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Solar Energy : Policy and Regulatory Challenges and Initiatives : India

Ashok Basu
Former
Secretary, Ministry of Power, India Chairman, Central Electricity Regulatory Commission, India Chairman, South Asia Forum for Infrastructure Regulation
ADB, Dhaka September 20, 2011

Energy and Development


Richest 1bn people use 5 t.o.e. energy per capita Poorest 2 bn use 0.2 t.o.e. per capita 20% World population consume 60% energy Asia has 66% world poor population South Asia has 20% world population,4.2% installed energy capacity
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South Asia : Installed Capacity 2008


Country India Bangladesh Pakistan Sri lanka Nepal Bhutan Maldives (in GW) 159.00 5.25 19.44 2.66 0.62 0.49 0.06 Thermal 64% 96% 64% 50% 9% 3% 100%

Total ( S. Asia ) : World

187.52
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: 4428.00

Technically Accessible Clean Energy


Power accessible using current technologies Is 5.9 times the global demand Sun Geo thermal Wind Bio Mass Hydrodynamic Ocean 3.80 times 1.00 time 0.50 times 0.40 times 0.15 times 0.05 times 5.90 times
Source : Dr. Joachim Nitsch.

India : Power for All By 2012


1712 MW in 1950 1,76,990 MW now 2,00,000 MW by 2012 90,000 MW in next 10 years

India : Problems and Opportunities


By 2031, India will import 90% oil, upto 50% gas and upto 45% coal. Renewables potential 1,83,000 MW ; only 8% realized, 3.5% in energy terms Hydropotential 1,50,000 MW; 29% achieved, 9.2% peaking shortage
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Basic Framework : Major Challenges


Legal Governmental Regulatory

Clarity of policies and programmes essential


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Legal Framework : Electricity Act, 2003


Development of Power system based on optimum utilization of coal, gas, nuclear, hydro and renewable sources Restructuring of State Electricity Boards Two-tier Regulatory mechanism Generation free from license Open access Trading as independent activity Private entry in all segments Consumer protection
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Legal Framework : Electricity Act, 2003


Involvement of local bodies, co-operatives, NGOs, franchisees etc. in RE distribution Stand alone systems in rural areas Central Regulatory Commission to prescribe principles and methodologies re: tariff, grid connectivity, etc. State Commissions to promote co-generation & renewable, fix tariffs, prescribe Renewable Purchase Obligation, etc.
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India : Solar Energy Perspective


Potential : 50 MW/Sq. Km. Accessed : 6 MW/Sq Km

Most secure source of energy Environment friendly, Zero emission Enables distributed generation Quick Commissioning, Short lead time Space intensive Effective storage necessary
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Solar Energy : Key Questions and Challenges


Is there a credible roadmap for development? Can the high capital cost be sustainable? How to reduce the dependence on imported equipment and systems? How to improve inadequate domestic manufacturing capability? What should be the methodology for tariff fixation? Is grid connectivity feasible for such small projects? How will such high cost power be sold?
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Governmental Framework : Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM)


Segment Solar Collectors Off-Grid application Grid Power 2010-13 7m Sq mts 2013-17 15m sq mts 2017-22 20m sq mts

200 MW 1000-2000 MW

1000 MW 4000-10000 MW

2000 MW 20000 MW

By 2022, Solar can contribute 7% of power generation, reduce 30% of imported coal bill, save 95 MT CO2 loss, generate 1 million jobs, create USD 100 bn investment potential
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Governmental Framework : JNNSM


NTPC Ltd.s trade utility designated as Nodal Agency Nodal Agency to purchase PPA-based power from Solar Developers at 33 KV and above Ministry of Power to allocate equivalent MW of power from its quota, to Nodal Agency Nodal Agency to sell bundled power to Distribution Utilities at pooled tariff
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Governmental Framework : JNNSM


Mission Strategy : Promote off-grid, standalone systems Improve manufacturing capability Establish R&D centres, Pilot projects Human Resource Development, Capacity building Enable ease of business Achieve grid parity by 2022

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Governmental Framework : Incentives


Low import tariffs for capital equipment Soft loans to manufacturers and users Third party sale of renewable power Allotment of land at token lease rent No excise duty/sales tax on manufacture of finished products Five year tax holiday 80% accelerated depreciation
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Governmental Framework : Foreign Investment


Foreign Investment Policy :
FIs can have JVs with Indian Cos. 100% FDI : automatic approval FIs can have Liaison Office in India BOO projects allowed with PPAs Indian Cos. can accept Foreign Investment on automatic route

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Regulatory Frame Work : Central Commission


Stage - I Development of electricity market facilitated through : Tariff Regulations Grid Code Regulations for private entry Competitive bidding guidelines Electricity trading Power Exchange Merchant Power Plants
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Regulatory Framework : Central Commission


Stage - II Tariff Regulations Specified for solar technologies with option for (i) generic or (ii) project specific tariff Upfront levelised tariff for entire useful life (25 yrs) Inter-State transmission charges and losses waived Threshold capacity for inter-State grid connectivity reduced to 50MW, individually or collectively.
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Regulatory Framework : Central Commission


Generic Tariff Norms :
Capital Cost Debt : Equity Depreciation ROE (pre tax) Interest on Loan Loan repayment : Rs. 14.42 Cr/MW (PV), Rs. 15 Cr/MW (Th.) : 70 : 30 : 7% (first 10 yrs) : 19% (10 yrs), 24% (beyond) : Basic Rate + 150 points : 10 years

Capacity utilization Factor : 19% (PV), 23% (Th.) Govt. subsidy to be factored in
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Regulatory Framework : State Commissions

Tariffs determined for various RE technologies CERCs tariff regulations being adopted Renewables Purchase Obligation with annual increase announced for State sources

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Regulatory Framework : Forum of Regulators

Recommends fixing of RPO taking total resources in country as a whole Renewable Energy Certification evolved for adoption by State Commissions Task Force set up for addressing grid connectivity issues

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Solar Development Status


Clarity of policy and regulatory issues ensured Indigenous manufacturing capability increasing Lesser dependence on imports 694 MW grid connected projects under development, 306 MW grid connected projects being finalized under JNNSM 100 MW small and roof top projects cleared 1000 MW under construction/finalization in States outside JNNSM
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Energy Cooperation in Asia


Adoption of best practices Capacity Building Technology Transfer Supply of equipment Investment in plant and machinery Joint Ventures

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Platforms for cooperation in South Asia


Potential for cooperation has to be harnessed :
Bilateral negotiations SAARC SAFIR BIMSTEC APPP Other recognized channels
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Ashok Basu
ashok.basu@hotmail.com 91-33-98319-64646

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