cause to move 207 to another habitation. The next tutions to afford assistance to step was the permission to leave the town. Here a block took place. . but probably connected with a certain diminution in the furniture that little is observed little by to take place . who think they would better grace their own flats. certainly a necessity for obtaining the smallest life . there tions by prudence for. This is a common habit of such august bodies. which sometimes change their place of abode so often that it takes a day or two even to find them. Their reasons are obscure. and a request signed by " Governmental and social insti" the bearer. removing from one building to another. Two professional an application for me. when the number of tables. even with permission was no knowing how many obstrucwould occur on the road.MY LAST JOURNEY of belong to a professional union was almost a necessity life. It would also enable me to get my permission from the Council without an exasperating amount friends signed of trouble. for on going to the District Council behalf of the Union all the chairman to I discovered it to be in a condition of flux. comfort and security in case dictated —was a measure in any and ticket. chairs. stating that I was bound on professional business. in other words. and this being slightly changed by an amiable official in the typewriting. and cupboards has been reduced to the lowest limit of decency by depredations on the part of the staff. blossomed out into an authority to travel on itself.

It only remained to get the there is move objects as typewriters vanish without trace. during ample opportunity for such minor and a few reams of paper to To me the present move was because no business would be done for at annoying. How this remarkable race manages. 208 ( . People waited for weeks for an opportunity to get tickets. but it is a fact that Jews are always able to get railway tickets. to get a railway December. least two days. In these circumstances I did what experisionaires with ence had often shown to be the most effective course I asked a : Jewish acquaintance to get my ticket for me. And. among my papers I discovered an old pass from Moscow to Petrograd and back. however. without waiting for a fresh permit. " Evacuating Petrograd were besieged by crowds that spent day and night in front of them. sure enough. on the morrow I had a ticket to Saratov and a reserved seat to Moscow. and never have to stand in food queues.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE where the same game begins anew. For food I took ten prilled herrings. the Besides. by judiciously altering the date of which I was able. 1918. however. Fortunately. to apply at once for a ticket. Easier said than done. without having to pay more than a few roubles above the proper rate. The stations The offices of the " Commission for were thronged. no one knows. Commisticket in Russia in means of obtaining them by the back door charged five or six hundred roubles for a seat to Moscow. latter for me to be off.

which was a goods engine.m. until the next day. to boast of such a luxury. should have been left in the position of the unfortuthirds of the nates going to Petrograd stranded. nineteen and a-half hours for four hundred miles was not to be grumbled at. idea had been to call at the Sleeping Car Co. so I decided not to 209 p . the husband of Kalontin. when his But for some potent presence we train broke down. things considered. relics of a better time. according to the practice of the Naval commissar. and was likely that what I me to my journey's end. and. was all the time left.MY LAST JOURNEY two tins of sprats. with the glass — about zero. with its pendant in the opposite direction. outside one each way on the Petrograd-Moscow An hour and a-half. line. As it was. gave out. however.'s office in crossing the city to the station for Saratov. It could take would have to last Until 7 p. probably. Starting at at half-past two. a bread bought at the price of a few small rye scones. Two- way to Moscow our locomotive. the last train in Russia.. and was replaced by one detached from a train coming in the opposite direction on the demand of some conciliar bigwig on our train. My and to beg for some of the sleeping car sort of a paper to the conductor on the four o'clock. Moscow nothing of note we arrived the next day occurred. the sailor Dybenko. this being. we triumphantly completed our journey and pulled into the Nicolas Station at Moscow on an exquisite afternoon. all pound of twenty-two roubles.

and even those ment. and all for a mere eighty roubles — this feeling in Russia. illicit Having cir- cumvented this obstacle by an entrance through the third-class exit. I was doomed to disappoint- On arriving at the Saratovsky Station I found a crowd besieging the doors. waiting already. His office was open. last and that the sleeping car had been taken I one had run two days before. The The porter wanted to know what No. As. The brisk frost and bright sun made the drive risk it. unless I got exchanged for a seat Quite by the stationmaster. I began me. off. but empty and deserted as well by his assistant and A the clerks who commonly are to be found there. and then I should probably not go on that day . it I said useless. No one was even admitted without a ticket. being made. Had I a ticket ? a pass from the Councii.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE but to arrange matters with the conductor in person. however. but I had would do. and as it would only open half an hour before the time of the train. on search for three or four days. glance at the booking office showed the futility of about three hundred people were applying there . with tickets had considerable difficulty. he rejoined. 210 The entrance to the . which were shut. was not to be found. is to feel that the gods were with usually the case when one allows himself the luxury of delightful . an elderly porter of irritable temper told me that the train had been altered to 4. not more than fifty would probably get served. scores of people had been waiting The stationmaster.30.

only to be thrust back by the guards with much objurgation. to the bewilderment of the porter. and. The crowd. Soon the latter lost patience. advancing. gave back automatically . perhaps like myself without tickets. It was an exclusively " " train. though accustomed enough to such ebullitions. and two ticket collectors." and explained that 211 p 2 . began to heave and plunge. who thought me mad. the train slowly backed into the station. the crowd. that is. enlivened by the usual squabbles among the Comrades. began to make rushes at the gate. an armed railway guard. of On the appearance of the train course. fearing and with justice that somebody else would — — Individuals. After a half-hour's wait. but. one incontinently fired into the air. I sent him through the barrier by his own gate and got as close as I could to the passengers' wicket. with tickets. all the seats were numplatzkartug bered and had been distributed to passengers armed with proper authorities from their Councils. I sought out the head guard.MY LAST JOURNEY platform was scarcely less crowded. known in Russia as " the chief of the train. and. this proving of and began to no avail. on repelling the next Once on the platform the rest was easy. get his allotted seat. their belts jangling with bombs. which was guarded by two sailors. on which I. waved my entirely invalid papers in the ticket collector's face and passed through at the exact moment when his attention was concentrated charge of the crowd. threaten with their rifles. each one we.

that they had seat tickets. This was all I hoped. and until this was seen I could stand in the passage. and the party promptly acceded to request for leave to my be that sixth. They only being five. I propped myself as comfortably as I could in a corner and waited for the train to move out. a clear right existed for a sixth passenger to take a seat. but that their seats were in a compartment commandeered by the engine driver's substitute. I was aware of a prolonged argument dozing between their spokesman. should a substitute be wanted on the journey. grumbling. was a teacher in the Military-Medical Academy. the latter suddenly caved in and vanished. however. the engineers in possession. who had held an appointment at Tver and was 212 . the chief of the train. overflow after In the corridor besides myself were five others. and his mate. who had put up a notice that the compartment was for their sole use and locked the This the legitimate seat-holders resented. and door.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE I was on urgent Conciliar business. I dis- covered. with their traps. supposing there was one. and asked if I " could take a spare seat. the all the seats had been tilled. to the decent triumph of the victors. By means. that I had not had time to get a seat ticket but had a pass. Among my fellow travellers. having authority on my side. the while. and all now." was the answer. It appeared. and. After disputing the point for about an hour. eight passengers going to a compartment intended by the coach-builders for four. as it did in a few minutes more.

Our conversation during the evening was confined to the usual politenesses. who was employed supply committee in Moscow. and talked. and. Our night passed in comparative luxury. each side of it the compartment. and the others were. there were no cushions. with which I washed down two herrings and a small piece of bread flavoured with mustard. one above and two below. and could stretch ourselves. I had tea. of food without stopping. had friends. Like every experienced Russian traveller. a young woman in a of four. nominally on account of health. I had had nothing since a precisely meal in the morning. Travelling with him were his wife. the material had long since been ripped from the seats. in the country near Tver. two daughters. They and were provided with apparently inexhaustible supplies of bread. Several attempts to enter at wayside stations were coun- 213 . the carriage was filthy. moreover. well occupied in discussing a supper such as I had not seen for many months. of course. eggs.or five-and-twenty. tea. chicken. rye cakes. and a girl friend. True. She had taken the opportunity of her friends going to Astrakhan to obtain a fortnight's leave. and coffee. who lived there. and to pay a flying visit to her parents. no lighting. Save for a plate of water- similar soup at Moscow. but we were only six. cutlets. honey. since in the land of the Bolsheviks one must be careful with strangers. cold buck-wheat porridge.MY LAST JOURNEY now being moved to Astrakhan. I gathered. as was inevitable.

Samara. the junction between the Saratov. wet be flakes afford opposition that is is surmountable. sliding the door an inch. with a temperature of five degrees above zero Fahrenheit. At seven o'clock we reached Kozlov. and then shut it before his statement could As we proceeded the weather got worse verified." by Edmond de Goncourt. Clairon. from a returned prisoner of war to He had with him a large the bread. being of excellent quality. for it was went all day. When the wind had increased and was blowing day broke. in which there is. but when the snow dry it wheels. and the train slower. in all my experience of travelling 214 . a great deal of reading. and Voronesh lines. a gale from the south. Boiling water at wayside stations was not plentiful and food nonexistent. who. I to be my sole intellectual entertainment for several days. and the air was now filled with powdery. The wind was its begins to drift and clog the getting up. and the train ploughed way along with bumps and jerks. slender store. whence it had come. luckily. dry flakes. Heavy. moreover. Kozlov is. insisted that the carriage was full. but at one o'clock I got a handful of pieces of dried bread add to bag of my it. So we had brought with me " La Vie de Mile.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE tered by the opposition of the army lecturer. Snow had begun to fall soon after we left Moscow. This is the worst kind of snow for a train to make its way through. which did not look much as if there was starvation in Germany.

and the station is mean and was always badly supplied. were active. under the falling snow. The few people who had bread were keeping it for themselves. a first-class civil servant's monthly salary. We now arrived fifteen hours and stuck there. At night the carriage became horribly stuffy.MY LAST JOURNEY There are place. so it seemed still more providential that my peasant was willing to sell. We covered the window with overcoats. getting out to prowl about I ran into a young peasant with a large loaf of black bread. and was faced by a cheerless prospect indeed. The corridor was packed with newcomers camping on their luggage. where there was less chance of detection by Red Guards secretly. so as to prevent 215 . I obtained the prize. weighing when perhaps eighteen pounds. we struck the bargain. always long delays there. late. and there was a general air of damp and discomfort. and bugs. and for the sum of eighty roubles. I had finished my herrings and bread. always a great crowd going in Russia. And now another piece of luck came my way. I struggled back through a seething mass of humanity to the train. the most infuriating in all directions. and everywhere in vain. nominally worth £8 and formerly the tenth part of . he beckoned me into the dark outside the station. probably imported by the fresh arrivals. Everywhere travellers and townsmen were hunting for what you only realise to be indeed the staff of life when you have not got it. With the loaf hidden under his sheepskin coat.

The wind was rising again. a crushing weight of white. screen of hard white particles. pours o'clock. infinite till everything is buried. over everything travelling in its grip. Pushkin and Tolstoy have described it and Colonel 216 . had it that we should go on at four But when four came and five and six and there was no change except the arrival o'clock. Joy and relief were. mounts. for after a long stop just outside Kozlov. but there was no wind. metel. is the terrible Russian snowstorm that. doomed to disappointment. creeps. a monstrous. however. and rumour. my companions and I began to fear further delay. a white death. a weariness of white. At 1. the train with an immense effort plunged out of the station. movement along the corridor being almost impossible. call it what you will. and the dreaded word The tourmente de neige metel was on all lips.30 a. a wilderness of white. renders direction impossible to find. swirling round and round. we came back into the station on another line. The next day was Sunday. of two other trains from the direction of Moscow. a terror of white.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE the crowd from seeing our relatively few numbers. which had they realised they would have probably broken the glass and invaded us. and in the riage counted It is many days of carvictims who were caught moving a pall of white. Snow was still falling. the only source of information.m. blots everything from view. blizzard.

had strewed themselves and their effects just opposite us. however.MY LAST JOURNEY were at the wretched station of Kozlov and the metel had caught Burnaby lived through it. For the moment. going round and round as if indeed it had been brushed by some giant besom. Now we us. which is what met SI implies. but my companions. Like our- 217 . I munched my bread with a touch of mustard. has a bad reputation in this respect. were getting nervous about food. During the day our carriage. had become filled up with the overflow from the passage. The district north of Tambov. however. or seemed rather to blow from every quarter of the heavens. Boiling water for tea was obtainable in abundance close to our train from a boiler in a hut of its own specially arranged to this end. and the end of December is a bad time. It is notice- able that under Bolshevik conditions. till now agreeably empty. who had only reckoned on a three days' journey and had recklessly consumed their supplies. It was hoped. that we should get away on the morrow. hardly anyone but Jews and Red Army people travel. which lay ahead. and opened one of my two tins of sprats. where a Jewish family from Rogachev. as economically as I could. and we all had a sufficiency of tea. On the platform it some eight inches deep and in the sidings was was forming into deep banks. in the government of Mogilev. they had enough to go round. Outside the snow fell in- cessantly.

I had by this time had ample opportunity to become acquainted with my fellow-travellers. who loved liberty. we soon got on good terms. has any side about them. ? What was doing a Bolshevik No ? ! Where had I come from ? Then was I Oh. strongly opposed to the Bolsheviks. hardly be said. but the bugs had fortunately moved on to pastures new. a youth of nineteen selves. then her son. No one in Russia. once off talk ranged. The army lecturer was a quiet. especially on a railway journey. always 218 . and later one or other of the several cousins who made up their party. commonsensible man who had travelled in many parts of Russia. He need especially as the next coupe to ours was crowded with Red Army men. in heaven and I ? earth. They were restless companions and kicked a great deal in their sleep. First the mother joined us. and had served in the railway administration before he took to his present profession. over all things this.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE party were going to Saratov. when should we get on ? But. I was a Lett I had only come back to Russia ! after the Revolution I had lived in America ! How was that the Americans. as is usual in Russia. and when we had overcome our initial suspicion of each other. but had to be careful how he said so. this or twenty. The main subject of conversa- tion was. could My only answer support the Bolshevik tyranny ? it was that they did not understand. Then ensued animated discussions on art and the theatre. it was.

having lb. yet others being stranded ahead of us. we reached the place and found it packed with Comrades in various 219 . of meat. and presently came back in triumph. though with less wind. many of them Our children. with the report that people in the train. and we could get boiling The Reds next door had gone out to hunt food. trudging fifteen versts — through the storm. LAST JOURNEY broken by excursions for hot water and hopes of the But next morning brought no movement only thicker snow. which " Conciliar it was said could be obtained at the " of Kozlov. After twenty minutes' buffeting of sugar. cabbages of bread. our position was better than that of passengers in some of the other trains. without fire or water.MY train's departure. for was warmed. 36 — and lentils for six — through the snow. There. From one of these the passengers had come back in the evening. as everywhere else dining-room in Sovdepia. they had left sixty women and train at least water. we now heard. obtained 26 lumps men. However. all hotels and eating-places had long ago been shut up. Fired by their example since I had breakfasted on bread and a little pork fat given me by the Jews I set forth about noon with two of the latter and a young lady going to Astrakhan in search of dinner. The carriage was getting disgustingly damp and dirty and the food problem weighed on everyone's spirits. still falling fast. 20 lb. which still continued to arrive from the north.

we would never go there again. at 3 Rs. consisted a plate of thin horse bouillon with a lump of the of meat thrown into it by the cook's fingers. among them. asking every peasant who was to be found where we could buy bread. knocking at every peasant house in the faint hope of finding something. a small plate of porridge. our repast was evidently not going to satisfy anyone for many hours. 50 kop. What is two versts ? A mere stroll of a mile and a half.. We therefore determined to scatter and scour the The two Jews went together and the me. they most . and the dirt of the place such that our company with one accord determined. and for two hours we plunged through deep snow round the outskirts of the town. town Miss Astrakhan with hour breeze scene full is is wafted across its frozen surface. But when that mile and a half is snowed under to a depth of two or three feet and a fifteen mile an for food. come what might. The invariable answer was that there was none in the town. Interesting as it was to study the habits of the natives of Kozlov. and a little bread. the changed- We sadly turned back. two versts away on the banks of the river Don. our boots snow. of At one I found seven peasants making a dinner that 220 consisted exclusively of boiled potatoes.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE stages of dirt and roughness. hungry and tired. with a few decent people Dinner. but that some might perhaps be found at the village of Donskoe Selo. The soup was one of the horridest things I remember to have eaten.

not be food in it . making nine in all. there may be. it turned out. when we ran into a boy with a bag. as if by magic.MY LAST JOURNEY generously passed me one with their fingers —and when I say " they. oh wonder spirit. we had got food. may was food in the bag. there again. since no one knew what time the train might go But. floury ball. It is astonishing how appetising a bag may look if you are very hungry. This time. Their home was clean and ! — — looked almost incredibly comfortable after the growing filth of the train. Of course. three pounds more bread from our new friends. actually asked if we wanted food. filth or no filth. Her husband. it was impossible to accept. with a truly Samaritan And then. was a railway servant an admirable class in Russia and she had immediately spotted us as wayfarers stranded in the storm. whose like I had not seen for several days. with triumph. bade us follow to her house a few minutes distant. of which. but then. was passed from hand to hand until it reached me. but although they pressed Miss Astrakhan to come back for the night and bring her girl friend with her. 221 . about twenty pounds. A little woman who had been drawing water from the pump hard by. and ! three fat herrings. there and that food was bread. the youth sold us six. and most delicious it was. Hope had been abandoned of getting any substantial addition to the larder. and being answered." I mean that the white. On which we went back in comparing notes with the two others.

the fourth day. jam. it soon turned less out that a personage was on board exalted but nevertheless an important it. The herrings. while we sat supperless by the light of our single dip. Worse still. and tea. Vladimirov. But what was this to the state of our spirits on awaking to the news that the station was on fire ! 222 . to their great delectation. and though I abominate raw herrings myself. the hopes raised by the appearance of the train that had been resumed were quickly dashed by the that Vladimirov's train on its southward journey had been snowed up half-way between Kozlov and Tambov and had now returned to the former haven after being extricated only with great traffic news Night set in with a shade of extra depresthat was not relieved by one of the young Jews sion. the evening of this. all for twenty-five roubles. in the shape of the mili- tary commissar of the Southern front. chill. the snow stopped and the wind fell . whom we could see in his car making a hearty meal by the light of numerous candles. they were quickly devoured by the company. bread. but had unearthed a Jewish cobbler's where they had had that we found dinner of soup.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE they had not only discovered and bought nearly twenty pounds more bread. first reported to be Trotsky's train. goose. and at eight o'clock a On At smart train came into the station from the south. who had been foraging having contracted a feverish difficulty. however. shed a glory that could not be dimmed.

and. parboiled.MY Heavy snow. having started in the fourth-class waiting-room.m. and breakfasted on bread and cold water. which. to drink. but our train also. according to the usual practice. The night had been poor and disturbed by the Hebrew mother imitating the demon of whom Dante writes : 223 . only cold tea from the day before ours followed. Nor was the boiler only result that allowed to get cold. Vladimirov's train was hauled out to a siding. when a brew was achieved. worst of all. and Here we remained all day with scarcely anything to eat but bread and my mustard. were spreading through the third to the first just opposite us. with the result that. At about 9 a. the big boiler at the station being left un- tended in the general confusion fresh till evening. however. while by day everything grew cool and to a certain extent dried up. and large pools of the floor. and for a time in some danger from the flames. 1 platform. with the by early morning we were all shivering instead of being. It damp filth formed on was to this picture that I woke on Christmas Day. deepening LAST JOURNEY clouds of steam began to mingle with the at intervals to a pall of smoke through rents in which the yellow heart of the fire was occasionally visible. For the habit on our train was to stoke the till they could hold no more and not them during the day. at night the walls and roof dripped stoves at night to touch moisture. We were drawn up at No..

and relieved themselves by spitting and blowing their noses on to the floor. for it was actual salvation. however. many carriages with broken windows. The day at least obvious that was brilliant and the invigorating 224 air made our long . was wholly snowed under. on the representations of certain railwaymen travelling on the train. in the yard. commanding all the civil population under pains and penalties to fall to and clear the line from snow. chiefly filled with Russian prisoners of war returning from Germany. and indeed much more than comfort. but it was reported that one train. One spark of comfort. and six the day before If this was at the station. three of the So at ten o'clock Jews. but the general situation remained dispiriting and obscure.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE Ed egli avea cut fatto trombetta. The storm had now stopped. the trains caught further down the line ? That no one ever knew. The whole of this family was very restless. what happened to that. blocked up insufficiently with sacking or The suffering in these must have been inpaper. and every soul in it lost. was ours. but so far these seemed to have had little effect. Nicolai Fedorovich. tense. A railway servant informed me that there had been eighteen serious cases of frost-bite among the passengers on Christmas Eve. All round us other trains were drawn up. it was begun again to be heated. Decrees were affixed all over the station and town. It was we should not move till evening. and I sallied forth to hunt for food. almost heaped up.

Our host. he had lived in Riga before the war and bitterly regretted that he 225 q . Our pace had sunk to about a mile an hour. a head. Our guide took us in a devious way. wanted to emigrate to Kansas City. and dived into a maze of small courts and able alleys. and on our homeward path the inventive young Israelite bethought him of visiting He left the rest of us on the his friend the cobbler. but after fruitless application to three institutions for leave to buy something for the women in the train our spirits again dropped. where he had a sister. and potatoes cooked wheatmeal porridge. beef. I had not seen such a meal for months. often comes at the unnothing. pavement to admire the local Comrades tittuping up and down the main street on horseback while respecthad stumped the snow for middle-aged citizens were made to clean the streets. descending into the earth could have found gems of more marvellous worth than the meal we found set Aladdin before us in oil. and after a touch of fever following my expedition in the snow I was so weak that I had to lean against a wall for fear of fainting. ending with a succession of dark cellars from which we passed into a well-lit underground cobbler's No workshop. soup. We two hours and so far got Relief. unlimited bread and tea —cabbage with a sweet instead of sugar. expected moment. from which he emerged ten minutes later to beckon us after him. however.MY LAST JOURNEY search agreeable. who charged a very moderate 20 Rs.

and three herrings. and good luck its fellow. three of potatoes. he said. which. having been touched by smoke in helping to put out the fire. had no words too bad for them. he longing to get rid of the tyrants. of pork. bandage over his eyes. so that he and his friend lost their food.. activity of the supply detachment nominally there to accelerate food transport. per lb. and paid for only a hundred and twenty lb. the brigandage of which had been notorious throughout the summer. When would there be a change ? he wanted to know. " had for it. The excellent young fellow was sitting at home with a cess. but the local *' Committee of Poverty found and requisitioned it. by an incendiary in order to burn a mass of compromising documents concerning the " of " Kozlov. On the way back to the train I went round to the friendly railwayman and was rewarded with five lb. and 750 Rs. In my character of a Let- tish political refugee who had been educated abroad. Everyone was As for the Bolsheviks. with the pots of meat and porridge we had taken for the women. It had been caused.500 Rs.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE had not emigrated then. their trouble. into the bargain. at less than 3 Rs. but who could do anything? It was the English who must come and 226 . would make a serious supply for the morrow. of bread. He and a friend had bought two hundred lb. intending it to last them through the winter. Success brings sucI sang the praises of America. They had paid the peasants 1.

By dispensation of Providence the mirror and tap in the lavatory had escaped the general fate of the train fittings. A crowd was collected round the boiler-house. Thus another night passed and led to breakfast. laughing and shouting at a large hen pheasant which had perched on top of it. Returning to the found our train had moved again and was now only a few yards from the boiler for water. so that washing on an exiguous scale was possible.MY LAST JOURNEY save Russia. now no one went. which producing station. and was solemnly sitting there in above four inches of snow. and all the refuse of human life in crowded and unhealthy circumstances. I the centre of the meat- district of Russia. and she Presently whirred off with an immense clatter and chuckling doubtless for the towards the trees. Who wanted to hear speeches when they were only thinking of food and there was none ? It is indeed a testimony to the is character of the Bolshevik rule that there should be hunger at Kozlov. consisting of two potatoes from yesterday and a few slices of dried apples given me by the Jews. It was Boxing Day. despite the accumulated filthy swamp in the lavatory compartment. warmth that percolated upwards. who seemed to have everything. a boy climbed up to dislodge her. a great convenience. scraps of food. crumbs. but in small and remote Our carriage was by now filthy with damp parcels. Formerly people were keen to go to meetings. and 227 q 2 .

Exactly at three o'clock. when a further visitation befell us. that they were the only heroes than people who." At three o'clock we stood with two engines ready 228 . and. This. turning all its occu- pants and our baggage pell-mell into the corridor. despite all protests. himself travelling on urgent Conciliar business. had the door of the carriage locked so that having no one could profit by it during their absence. was not more than twenty-two. in squeezing along the corridor. It was noticeable. never asked a " By your leave. and on the faces of all of them Was stamped the mark of the beast. but said that. As the delayed in tears over their traps. two Reds with fixed bayonets. they cleared out our carriage for the benefit of four Red officers. who replied that it was merely a case of armed bullying. if he attempted to interfere. the Red heroes almost flung them out of the door. complain to the Commandant of the station. when they appeared.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE as a gift from the gods we were led to expect that the train would at last move. went in high anger to administration. the only The four result would be that he would be shot. The eldest of the four. when every- there appeared one was panting with excitement and expectation. women no military done. went off to supper and the cinema. moreover. there was nothing to be The army lecturer. despite a recent decree of the Central Council that officers should meddle with the railway However.

were. We crowded with humans and luggage. thus avoiding Tambov. it would not in the old days have meant more than a delay of perhaps twenty-four hours. already — — we could. it is to be understood that. to pull out. intending to loop line via Riagsk and Penza. But 229 .MY LAST JOURNEY was reported that a snow-plough. propped up against one another. where the greatest block of snow was reported.m. sent ahead to clear the road. unable to move in any direction or to do anything but wait and hope that the best would not turn out to be the worst. and at midnight a message came that this was stuck. of frost but up to had succeeded in going either way. An hour later it there were not warm. one speaks of a block of snow. however. was reduced by our exodus into it nine more people and all their luggage to a state of impossible block. although the waste. had broken down. At now no train eight o'clock Vladimirov's train set out for Moscow. When. in a complete fix. and under the roof of the station platform more than 13° F. . and that the train would not leave at The weather was getting earliest until next day. and in Scotland or America the line would have been cleared in perhaps a quarter of the time by the use of a rotary snow-plough. when at 5. in fact. in which we were dozing as best The corridor. the train pulled out without warning and proceeded slowly but steadily through a snowy were going now northwards. follow the We storm had been of great violence.20 a.

nor even the decent repair only one old broken ordinary The bourgeois were sent plough and hand labour. alive with throngs of sackmen who were struggling to go in various directions and appeared likely to struggle for several days more. two nights to accomplish a journey which should have been done perhaps in eighteen hours. enlivened by the incur sus of an entirely new set of people. the block peasants who kept possession of the railway for a whole week. From now onwards the journey became more or That is to say. — to be the 280 . This last part of the journey was. who afforded distraction from what had come almost exclusive occupation of the party watching our Hebrew acquaintances search one another's heads for lice. nevertheless. and dire pains and penalties proclaimed against refused to do their share. one of the principal railway junctions in Sovdepia. Learning that I had been in America.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE at Kozlov. but indeed nothing else will describe the situation — —in the corridor. pigging it I hope I may be excused the word. The best of the newcomers was a sailor who had served on the Archangel front. article in communications was no rotary it was urgent beyond Bolsheviks to keep open their between Moscow and the front. at everything there a time when else for the snow-plough. — out by their hundreds to clear the line. get- ting parsimonious supplies of boiling water for tea at stations. we took three days and less normal. however. he entered into conversation.

he said. who. they gave no quarter to He himself was an Anarchist and hated the prisoners. He had an immense respect . The Fleet in general. Now he was on his way to Saratov to rescue his things if and his mother's cottage from threatened requisition. His contempt for their fighting was only mitigated by the fact that. especially their fur coats. and for the English jam. but his muddled intelligence was quite unable to perceive that the only way of making his hatred of the Bolsheviks effective would be he and his mates refused to serve them any longer. of which the Reds had capfor the tured a considerable quantity. was anti- Bolshevik. a detachof his mates would automatically. he predicted. following the example of the Reds. Americans' equipment. on the nonif 231 . and he was amazed at their having held the line. but none whatever for them as fighters. qualities Bolsheviks. he said. and on his own ship only one-third of the crew were Communists. when. if necessary. They could. to shoot the whole Council at Saratov. and they had to keep moving about as much as possible so as to make the British and the Americans think they were in greater force.MY LAST JOURNEY He was of very anxious to discover from my experience Americans why the combined English and American forces had not advanced on that front in the summer. would not last beyond the spring. ment he was arrested. have made a push forward and taken Kotlas without the slightest difficulty the Reds were very weak. and was prepared. In his sector there were only 300 sailors.

Warsaw will And then we'll Oh. Libau. and batches of 60 were hanged in the streets of Kiev." all the intelligentsia for that — kill Oh.'s. Such are the simple methods by which we remedy injustice in Russia." The lecturer's wife chimed into the conversation. on account of excesses wrought by the Junkers and Cossacks. On the second day of our journey with him an animated conversation took place in our carriage. descend in force and rescue him." Army Lecturer: "And what about the English Fleet in the Caspian Sea ? " Sailor : be in our hands again. He was answered by a " soldier who said Well. . he said. before that. we are not afraid of them we have got a fine fleet of T. well. The sailor was narrating how at Fort Ino 463 hostages were shot in reply to the murder of Uritsky and dug their own graves in the morning. This was just. too. Riga.D.B.000 workmen were shot. where countless cruelties had been committed by the Reds. And Finland. only we must have Sailor: them " — the army to back up the fleet. They have been brought down the Volga they will do for the British.000 suffered the same fate.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE receipt of a telegram from him on a certain day. and how in Petrograd over 1. 30. clear all the English out of the north. I can tell you. and what about what they did in Ukraine ? There. yes. : We ought to hang all. And then " That's part of the programme. . oh. and Reval will soon be taken in the spring Libau. 282 . The army lecturer interposed with a reference to Tashkent. that will be very soon.

" Lecturer Sailor: : How old ? " " : Lecturer Sailor Don't you be (contemptuously) The revolution will afraid. Lecturer : can teach destroy them all. are you I'll teach them. who had founded a dental taken out of hospital out of his own means. who Who will educate the younger us? " But generation? Sailor " " : They " will educate themselves. structure of life. He had a little book containing the life of Walt Whitman in It 288 . a totally different society." if you shoot all the older men. but she was staunch to LecThe following conversation ensued " But do turer's Wife you justify the shooting of Professor Rudy of Moscow." " A lot you can teach. there was a certain freshness and leaning towards independence ?n my sailor that made him worth encouraging to talk.MY LAST JOURNEY He protesting against the sailor's bloodthirstiness. life will teach us all. : : — Sailor " : Ah ! An old man ! What is the use of old men ? He probably had a different point of view on We must root out all the old politics from ourselves." " Ah must not be supposed that the talk about the revolution producing a new society is genuine. Nevertheless." produce : ! Twenty-two. her point only laughed at her. and was " his house and shot for nothing whatever ? of view. It is simply learned from pamphlets and sketchy Socialist handbooks.

All the last day that we were together in the train furious discussions raged between him and my travelling companions on the subjects of Socialism. who veiled an essentially narrow understanding under cheap irony. far — and pretentious India. more generosity and liveliness in this than in the views of a small Jewish interminable discussion with Red officer. was to abolish money. so that doing physical work should receive actual goods in exchange for it. but only manual labour as being the most valuable of all. Communism.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE pamphlet form. etc. and could tell him which were the best. the like a parasitism of the educated." said the sailor." "And The main object of the Communist all party. which was better than the self-important Bolshevist an appalling type. at all events." There was. religion. He must have goods. he said. and no one must have mere than he. formerly a priest. who had an an anaemic teacher. The little Jew's argument was that if your opponent was willing to admit that you might be right in principle. " How " many hours of a peasant's toil go to make bread ? he " No said. then you could agree with him. There's a great revolutionary people for you. "that is where the revolution will go. but if you saw 284 . and was excited to know that I had read the poems in the original. money can recompense him for that. but he was young and jolly. No other work should be paid. His mind was marsh with- out any bottom or solidity whereon even a foundation could be laid.

on the whole. he said. but autres temps. autres mceurs. It impossible to convince him you could with regret.MY LAST JOURNEY it was only shoot him. were arrested or killed and he instanced a whole string from his own — town. but still decidedly shoot him : was during the last night that the Jews. His language was forcible his theme simple that the whole Bolshevik Revolution was made by the Jews in order to abolish Christianity. as far as I know. any other European language. in his own town there was Hirschmann. It used to be quite unmentionable in polite society. at liberty and tions. and since the coming of the Bolsheviks " svolotch " is in everyone's mouth. . All the . black fur coat and fur cap had got into our coach and was hobnobbing with a number of Red Army men. but who had ever heard of a Jewish bourgeois or speculator being arrested ? For instance. — representative Russians. and all his relamanufacturers and merchants. One may say that. both A man in a civilians and officers." only much more so. it means " canaille. The others 285 all noisily approved. millionaire miller in full enjoyment of opportunities to speculate. since he commanded their respect and talked with extreme freedom. What was interesting was that only one of the Comrades was against the speaker. Velikie Lugi. To Trotsky he applied a word that has no equivalent in English or. a and bread merchant. had a poor time. He must have been of the peasant class.

too. indeed. and brutal force. without seeing. in terror of . Six trains were stranded between Kozlov and Tambov.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE while the Jews huddled up at the end of the corridor pogroms to come. every incentive be given to deceit. it are incapable of honest effort themselves or of getting out of others. intrigue. at Kozlov itself not less than five and there were places on the line where railway coaches were buried altogether. and for another four days no train moved on the Moscow-Saratov railway. can gauge the hideous falseness of the Bolsheviks' pretensions. ignorance. and has seen the reverse of the medal. and corruption. The situation resulting from the storm was a monumental instance of the inefficiency of the Bolsheviks. had followed our train along the Penza line. it is and the most ordinary comforts and decencies of civilised human life crumble and vanish under the heavy hand of malice. Ours was the only train to get through. changing its direction. four were held up at Moscow. Only he who knows the reality. cutting communication behind us on that route. for hard to understand how every delicate and generous feeling can wither. but listening. who can bully and blaspheme. where I learnt that on the morning we started from Kozlov the storm had burst out again with renewed vigour and. And so on the tenth day we arrived at Saratov. 286 .

but he did not look at me. Less than a hundred yards from the station I was caught up by a 237 . invitations to lunch in Russia were almost as rare in January. It was then that I had the first shock.CHAPTER IX MY EXIT FROM On when RUSSIA a bitter night of the coldest day of the winter. with a bag in my hand and a ticket to the wayside halting place of N. name spoke to lunch " We had one hearing this invitation seen me sally forth to keep it on the following day he would have thought me the luncheon party a strange one indeed . too. to me on to-morrow expect you at one. slipped into my pocket by a friend. " " the famous Baptism frost held Petrograd in a voice that gave no the telephone. 1919. nor I at him. for it took out of the centre of the town and across the frozen Neva right to the Finland Station." Now. My host was in the train. and when we reached our destination he jumped out and started along the hard snow track at such a pace that with my bag I had difficulty in keeping up at the convenient distance behind him at which I had started. and its grip. as the blue bird.

not to say aristocratic. Suddenly she now addressed me in French and asked without preface possible to not. but a lady. flourishes Nevertheless. under the reign of terror in " Sovdepia. through a farmyard and into the house. 288 I had managed to . I thought. in fact. from which he was. "Ah! I thought.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE passenger who had had. she had the you face of an enthusiast. and not one of those. . a guise. and. the informer so agent provocateur. impossible that she should be an are a gentleman. Can you not help me? " Looked at again. She was rather me in the me more closely watched sat opposite train and than was commonly dressed." and appears at times under so respectable. to convey frontier into Finland. repeated my former answer. that I decided against a confi- dence. : " Can you tell me. slip through 1918. followed my guide round many corners. parting from the lady. and had all the way questioned unmistakably the peasants in our coach as to where she could buy milk. cross all the frontier into Finland where it " ? is I answered with the calm I could muster that I could is. the Sovdep Government suddenly arrested the For the past four months British and French representatives. me that night across the I had been seeking how to the Bolshevik nets. sir. comfortable. for which purpose she had a large bottle with her. can see . When in August. that I hoped —I ." as irreverent Russians beyond its reach term the Socialist '' Federative Conciliar Russian Republic.

and America. had a narrow escape of being caught at the instance of a German spy who got wind of and de- My and I once nounced tered life my whereabouts . and. and had returned to Russia only life (to after the revolution. with provisions at fancy prices and every conceivable obstruction placed in the way of British work. some were murdered by semi-starvation and 239 . but even such a seques- was far preferable to the certainty of a Bolshevik prison and the likelihood of a fate similar to that of the French victims in Moscow. vanishing from my quarters Moscow some hours before the Red Guards came to seek me there. obtained false papers and a temporary refuge at a furnished lodging house. in the character of a Lettish political emigrant who had spent all his which were tacked on a few extra years. From my hiding place I was able to continue my work. My foreign accent was then ac- counted for. and disease. France. which consisted in a long-drawn-out liquidation of a refugee children's home and the problem of how to keep it going in conditions conducive to the children's life and welfare. to save me from the expected mobilisation) in Austria.MY EXIT FROM RUSSIA in get warning in time. until somebody could be found to take it over. who were forced to clean the latrines of the Red Guards. place of abode had occasionally to be changed. and a good deal of unnecessary sympathy was wasted on me as a Lett by people who learned that the infamous part played in the history of the revolution by the Lettish rifles did not earn my approval.

p. to make my exit without permission. as they have the reputation of honest folk. 1 the border of Finland is From Petrograd the old days it accessible. exceedingly In was in much request by political offenders fleeing from the vengeance of autocracy now it offers asylum to those escaping from a worse . required to light on the man who knows directly would be the frontier paths and has the means of guiding along 1 TSee Chap.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE Twice. from the other side of which the Germans had by now been forced to betake themselves back to the Fatherland. therefore. and. On the Russian side of the frontier the tyranny. who are a hard-working. and. did a deal of hard work there. seeing that in a stranger the informer. being but an hour and a-half by train. in fact. I obtained work as producer at a lively young theatre on the Nevsky Prospect. Finnish peasants. From the end of November onwards. To give myself a position. only to be told that it was impossible. useless. they are good for would-be fugitives to deal with. loathe the Socialist regime with its lawlessness and organised robbery. I was able to devote my attention to seeking for a way over the Finnish frontier. and close local knowledge they suspect is. orderly race. To approach them. however. without revealing my address. 199 above] 240 . It remained. the transfer of the home having been negotiated. I made inquiries through the proper diplomatic channels as to permission to leave the country. VII. moreover.

pillows proclaimed its Protestant Finnish proprietor. man I had found . cheered by the prospect of escape from the is free and all go and violent injustice. "You <s can't go this way. came back with a long face. therefore. where pots of evergreens. wellfurnished peasant room. where no man in daily dread of hunger. Mine was young and energetic. and was reputed to have piloted many persons from I will call him Ivan barbarism to civilisation. also a candidate for our night excursion. himself a ruddy-faced man of fifty years. Presently Ivan Petrovich. and keep abreast of the various survey daily political and military changes that may block one path. Bible texts on the walls and mountains of white Petrovich." Why. provide guides. open dangerous for perhaps up another. Communist inferno. ? no. absolutely im- possible. arrest. then. Ivan Petrovich. An elderly lady of Swiss nationality was awaiting us. Petrograd they ask very large are considerable their heads but their expenses and their business such that they risk momently. there are believed to be several in fees. find For this purpose an agent who can be it it is.MY EXIT FROM RUSSIA them. or render all paths suspect and some days at a time. Such a . who had been talking in Finnish to our host. led the way into a clean. and we had coffee together. necessary to relied upon to organise your flight. map out the route. what has happened 241 " r . horses. beforehand.

This. I had given up rooms in the capital and informed their proprietor my that I was leaving the day previously for Moscow. there seemed nothing wrong in this. you can have your deposit back. go and to let this evening your going for a couple and survey a if you know you will come to my flat to-morrow. We shall have to put off of days. Knowing Ivan Petrovich to be a careful man.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE " The party that set out the day before yesterday has had to stop." WTiich offer. arrested?" " No. was passed on to a friend. We must find a different " way. there being no room in the house where we were." "What." he said. "No. however. with fatal conse- quences. I learned the truth that the whole party had itself. I now immediately determined to stay the night in the village. if you wish. Only some days later." Swiss lady emitted a wail. as it turned out afterwards. she refused." he answered. but they have had to stop in a village to avoid arrest. 242 . " I can't The little Of course. perforce accepting the situation. take the responsibility. and. and that he sent his clients by various and roundabout roads so as to avoid suspicion. I will different route. and that he concealed this is the only thing with which I could reproach my luckless agent. Could we not She had waited a whole week and really go to-night ? was chafing at the delay. after the catas- been nabbed on the frontier trophe. He left for Petrograd.

English to come quickly and save us. Life is becoming impossible. as tea the Russian. Even here hunger is begin- ning because the peasants dare not bring provisions into the village for fear of their being seized Reds. comely wife regaled me. the bread. and his intelligent. who not put up the same prayer. the woods were 243 built of Christmas-trees. surprisingly good. crackling underfoot. with which my simple-minded host." added he. home baked. They hated the Bolsheviks "'Tell the with all the strength of their souls. between Russian and Finn that no single man of decent instincts and education will is to be met with. whatever happens. why don't they come ? God " grant they come in time Next morning broke with radiant sunshine and a ! ! — temperature risen to zero. I have always hated the idea of fighting. you know. was coffee-bean. considering was made from rye and had never seen a Delicious. the Finnish national drink. The snow. and indeed the only one. and. a young railway servant. it Here more is coffee. though I love sport and won the second prize in the big foot race at Krasnoe Selo before the war . but if the Whites come I'll join them and fight to put down the Reds." It is a pathetic link. If free plenty for all. there would be " " do Yes." by the trade were allowed. Everywhere these committees. " Tell the English tell them everything Oh. pantomime.MY EXIT FROM saved that RUSSIA which is my life. r 2 . glistened in a thousand facets like a giant fairy . who are nothing but robbers. too.

I stepped in. too. breeches. and books . Further explanation was unnecesThe little drawing-room had been reduced to a sary. without boots. The tram took me quickly from the Finland Station to Ivan Petrovich's street. of course. and now I was caught. venienced by delay and impediment to his off matters incon- much affairs. ! porridge of torn furniture. a young ruffian in sailor's uniform was trying on ladies' hats in front of the mirror and from the bedroom emerged a beetle-browed fellow of Jewish countenance in a soldier's blouse and military . Soon we got down to business. gave the uncomforting result that my course must be to appear as unconcerned as possible and try to carry with the surprise of an innocent person. That there had been a perquisition during the night was obvious. been arrested. A moment of rapid thought. having evidently just got up from bed." The pocket-book and its con- — 244 . Theatre. " Who are " you ? " I am an actor a producer at the G. while I was being searched for weapons. crumpled papers. and I went upstairs to his flat in an imprudently gay frame of mind. it seemed truly as though God might be in His Heaven and all well with the world. the inmates had.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE each branch drooping with its weight of white. up were at my head. ripped cushions. My and certificate of my professional Union are passport in my pocket-book. The door opened in answer to my " and two revolvers " Hands ring. Resistance was out of the question.

is the Extraordinary for Combating Counter-revolution and it Speculation. I am an entire stranger to it." And I managed to drop under the table my return ticket to N. it RUSSIA appears to me." was the black Jew who was questioning me. in maintaining and spreading the Red reign of terror. I know nothing about it or about any plans for going there.C. " Why did you come to see Ivan Petrovich ? " 245 . and. there between Ivan Petrovich ! and Finland ? " " Don't I am an agent of the X. is the chief weapon of the Conciliar Government Gorohovaya Police. on the Finnish railway. with a puzzled air. better for you but if you play the fool they have a . headquarters are number 2." " What should I want to go to Finland for ? I am an actor my work is here and what connection is : . which is the former Prefecture of and its " I assure answered. The at the it X. short It way Gorohovaya with people like you. Commission should be explained. as for Finland. you have come here to arrange with Ivan Petrovich to take you across the frontier into Finland." I " Whatever the matter is. interest. play with us Tell me the truth and it will be I know all about you. you this is a complete surprise to me. Street.C. " Yes.MY EXIT FROM tents are inspected with. a peculiar " " Why did you want to go to Finland ? " To Finland ? " I echo.

" I said. I have nothing to hide. at the crucial moment I had an inspiration. Comrade.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE Ever since entering the flat I had been wondering what answer I could make to this inevitable question." " " And so he asked you to sell him these kilki ? "Yes. are M ? There's not there? " "I we don't like kilki. But. " I had them by me at home." for in all Comrades " Petrograd —" couldn't 246 . " He used to come to the theatre where I am engaged." and reflected with satisfaction that all my papers and other effects had been cleared out three days before." " Where do " you live ? I gave my old address. sack with See. and was often behind the scenes. for use on journey." " u By all means. " Where did " you get those from ? tins of kilki. in a little me I had. " He asked me to bring him a few tins of preserved fish. there they are. three my a species of fish found and cured at Reval. I say. which could in any case have been found at the district police office. now very difficult to procure in Petrograd." " so Why didn't you eat them yourself is much to eat in Petrograd now." And. " How did you come to know Ivan Petrovich ? " was the next question. by means of the stamp on my passport. "A perquisition will be made there. in fact.

You've been given away sold. o'clock and it doesn't do for the producer to be late. "That's enough." one Makarov 247 " I was now asked. so that I couldn't run away even wanted to . I answered him he thought it was the Red Guard who lodges here speaking." he said. He telephoned up from the country to say he would only be back to-morrow morning. with a guard watching me all the time. or at my address you have ." On this the manner of my inquisitor changed. evidence against me. presence was undoubtedly ? " Do you know "No. and you see that I am perfectly calm my if I and I have a rehearsal at eleven quite open with you. Still. Consequently I maintained its my total ignorance of it. "That?" I said. This is a trap we You'd better tell the truth of your laid for you own will. or whose it was. "A untrue." He ! fished out a small yellow card. too. see ? — ! — Now was then. and they had found the ticket during my absence. and not wait till we make you. railway ticket.MY EXIT FROM RUSSIA you let me go now ? You can always find me if you want me." This I knew to be moment.'' "It was among your things. "I know who you are. and I could see that they did not quite understand how the ticket had come to be on the floor. I It my ticket had been out of the room for a of course. . at the theatre. papers. To-morrow I shall have Ivan Petrovich.

then. "I really don't remember —a week ? " A " Look comrade. your best friend won't know last year. we've treated Tell us everything " be better for you again otherwise. ki When did you last see Ivan Petrovich "No ago." cadaverous sailor with shifty. "Telephone for an automobile. C. you've sat in the And when. nothing about this business." " " In Kirochnaya Street? " No one. you " " ! I know say more than I have said. while my captors 248 . Is that X. day by day Troubetskoy bastion for months. C. miss. 27—extra ." " sailor rang up vehemently. Hurry " The ! ! ! ! I sat silent waiting for the motor. ? Send a car and a guard at once to Street to fetch a prisoner." "Well." Both answers true..THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE " Whom do you know in Kamenostrovsky Pros- pect?" one. who had been at the door when I came. here. thrust his face into mine. to the Gorohovaya with him. don't you ? After I've had you ! ! — you up to now like a you know and it will " But if you want it there for a few hours I'll make you remember what ! you had to eat four or five after that. yet fanatic eyes. Hi. perhaps. just wait till I get you at the Gorohovaya Don't remember.." said I can't the Jew. speaking. extra call 27 X.

but especially at the Gorohovaya and in the fortress of Peter and Paul. If I was placed beyond question before three o'clock a telephone order to Beloostrov would shut the gate. turns to lie down. After that.MY EXIT FROM RUSSIA had tea and selected the best items of Ivan Petrowarbrobe to carry off for their subsequent use. In one cell. vich's If I could tide would be out over the intervening hours the traveller of their clutches. Often no furniture at all and the prisoners have to lie or sit on a floor oozing with damp so that pools of water lie upon it. the conditions in which prisoners are kept amount to torture. with much elegant mockery of the "bourgeois. on this very day. Thirty people or more may be crowded into a cell some twelve by sixteen feet. In all the prisons. with a properly vise passport." It was of importance for me to put off admitting my identity so as not to compromise the chairman of the Red Cross Committee I had represented for three and a half years who was due to leave for Finland. Where there is furniture. one perhaps to each four or five persons. ten men were confined. and there are cases where as many as two hundred have been herded within a space of not more than twenty-four by twenty feet. it sixteen feet is there consists of plank beds. For five or six weeks at a time prisoners are unable to wash or for who must take 249 . by three. attempt at deception would be The threat of torture was no idle one. and the beds are alive with vermin. further fruitless.

These are placed 250 . made up the whole food for the day in one large cell at the Gorohovaya. with no soup or any other food. typhoid. the latrines are defective or the pans have been broken. the commissar there. In another. for five weeks the same quantity of bread alone was served out. is made lb.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE months to change their linen. the worst place of confinement Troubetskoy bastion. and five lb. and the soup was made of fish so rotten that the maggots had to be extracted from it before it was eatable. a drunken brute named Geller a Russian translation of the German under pretence of search. and in some of the cells at the Gorohovaya. of as follows : forty lb. On the evidence of an Englishwoman arrested and taken to the prison in Shpalernaya Street. and human excrement lies in a spreading swamp. stripped and subjected to obscene treatment. In among all The food is exAbout two quarts of soup insufficient. and (probably himself in her presence chose two girls from the prisoners to violate at his leisure. medical attendance a farce. until the prisoners are allowed to remove it. ecrable and —and prisons disease is rife —typhus. their bodies often In the becoming covered with sores and lice. the and scrofula In the Military Prison for eleven hundred prisoners. the soup fish . of rotten salt uncleaned potatoes with the earth twenty on them. has women publicly Heller). in the fortress. for five people with a quarter of a pound of inferior black bread for each. of lentils.

attempting to for want of food by drinking become distent and puffy from the unwarranted strain put upon the kidneys and the heart. Interrogatories are conducted at the revolver's muzzle or with the aid of doubt that active torture a file of Red Guards. is not This is bad enough.MY EXIT FROM RUSSIA into a shut boiler and cooked until there remains nothing but the taste of rotten fish. 251 . but there is moreover. Prisoners refractory to such means of per- suasion are sometimes brutally flogged. who. In some cases prisoner's head. and earth. This is prisoners have been fired at directly with blank carIn others. on the refusal of the to give the commissar the answer he are ordered to fire into the wall above the requires. the guards delight in making substantial meals in the presence of their starving victims. At the same time. is. the ancient Spanish torture of tridge. Boiling water for tea or tea substitute is served three times a day. Food sent in by the prisoners' relatives is kept at the fortress till take completely rotten. prisoner repeated lower and lower until the poor wretch's nerves completely give way and he sinks fainting to the ground. and at the Gorohovaya delivered at all. This seems to be the commonest method of forcing confessions. salt. giving salt fish to eat and refusing all drink has been adopted. little resorted to for the purpose of extracting information. and in practically un- make up limited quantities. without sugar. so that prisoners.

with the same hard and hatchet he had come from the Gorohovaya in a look " machine. it is as torturers believed by sane and level-minded cells. and it I concentrated my faculties to when came. since the victims of this horror are not allowed to live afterwards. The final stage of abomination it is is and it is the employment of the Chinese executioners. The one fixed point in the speculation was that. not with such reflections. but it is confidently of this." as it is frequently termed in Russian. who have heard the shrieks adjacent of the tortured coming from While. 252 . however. since mostly they who now carry out the fusillades. impossible to speak with certainty.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE reported that the instrument preferred is a heavy strip of india-rubber. It seemed to me that an opportunity must present seize it itself. indeed. prisoners. since it leaves fewer traces on the flesh. . and was to take me back. I sat in Ivan Petrovich's flat waiting for the motor. since it is impossible without furs to be on the streets with the <»lass at 10° above zero. should indeed the chance come. This meant that it could only be before I was definitely in custody Thus twenty minutes elapsed when another Comrade appeared of more decent exterior. my mind was busy. . but with wondering how I might escape. While the Jewish chief of the perquisition was writing a sketchy report to send at the Gorohovaya. it must be before my hat and coat were taken from me.

I on the faces of all the serhad now seen six. which had been brought for my exclusive benefit. through the gateway into the courtyard at No. Ten minutes more and we rolled pistols ready. which is situated on the second floor. took their places at once with and admitted a little middle-aged As the same questioning which I had experienced began.MY EXIT FROM RUSSIA to his chief. which on to the spacious Admiralty Prospect. The cadaverous sailor and the other of the party. my new guard and I went downstairs and took our seats in a magnificent Benz limousine. a rather jolly-looking soldier. and was waiting with another man on guard in the front seat. C. built in the form of a spiral. where my guard delivered my me it into a writing-room for tion. and entrance is only through the court and a small side door. the place of terror and torment. and here 258 . and descended to the first floor. Here a official my preliminary examinaran across the room. The an who door was guarded by a loutish youth in a high astrakhan hat. came another ring at the door. so that on getting out of gives the motor-car with guard our way took us up the backstairs and through the kitchen. Thence we emerged on to the central staircase. is now entirely shut up. behind railing directed operations and two clerks to enter the details in large folios before them. The front door of the former prefecture. What struck me at once was the similarity of expression vants of the X. woman. 2 Gorohovaya.

as I learnt 254 . They had every appearance of being. this." The formal interrogatory over. They were all young." answered the man with a leer. Now I was searched again. I judged. criminals of long standing. At the flat where my arrest took place I had been searched and all my money and papers had been taken from me. I asked for a receipt. The debauchery of cruelty was stamped on their features. thus I knew that the case was con- sidered of some importance. and is like second only to Boky. him. and. Oh. and waited for a quarter of an hour. the oldest. " when you are released. what no doubt they were. The little brute and I then went downstairs and on the first floor diverged from the main staircase into a corridor where the rooms were numbered from 82 to 36 . They combined an astonishing degree of hardness with a look of bestial enjoyment.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE were five such a more. Nothing here ever goes astray. I was told to sit down. you will get it back. returned and told me to follow him. and I can say without hesitation that collection of evil countenances had never before been under my eyes. the successor of Uritsky. and a gold watch before overlooked discovered. not above thirty years. Pre- " brute in the astrakhan hat. who had gone out." Now Antonov is reputed one of the chief ruffians at the Gorohovaya. a Jew. saying to the official behind the railing " Comrade Antonov sently the little : has got this case in hand.

How tiresome for you "It's an absolute shame They kept on quesabout your husband's affairs and some tioning me " ! ! expedition or other to Finland. I understood they had not been questioned about me. too. The third was a lad in his serOur two guides began to joke together. and this gentleman. and immediately said in " How do a loud voice you do. is RUSSIA dealing the section for with the Counter-Re volution. I am so sorry. Olga Paulo vna ? : What is the meaning of all this ? I went this morning to your flat with those tins of fish that your husband asked me for.MY EXIT FROM afterwards. and have been arrested and brought here. when the door from the staircase opened and another half-fledged gaolbird ushered in three more prisoners. and Room 36 Antonov's office. This gave me my cue. Here I was sat down on a bench in the passage and remained for perhaps two minutes. abreast of the " Do we know one another ? " Ivan Petrovich 's friend whispered. who I don't know from Adam. it was almost by chance that we met at all ! that day you and he. and to get we snatched the moment situation. whose name even I don't know. and about someone named Makarov. to me : the wife of Ivan Petrovich and his and partner. Two were known friend vice. As if I knew anything about Ivan Petrovich 's business Why." " Oh. came behind the scenes 255 .

all vanity. and this is the result By this means we had our story concerted and ! " should not trip one another up. I " brought them this morning. about that. From the addresses in possesC. letters of which he had read me some extracts. I believe." put in the friend.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE at the G. Ivan Petrovich had been so letters received imprudent as to keep by him from those he had dispatched in safety to Finland. wasn't it ? " Yes. friend were the picture of fright. I trust you will not be detained for more doubtless than a day. the principal fish. and would surely not give over until they had landed all Olga Paulo vna and her sion of the X. a real restaurant in a real hotel." With which pious wish we conscious of its fell silent. having coffee with ! and " We How can we cream. agents it was clear that they were on the track of a considerable organisation. They had every reason indeed to fear. and it was like that last week that your husband asked me to sell him these kilki I had. " I deeply regret that you should be inconvenienced. pathetic in their gratitude are sitting in simplicity. " Indeed. especially as you are so slightly acquainted with my husband. and white bread and butter " " There are thank you ? shops here where every256 . Theatre where I was producer three weeks ago." answered the poor little woman. " You were kind enough to invite me once or twice to tea.

since they had come 257 s . followed by Olga Paulovna. be shot too. at their lad. Olga Paulovna 's guard did not know and not responsible for me. and went out on the staircase. I told her what at the flat." " This is like heaven after Sovdepia " ! By themselves these letters were enough to destroy him. moreover. A whose bravado could not control his trembling limbs.MY EXIT FROM RUSSIA thing can be bought. follow me. told that under the first pressure he would give everyone and everything away. her friend. I was sitting at the As they passed of the bench. and got up last. end out had was and the lad. it would delight me to think that he was severely punished for it. glance. " to Prisoners. It seemed clear that her husband must be yet caught next day at home or on the railway. and she possibly. My lumpish ruffian had now left us alone with his comrade. and her drawn face blanched more. and one can buy without cards." he said. I saw that the moment for which I had watched come. He would I had heard certainly be shot. their guard. Olga Paulo vna asked under her breath if I knew where he was. and though I have every reason to be grateful for this oversight. and there are no red flags. All that she and their friend could look forward to was an imprisonment of several months in filth and every circumstance of horror. at the end of which he would probably. Soon the passage door opened again and another official looked in.

and strolled through the door on to the staircase. I decided. though I was doubtless on the paper in his hand. had come. Several persons passed me. past the first-floor landing. and I determined to from a different avail myself of it. to a door giving access to the court. as I could see through a glass panel. they doubtless took me for one going about the ordinary business of the place. This way. of stacked rifles and several machine- guns. but on the Reds were further side of a guard-room. Down I went. but took no notice. nor did this new official know me. and up to the second. And a door. recognising the way by which my guard had brought me into the building. The staircase must probably lead I decided. retraced my steps upstairs. and military coat and high fur hat the Cossack-like beard I had grown in the course In my of the last two months. where a number of resting in the midst. and he would rely upon the guards to see that all the My moment. possible moment. I passed through a gallery and found number of cooks and other myself in the kitchen.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE room. There. sure enough. was too risky. Two busily preparing dinner on a large men going in the opposite direction passed me. A servants were scale. down. Then I lounged up. as if bored with waiting. Up or down ? was the question. was there. the only prisoners went with him. For a beginning I sat down again on the bench and stayed for half a minute or so. 258 . I turned.

Still more from the very centre of the Red Terror. but now forehead began to feel hot and my legs displayed my a desire to break into a run. existed . a written pass is required. went down the backstairs and was in the court. and to get out of any Bolshevik institution.MY EXIT FROM RUSSIA So I reached the back door. and without further query I passed under the arch and fair pace. as I crossed the court. I had been the time of no special emotion. in practice it is not always insisted on. I must Now in the course of pilgrimages to various commissaries I had noticed that. I : saw that there were five of them. and my choice was made accord- but taking care not to hurry. Controlling them I 259 s 2 . Only one danger now between me and freedom. 36. and it is known that the sentinels here are chosen from among the most thoroughgoing Communists. risk it. as I had seen on entering. although in theory a pass is required for everyone. Without stopping I answered in an absolute manner " From room No. No alternative. For the moment. I was free. no one attempted to stop me. being dirty. : At a into the street. but a grave one I had no pass. At the gate was a guard. of the guards.. " Pass? " called out one I approached the gateway. however. and of a generally debased appearance. of which indeed they have the air. slatternly. at conscious all least. ingly. even one of such inoffensiveness as the office of the International Sleeping Car Co." The phrase acted like magic.

in the pithy Russian " to the wall. on which my friends were due to leave for Beloostrov. it would be. and took a car up the Nevsky.C. changed into a car for the Finland Station. But I got to the station ten minutes late.C. Two months before a prisoner had succeeded in making off. there was now no quence. My position was one of imminent danger. and I had been something over an hour at the Gorohovaya. My idea was that the X. In the first place it appeared to me that the X. an escape from the Gorohovaya is so rare an occurrence that they would leave no stone unturned in the search. to a point of almost unbearable strictness in conseShould I be captured. I could get money from them and find a guide in the village where I had left my bag to cross the frontier the same night.15 train. otherwise I should have had to walk. not expect me to make for the frontier. would at all events at the first moment. and the regulations in the place had been strung up portance as a prisoner.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE walked quickly along the Admiralty Prospect to a tramway station. 260 . over-estimated my im- and would redouble their efforts to have me again and in the second. luckily finding about four roubles in stamps in a pocket of my great coat. The Admiralty clock showed ten minutes to one. doubt of my fate . It was two hours and a-half since I had been caught in the trap. If I could catch the 1." At the Liteiny Prospect I idiom. The moment my absence was discovered there would be a tremendous hue and ^ry. .

nothing can be obtained to eat ." since restaurants no longer exist. the only ones permitted. to dine without a card. I seemed in a fairly tight corner. to a casual glance. and at the cabmen's tea-houses. Thus I spent a 261 . and he justified my choice nobly. This difficulty I circumvented.C. Money even for trams with the tariff of sixty kopecks. At another friend's I shaved my beard. noon. Another problem was food. and night of food. at yet another's obtained a close- fitting round cap of coarse fur that. which. lest trouble should befall a benefactor who enabled me. fortified me with bread and sausage and a substantial loan of money. But besides a card for bread it is necessary to have a card in order to obtain a meal at one of the " social dining-rooms. I lacked also a bread card. In these circumstances. quite altered the shape of my head. and I was getting uncommonly hungry. and again of food. Being without a legal lodging. Well. it should be noted. but in a way not to be related. it was to a Jewish friend that I determined to apply. is also part of the Bolshevik system of preventing the populace from organising their discontent by forcing them to think morning.. without passport or other papers. and easily recognisable from the photograph attached to the documents in the hands of the X.MY EXIT FROM RUSSIA Without money. which was all-important. and of nothing but food. without shelter. was running short. bread could be bought in the street at one of the contraband markets born of the Bolshevik policy of creating famine.

Twice the houses where I had slept were searched after I had flitted. characters. were visited the first night after my escape and vainly ransacked. sleeping in the or on a sofa handy to the backdoor.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE week changing my place of abode four times and casting about the while for means of considerable excitement. the third day of this life I got word from George. no very pleasant amusement in mid-winter and on a Petrograd diet. All occurred. Once I avoided by a few minutes a patrol that was having a general hunt for suspicious On was the railway quiet. man in the village where I had slept. Nothing suspicious had Let me come next day and he would find 262 . of escape. like restaurants. At the place where I dined I fed with my coat on and with my money on the table in case I should have to jump for the backdoor. It Still more trying was the moment when one rang at the door coming in. but accepted with the knowif not life. past . ready to make off at the first alarm. though each time the actual flat that was my asylum escaped. was nervous work this. and had to sheer off. me. are things of the consequently I had to rely on private hospitality. with one's passage boots beside one. Evidence that the hunt for me was hot came in plenty. walking the streets for some hours. Hotels. of course. he reported. Twice I saw spies watching the houses where I had slept. in ignorance would it be opened by friend or foe. most generously ledge that for my saviours were risking liberty. offered. My old lodgings.

RUSSIA Overjoyed at the news. but so far they had not. and that he had cooked Ivan Petrovich's goose. started on descent had been vich's chief agent. George's wife. this house and now gone back there. the one out of the nine in the house to be left. in possession One so that. I went. too. Now the visitor left and George came in. ripping up the pillows and mattresses. that only in the fury of their search.MY EXIT FROM a pilot for me. torn to ribbons. A black-haired man doubtless the Jew who had been in command at the flat had said in the hearing of an old woman. everything. She and her husband had been through a hell of suspense lest the Reds should come to them. I should have been caught to a certainty. but only to tell bad news. had I — — those caught the week before were done for. house. watching the neighbourhood. and strewing their contents on the floor of them had been left on my first visit slept in . made on the house of Ivan PetroThe Red Guards had burst in at morning. Presently she came to me in the inner room and breathed that a But when I entered the who had a visitor. and arrived in safety. nothing suspicious on the road or at the little station no one seemed to be . Sure enough. in- five o'clock in the cluding the little and carried off Swiss lady. and had been heard to say that they would return next night and not rest till they had cleared out everybody in the place con263 . The Reds had been to yet two more houses. made more arrests. arrested everybody. seeing me and put her finger to her lips. smashed.

but even if they thought it their wonder they could not have known under what documents I was living. and he could be sure that I should no longer endanger him and his. when he did not keep the appointment I felt sure that he had been arrested. There was no help for it. but she came back saying own nerves were too that the other was far too much alarmed to touch the business and the whole village in a state of panic. which for two months as normal a in Petrograd. In the course of these alarums and excursions ample leisure was afforded me During live to reflect catastrophe. there as could be lived nowadays were several persons who knew or suspected that I was an Englishman. for George's — him a useful jumpy to make ambassador. and so soon as it was dark I sallied forth. Russians are business to 264 . George taking my bag on a minute handsledge to the station. His relief when the train drew in. well. and we arranged that he should come up to Petrograd on the next day but one to give me news. into Finland ? George's wife volunteered to find the man who he had meant me to go with. had all been that of George.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE nected with Ivan Petrovich's chief man. To me it seemed likely that the first house on their list would be A rapid retreat was now my only but perhaps it could be made northwards course. Seeing that to have helped me over the frontier would have been a very profitable business for him. was delightful. life my had enabled me to on the causes of the work in the theatre.

Besides. a Pole and member of the Polish is several languages. the mother of a young author who had before been my assistant. Having. and for his own sake he must keep silent. and of three I was absolutely sure. he learned from the same source that I intended to leave the He next country.MY EXIT FROM RUSSIA accustomed to many official fictions. and now a theatrical im- presario with whom I was in business relations. knew my name and the name and character inscribed on my passport and professional documents. asked counsel of an acquaintance way L. Committee. Only four persons in Petrograd were acquainted with precise situation. There was also one in Moscow who had got me my passport. This man. and man of good capacity. and she. got his clue as to my nationality. as foreigners were bound to do. they would almost surely think that I had regulated my position with the Bolshevik Government and was living openly and registered. in the first I place. in fear for what might happen to her in such a son. he speaks an educated and travelled nounced me.. But he told the fourth of these four. that my the Moscow representatives of our Red Cross Com- mittee had been denounced and one arrested as agents of a British conspiracy. made the acquaintance of Ivan 265 . has the appearance and manners of a thorough gentleman . and once formed it was afterwards a striking manner. a former opera singer that he guessed the truth. from several confirmed in He it was who had now dewas led to this conclusion by evidence sides.

I having escaped from prison and L. to have my The agents whereabouts discovered and myself caged again. without L. having thus lost his other quarry. three days before my attempt. he launched " (my Russian name and patronymic) a denunciation against my chief. insinuated someone into this company who betrayed it on the frontier. the moment I had slipped through the net. And on the bird having flown. Secondly. underlining the words. who had. on pretence that he also was desirous of being transported out of Bolshevik-land. I had in fact expected to go with a party two days earlier. First. Three facts serve to bring the crime home to him. as was reported to me by a friend who was able to watch him. to another flat. that " he wished Ivan Fedorovich " to have a good journey. he wrote. to the chairman of my committee. He was thus in a position to gauge with fair accuracy when my move was to be made. Thirdly.'s knowing. on the revelation of the blackmailer's game. fortunately. and it seems probable that L. but vainly. moved swiftly the very next day the machinery of the Gorohovaya was put in motion to effect the arrest. he moved heaven and earth.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE Petrovich through the person who had recommended me to him. and. alreaHy received all the necessary papers for leaving by the legal road." and followed up his letter on the next day by a barefaced attempt at blackmail. in the expectation that I would be among it also. at Ivan Petrovich 's flat had evidently ex266 .

though they did not I was and were puzzled by the apparent excellence of But the crowning proof treachery came when I was already in safety my papers. to escape from tyranny to freedom. was neither more nor less all his than a professional informer. L.MY EXIT FROM know who L. and have sometimes names that used to society.'s RUSSIA pected me. To obtain a reward for my capture. he did not scruple to have a score of people. and had by error many been released from the prison where he was immured on discovery of his helping brother officers to escape are to serve their own broke through to Finland. already.'s name well. and between 267 five and . on the property of the victims they denounce. the importance of which he doubtless exaggerated. guilty only of wishing themselves. or of helping others. of in Finland. as ends. and was suspected Two an agent provodays later a young Russian officer who of being had been in the employment of the Bolsheviks. and said as much. hovaya. cateur. who get a salary and ten per cent. thrown into noisome prisons. the his name to an Allied saying L. to whet the appetite of his paymasters. that he was believed himself to have crossed the frontier and back several secret service latter astonished me by knew about times. He knew L. that he On my mentioning man. move in the best Petrograd For horror of delicacy and culture and reiterated the Bolsheviks. he said. It was on a list he had had in his possession of agents on the Staff at Goro- beyond the Bolshevik lines.

" she said." To the address given me. Madame R. Madame R. has the Bolshevik terror produced in Russia. " in spite of your beard. Madame R. an enthushe can help you.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE ten of in all probability shot.. As I looked at her now. and Serbians." she said to my surprise. and in 1916 numbered some eight thousand members. it had on its books a few French. siast.. had been prominent at meetings of the society both before the revolution and after it in helping to defeat the plans of a venal secretary who attempted to capture the organisation for the Bolsheviks. therefore." She is a friend had said. " I knew you the moment I saw you in the train." This Society of the Year 1914 was founded at the beginning of the war to fight against German influence. I went. read of but hardly revolting realised as a product of despotism in the worst pages them of Roman " Go to history. " if you are in such a hole. I saw that she was the woman who had accosted me the first day I went to N. "I 268 . the daughter of a wellknown General. in answer to my question. English. who realised that the Allies' chance in Russia depended on their winning the sympathy of the liberal elements in society and helping these in the struggle with the reactionary and pro- German Court. welcomed me warmly. Besides Russians. a wonderful and I am sure woman. Such a pitch of callousness and baseness. " Yes. I often used to see meetings of the Society of the you at the Year 1914.

a relation of mine and his wife. and finally got back half dead with exhaustion." " And the other party dreadful " They They had actually crossed the frontier and the Finns sent them back from the village they reached. They tried to walk. they hardly know themselves. " have been refused asylum like that. Two of my parties have had to return." It was arranged that I should return next day to confer with a peasant woman expected to come 269 . were within two felt sure ! versts of the frontier when their driver got frightened and refused to go further. for them. How my two got through. But what an If they catch you they will escape you have had never let you go alive. cult now. ! not life. We must manage to get you I have helped several people.MY EXIT FROM RUSSIA you were making for the frontier. and had to bury their bags in the snow. life Now I am trying to find another this way People must be saved from it is ? when they can. They managed to telephone from there to the Commandant at Terioki. that was still more young officer and his sister. Isn't it monstrous of the Finns ? In many cases it is sheer murder. abominable but death in life. One. But it is very diffioff. but he confirmed the orders that they were to be turned away. they were fired at crossing the river and in the woods. Numbers of our poor refugees are a Oh. and I wanted so much to help you if I could. as those forced to return by daytime are caught and shot by the Reds. but the snow was too deep and they are elderly people and had to turn back.

which in my hunted condition and with no papers other than a forged extract from a house register. good for a minute's inspection should far from comforting." said the elderly relative quarter. There are smugglers who bring butter and sweets from Finland. and at least it seemed clear that a week or so must pass before a plan could be hit upon. owing to the strict control of passports on the railway line thither. Prospects began to look poor. hardly I be stopped. could not hope to reach Sestroretzk. a long night's drive. proposes to go on Saturday. and I am in touch with a man who may induce them to take us back with them. From Sestroretzk. By sea from Petrograd to Terioki must be hard on seventy versts. whereby I assumed the role of a Roumanian chauffeur.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE up to Petrograd and report. way exists across the "I have — by sledge over the ice. If you care to join us." sulted Friends whom I con- were sceptical. He sea. the last point on the Gulf of Finland this side the frontier. and the forts of 270 . Red patrols. was But now unexpectedly hope dawned in another heard. it was known that parties had been driven across but I . to say nothing of difficulties of the ice. Like my News came George. ever. and that six hundred roubles blood-money was offered for each fugitive caught alive or dead. she did not appear. " that another afore-mentioned. come at five o'clock on Friday to arrange terms with the man. howthat the frontier was all alive with guards.

On an ice-boat it could certainly be done but inquiry showed that ice-boats were not procurable. the remains of a brandy flask. with the glass at about 20° Fahrenheit. and as I drove from Madame R. for in the courtyard lounged Can you come ? " evening before seven. he may not have favour of the theory. I flung a few clothes. bread. but the chances seemed in I decided not to risk taking my an English-looking leather article. RUSSIA Cronstadt to circumvent. and with cap stumped forth with it over " well pulled down.'s with the young man who had It was a wonderful starlight night. a rug. True.'s back lodging. into a sack of totally disreputable appearance. my diary and most valuable papers. or potatoes at prices that soon make them millionaires." one of those my who come in from the country of an evening and sell butter. suitcase. Petrograd had never looked more beautiful.MY EXIT FROM . In this guise my spy did not even look at me." A hurried dash for "I will be back my a hulking fellow of semi-soldierly cut and scowling looks evidently on the watch. and this at five punctually I door. and shoulder. but warm. and here I convinced myself that means of escape had not come a moment too soon. " I was greeted with— We leave here at seven ! was at Madame R. 271 . so. making a hasty meal. been on the watch for me. engineered our expedition to its starting-point on the Islands. a typical sackman. Yet no chance could be let slip. as being too conspicuous in the circumstances.

and entered a dark house. In the little parlour were two Jews. Five or six of them were in the kitchen. the resort of the Finnish smugglers. all. where Cromie had met and across the white belt of the great river. the legal exit. Tranquil elation possessed me. very young. made up our party. with my two elderly acquaintances and myself. Almost at the extreme point of one of the Islands we stopped. A long wait now ensued. and but for an accident or a denunciation from some fresh quarter would soon be clear. for some affair of speculation. and the guides had chosen halfpast eleven as the best hour for the start. the more to be regretted. as I guessed. our izvozhchik cursing the Bolsheviks freely. One away my pistol (sewn up in a cushion) when being still with lawful papers had been in the employ of a British wood merchant and became voluble in a mixture of equally broken English and Russian on learning my nationality. with the exception of the master of the house. timing 272 it . the other fleeing. bold-looking fellows. these. It was not ten o'clock. that I had sent At the worst there I only regretted would be an end to uncertainty. one well known in his own town as a patriot and having had a large price set on his head by the Bolsheviks.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE We passed the deserted shell of the British Embassy his symbolic death. We were free from pursuit. since it afterwards turned out that the Bolsheviks had found and confiscated it. by it was dangerous for me to be found with arms.

usual heavy Russian winter clothing Much of the time. tions. In any other circumin stances my position would have seemed one of extreme discomfort.) feel like made a zephyr. rooked us of fifty roubles a head. and the first three hours' travelling with the glass a few degrees above zero (Fahr. The loads were one three passengers. my content was such that I hardly noticed physical annoyances.the Finns ran 278 T . half to recline on the bottom of the sledge with my back to the horse. in the fairly heavy. the more of it that found its way to length.MY EXIT FROM so that RUSSIA of we should pass the forts Cronstadt at between three and four in the morning. at an equally majestic price under pretence of fear for his skin through our pre. On the ice it was much colder than in the town. so that every jolt of the vehicle over the rough ice sent a jar from the top of spine to the bottom . other two with the luggage. according to them the hour most likely to escape observation. At and having paid our toll beforehand. for I had half to lie. though still for the time of spiritual but my year comparatively warm. we were of the summoned. and in each two Finns who took it by turns to drive. and emerging from the blackness unlit hall stumbled into two rough country sledges that had been brought up to the door. reflecting maybe that as our money might fall into the hands of a his Red patrol. The delay was beguiled by a samovar of majestic proporfor its owner. pocket before that sad occurrence the better. sence.

but they seemed to have the instinct of foxes and scarcely faltered. Cronstadt vanished. that enabled them not to slip back- ward. Our course lay in a wide curve away from the shore. and a whitey wall of mist stretched over heaven and horizon. very seldom stopping for a consultation between their masters as to the route. for That there was cause alarm was certain 274 . as the lights of the delicate line of Oranienbaum scintillated in the western distance. and only . and again on an alarm of a Red patrol. compass the Finns could find their way through this was hard to conceive.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE alongside. padding the ice with quick springy steps on their toes. but suddenly the driver pulled up. in the centre of the snow-besprinkled blackness of the ice. The only two serious checks were once to find a causeway across a weak spot where an icebreaker had not long before hacked her path through. as invariably happened to me when I tried to run for the sake of warmth. then dashed off in another direction at top speed. My less acute senses detected nothing. How without Suddenly I awoke. on our left bowI had dozed. the stars were out. and at the end took their loads uphill into the town of Terioki at a fast trot. a crown of glowing amber. which went for eight hours without a break. It was hard to know whether most to admire their endurance or that of their little horses. and signalling to his follower sat for a moment of the tensest silence. and Cronstadt rose.

but. seen peasants selling their supplies shudder killing who and have blanch at the approach known stranger. less. The last hour. nor in any town in Russia where the Bolshevik screw is at work. I thought it had been a dream. no. simple enough when it is with you every day. and butter. At last with a bump and a heave we rose from the ice and plunged over the Fifteen minutes more. we were knocking up a young farmer and his wife. but afterwards learnt that three out of my four companions had experienced the same. the ignorant and vicious felt lording in heaven's despite. The simple meal seemed a symbol of our re-won liberty. beauty despoiled. who have the fear for friends and relatives arrested and of a within an ace of death. who gave us unlimited coffee with milk and bread. and frozen. by Red Guards or by Bolshevik marauders on their own. crushing out — ! — the life of the land. Only those who have lived under the ceasestrain of the Bolshevik tyranny. when you are deprived of it. snowy dunes. and have 275 the . such luxuries as are not to be found in all Petrograd. leaving no doubt that we were victims of a kind of nocturnal mirage.MY EXIT FROM RUSSIA two nights afterwards a party of four coming the same way were set upon and killed. including the one lady among them. And all for ten roubles a head. it who have seen old people starved. was fitted with a strange illusion of endless galleries and stately marble columns. a feast beyond price. as we neared the shore.

next hour only these. can taste in its full flavour the rich joy to be free. meeting afterwards in freedom. next day.THE BOLSHEVIK ADVENTURE cramping necessity to wonder night and day whether they will have food enough next week. daily. and can pray with understanding hearts that condign punishment may be meted out to the murderers and robbers who have hired themselves to be the agents of German intrigue and usurped the name and the powers of the people of Russia. — THE END .

250 Chaliapine. xv American Red Cross. 141 Bol- Gorohovaya. support of Ukraine by. 39. 158 sqq. prices of. 143 " Bolshevik. 249. Bolsheviks. Bolshevik Camp." 113. Maxim. 97. 32. 93. 214 Kremlin. 42. the. prison. 144 Food conditions in Petrograd." 1 German connection with shevism. Bolshevik propaganda in. by Jews 104 in Commissars. 78 Chinese. 145 — officers. . — powers . 88 Kiev.] American Mission to Russia. 252 139. Com- D Dybenko 209 Bolshevik Adventure "Kerenkies. xvi Andreev. junction. in Russia. Bolshevik. " Council of People's missars. General. 142 Army. 117 Cronstadt. 87 Kozlov. 93. France. 149 xxiii. 95 (Naval Commissar). 84. 98 — G Bank Notes. 143. 43. employment of. 146 Finland." xxiii. of. 144 Gorky. 80. xx. . Kornilov. 104. 44. 156 sqq. 245. 28 118 Communism. 67 277 . 100 sqq. Bolshevik printing of.INDEX [Mainly of Proper Names. work of. 153. Leonid. 173 Kerensky.

49. organisation broken up. 88 of Inat. Constantino. in Russia. banking in." xxii. in. xv — — S N Navy. 80 American. 197 sqq. Red Cross. Trotsky. 67. diet in. Reerich." 119 M Mazeppists. military. 45. 140. 274 — — Press. 151 R Radek on " red terror. 148 Nicolas II. 103 Railways under Bolshevik management. 141. 121. 208 sqq. 102. 142 Russell. in. xii of. 104 Lvov. 184 Muraviev. Edward. 101. 68 " Northern Saratov. 250 U Ukraine. 152 Lenin. 139. 82. problem Pskov. 245. xvi — . 270. xvi. 117 Stolypin (Minister). 178. 98 278 . 140. 58.INDEX Protopopov (Ex-Minister terior). 88. of. Bolshevik. German treachery 125 Putilov Works. 117. 250 Prisons. — sickness levied on. 156 sqq. 101 Moscow. 96 11 grad. position — French support . 85 Metil. food conditions in. 111 Left Social Revolutionaries. 216 Mirbach. 68. assassination of. 70 134 — attempt to change — names 129198 fines . 154 Terioki. damage to city. shortage of. 71. Prison. murder of. of. town — conditions . 73 . of. 192 Lettish Rifles. Soviets. 185 135 Commune " of Petro- Sovieti. Petrograd. 82 sqq. 136. price of food in. 146 streets. of. 138. Count. theatres. 55. 61.. 157. 249. Theatres under Bolshevik rule. Prince. sqq. 42 . election to. fuel. 148. Land. 179 . Count Andre. 111 Szepticki. Bolshevik.

x." (Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter-revolution). 86 Uritsky. 130 Yaroslavl. 83. Voznessensky (of Bolshevik Foreign Office). 81.INDEX Ukrainian language. 31. 39 Zinoviev (President of Petrograd Council). Colonel. 245 Voronesh. 119 X.C. 104 W Walden. 151 279 . 141. 120 assassination of. rising at.

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