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BASIC INPUT OUTPUT SYSTEM
SUBMITTED TO: MR. KUNAL ARORA
disk drives. This is known as shadowing. which can be updated if necessary. which means that the BIOS has been recorded on a flash memory chip. many computer manufacturers design systems so that the BIOS is copied from ROM to RAM each time the computer is booted. On PCs.BIOS stand for basic input/output system. the built-in software that determines what a computer can do without accessing programs from a disk. serial communications. display screen. Flash memory is considered a solid state storage device. This ensures that the BIOS will always be available and will not be damaged by disk failures. Solid state means -2- . the BIOS contains all the code required to control the keyboard. The BIOS is typically placed in a ROM chip that comes with the computer (it is often called a ROM BIOS). though. Many modern PCs have flash BIOS. It also makes it possible for a computer to boot itself. Because RAM is faster than ROM. and a number of miscellaneous functions.
everything is electronic instead of mechanical. This means you can upgrade to a newer version of DOS without changing the BIOS. How BIOS Works :- One of the most common uses of Flash memory is for the basic input/output system of your computer. On virtually -3- . Computer’s BIOS chip is one type of Flash Memory. so all PCs are similar at this level (although there are different BIOS versions). PC BIOSes that can handle Plugand-Play (PnP) devices are known as PnP BIOSes. or PnP-aware BIOSes. These BIOSes are always implemented with flash memory rather than ROM. The PC BIOS is fairly standardized. commonly known as the BIOS (pronounced "bye-ose"). Additional DOS functions are usually added through software modules.that there are no moving parts -.
To get its work done. Windows 98 and Linux are examples of operating systems. ports and CPU function together. The microprocessor is the hardware component. the BIOS makes sure all the other chips. an e-mail application • • -4- . The applications . hard drives.The operating system provides a set of services for the applications running on our computer. Every desktop and laptop computer in common use today contains a microprocessor as its central processing unit. You are probably very familiar with two different types of software: The operating system . and it also provides the fundamental user interface for our computer.every computer available. the microprocessor executes a set of instructions known as software (see How Microprocessors Work for details). a word processing application. On computer right now we probably have a browser application.Applications are pieces of software that are programmed to perform specific tasks.
We can also buy new applications and install them. What BIOS Does :- The BIOS software has a number of different roles. When we turn on our computer and the microprocessor tries to execute its first instruction. Some of the other common tasks that the BIOS performs include: • A power-on self-test (POST) for all of the different hardware components -5- . It turns out that the BIOS is the third type of software our computer needs to operate successfully.and so on. It cannot get it from the operating system because the operating system is located on a hard disk. and the microprocessor cannot get to it without some instructions that tell it how. it has to get that instruction from somewhere. but its most important role is to load the operating system. The BIOS provides those instructions.
especially when the computer is booting. the screen.in the system to make sure everything is working properly • Activating other BIOS chips on different cards installed in the computer . It is usually stored on a Flash memory chip on the motherboard. SCSI and graphics cards often have their own BIOS chips. etc.For example. • Providing a set of low-level routines that the operating system uses to interface to different hardware devices . They manage things like the keyboard. The BIOS is special software that interfaces the major hardware components of our computer with the operating system. • Managing a collection of settings for the hard disks. -6- . but sometimes the chip is another type of ROM.It is these routines that give the BIOS its name. and the serial and parallel ports. clock.
The CMOS Setup provides detailed information particular to our system and can be altered as our system changes. This is its usual sequence: • Check the CMOS Setup for custom settings • Load the interrupt handlers and device drivers • Initialize registers and power management • Perform the power-on self-test (POST) • Display system settings • Determine which devices are bootable • Initiate the bootstrap sequence The first thing the BIOS does is check the information stored in a tiny (64 bytes) amount of RAM located on a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chip. Interrupt handlers are small pieces of software that act as translators between -7- .When we turn on our computer. The BIOS uses this information to modify or supplement its default programming as needed. the BIOS does several things.
the hardware components and the operating system. The device drivers are other pieces of software that identify the base hardware components such as keyboard. or shadowed. the first thing we see is the BIOS software doing its thing. On many machines. the type of hard disk and so on. It turns out that. which tells the CPU what it is and passes it on to the operating system. into RAM to run faster. during this boot sequence. mouse. Booting the Computer :- Whenever we turn on our computer. the BIOS is doing a remarkable amount of work to get our computer ready to run. This section briefly describes some of those activities for a typical PC. it is usually copied. Since the BIOS is constantly intercepting signals to and from the hardware. hard drive and floppy drive. -8- . When we press a key on our keyboard. For example. the BIOS displays text describing things like the amount of memory installed in our computer. the signal is sent to the keyboard interrupt handler.
Next. Anything else is considered a cold boot. If it is a cold boot. checks all the PCI cards. the BIOS determines whether the video card is operational. If the BIOS finds any errors during the POST. if it finds one. It does this by checking the value at memory address 0000:0472. and the BIOS skips the rest of POST. it will notify us by a series of beeps or a text message displayed -9- . If they do not. It checks the PS/2 ports or USB ports for a keyboard and a mouse. the BIOS verifies RAM by performing a read/write test of each memory address. Most video cards have a miniature BIOS of their own that initializes the memory and graphics processor on the card. the BIOS checks to see if this is a cold boot or a reboot.After checking the CMOS Setup and loading the interrupt handlers. It looks for a Peripheral Component Interconnects (PCI) bus and. A value of 1234h indicates a reboot. there is usually video driver information on another ROM on the motherboard that the BIOS can load.
it will try the next device in the list. This typically includes information about: • • • • • The processor The floppy drive and hard drive Memory BIOS revision and date Display Any special drivers. "Boot" is short for "bootstrap. Boot refers to the process of launching the operating system. If we have ever left a floppy disk in . such as the ones for Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) adapters.”.on the screen. are loaded from the adapter and the BIOS displays the information. The BIOS then looks at the sequence of storage devices identified as boot devices in the CMOS Setup. If it does not find the proper files on a device. The BIOS will try to initiate the boot sequence from the first device. the startup process will halt. The BIOS then displays some details about our system.10 - . If the BIOS does not find a device. An error at this point is almost always a hardware problem.
11 - . we must press a certain key or combination of keys during the initial startup sequence. this is an easy fix. we have probably seen this message. we saw that the BIOS checks the CMOS Setup for custom settings." "CtrlEsc" or "Ctrl-Alt-Esc" to enter setup. Configuring BIOS :- In the previous topic.the drive when we restarted our computer. it could not continue." "Del. Most systems use "Esc. To enter the CMOS Setup. Of course. Simply pop out the disk and press a key to continue." "F1. Since it did not find the correct system files. There is . Non-System disk or disk error Replace and strike any key when ready The BIOS has tried to boot the computer off of the floppy disk left in the drive." "F2. Here's what we do to change those settings.
12 - ."Enable Num Lock. should be set to "Yes" if our computer and operating system both support it Mouse/Keyboard .usually a line of text at the bottom of the display that tells you "Press ___ to Enter Setup." "Auto-Detect Mouse".The order that BIOS will try to load the operating system Plug and Play .. Drive Configuration ." Once we have entered setup. Common options include: • • • • • • • System Time/Date .A standard for autodetecting connected devices. while others vary according to the BIOS manufacturer.Set the system time and date Boot Sequence .Direct the BIOS to shadow to a specific memory address Security . CD-ROM and floppy drives Memory .Configure hard drives.. Some of these are standard.Set a password for accessing the computer . we will see a set of text screens with a number of options." "Enable the Keyboard.
• • Power Management . tiny lithium battery built right into the CMOS chip! Updating The BIOS :- .13 - .Select whether to use power management. discard our changes or restore default settings Be very careful when making changes to setup. we should choose "Save Changes" and exit. When we are finished with our changes.Save our changes. Incorrect settings may keep our computer from booting. some of the newer chips have a 10-year. With this technology. as well as set the amount of time for standby and suspend Exit . The BIOS will then restart our computer so that the new settings take effect. The BIOS uses CMOS technology to save any changes made to the computer's settings. In fact. a small lithium or Ni-Cad battery can supply enough power to keep the data for years.
Since the BIOS is stored in some form of ROM. Look at the BIOS revision and date information displayed on system start-up or check with our computer manufacturer to find out what type of BIOS we have.Occasionally. changing it is a bit harder than upgrading most other types of software. and the program erases the old BIOS and writes the new one. To change the BIOS itself. a computer will need to have its BIOS updated. As new devices and standards arise. This is especially true of older machines. Then go to the BIOS manufacturer's Web site to see if an upgrade is available. the BIOS needs to change in order to understand the new hardware. Sometimes the utility and update are combined in a single file to download. we'll probably need a special program from the computer or BIOS manufacturer. We can find BIOS . Copy the program. along with the BIOS update. Download the upgrade and the utility program needed to install it. Restart computer with the floppy disk in the drive.14 - . onto a floppy disk.
Major BIOS manufacturers include: • • • • American Megatrends Inc. check with our computer manufacturer to be sure we need to upgrade. which mean we won't be able to boot our computer. we could corrupt the BIOS. Make sure we are upgrading to a version that is compatible with our computer system. be careful when upgrading your BIOS. (AMI) Phoenix Technologies ALi Winbond As with changes to the CMOS Setup. If our computer requires updating the BIOS settings then only upgrade it! Conclusion :- . Otherwise. If in doubt.15 - .Wizard that will check our BIOS at BIOS Upgrades.
Without BIOS computer’s design is not possible because it’s a main supplier for it.16 - . BIOS is also used in digital camera and in all that electronics equipments which requires Flash Memory storage.BIOS is a very basic and necessary thing or say software for the computer to run properly according to its user. .