Solaris Benchmark v1.2.

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Copyright 2001-2003, The Center for Internet Security http://www.CISecurity.org/

Solaris Benchmark v1.2.0 February 19, 2003
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....................................................................................................................................................................................... 6 2............ 22 3..........................................................................4 Only enable rlogin/rsh/rcp if absolutely necessary..................10 Only enable NFS client processes if absolutely necessary ..................3 Turn on inetd tracing..... 9 2.... 12 3 Minimize boot services ......................................................... 16 3...........................5 Only enable TFTP if absolutely necessary .. 25 4..... 17 3.......3 Restrict NFS client requests to privileged ports .......................................3 Only enable FTP if absolutely necessary..... 6 2....................1 Disable core dumps................................1 Apply latest OS patches ...............................5 Disable email server.........................................................7 Disable other standard boot services....... disable inetd if possible........................ 11 2.......... 19 3...........................16 Only enable the volume manager if absolutely necessary ........ 24 3....................................................................13 Only enable directory server if absolutely necessary .................................................. 23 3.......12 Only enable Kerberos server daemons if absolutely necessary ......... 13 3... 26 4........................ 10 2...................................................3 Install SSH ............................................ 2 1......................................15 Only enable the printer daemons if absolutely necessary......CIS Solaris Benchmark Patches and Additional Software .......................... 28 4................................................. 24 3...............................................................................................6 Only enable printer service if absolutely necessary. 15 3........................conf file................. 21 3................5 Additional network parameter modifications ........................ 13 3...6 Disable boot services if possible... 18 3..........2 Only enable telnet if absolutely necessary ..............................................................................................................8 Only enable Windows-compatibility servers if absolutely necessary .............. 20 3.................................................2 Install TCP Wrappers.2 Set daemon umask ..................................1 Disable standard services................................................................................ 22 3....... 3 1.........................................................4 Network Parameter Modifications..... 26 4...............................................................7 Only enable rquotad if absolutely necessary..... 13 3............................................2 Enable stack protection ...........11 Only enable other RPC-based services if absolutely necessary...................... 10 2.............................. 7 2..........................18 Only enable Web server if absolutely necessary ............................. 8 2...................... 27 4.........6 Use better TCP sequence numbers ... 7 2......9 Only enable NFS server processes if absolutely necessary ........................10 Only enable Kerberos-related daemons if absolutely necessary........................................................................ 25 4....14 Only enable the LDAP cache manager if absolutely necessary ............................. 20 3.............4 Prevent Syslog from accepting messages from network ................................19 Only enable SNMP if absolutely necessary................... 5 2 Minimize inetd network services ................ 12 2.............................8 Only enable CDE-related daemons if absolutely necessary ..................................................................................................... 21 3.20 Only enable DHCP server if absolutely necessary ........... 9 2................................... if possible ...........................................................................17 Only enable GUI login if absolutely necessary .............................. 23 3........1 Disable login: prompts on serial ports...................................... 25 4 Kernel Tuning ................... 29 vi 1 ....................11 Minimize inetd...................................... 19 3...................................... 14 3.......................9 Only enable Solaris Volume Manager daemons if absolutely necessary ...................... 2 1................................................

.........................................................................netrc files ....................................................... 51 8..................................................................5 Prevent remote XDMCP access.........................................3 Set account expiration parameters on active accounts...................5 Verify passwd..... 44 7.......... shadow........................................................................................ 41 7.............. 32 5....................................................................................................................................................1 Remove ......................................... 30 5.................................................................rhosts support in /etc/pam................ 54 vii 5 ................................................... 39 7....11 Set "mesg n" as default for all users .....................................3 Create /etc[/ftpd]/ftpusers . 39 7.......conf ..............................................................1 File systems are mounted either 'ro' or 'nosuid' ........ shadow......................... 52 8......................................................................................................................................................... 30 5............................................2 Capture FTP and inetd Connection Tracing Info. 53 8.........................1 Capture messages sent to syslog AUTH facility .............................................. and group files .........................................................................7 Find unauthorized world-writable files.4 Verify no legacy '+' entries exist in passwd..............conf......... 39 7............6 Enable kernel-level auditing ....5 Verify that no UID 0 accounts exist other than root.........................................................................................9 Remove empty crontab files and restrict file permissions ........................................................3 Create /var/adm/loginlog ...................... 35 6..................... 46 7........................................ 50 8...... 47 8 User Accounts and Environment ....... 36 6. 36 6....................... 48 8......... 38 7 System Access......................................................... 43 7............ 36 6........... 43 7.................8 Restrict at/cron to authorized users ............................................................ 53 Appendix A: Log Rotation Script ......................................................................................12 Limit number of failed login attempts ............4 Use full path names in /etc/dfs/dfstab file ...................................................... 52 8......................................................................4 Turn on cron logging...........Logging .................6 World-writable directories should have their sticky bit set .............................. and group file permissions .......... 33 6 File/Directory Permissions/Access ..................5 Enable system accounting.. 29 5..6 No '...................... 41 7....................................................... Authentication.................. 51 8..........................2 Verify that there are no accounts with empty password fields ... 34 6. 48 8..6 Prevent X server from listening on port 6000/tcp.......................... 50 8...................... 35 6.......7 Confirm permissions on system log files.............................................................................8 No user dot-files should be group/world writable .................................................11 Restrict root logins to system console ............1 Block system accounts....7 Set default locking screensaver timeout .......... and Authorization.............................3 Add 'nosuid' option to /etc/rmmount.......... 37 6............................9 Remove user ..8 Find unauthorized SUID/SGID system executables.' or group/world-writable directory in root $PATH ............................. 40 7......... 38 6................. 31 5..............13 Set EEPROM security-mode and log failed access..........................................10 Create appropriate warning banners ....... 49 8............7 User home directories should be mode 750 or more restrictive ..........................4 Create /etc/shells... 31 5............. 44 7....... 29 5......................................10 Set default umask for users ...........2 Create symlinks for dangerous files........................................... 48 8...................... 42 7.................................. 46 7............9 Run fix-modes .......... 34 6......2 Add 'logging' option to root file system ...................................

conf \ /etc/dfs/dfstab /etc/ssh/ssh*_config /.d/*.conf \ /etc/passwd /etc/profile /etc/rmmount. Executing Actions The actions listed in this document are written with the assumption that they will be executed in the order presented here. Root Shell Environment Assumed The actions listed in this document are written with the assumption that they will be executed by the root user running the /sbin/sh shell and without noclobber set. In an effort to facilitate use of this benchmark on these different classes of machines. Actions are written so that they may be copied directly from this document into a root shell window with a "cut-and-paste" operation. Backup Key Files Before performing the steps of this benchmark it is a good idea to make backup copies of critical configuration files that may get modified by various benchmark items: for file in /etc/ftpusers /etc/hosts.conf \ /etc/shadow /etc/shells /etc/syslog. Some actions may need to be modified if the order is changed.conf /etc/system \ /etc/vfstab /etc/default/cron /etc/default/ftpd \ /etc/default/inetinit /etc/default/init \ /etc/default/login /etc/default/sendmail \ /etc/default/telnetd /etc/inet/inetd. These shaded items may be skipped on these desktop platforms.deny \ /etc/dt/config/Xaccess /etc/dt/config/Xservers \ /etc/dt/config/*/sys. shaded text has been used to indicate questions and/or actions that are typically not applicable to desktop systems in a large enterprise environment. do [ -f $file ] && cp $file $file-preCIS done 1 .d/*.CIS Solaris Benchmark A Word about Shaded Items Desktop systems typically have different security expectations than server-class systems.login /etc/motd /etc/pam.allow /etc/cron. In many cases.shosts /etc/cron.equiv /etc/inittab \ /etc/issue /etc/.resources \ /etc/dt/config/*/Xresources.rhosts \ /. Reboot Required Rebooting the system is required after completing all of the actions below in order to complete the re-configuration of the system. the changes made in the steps below will not take effect until this reboot is performed.

com/pub/patches/ -look for files named <osrel>_Recommended. Note that in addition to installing the Solaris Recommended Patch Clusters as described above.sun.1 Apply latest OS patches Action (Solaris 7 and later): 1.tar.html). Y2K./install_cluster -q Action (Solaris 2.zip cd *_Recommended . but it is up to their customers to actually download and install these patches.1 Patches and Additional Software 1. Administrators are also encouraged to check the individual README files provided with each patch for further information and post-install instructions.sun. 2. Download Sun Recommended Patch Cluster into /tmp (Sun Recommended Patch Clusters can be obtained from ftp://sunsolve.PatchReport file (available from the same FTP site as the patch clusters) for additional security.zip. administrators may wish to also check the Solaris<osrel>. or functionality patches that may be required on the local system. During the cluster installation process. such as the Solaris Patch Manager tool (for more info.com/pub/patches/ -look for files named <osrel>_Recommended. Automated tools for maintaining current patch levels are also available. see http://www.Z. 2. Execute the following commands: cd /tmp zcat *_Recommended./install_cluster -q Discussion: Developing a procedure for keeping up-to-date with vendor patches is critical for the security and reliability of the system. where <osrel> is the Solaris OS release number). administrators may ignore patch individual patch installs that fail with either return code 2 (indicates that the patch has already been installed on the system) or return code 8 (the patch applies to an operating system 2 .sun. where <osrel> is the Solaris OS release number). Vendors issue operating system updates when they become aware of security vulnerabilities and other serious functionality issues.6 and earlier): 1. Execute the following commands: cd /tmp unzip -qq *_Recommended.com/service/support/sw_only/patchmanager.tar.Z | tar xf cd *_Recommended . Download Sun Recommended Patch Cluster into /tmp (Sun Recommended Patch Clusters can be obtained from ftp://sunsolve.

gz pkgadd -d tcp_wrappers-*-local all 3.allow where each <net>/<mask> combination (for example. Remove package file after installation: rm -f tcp_wrappers-*-local 1. etc. Note that Item 6. Create /etc/hosts.0") represents one network block in use by your organization. "192. the read-only setting on /usr will cause patch installs to fail.g.2 Install TCP Wrappers Action (Solaris 8 and earlier): 1.1.deny: echo "ALL: ALL " >/etc/hosts. Install package: gunzip tcp_wrappers-*-local. Pre-compiled binaries for various Solaris releases may be obtained from the URL given above. The gzip utilities are included with the Solaris OS as of Solaris 8 (though the local site may have chosen not to install these utilities as part of their standard install image). consult the patch installation log in /var/sadm/install_data.255. Please refer to the Discussion section in Item 6. 1.3.allow: echo "ALL: <net>/<mask>.sunfreeware.1 below recommends mounting the /usr file system read-only. 2.). 4. The file name will be slightly different depending on the version of the software and the OS release.6-sol8-sparc-local.8". Download pre-compiled TCP Wrappers software package from ftp://ftp. e.package which is not installed on the machine). Create /etc/hosts. …" \ >/etc/hosts.0/255. "5. where the package name would again be something like gzip-1. Use the command "pkgadd –d gzip-*-local all" to install the gzip software from this package file after downloading. <net>/<mask>.168. If a patch install fails with any other return code.255.1 for information on making the file system writable before applying patches.gz Note that the gzip compression utilities must be installed in order to install the TCP Wrappers software package.deny 3 . tcp_wrappers-7. e.g. When applying patches to a system that has already been secured according to the steps in this document.5-sol7-sparc-local (depending on the current version number of the gzip software and the OS revision).com/pub/freeware/<proc>/<osrel>/ (here <proc> is the processor type—"sparc" or "intel"— and <osrel> is the Solaris version number of your system.

conf Discussion: TCP Wrappers allow the administrator to control who has access to various network services based on the IP address of the remote end of the connection.conf > inetd. 3. <net>/<mask>.deny 4.conf.conf Action (Solaris 9): 2.conf chmod 444 inetd.deny: echo "ALL: ALL" >/etc/hosts. 4 .0/255. Create /etc/hosts.conf.conf: cd /etc/inet awk '($3 ~ /^(udp|tcp)/) && \ ($6 != "internal") \ { $7 = $6.new inetd.1.255. \ { print }' inetd. Modify inetd. Solaris 9 now includes the TCP Wrappers distribution as part of the operating system (assuming the administrator has installed the SUNWtcpd software package).allow: echo "ALL: <net>/<mask>.conf chown root:sys inetd.conf. TCP Wrappers also provide logging information via Syslog about both successful and unsuccessful connections.allow where each <net>/<mask> combination (for example. TCP Wrappers are generally triggered out of /etc/inet/inetd. $6 = "/usr/sfw/sbin/tcpd" }.conf.0") represents one network block in use by your organization. "192.new mv inetd. \ { print }' inetd.conf chmod 444 inetd. $6 = "/usr/local/bin/tcpd" }. but other options exist for "wrappering" non-inetdbased software (see the documentation provided with the source code release).conf > inetd.255.conf. …" \ >/etc/hosts.new mv inetd.168. Modify inetd.5.conf: cd /etc/inet awk '($3 ~ /^(udp|tcp)/) && \ ($6 != "internal") \ { $7 = $6.new inetd.conf chown root:sys inetd. Create /etc/hosts.

/^MaxAuthTriesLog/ { $2 = "0" }.CISecurity. compilation of OpenSSH is complicated by the fact that it is dependent upon several other freelyavailable software libraries which also need to be built before OpenSSH itself can be compiled. /^RhostsRSAAuthentication/ { $2 = "no" }.7. /^PermitEmptyPasswords/ { $2 = "no" }. 5. we make use of a pre-compiled version of OpenSSH. Install package: uncompress OpenSSH-pkg-*. 2. /^MaxAuthTries/ { $2 = "3" }.8. /^RhostsAuthentication/ { $2 = "no" }. which is available in Solaris package format (the package contains 32-bit executables that should run on all releases of 5 . /^X11Forwarding/ { $2 = "yes" }. which allow secure encrypted network logins and file transfers. /^IgnoreRhosts/ { $2 = "yes" }. In order to simplify the installation process for Solaris 8 and earlier. Remove package file after installation: rm -f OpenSSH-pkg-* Discussion: OpenSSH is a popular free distribution of the standards-track SSH protocols. /^#Banner/ { $1 = "Banner" { print }' sshd_config > sshd_config.new sshd_config chown root:sys sshd_config chmod 600 sshd_config \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ } \ Action (Solaris 8 and earlier): 1.Z.org/pub/pkgs/Solaris.1. where <vers> is the OS version number as returned by "uname –r" (e. The package file name will be OpenSSH-pkg-<vers>. /^PermitRootLogin/ { $2 = "no" }.new mv sshd_config. 5.g.Z pkgadd -d OpenSSH-pkg-* all 3. Download pre-compiled OpenSSH software from ftp://ftp. However. etc).3 Install SSH Action (Solaris 9 systems): cd /etc/ssh cat <<EOCliConfig >>ssh_config Host * Protocol 2 EOCliConfig awk '/^Protocol/ { $2 = "2" }..

com. For more information on building OpenSSH from source.conf >inetd. Indeed. {print}" \ inetd. since SSH provides both a secure login mechanism and a means of 6 . after enabling SSH (see Item 1.1 Disable standard services Action: cd /etc/inet for svc in time echo discard daytime chargen fs dtspc \ exec comsat talk finger uucp name xaudio.pdf).conf Discussion: The stock /etc/inet/inetd.conf done for svc in 100068 100146 100147 100150 100155 100221 \ 100232 100235 rstatd rusersd sprayd walld. {print}" \ inetd.new inetd.conf chmod 444 inetd.conf.conf.Solaris from 2.new mv inetd. or which have more secure alternatives.sun.new mv inetd.conf done chown root:sys inetd.5.conf file shipped with Solaris contains many services which are rarely used.conf. This package is not required on Solaris 9 systems.1 onwards). see www.3) it may be possible to completely do away with all inetdbased services.com/solutions/blueprints/0701/openSSH. { print }" \ inetd. do awk "(\$1 == \"$svc\") { \$1 = \"#\" \$1 }. since Sun is now distributing OpenSSH with the Solaris operating system as of this release.conf >inetd.new mv inetd. Sun also publishes information on building OpenSSH for Solaris as part of its Blueprints series (see http://www.conf done for svc in printer shell login telnet ftp tftp.conf >inetd.conf >inetd.new mv inetd.conf. do awk "/^$svc\\// { \$1 = \"#\" \$1 }.conf. 2 Minimize inetd network services 2. do awk "(\$1 == \"$svc\") { \$1 = \"#\" \$1 }.conf.new inetd.conf. do awk "/^$svc\\// { \$1 = \"#\" \$1 }.conf.new inetd.openssh. { print }" \ inetd.conf done for svc in 100083 100229 100230 100242 \ 100234 100134 kerbd rquotad.new inetd.

3 Only enable FTP if absolutely necessary Question: Is this machine an (anonymous) FTP server. proceed with the action below. Rather than disabling and then re-enabling these services.new inetd. print $0 " -d -l" }' \ inetd. the services that are disabled in the last two loops in the "Action" section above.conf.conf. Action: sed 's/^#telnet/telnet/' inetd. or is there a mission-critical reason why data must be transferred to and from this system via ftp.conf file. rather than scp? If the answer to this question is yes.2 Only enable telnet if absolutely necessary Question: Is there a mission-critical reason that requires users to access this system via telnet. experienced administrators may wish to simply disable only those services that they know are unnecessary for their systems. 2.new inetd.new mv inetd. which means data from the login session (such as passwords and all other data transmitted during the session) can be stolen by eavesdroppers on the network.conf 7 . Action: awk '!/^#ftp/ { print } /^#ftp/ { $1 = "ftp".com/) provide encrypted network logins and should be used instead. rather than the more secure SSH protocol? If the answer to this question is yes.conf.openssh.new mv inetd. In fact.conf Discussion: telnet uses an unencrypted network protocol.transferring files to and from the system.conf >inetd. and also that the session can be hijacked by outsiders to gain access to the remote system.conf. The freely-available SSH utilities (see http://www. 2.conf > inetd. the actions above will disable all standard services normally enabled in the Solaris inetd. proceed with the actions below. The rest of the actions in this section give the administrator the option of re-enabling certain services—in particular.

which means passwords and other data transmitted during the session can captured by sniffing the network.openssh.com/).Discussion: Like telnet.2 below. Given the wide availability of free SSH implementations. see http://www. the FTP protocol is unencrypted.conf.3 below.conf. 8 . Action: sed 's/^#shell/shell/.1 for additional securityrelated configuration settings.new mv inetd. see Item 5. Information about FTP sessions will be logged via Syslog.4 Only enable rlogin/rsh/rcp if absolutely necessary Question: Is there a mission-critical reason why rlogin/rsh/rcp must be used instead of the more secure ssh/scp? If the answer to this question is yes. For further configuration information. For further information on restricting FTP access to the system.new inetd. it is recommended that the "debugging" (-d) and connection logging (-l) flags also be enabled to track FTP activity on the system.conf Discussion: SSH was designed to be a drop-in replacement for these protocols. and that the FTP session itself can be hijacked by an external attacker. consider requiring non-anonymous users on the system to transfer files via SSH-based protocols. If these protocols are left enabled. 2.conf >inetd. s/^#login/login/' \ inetd. please also see Item 7. proceed with the actions below. see Item 7. Note that if the FTP daemon is left on. Even if FTP is required because the local system is an anonymous FTP server. SSH provides two different encrypted file transfer mechanisms—scp and sftp—and should be used instead. but the system must be configured to capture these messages. it seems unlikely that there is ever a case where these tools cannot be replaced with SSH (again.

However.2.5 Only enable TFTP if absolutely necessary Question: Is this system a boot server or is there some other mission-critical reason why data must be transferred to and from this system via TFTP? If the answer to this question is yes. 9 . Routers and other network devices may copy configuration data to remote systems via TFTP for backup. proceed with the actions below. and other similar devices (TFTP is also used during network installs of systems via the Solaris Jumpstart facility).conf.lpd provides a BSD-compatible print server interface. proceed with the actions below. 2. unless this system is needed in one of these roles.new mv inetd.conf >inetd.conf mkdir –p –m 711 /tftpboot chown root:root /tftpboot Discussion: TFTP is typically used for network booting of diskless workstations. Action: sed 's/^#tftp/tftp/' inetd.new mv inetd.6 and later systems. Action: sed 's/^#printer/printer/' inetd. Even machines that are print servers may wish to leave this service disabled if they do not need to support BSD-style printing. Question: Is this machine a print server for your network? If the answer to this question is yes.conf.conf.new inetd. it is best to leave the TFTP service disabled.conf >inetd.conf.new inetd.6 Only enable printer service if absolutely necessary OS Revisions: This item only applies to Solaris 2. X-terminals.conf Discussion: in.

proceed with the actions below.conf.conf. Action: sed 's/^#rquotad/rquotad/' inetd. but has historically been a major security issue for Solaris systems. packet filters. 2.conf. but also never enable this service on any system which is not well protected by a complete network security infrastructure (including network and host-based firewalls.new inetd.8 Only enable CDE-related daemons if absolutely necessary Question: Is there a mission-critical reason to run a GUI on this system? If the answer to this question is yes.2. proceed with the actions below.conf >inetd. and intrusion detection infrastructure). If you do plan to leave this service enabled. Action: sed 's/^#100083/100083/' inetd. not only is it vital to keep up to date on vendor patches. then you may leave the rquotad service disabled.new inetd.ttdbserverd process supports many tools and applications in Sun's CDE windowing environment.conf Discussion: rquotad allows NFS clients to enforce disk quotas on file systems that are mounted from the local system.conf Discussion: The rpc.new mv inetd.7 Only enable rquotad if absolutely necessary Question: Is this system an NFS file server with disk quotas enabled? If the answer to this question is yes.conf >inetd.conf. 10 .new mv inetd. If your site does not use disk quotas.

Since the same functionality that is in the GUI is available from the command line interface.new mv inetd. the GUI tools cannot function without several daemons enabled in inetd. \ s/^#100242/100242/" inetd.conf Discussion: The Solaris Volume Manager (formerly Solaris DiskSuite) provides software RAID capability for Solaris systems. proceed with the actions below.9 Only enable Solaris Volume Manager daemons if absolutely necessary OS Revisions: This item only applies to Solaris 9 systems (or systems which have the Solaris Volume Manager or Solaris DiskSuite products installed).conf.conf. Question: Is the Solaris Volume Manager GUI administration tool required for the administration of this system? If the answer to this question is yes. administrators are strongly urged to leave these daemons disabled and administer volumes directly from the command line. Action: sed "s/^#100229/100229/.2. or via the command line. \ s/^#100230/100230/.conf >inetd.conf. However. 11 .new inetd. This functionality can either be controlled via the GUI administration tools provided with the operating system.

conf file devoted to comments. s/^#100234/100234/' \ inetd.conf >inetd.conf chmod 444 inetd. proceed with the actions below.2. they can 12 .conf. Should the administrator wish to enable additional services in the future.conf.conf file Action: mv inetd.conf.conf.edu/kerberos/www/. automated exploit scripts have been known to automatically re-enable inetd-based services by removing the comment character from disabled entries. However.conf file is saved as inetd.complete. Kerberos support has been added to Solaris. s/^#100134/100134/. Note that the original inetd.conf chown root:sys inetd. Kerberos may not be in use at all sites. it can be very difficult to see when new services have been added to the file.11 Minimize inetd. we thwart these exploit scripts and make it much easier for administrators to audit the file for new service entries that may have been added. 2. By reducing the inetd.6 and later systems.new mv inetd. Also.conf Discussion: With so much of the stock inetd.conf file to only the "active" service entries.conf inetd.10 Only enable Kerberos-related daemons if absolutely necessary OS Revisions: This item only applies to Solaris 2.mit. Action: sed 's/^#kerbd/kerbd/. For more information on Kerberos see http://web. Question: Is the Kerberos security system in use at this site? If the answer to this question is yes.conf Discussion: With the release of Solaris 8.complete grep –v '^#' inetd.conf.new inetd.complete >inetd.

d/umask. and other remote access devices to these ports.new inittab chown root:sys inittab chmod 644 inittab Discussion: By disabling the login: prompt on the system serial devices we make it more difficult for unauthorized users to attach modems.new mv inittab.complete file and then re-run the grep command line given above.simply edit the inetd.d/umask.sh done Discussion: The system default umask should be set to at least 022 in order to prevent daemon processes from creating world-writable files by default. Action (Solaris 7 and earlier): echo "umask 022" >/etc/init.d do ln -s .2 Set daemon umask Action (Solaris 8 and later): The CMASK parameter in /etc/default/init should be at least 022 (note that this is the default setting for Solaris 8 and later).conf. 3 Minimize boot services 3.sh for dir in /etc/rc?./init. Note that this action may safely be performed even if console access to the system is provided via the serial ports. 13 .sh $dir/S00umask.1 Disable login: prompts on serial ports Action: cd /etc grep -v /usr/lib/saf/sac inittab >inittab. 3. More restrictive umask values (such as 077) can be used but may cause problems for certain applications—consult vendor documentation for further information.d/umask. because the login: prompt on the console device is provided through a different mechanism. terminals.sh chmod 744 /etc/init..

d/S72inetsvc ln -s /etc/init. This information is logged via Syslog and by default Solaris systems deposit this logging information in /var/adm/messages with other system log messages. then /usr/sbin/inetd -s -t & fi EONewInetd chown root:sys newinetsvc chmod 744 newinetsvc rm -f /etc/rc2.html) can be used to monitor access attempts on unused ports.d grep -v /usr/sbin/inetd inetsvc >newinetsvc cat <<'EONewInetd' >>newinetsvc lines=`grep -v '^#' /etc/inet/inetd. Should the administrator wish to capture this information in a separate file. If inetd is running.conf to log daemon. disable inetd if possible Action: cd /etc/init. the popular free PortSentry tool (http://www.d/S72inetsvc Discussion: If the actions in Section 2 of this benchmark resulted in no services being enabled in /etc/inet/inetd. In addition to the information provided by inetd tracing.conf. it is a good idea to make use of the "tracing" (-t) feature of the Solaris inetd that logs information about the source of any network connections seen by the daemon.psionic.conf 2>/dev/null | \ wc -l | sed 's/ //g'` if [ "$lines" != "0" ]. then the revised boot script created here will prevent the inetd daemon from even being started.3 Turn on inetd tracing.d/newinetsvc /etc/rc2.com/products/portsentry. 14 .3. Note that running PortSentry may result in the CIS testing tools reporting "false positives" for "active" ports that are actually being held by the PortSentry daemon. simply modify /etc/syslog.notice to some other log file destination.

However. then do not perform the action below. or to fill up the local system's logging file systems so that subsequent attacks will not be logged. Unfortunately.d/newsyslog /etc/rc2.d/syslog >/etc/init. unless a system is set up to be one of these "log server" systems. 15 . it should not be listening on 514/udp for incoming log messages.4 Prevent Syslog from accepting messages from network OS Revisions: This item only applies to Solaris 8 and later systems. or does it need to receive Syslog messages via the network from other systems? If the answer to this question is yes. listens for log messages from other systems on network port 514/udp.d/S74syslog Discussion: By default the system logging daemon.d/newsyslog chown root:sys /etc/init. Note that it is considered good practice to set up one or more machines as central "log servers" to aggregate log traffic from all machines at a site. so a malicious outsider could simply barrage the local system's Syslog port with spurious traffic—either as a denialof-service attack on the system.d/newsyslog chmod 744 /etc/init. syslogd. Question: Is this machine a log server. \ { print }' /etc/init.d/newsyslog rm -f /etc/rc2. the protocol used to transfer these messages does not include any form of authentication. Action: awk '$1 ~ /syslogd/ && !/-(t|T)/ { $1 = $1 " -t" }.3.d/S74syslog ln -s /etc/init.

Some information is available at http://www.com/~hal/dns-sendmail/DNSandSendmail. Action (Solaris 8 and later): cd /etc/default cat <<END_DEFAULT >sendmail MODE= QUEUEINTERVAL="15m" END_DEFAULT chown root:sys sendmail chmod 744 sendmail Action (Solaris 7 and earlier): mv /etc/rc2.d/S88sendmail /etc/rc2. 16 .tmp rm -f root.tmp crontab root. Note that if the system is an email server.3.NOS88sendmail cd /var/spool/cron/crontabs crontab -l >root.d/.cf file. Note that after disabling the –bd option on the local mail server on Solaris 9 (or any system running Sendmail v8.org/.12 or later) it is also necessary to modify the /etc/mail/submit. the administrator is encouraged to search the Web for additional documentation on Sendmail security issues.deer-run.sendmail. Running Sendmail in "daemon mode" (with the –bd command-line option) is only required on machines that act as mail servers. if possible Question: Is this system a mail server—that is. receiving and processing email from other hosts on the network. This will cause email generated on the local system to be relayed to that mail server for further processing and delivery.5 Disable email server.pdf and at http://www. does this machine receive and process email from other hosts? If the answer to this question is yes. then do not perform the action below.tmp echo '0 * * * * /usr/lib/sendmail -q' >>root. Find the line that reads “D{MTAHost}localhost” and change localhost to the name of some other local mail server for the organization.tmp Discussion: It is possible to run a Unix system with the Sendmail daemon disabled and still allow users on that system to send email out from that machine.

rarpd and rpc.") next } { print }' nfs. the in. 17 .d/newnfs./.d/.bootparamd should only be enabled if the machine is actually going to be acting as a boot server. many sites use TFTP to back up configuration files from their network routers).server ln –s /etc/init.server /etc/rc3. in./ { if ($1 != ".d/S15nfs.5 above).server /etc/rc3..6 Disable boot services if possible Question: Is this machine a network boot server or Jumpstart server? If the answer to this question is yes.NOS16boot.d/S16boot.bootparamd services will be enabled.server >newnfs. then do not perform the action below. These services are designed to assist machines and devices that need to download their boot images over the network from some central server. the system may be running TFTP and have a /tftpboot directory but not be acting as a boot server (for example.server Action (Solaris 8 and earlier): cd /etc/init.server chown root:sys newnfs.d awk '/tftpboot/.d/S15nfs.server chmod 744 newnfs. However.rarpd and rpc.3. Action (Solaris 9): mv /etc/rc3..server Discussion: If the /tftpboot directory exists (see Item 2.server rm –f /etc/rc3.

do [ -s $file ] && mv $file .server S13kdc.d for file in S90samba S15nfs.NO$file done cd /etc/rc2. experienced administrators may wish to simply disable only those services that they know are unnecessary for their systems. 18 .7 Disable other standard boot services Action: cd /etc/rc2.NO$file done Discussion: Renaming these scripts in the system boot directories will effectively disable a wide variety of infrequently used subsystems. do [ -s $file ] && mv $file . The scripts are merely renamed (rather than removed outright) so that the local administrator can easily "restore" any of these files if they discover a mission-critical need for one of these services.3.finish S40llc2 S47pppd \ S47asppp S70uucp S72slpd S75flashprom S80PRESERVE \ S89PRESERVE S90wbem S94ncalogd S95ncad. The rest of the actions in this section give the administrator the option of re-enabling certain services—in particular.d for file in S72autoinstall S85power S89bdconfig \ S73cachefs. do [ -s $file ] && mv $file .client S74autofs S71rpc \ S72directory S71ldap. others only exist if certain OEM vendor software is installed).client S80lp S80spc S92volmgt \ S91afbinit S91ifbinit S99dtlogin S42ncakmod.master S14kdc \ S50apache S76snmpdx S34dhcp. Note also that vendor patches may restore some of the original entries in the /etc/rc*.NO$file done cd /etc/rc3.d for file in S77dmi S80mipagent.d directories—it is always a good idea to check these boot directories and remove any scripts that may have been added by the patch installation process. do [ -s $file ] && mv $file . the services that are disabled in the last two loops in the "Action" section above.daemon S93cacheos. Rather than disabling and then re-enabling these services.NO$file done cd /etc/rc3.d for file in S73nfs. Not all of the scripts listed above will exist on all systems (some are only valid for certain releases.

d/. file sharing.9 Only enable NFS server processes if absolutely necessary Question: Is this machine an NFS file server? If the answer to this question is yes.server Discussion: NFS is frequently exploited to gain unauthorized access to files and systems.3. 3. For more information consult the share_nfs manual page. and even act as a Domain Controller (authentication server) to older Windows operating systems. 19 . the admin should take reasonable precautions when exporting file systems. Question: Does this machine provide authentication. or printer sharing services to systems running Microsoft Windows operating systems? If the answer to this question is yes. including restricting NFS access to a specific range of local IP addresses and exporting file systems "read-only" and "nosuid" where appropriate. proceed with the actions below.d/S15nfs. proceed with the actions below.8 Only enable Windows-compatibility servers if absolutely necessary OS Revisions: This item only applies to Solaris 9 systems. However.server /etc/rc3. If the system is an NFS server.d/S90samba Discussion: Solaris 9 now includes the popular Open Source Samba server for providing file and print services to Windows-based systems.d/. the service should be disabled.NOS15nfs. This allows a Solaris system to act as a file or print server on a Windows network. Action: mv /etc/rc3. Clearly there is no need to run the NFS server-related daemons on hosts that are not NFS servers.NOS90samba /etc/rc3. Action: mv /etc/rc3. if this functionality is not required by the site.

consult with the application vendor.NOS73nfs. Note that other file transfer schemes (such as rdist via SSH) can often be preferable to NFS for certain applications. proceed with the actions below. Veritas.client mv /etc/rc2. If you are unsure whether or not a particular third-party application requires RPC services. Unless one of the services listed above is required on this machine. 20 .d/S74autofs Discussion: Again. administrators should disable NFS-related services. best to disable RPC-based tools completely.d/.d/S73nfs.NOS71rpc /etc/rc2. Solaris DiskSuite) If the answer to this question is yes.10 Only enable NFS client processes if absolutely necessary Question: Is there a mission-critical reason why this system must access file systems from remote servers via NFS? If the answer to this question is yes. proceed with the actions below.client /etc/rc2.3.d/. Action: mv /etc/rc2. 3.d/.11 Only enable other RPC-based services if absolutely necessary Question: Are any of the following statements true? • This machine is an NFS client or server • This machine is an NIS (YP) or NIS+ client or server • The Kerberos security system is in use at this site • This machine runs a GUI or GUI-based administration tool • This machine is a network boot server or Jumpstart server • The machine runs a third-party software application which is dependent on RPC support (examples: FlexLM License managers. unless there is a significant need for this system to acquire data via NFS.NOS74autofs /etc/rc2. Action: mv /etc/rc2.d/S71rpc Discussion: RPC-based services typically use very weak or non-existent authentication and yet may share very sensitive information.

master /etc/rc3. In particular.NOS72directory /etc/rc2.d/S72directory Discussion: Solaris 9 has included the iPlanet Directory Server product as part of the operating system.12 Only enable Kerberos server daemons if absolutely necessary OS Revisions: This item only applies to Solaris 9 systems. there is no reason to enable this service.3. If the machine is an LDAP server.13 Only enable directory server if absolutely necessary OS Revisions: This item only applies to Solaris 9 systems. Question: Is this system an LDAP directory server for this site? If the answer to this question is yes.d/S14kdc Discussion: Solaris 9 includes greater support for the Kerberos authentication system. Question: Is this system a Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC) for the site? If the answer to this question is yes. 3. this service only needs to be running on the machines that have been designated as LDAP servers for the organization.NOS14kdc /etc/rc3. the administrator is encouraged to search the Web for additional documentation on LDAP security issues.master mv /etc/rc3.d/.d/. However.d/S13kdc. However. Action: mv /etc/rc3.d/. if the site is not using Kerberos or if this machine is not configured as one of the site's Kerberos servers. Action: mv /etc/rc2. 21 . the Kerberos server daemons have been bundled with the core operating system. proceed with the actions below.NOS13kdc. proceed with the actions below.

then there is no need to keep LDAP-related daemons running on the local machine.d/S80spc Discussion: If users will never print files from this machine and the system will never be used as a print server by other hosts on the network. proceed with the actions below.15 Only enable the printer daemons if absolutely necessary Question: Is this system a print server.d/S80lp mv /etc/rc2. The administrator may wish to consider converting to the LPRng print system (see http://www. then it is safe to disable these services. Question: Is the LDAP directory service in use at this site.client /etc/rc2.client Discussion: Clearly.lprng. 22 . 3.d/. Action: mv /etc/rc2. or is there a mission-critical reason why users must submit print jobs from this system? If the answer to this question is yes.d/.d/S71ldap. The Unix print service has generally had a poor security record—be sure to keep up-to-date on vendor patches.3.org/) which was designed with security in mind and is widely portable across many different Unix platforms. proceed with the actions below. Action: mv /etc/rc2.14 Only enable the LDAP cache manager if absolutely necessary OS Revisions: This item only applies to Solaris 8 and later systems. if the local site is not currently using LDAP as a naming service.NOS71ldap. and is this machine an LDAP client? If the answer to this question is yes.NOS80lp /etc/rc2.NOS80spc /etc/rc2.d/.

proceed with the actions below.NOS91afbinit /etc/rc2. 23 .d/S91afbinit mv /etc/rc2.NOS92volmgt /etc/rc2.16 Only enable the volume manager if absolutely necessary Question: Is there a mission-critical reason why CD-ROMs and floppy disks should be automatically mounted when inserted into system drives?? If the answer to this question is yes. Never run any GUI-oriented service or application on a system unless that machine is protected by a strong network security infrastructure.d/S92volmgt Discussion: The Solaris volume manager automatically mounts CD-ROMs and floppy disks for users whenever a disk is inserted in the local system's drive (the mount command is normally a privileged command which can only be performed by the superuser). Question: Is there a mission-critical reason to run a GUI on this system? If the answer to this question is yes. Action: mv /etc/rc2.d/.d/.d/. Action: mv /etc/rc2. proceed with the actions below.3.6 and later releases.d/S91ifbinit Discussion: The X Windows-based CDE GUI on Solaris systems has had a history of security issues.d/. 3.NOS99dtlogin /etc/rc2.17 Only enable GUI login if absolutely necessary OS Revisions: This item only applies to Solaris 2.NOS91ifbinit /etc/rc2.d/S99dtlogin mv /etc/rc2. Note that the S91afbinit and S91ifbinit scripts enable support for high-end frame buffer devices—these will not be required if this system is not running a GUI. Be aware that allowing users to mount and access data from removable media drives makes it easier for malicious programs and data to be imported onto your network.

this parameter can be changed by modifying the system-group-readcommunity parameter in /etc/snmp/conf/snmpd. Action: mv /etc/rc3. experts recommend changing the default community string used to access data via SNMP.html..NOS76snmpdx /etc/rc3. Cricket) that relies on SNMP? If the answer to this question is yes.NOS42ncakmod /etc/rc2.d/.3.d/.18 Only enable Web server if absolutely necessary OS Revisions: This item only applies to Solaris 8 and later systems.org/docs-2. If the machine is a Web server.d/.d/S50apache mv /etc/rc2.d/S76snmpdx Discussion: If you are using SNMP to monitor the hosts on your network. A good starting point is http://httpd.6 and later systems.19 Only enable SNMP if absolutely necessary OS Revisions: This item only applies to Solaris 2. the local site may choose not to use the Web server provided with Solaris in favor of a locally developed and supported Web environment. Question: Are hosts at this site remotely monitored by a tool (e.0/misc/security_tips.conf 24 .g.d/S42ncakmod Discussion: Even if this machine is a Web server. MRTG.NOS50apache /etc/rc3. proceed with the actions below. proceed with the actions below. On Solaris systems. the administrator is encouraged to search the Web for additional documentation on Web server security.apache. Question: Is there a mission-critical reason why this system must run a Web server? If the answer to this question is yes. Action: mv /etc/rc3. HP OpenView. 3.

However. 25 .d/. Action: mv /etc/rc3.NOS34dhcp /etc/rc3.d/S34dhcp Discussion: DHCP is a popular protocol for dynamically assigning IP addresses and other network information to systems on the network (rather than having administrators manually manage this information on each host). Question: Does this machine act as a DHCP server for the network? If the answer to this question is yes. which is available on Solaris 7 and 8 systems. If you need to allow developers to obtain core files. On the other hand. investigate the coreadm utility. there is no need to be running this service. proceed with the actions below. developers using this system may require core files in order to aid in debugging. 4 Kernel Tuning 4.20 Only enable DHCP server if absolutely necessary OS Revisions: This item only applies to Solaris 9 systems. if this system is not a DHCP server for the network.3.1 Disable core dumps Action: cat <<END_CFG >>/etc/system * Prevent core dumps set sys:coredumpsize = 0 END_CFG Discussion: Core dumps can consume large amounts of disk space and may contain sensitive data.

Many of the automated tools in use by system crackers exploit well-known buffer overflow problems in vendor-supplied and third-party software.4.2 Enable stack protection OS Revisions: The configuration steps below may only be applied on Solaris 2.6 and later systems. Action: cat <<END_CFG >>/etc/system * Attempt to prevent and log stack-smashing attacks set noexec_user_stack = 1 set noexec_user_stack_log = 1 END_CFG Discussion: Buffer overflow exploits have been the basis for many of the recent highly publicized compromises and defacements of large numbers of Internet connected systems. This should not hinder normal NFS operations but may block some automated NFS attacks that are run by unprivileged users.3 Restrict NFS client requests to privileged ports Action: cat <<END_CFG >>/etc/system * Require NFS clients to use privileged ports set nfssrv:nfs_portmon = 1 END_CFG Discussion: Setting this parameter causes the NFS server process on the local system to ignore NFS client requests that do not originate from the privileged port range (ports less than 1024). 4. Enabling stack protection prevents certain classes of buffer overflow attacks and is a significant security enhancement. 26 .

d/S69netconfig 27 .d/netconfig /etc/rc2.d/netconfig ln -s /etc/init.d/netconfig ln -s /etc/init.4.d/netconfig chmod 744 /etc/init.d/netconfig #!/sbin/sh ndd -set /dev/ip ip_forward_src_routed 0 ndd -set /dev/ip ip_forward_directed_broadcasts 0 ndd -set /dev/tcp tcp_conn_req_max_q0 4096 ndd -set /dev/tcp tcp_ip_abort_cinterval 60000 ndd -set /dev/ip ip_respond_to_timestamp 0 ndd -set /dev/ip ip_respond_to_timestamp_broadcast 0 ndd -set /dev/ip ip_respond_to_address_mask_broadcast 0 ndd -set /dev/arp arp_cleanup_interval 60000 ndd -set /dev/ip ip_ire_flush_interval 60000 ndd -set /dev/ip ip_ignore_redirect 1 END_SCRIPT chown root:root /etc/init.d/netconfig chmod 744 /etc/init.d/netconfig /etc/rc2.d/S69netconfig Action (for Solaris 7 releases and earlier): cat <<END_SCRIPT >/etc/init.d/netconfig #!/sbin/sh ndd -set /dev/ip ip_forward_src_routed 0 ndd -set /dev/ip ip6_forward_src_routed 0 ndd -set /dev/tcp tcp_rev_src_routes 0 ndd -set /dev/ip ip_forward_directed_broadcasts 0 ndd -set /dev/tcp tcp_conn_req_max_q0 4096 ndd -set /dev/tcp tcp_ip_abort_cinterval 60000 ndd -set /dev/ip ip_respond_to_timestamp 0 ndd -set /dev/ip ip_respond_to_timestamp_broadcast 0 ndd -set /dev/ip ip_respond_to_address_mask_broadcast 0 ndd -set /dev/arp arp_cleanup_interval 60000 ndd -set /dev/ip ip_ire_arp_interval 60000 ndd -set /dev/ip ip_ignore_redirect 1 ndd -set /dev/ip ip6_ignore_redirect 1 END_SCRIPT chown root:root /etc/init.4 Network Parameter Modifications Action (for Solaris 8 and later): cat <<END_SCRIPT >/etc/init.

com/software/solutions/blueprints/1200/netw ork-updt1.pdf 4.5 Additional network parameter modifications Question: Is this system going to be used as a firewall or gateway to pass network traffic between different networks? If the answer to this question is yes. see: http://www. 28 . Action (for Solaris 8 and later): cat <<END_SCRIPT ndd -set /dev/ip ndd -set /dev/ip ndd -set /dev/ip ndd -set /dev/ip ndd -set /dev/ip ndd -set /dev/ip END_SCRIPT cat <<END_SCRIPT ndd -set /dev/ip ndd -set /dev/ip ndd -set /dev/ip END_SCRIPT >>/etc/init.d/netconfig ip_forwarding 0 ip_strict_dst_multihoming 1 ip_send_redirects 0 Discussion: For a more complete discussion of these parameters and their effect on the security of the system.sun. For a more complete discussion of these parameters and their effect on the security of the system. see the URL noted in the previous item.d/netconfig ip_forwarding 0 ip6_forwarding 0 ip_strict_dst_multihoming 1 ip6_strict_dst_multihoming 1 ip_send_redirects 0 ip6_send_redirects 0 Action (for Solaris 7 and earlier): >>/etc/init. then do not perform the action below.Discussion: Note that we are creating a new script that will be executed at boot time to reconfigure various network parameters.

info\t\t\t/var/log/authlog" >>/etc/syslog.. failed login attempts. 5 Logging The items in this section cover enabling various different forms of system logging in order to keep track of activity on the system. However. a great deal of important security-related information is sent via this channel (e. \ { print }' inetinit > inetinit.sun.com/solutions/blueprints/0701/NTP. which is supported by most network-ready devices. not supported in earlier releases Action: cd /etc/default awk '/^TCP_STRONG_ISS/ { $1 = "TCP_STRONG_ISS=2" }. This makes remote session hijacking attacks more difficult. root 29 . Solaris systems do not capture logging information that is sent to the LOG_AUTH facility.new inetinit chown root:sys inetinit chmod 444 inetinit Discussion: Setting this parameter in /etc/default/inetinit causes the system to use a better randomization algorithm for generating initial TCP sequence numbers.new mv inetinit. More information on NTP can be found at http://www.6 and later. The standard Internet protocol for time synchronization is the Network Time Protocol (NTP). Because it is often necessary to correlate log information from many different systems (particularly after a security incident) experts recommend establishing some form of time synchronization among systems and devices connected to the local network.g.org and http://www.ntp.4. successful and failed su attempts. 5.pdf. as well as any other networkbased attack that relies on predicting TCP sequence number information.1 Capture messages sent to syslog AUTH facility Action: echo "auth.conf touch /var/log/authlog chown root:sys /var/log/authlog chmod 600 /var/log/authlog Discussion: By default.6 Use better TCP sequence numbers OS Revisions: Required for Solaris 2.

but the Syslog daemon must be configured to capture this information to a file. Solaris 9 systems include the logadm utility for archiving log files. The connlog file should be reviewed and archived on a regular basis. All of this information is logged to Syslog.login attempts. Solaris 9 systems include the logadm utility for archiving log files. The above action causes this information to be captured in the /var/log/authlog file (which is only readable by the superuser).new mv login.2 Capture FTP and inetd Connection Tracing Info Action: echo "daemon. The authlog file should be reviewed and archived on a regular basis.3 also enables the "debugging" (-d) and connection logging (-l) flags to track FTP activity on the system. Item 2.).new login chown root:sys login chmod 444 login Discussion: If it exists. 5. \ { print }' login >login.conf touch /var/log/connlog chown root:root /var/log/connlog chmod 600 /var/log/connlog Discussion: If the FTP service is enabled on the system. Starting with Solaris 8. 5.debug\t\t\t/var/log/connlog" \ >>/etc/syslog. etc. A sample script for archiving log files is provided as Appendix A to this document.3 Create /var/adm/loginlog Action: touch /var/adm/loginlog chown root:sys /var/adm/loginlog chmod 600 /var/adm/loginlog cd /etc/default awk '/SYSLOG_FAILED_LOGINS=/ \ { $1 = "SYSLOG_FAILED_LOGINS=0" }. administrators may also 30 . A sample script for archiving log files is provided as Appendix A to this document. the file /var/adm/loginlog will capture failed login attempt messages (this file does not exist by default). the tracing (-t) option to inetd was enabled in Item 3.3 above. Similarly.

Log data can be found in /var/cron/log and this file should be reviewed on a regular basis. \ { print }' cron > cron. 5.d/newperf rm -f /etc/rc2. The data may be accessed with the sar command. The loginlog file should be reviewed and archived on a regular basis.d/S21perf ln -s /etc/init. 5.4 Turn on cron logging Action: cd /etc/default awk '/CRONLOG/ { $1 = "CRONLOG=YES" }. A sample script for archiving log files is provided as Appendix A to this document.new mv cron. etc. Solaris 9 systems include the logadm utility for archiving log files. disk I/O.) every 20 minutes. Once a normal baseline for the 31 .modify the SYSLOG_FAILED_LOGINS parameter in /etc/default/login to control how many login failures are allowed before log messages are generated—if set to zero then all failed logins will be logged.d/newperf chmod 744 /etc/init.40 * * * * /usr/lib/sa/sa1 45 23 * * * /usr/lib/sa/sa2 -s 0:00 -e 23:59 -i 1200 -A END_ENTRIES Discussion: System accounting gathers baseline system data (CPU utilization.d/S21perf /usr/bin/su sys -c crontab <<END_ENTRIES 0.new cron chown root:sys cron chmod 444 cron Discussion: Setting the CRONLOG parameter to YES in /etc/default/cron causes information to be logged for every cron job that gets executed on the system. or by reviewing the nightly report files named /var/adm/sa/sar*.d/newperf #!/sbin/sh /usr/bin/su sys -c \ "/usr/lib/sa/sadc /var/adm/sa/sa\`date +%d\`" END_SCRIPT chown root:sys /etc/init.5 Enable system accounting Action: cat <<END_SCRIPT >/etc/init.d/newperf /etc/rc2.20.

A less aggressive audit policy could be used by setting "flags:lo. Sites may wish to consider logging less information to help reduce the amount of disk space and other system resources consumed by the auditing process.nt" instead of the values shown above. 5.tmp echo '0 * * * * /usr/sbin/audit -n' >>root.tmp rm -f root.ad:no >audit_user awk '/^auditconfig/ { $1 = "/usr/sbin/auditconfig" }.-fc.new echo '/usr/sbin/auditconfig -setpolicy +argv. Note that this data is only archived for one week before being automatically removed by the regular nightly cron job.-fm.fm.-fc.arge' \ >>audit_startup.-fw.new mv audit_startup. and activity outside of normal usage hours) may be detected due to departures from the normal system performance curve.ex.-fc.-fd. particularly on heavily used machines.fm.na naflags:lo.6 Enable kernel-level auditing Action: echo y | /etc/security/bsmconv cd /etc/security cat <<END_PARAMS >audit_control dir:/var/audit flags:lo.-fw. Administrators may wish to archive the /var/adm/sa directory on a regular basis to preserve this data for longer periods.ad. Note that enabling kernel-level auditing on Solaris disables the automatic mounting of CD-ROMs and floppy disks via the Solaris volume manager daemon (vold).-fd" and "naflags:lo. The audit trail may be reviewed with the praudit command.nt minfree:20 END_PARAMS echo root:lo.ad. The 32 .ad.-fd.ad. unauthorized activity (password crackers and other CPUintensive jobs.-fw.system has been established.tmp Discussion: Kernel-level auditing provides information on commands and system calls which are executed on the local system.new audit_startup chmod 744 audit_startup chown root:sys audit_startup cd /var/spool/cron/crontabs crontab -l >root.ex. \ { print }' audit_startup >audit_startup. Kernel-level auditing can consume large amounts of disk space and even cause a system performance impact.tmp crontab root.

The local site may wish to "chmod g-w /var/adm/wtmpx" after running the runacct script. Note that sites using the runacct script for generating billing reports and other data from the system process accounting logs will notice that the script incorrectly sets the mode on the wtmpx file to 664 (adds the "group writability" bit). 5. certain logs contain sensitive data that should only be available to the system administrator. 33 . Also.<Stop>-A keyboard abort sequence is also disabled via an entry in the /etc/system file.7 Confirm permissions on system log files Action: chown root:sys /var/log/syslog /var/log/authlog \ /var/adm/loginlog chown root:root /var/cron/log /var/adm/messages chmod go-wx /var/log/syslog /var/adm/messages chmod go-rwx /var/log/authlog /var/adm/loginlog \ /var/cron/log cd /var/adm chown root:bin utmpx chown adm:adm wtmpx chmod 644 utmpx wtmpx chown sys:sys /var/adm/sa/* chmod go-wx /var/adm/sa/* dir=`awk -F: '($1 == "dir") { print $2 }' \ /etc/security/audit_control` chown root:root $dir/* chmod go-rwx $dir/* Discussion: It's critical to protect system log files from being modified by unauthorized individuals.

34 . rather than the privileges of the owner of the binary. print.new vfstab chown root:sys vfstab chmod 664 vfstab Discussion: It is important to protect the system from the introduction of unauthorized software. but must reboot the system to return the file system to read-only mode).6 File/Directory Permissions/Access 6. The root file system is the home of the /devices hierarchy where the standard system device files live. experts recommend using a file system integrity checking tool such as Tripwire™. print. If /opt and /usr/local (or other directories containing third-party software applications) are configured as distinct partitions on a given system. we mount this partition read-only ("ro") to help prevent tampering (administrators may make the file system read-write with the mount –o remount. If a file system is mounted "nosuid" then the set-UID bit on executables in that file system is ignored—these programs will execute with the privileges of the user running the program.1 File systems are mounted either 'ro' or 'nosuid' Action: cd /etc awk '($4 != "ufs" || $3 == "/") { print. the "nosuid" flag cannot be applied to the root file system. next. it may be possible to mount these file systems read-only as well. which is available in both free and commercial versions (see http://www. which means that device files cannot operate in a "nosuid" file system. Unfortunately.new mv vfstab.com/products/tripwire_asr/ and http://www. } ($3 == "/usr" || $3 == "/opt" || $3 == "/usr/local")\ { $7 = "ro". Other file systems that must be configured to allow writing should be mounted "nosuid" where possible in order to prevent the introduction of rogue set-UID programs. } ($3 != "/") { $7 = "nosuid". next.org/ for information on obtaining free versions of this software). Under Solaris.tripwire. Since all of the standard set-UID utilities. particularly set-UID programs.rw /usr command. as well as other critical operating system tools. "nosuid" implies "nodev".tripwire. are provided under the /usr file system. }' \ vfstab >vfstab. Beyond simple file system level protections.

conf` echo mount \* $fs -o nosuid >>/etc/rmmount.conf OS Revisions: This action does not usually need to be performed on Solaris 8 and later systems. \ { print }' /etc/vfstab >/etc/vfstab.conf Discussion: Removable media is one vector by which malicious software can be introduced onto the system. it is much more difficult for the root file system to become corrupted at all. This will help the system to reboot faster in the event of a crash at the cost of some disk overhead (up to a maximum of 64MB per partition) for the file system transaction log file.3 Add 'nosuid' option to /etc/rmmount. 6. By enabling the "logging" option on the root file system. as it is the default configuration for these platforms.new /etc/vfstab chown root:sys /etc/vfstab chmod 664 /etc/vfstab Discussion: A corrupted root file system is one mechanism that an attacker with physical access to the system console can use to compromise the system.6. Note that the administrator may also wish to add the "logging" option to other ufs type file systems in /etc/vfstab.2 Add 'logging' option to root file system OS Revisions: This step may only be performed on Solaris 8 and later systems Action: awk '($4 == "ufs" && $3 == "/") \ { $7 = "remount. the administrator prevents users from bringing set-UID programs onto the system via CDROMs and floppy disks. By forcing these file systems to be mounted with the "nosuid" option.new mv /etc/vfstab.logging" }. 35 . Action: fs=`awk '($1 == "ident") && ($2 != "pcfs") \ { print $2 }' /etc/rmmount. thwarting this particular type of attack.

and group file permissions Action: cd /etc chown root:sys passwd shadow group chmod 644 passwd group chmod 400 shadow Discussion: These are the default owners and access permissions for these files. 6.6 World-writable directories should have their sticky bit set Action: The automated tool supplied with this benchmark will flag world-writable directories that do not have the sticky bit set. It seems prudent to use the absolute pathname to the share command to protect against an exploits stemming from an attack on the administrator's PATH environment. \ { print }' dfstab >dfstab. 6.5 Verify passwd.6.new mv dfstab. shadow.new dfstab chmod 644 dfstab chown root:sys dfstab Discussion: The commands in the dfstab file are executed via the /usr/sbin/shareall script at boot time. Administrators who wish to obtain a list of these directories may execute the following commands for part in `awk '($4 == "ufs" || $4 == "tmpfs") \ { print $3 }' /etc/vfstab` do find $part -xdev -type d \ \( -perm -0002 -a ! -perm -1000 \) -print done 36 .4 Use full path names in /etc/dfs/dfstab file Action: cd /etc/dfs awk '($1 == "share") { $1 = "/usr/sbin/share" }. etc. as well as by administrators executing the shareall command during the uptime of the machine.

37 . 6.7 Find unauthorized world-writable files Action: The automated testing tool supplied with this benchmark will flag unexpected worldwritable files on the system.Discussion: When the so-called "sticky bit" is set on a directory. Setting the sticky bit prevents users from overwriting each other's files. consult appropriate vendor documentation before blindly applying the sticky bit to any world writable directories found in order to avoid breaking any application dependencies on a given directory. and is generally appropriate for most world-writable directories. Generally removing write access for the "other" category (chmod o-w <filename>) is advisable. whether accidentally or maliciously. then only the owner of a file may remove that file from the directory (as opposed to the usual behavior where anybody with write access to that directory may remove the file). World writable files may also indicate an incorrectly written script or program that could potentially be the cause of a larger compromise to the system's integrity. but always consult relevant vendor documentation in order to avoid breaking any application dependencies on a given file. Administrators who wish to obtain a list of the world-writable files currently on the system may run the following commands: for part in `awk '($4 == "ufs" || $4 == "tmpfs") \ { print $3 }' /etc/vfstab` do find $part -xdev -type f -perm -0002 -print done Discussion: Data in world-writable files can be modified and compromised by any user on the system. However.

nl/pub/solaris/fix-modes.Z 2.ca/security/howto/ 6. the source code is available from ftp://ftp.uva.org/pub/pkgs/Solaris/fix-modes.tar.gz.tar.9 Run fix-modes Action: 1. This program should be re-run every time packages are added to the system. or patches are applied. Administrators who wish to obtain a list of the set-UID and set-GID programs currently installed on the system may run the following commands: for part in `awk '($4 == "ufs" || $4 == "tmpfs") \ { print $3 }' /etc/vfstab` do find $part -xdev -type f \ \( -perm -04000 -o -perm -02000 \) -print done Discussion: The administrator should take care to ensure that no rogue set-UID programs have been introduced into the system. Note that the actions below recommend using a pre-compiled version of fix-modes./fix-modes Discussion: The fix-modes software corrects various ownership and permission issues with files throughout the Solaris OS file systems. Unpack the software and run the fix-modes program zcat fix-modes.uwaterloo.6.tar. Download the pre-compiled fix-modes software from ftp://ftp.Z | tar xf cd fix-modes . For sites that wish to build the tool themselves from source.science.CISecurity.8 Find unauthorized SUID/SGID system executables Action: The automated testing tool supplied with this benchmark will flag unexpected set-UID and set-GID applications on the system. Administrators may wish to run the tool periodically out of cron. 38 . Information on the set-UID and set-GID applications that normally ship with Solaris systems can be found at http://ist.

2 Create symlinks for dangerous files Action: for file in /. and Authorization 7.g.conf chown root:sys pam.conf. In fact.1 Remove . rcp).conf chmod 644 pam.new mv pam. not supported in earlier releases Action: cd /etc grep -v rhosts_auth pam.rhosts files.rhosts files implement a weak form of authentication based on the network address or host name of the remote computer (which can be spoofed by a potential attacker to exploit the local system). Disabling .conf. .rhosts support is required for some reason. these files should be mode 600). Never use the "+" wildcard character in . 7.conf OS Revisions: Required for Solaris 2. "trustedhost alice" and not just "trustedhost"). Authentication.rhosts support helps prevent users from subverting the system’s normal access control mechanisms.equiv do rm -f $file ln -s /dev/null $file done 39 .7 System Access.conf > pam. . some basic precautions should be taken when creating and managing . If .. Avoid establishing trust relationships with systems outside of the organization's security perimeter and/or systems not controlled by the local administrative staff.6 and later.shosts /etc/hosts. rsh. Finally.e.rhosts files are only readable by the owner of the file (i.rhosts entries should always specify a specific trusted host name along with the user name of the trusted account on that system (e.new pam.conf Discussion: Used in conjunction with the BSD-style “r-commands” (rlogin. Firewalls and other network security elements should actually block rlogin/rsh/rcp access from external hosts..rhosts support in /etc/pam. make sure that .rhosts files.rhosts /.

7.shosts. Consider also adding the names of other privileged or shared accounts which may exist on your system such as user oracle and the account which your Web server process runs under. any data that an attacker writes to these files is simply discarded (though an astute attacker can still remove the link prior to writing their malicious data). Solaris 9 systems also ship with this file.3 Create /etc[/ftpd]/ftpusers OS Revisions: Solaris 8 systems ship with this /etc/ftpusers file by default.rhosts. Generally. Attackers will often target these files as part of their exploit scripts. and /etc/hosts. Certainly the root account should never be allowed to transfer files directly via FTP. /. By linking these files to /dev/null. only normal users should ever access the system via FTP—there should be no reason for “system” type accounts to be transferring information via this mechanism. Action: for user in root daemon bin sys adm lp uucp nuucp \ smmsp listen nobody noaccess nobody4 do echo $user >>/etc/ftpusers done chown root:root /etc/ftpusers chmod 600 /etc/ftpusers Discussion: ftpusers contains a list of users who are not allowed to access the system via FTP.equiv files enable a weak form of access control (see the discussion of .rhosts files in the item above). 40 .Discussion: The /. but the path name of the file has been changed to /etc/ftpd/ftpusers in this release.

7.4

Create /etc/shells

Action:
echo /sbin/sh >/etc/shells for shell in sh csh ksh bash tcsh zsh; do [ -f /bin/$shell ] && echo /bin/$shell >>/etc/shells [ -f /usr/bin/$shell ] && \ echo /usr/bin/$shell >>/etc/shells done chown root:root /etc/shells chmod 644 /etc/shells

Discussion:
/etc/shells contains a list of valid login shells for user account entries in /etc/passwd. If /etc/shells does not exist, then any program is valid as a user shell in /etc/passwd. It's best to restrict /etc/shells to a list of known good shell programs provided by Sun or installed locally by the System Administrator. Note that it may be necessary to add other locally-installed shells to the /etc/shells file (for example if bash is installed in /opt or /usr/local/bin), depending on the needs of a particular organization.

7.5

Prevent remote XDMCP access

OS Revisions:
This action is only required on Solaris 2.6 and later releases.

Action:
mkdir -p /etc/dt/config cat <<EOXaccess >/etc/dt/config/Xaccess !* !* CHOOSER BROADCAST EOXaccess

Discussion:
The standard GUI login provided on most Unix systems can act as a remote login server to other devices (including X terminals and other workstations). Access control is handled via the Xaccess file—by default under Solaris, this file allows any system on the network to get a remote login screen from the local system. We can override this behavior in the /etc/dt/config/Xaccess file.

41

7.6

Prevent X server from listening on port 6000/tcp

OS Revisions:
This action is only required on Solaris 9 systems.

Action:
if [ -f /etc/dt/config/Xservers ]; then file=/etc/dt/config/Xservers else file=/usr/dt/config/Xservers fi awk '/Xsun/ && !/^#/ \ { print $0 " -nolisten tcp"; next }; \ { print }' $file > $file.new cp $file.new /etc/dt/config/Xservers chown root:sys /etc/dt/config/Xservers chmod 444 /etc/dt/config/Xservers

Discussion:
X servers listen on port 6000/tcp for messages from remote clients running on other systems. However, X Windows uses a relatively insecure authentication protocol—an attacker who is able to gain unauthorized access to the local X server can easily compromise the system. Invoking the "-nolisten tcp" option causes the X server not to listen on port 6000/tcp by default. This does prevent authorized remote X clients from displaying windows on the local system as well. However, the forwarding of X events via SSH will still happen normally. This is the preferred and more secure method transmitting results from remote X clients in any event.

42

7.7

Set default locking screensaver timeout

OS Revisions:
This action is only required on Solaris 2.6 and later releases.

Action:
for file in /usr/dt/config/*/sys.resources; do dir=`dirname $file | sed s/usr/etc/` mkdir -p $dir echo 'dtsession*saverTimeout: 10' >>$dir/sys.resources echo 'dtsession*lockTimeout: 10' >>$dir/sys.resources done

Discussion:
The default timeout is 30 minutes of keyboard/mouse inactivity before a passwordprotected screen saver is invoked by the CDE session manager. The above action reduces this default timeout value to 10 minutes, though this setting can still be overridden by individual users in their own environment.

7.8

Restrict at/cron to authorized users

Action:
cd /etc/cron.d rm -f cron.deny at.deny echo root >cron.allow echo root >at.allow chown root:root cron.allow at.allow chmod 400 cron.allow at.allow

Discussion:
The cron.allow and at.allow files are a list of users who are allowed to run the crontab and at commands to submit jobs to be run at scheduled intervals. On many systems, only the system administrator needs the ability to schedule jobs. Note that even though a given user is not listed in cron.allow, cron jobs can still be run as that user (e.g., the cron jobs running as user sys for system accounting tasks—see Item 5.5 above). cron.allow only controls administrative access to the crontab command for scheduling and modifying cron jobs.

43

9 Remove empty crontab files and restrict file permissions Action: cd /var/spool/cron/crontabs for file in * do lines=`grep -v '^#' $file | wc -l | sed 's/ //g'` if [ "$lines" = "0" ]. Allowing unprivileged users to read or (even worse) modify system crontab files can create the potential for a local user on the system to gain elevated privileges." >/etc/issue chown root:sys /etc/motd chown root:root /etc/issue chmod 644 /etc/motd /etc/issue 44 . All activity may be \ monitored and reported.7.5.10 Create appropriate warning banners Action (for Solaris 2. All activity may be \ monitored and reported." eeprom oem-banner\?=true echo "Authorized uses only. All activity \ may be monitored and reported.1): eeprom oem-banner="Authorized uses only. 7. then rm $file fi done chown root:sys * chmod 400 * Discussion: The system crontab files are accessed only by the cron daemon (which runs with superuser privileges) and the crontab command (which is set-UID to root)." >/etc/motd echo "Authorized uses only.

Changing some of these login banners also has the side effect of hiding OS version information and other detailed system information from attackers attempting to target specific attacks at a system. Clearly.6 and later): eeprom oem-banner="Authorized uses only.persLabelString: Authorized \ uses only." >motd echo "Authorized uses only." \ >>$dir/Xresources echo "Dtlogin*greeting. and that use of the system implies consent to such monitoring. Guidelines published by the US Department of Defense require that warning messages include at least the name of the organization that owns the system. the organization’s local legal counsel and/or site security administrator should review the content of all messages before the above modifications are made." >issue echo "BANNER=\"Authorized uses only. All activity \ may be monitored and reported.\\\n\\\n\"" >default/telnetd echo "BANNER=\"Authorized uses only. 45 . All activity may be \ monitored and reported. All activity may be monitored and reported." eeprom oem-banner\?=true cd /etc echo "Authorized uses only.labelString: Authorized uses \ only. then cp $file $dir/Xresources fi echo "Dtlogin*greeting. All activity may be monitored and reported. All activity may be \ monitored and reported. the fact that the system is subject to monitoring and that such monitoring is in compliance with local statutes."\ >>$dir/Xresources done chown root:sys /etc/motd /etc/dt/config/*/Xresources chown root:root /etc/issue chmod 644 /etc/motd /etc/issue /etc/dt/config/*/Xresources chown root:sys /etc/default/telnetd /etc/default/ftpd chmod 444 /etc/default/telnetd /etc/default/ftpd Discussion: Presenting some sort of statutory warning message at login time may assist the prosecution of trespassers on the computer system. All activity may \ be monitored and reported.\"" >default/ftpd for file in /usr/dt/config/*/Xresources do dir=`dirname $file | sed s/usr/etc/` mkdir -p $dir if [ ! -f $dir/Xresources ]. All activity may \ be monitored and reported.Action (for Solaris 2.

\ { print }' login >login.Makefile file provided with the TCP Wrappers source distribution (available from ftp. the administrator should access the system via an unprivileged account and use some authorized mechanism (such as the su command. 7. 7.new login chown root:sys login chmod 444 login Discussion: Anonymous root logins should never be allowed. These mechanisms provide at least some limited audit trail in the event of problems.sunfreeware.org as well as www. it is important that the banner messages be formatted properly so as not to interfere with the application protocol. then awk '/RETRIES=/ { $1 = "RETRIES=3" } { print }' login >login.Note that if TCP Wrappers are being used to display warning banners for various inetd-based services. next }. At all other times.12 Limit number of failed login attempts Action: cd /etc/default if [ "`grep RETRIES= login`" ]. except on the system console in emergency situations.new mv login. The Banners.11 Restrict root logins to system console Action: cd /etc/default awk '/CONSOLE=/ { print "CONSOLE=/dev/console". Setting this number to a reasonably low value helps discourage brute force password guessing attacks.new login chown root:sys login chmod 444 login else echo RETRIES=3 >>login fi Discussion: The RETRIES parameter is the number of failed login attempts a user is allowed before being disconnected from the system and having to re-initiate their login session. 46 . or the freely-available sudo package) to gain additional privilege.porcupine.com) contains shell commands to help produce properly formatted banner messages.new mv login.

the administrator will be prompted for a password.13 Set EEPROM security-mode and log failed access Hardware Compatibility: This action only applies to SPARC-based systems (not Solaris x86 or Solaris PPC).tmp eeprom security-mode=command Discussion: After entering the last command above.16 * * * /usr/bin/logger -p auth.8. simply run the command "eeprom security-mode=none" as root to erase the forgotten password. the system will be able to reboot unattended).tmp echo "0 0.. Note that the administrator should write down this password and place the password in a sealed envelope in a secure location (note that locked desk drawers are typically not secure). This password will be required to authorize any future command issued at boot-level on the system (the ‘ok’ or ‘>’ prompt) except for the normal multi-user boot command (i.7. This helps prevent attackers with physical access to the system console from booting off some external device (such as a CD-ROM or floppy) and subverting the security of the system. Action: eeprom security-#badlogins=0 cd /var/spool/cron/crontabs crontab -l >root.tmp rm -f root.info \ \`/usr/sbin/eeprom security-#badlogins\`" >>root.tmp crontab root. and then set a new password with "eeprom security-mode=command". If the password is lost or forgotten.e. 47 .

Discussion: An account with an empty password field means that anybody may log in as that user without providing a password at all. but also the shell field in the password file should contain an invalid shell. but are also available for free download from http://www.2 Verify that there are no accounts with empty password fields Action: The command logins -p should return no lines of output.1 Block system accounts Action: passwd -l sys passwd –l daemon for user in adm bin lp smmsp nobody noaccess \ uucp nuucp smtp listen nobody4.CISecurity. 8. do passwd -l $user /usr/sbin/passmgmt -m -s /dev/null $user done Discussion: Accounts that are not being used by regular users should be locked. /dev/null is a good choice because it is not a valid login shell. ongoing basis—perhaps in an automated fashion via cron. The automated hostbased scanning tools provided from the Center for Internet Security can be used for this purpose. These scanning tools are typically provided with this document.8 User Accounts and Environment Note that the items in this section are tasks that the local administrator should undertake on a regular. 48 . 8. and should an attacker attempt to replace it with a copy of a valid shell the system will not operate properly. All accounts should have strong passwords or should be locked by using a password string like "NP" or "*LOCKED*". Not only should the password field for the account be set to an invalid string.org/.

but sites may choose to make them more restrictive depending on local policies. it is probably best to choose interval values that are multiples of 7. Sites also have the option of expiring idle accounts after a certain number of days (see the on-line manual page for the usermod command. These are recommended starting values. and then prevent password changes for seven days (one week) thereafter. 49 . Users will begin receiving warnings 28 days (4 weeks) before their password expires. Note that due to the fact that /etc/default/passwd sets defaults in terms of number of weeks (even though the actual values on user accounts are kept in terms of days). particularly the –f option). The commands above will set all active accounts (except the root account) to force password changes every 91 days (13 weeks).8.3 Set account expiration parameters on active accounts Action: logins -ox |awk -F: '($1 == "root" || $8 == "LK") { next } { $cmd = "passwd" } ($11 <= 0 || $11 > 91) { $cmd = $cmd " -x 91" } ($10 < 7) { $cmd = $cmd " -n 7" } ($12 < 28) { $cmd = $cmd " -w 28" } ($cmd != "passwd") { print $cmd " " $1 }' \ > /etc/CISupd_accounts /sbin/sh /etc/CISupd_accounts rm -f /etc/CISupd_accounts cat <<EO_DefPass >/etc/default/passwd MAXWEEKS=13 MINWEEKS=1 WARNWEEKS=4 PASSLENGTH=6 EO_DefPass Discussion: It is a good idea to force users to change passwords on a regular basis.

These entries may provide an avenue for attackers to gain privileged access on the system. but may exist in files that have been imported from other platforms.8.5 Verify that no UID 0 accounts exist other than root Action: The command logins -o | awk -F: '($2 == 0) { print $1 }' should return only the word “root”. For more information on Solaris RBAC. 8. The only superuser account on the machine should be the root account. 50 .courtesan. and should be deleted if they exist.sun. and group files Action: The command grep '^+:' /etc/passwd /etc/shadow /etc/group should return no lines of output. Discussion: Any account with UID 0 has superuser privileges on the system. see http://wwws.com/sudo/) or Sun's own Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) system. These entries are no longer required on Solaris systems. Discussion: '+' entries in various files used to be markers for systems to insert data from NIS maps at a certain point in a system configuration file. shadow. Finer granularity access control for administrative access can be obtained by using the freely-available sudo program (http://www.4 Verify no legacy '+' entries exist in passwd. and it should be accessed by logging in as an unprivileged user and using the su command to gain additional privilege.com/software/whitepapers/wp-rbac/.

making global modifications to user home directories without alerting your user community can result in unexpected outages and unhappy users. 8. Discussion: Including the current working directory ('.') or other writable directory in root's executable path makes it likely that an attacker can gain superuser access by forcing an administrator operating as root to execute a Trojan horse program.' or group/world-writable directory in root $PATH Action: The automated testing tool supplied with this benchmark will alert the administrator if action is required. While the above modifications are relatively benign.8.7 User home directories should be mode 750 or more restrictive Action: for dir in `logins -ox | \ awk -F: '($8 == "PS" && $1 != "root") { print $6 }'` do chmod g-w $dir chmod o-rwx $dir done Discussion: Group or world-writable user home directories may enable malicious users to steal or modify other users' data or to gain another user's system privileges. 51 . Disabling "read" and "execute" access for users who are not members of the same group (the "other" access category) allows for appropriate use of discretionary access control by each user.6 No '.

8. making global modifications to user home directories without alerting your user community can result in unexpected outages and unhappy users.9 Remove user .netrc files may contain unencrypted passwords which may be used to attack other systems.8 No user dot-files should be group/world writable Action: for dir in `logins -ox | \ awk -F: '($8 == "PS") { print $6 }'` do for file in $dir/. do if [ ! -h "$file" -a -f "$file" ]. While the above modifications are relatively benign. 8. While the above modifications are relatively benign. then chmod go-w "$file" fi done done Discussion: Group or world-writable user configuration files may enable malicious users to steal or modify other users' data or to gain another user's system privileges. making global modifications to user home directories without alerting your user community can result in unexpected outages and unhappy users.netrc files Action: for dir in `logins -ox | \ awk -F: '($8 == "PS") { print $6 }'` do rm -f $dir/.netrc done Discussion: .[A-Za-z0-9]*. 52 .

Users who wish to allow their files and directories to be readable by others by default may choose a different default umask by inserting the umask command into the standard shell configuration files (. A umask of 027 would make files and directories readable by users in the same Unix group. \ { print }' login >login.login Discussion: "mesg n" blocks attempts to use the write or talk commands to contact the user at their terminal. etc.new mv login.cshrc.profile. 8. while a umask of 022 would make files readable by every user on the system.10 Set default umask for users Action: cd /etc/default awk '/UMASK=/ { $1 = "UMASK=077" }. but has the side effect of slightly strengthening permissions on the user's tty device.8.) in their home directories. The user creating the file has the discretion of making their files and directories readable by others via the chmod command. 53 .new login chown root:sys login chmod 444 login echo UMASK=077 >>ftpd echo umask 077 >>/etc/profile echo umask 077 >>/etc/. files and directories created by users will not be readable by any other user on the system. .11 Set "mesg n" as default for all users Action: echo mesg n >>/etc/profile echo mesg n >>/etc/.login Discussion: With a default umask setting of 077. Since write and talk are no longer widely used at most sites. the incremental security increase is worth the loss of functionality.

d/syslog start 54 .A script to roll over log files # Usage: rotate /path/to/log/file [mode [#revs] ] FILE=$1 MODE=${2:-644} DEPTH=${3:-4} DIR=`dirname $FILE` LOG=`basename $FILE` DEPTH=$(($DEPTH .$OLD $LOG. then mv $LOG $LOG.d/syslog stop /etc/init.1)) if [ -f $LOG.Appendix A: Log Rotation Script #!/bin/ksh # rotate -. then echo "$DIR: Path does not exist" exit 255 fi cd $DIR while [ $DEPTH -gt 0 ] do OLD=$(($DEPTH . then mv $LOG.$OLD ].$DEPTH fi DEPTH=$OLD done if [ $DEPTH -eq 0 -a -f $LOG ].1)) if [ ! -d $DIR ].0 fi cp /dev/null $LOG chmod $MODE $LOG /etc/init.

com/solutions/blueprints/0701/NTP.sendmail.sun.com/~hal/dns-sendmail/DNSandSendmail.html Kernel (ndd) settings for network-layer security: http://www.mit.apache.org/ http://www.0/misc/security_tips.sun.pdf NTP white paper: http://www.deer-run.sun.pdf Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) white paper: http://wwws.References The Center for Internet Security Free benchmark documents and security tools for various OS platforms and applications: http://www.sun.edu/kerberos/www/ Apache "Security Tips" document: http://httpd.ca/security/howto/ Primary source for information on NTP – http://www.com/service/support/sw_only/patchmanager.org/ Information on MIT Kerberos – http://web.com/pub/patches/ Sun Patch Manager tool: http://www.pdf 55 .html Information on Sendmail and DNS: http://www.cisecurity.com/software/whitepapers/wp-rbac/ OpenSSH white paper: http://www.pdf Other Misc Documentation Various documentation on Solaris security issues: http://ist.uwaterloo.cisecurity.sun.sun.com/software/solutions/blueprints/1200/network-updt1.org/ Sun Microsystems Patches and related documentation: ftp://sunsolve.org/ Pre-compiled software packages for various OS platforms: ftp://ftp.com/solutions/blueprints/0701/openSSH.org/docs-2.ntp.

lprng.uva.gz sudo (provides fine-grained access controls for superuser activity): http://www.tripwire.openssh.Software Pre-compiled software packages for Solaris: http://www.psionic.porcupine.org PortSentry (monitors unused network ports for unauthorized access): http://www.courtesan.com/products/portsentry.nl/pub/solaris/fix-modes.science.com/sudo/ 56 .org/ OpenSSH (secure encrypted network logins): www.sendmail.html Open Source Sendmail (email server) distributions: ftp://ftp.tar.org/ fix-modes (free tool to correct permissions and ownerships in the Solaris OS): ftp://ftp.com/ ftp://ftp.cisecurity.org/ LPRng (Open Source replacement printing system for Unix): http://www.org/ Tripwire (free and commercial file system integrity checking software): http://www.com/products/tripwire_asr/ http://www.org TCP Wrappers source distribution: ftp.tripwire.sunfreeware.

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